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See detailEmpathy in Design Scale: Development and Initial Insights
Drouet, Luce UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proceedings of the Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (in press)

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end ... [more ▼]

Empathy towards users is crucial to the design of user-centered technologies and services. Previous research focused on defining empathy and its role in the design process for triggering empathy for end-users. However, there is a lack of empathy measurement instruments in design. Most previous work focused on designers, overlooking the need for other stakeholders to develop empathy towards the users to break organizational silos and deliver high-quality user-centered services and products. In this contribution, we share the preliminary stages of the development of an empathy scale for service design. We build on empathy literature from psychology and design to define 18 items representing four empathy dimensions. We report on the definition of these dimensions and their underlying items, and present preliminary studies in which we reviewed the first version of the scale with experts and stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailAn (Un)Necessary Evil - Users’ (Un)Certainty about Smartphone App Permissions and Implications for Privacy Engineering
Bongard, Kerstin UL; Sterckx, Jean-Louis; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in 2022 7th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroSPW) (in press)

App permission requests are a control mechanism meant to help users oversee and safeguard access to data and resources on their smartphones. To decide whether to accept or deny such requests and make this ... [more ▼]

App permission requests are a control mechanism meant to help users oversee and safeguard access to data and resources on their smartphones. To decide whether to accept or deny such requests and make this consent valid, users need to understand the underlying reasons and judge the relevance of disclosing data in line with their own use of an app. This study investigates people’s certainty about app permission requests via an online survey with 400 representative participants of the UK population. The results demonstrate that users are uncertain about the necessity of granting app permissions for about half of the tested permission requests. This implies substantial privacy risks, which are discussed in the paper, resulting in a call for user-protecting interventions by privacy engineers. [less ▲]

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See detailImpressions that last: representing the meaningful museum experience
Morse, Christopher UL; Niess, Jasmin UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL et al

in Behaviour and Information Technology (2022)

Research in human–computer interaction (HCI) has identified meaning as an important, yet poorly understood concept in interaction design contexts. Central to this development is the increasing emphasis on ... [more ▼]

Research in human–computer interaction (HCI) has identified meaning as an important, yet poorly understood concept in interaction design contexts. Central to this development is the increasing emphasis on designing products and technologies that promote leisure, personal fulfillment, and well-being. As spaces of profound historical significance and societal value, museums offer a unique perspective on how people construct meaning during their interactions in museum spaces and with collections, which may help to deepen notions of the content of meaningful interaction and support innovative design for cultural heritage contexts. The present work reports on the results of two studies that investigate meaning-making in museums. The first is an experience narrative study (N = 32) that analyzed 175 memorable museum visits, resulting in the establishment of 23 triggers that inform meaningful interaction in museums. A second study (N = 354) validated the comprehensiveness and generalisability of the triggers by asking participants to apply them to their own memorable museum experiences. We conclude with a framework of meaning in museums featuring the 23 triggers and two descriptive categories of temporality and scope. Our findings contribute to meaning research in HCI for museums through an articulation of the content of meaning-making in the cultural sector. [less ▲]

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See detailCookie Banners, What’s the Purpose? Analyzing Cookie Banner Text Through a Legal Lens
Santos, Cristiana; Rossi, Arianna UL; Sanchez Chamorro, Lorena UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '21) (2021, November 15)

A cookie banner pops up when a user visits a website for the first time, requesting consent to the use of cookies and other trackers for a variety of purposes. Unlike prior work that has focused on ... [more ▼]

A cookie banner pops up when a user visits a website for the first time, requesting consent to the use of cookies and other trackers for a variety of purposes. Unlike prior work that has focused on evaluating the user interface (UI) design of cookie banners, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of what cookie banners say to users to get their consent. We took an interdisciplinary approach to determining what cookie banners should say. Following the legal requirements of the ePrivacy Directive (ePD) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), we manually annotated around 400 cookie banners presented on the most popular English-speaking websites visited by users residing in the EU. We focused on analyzing the purposes of cookie banners and how these purposes were expressed (e.g., any misleading or vague language, any use of jargon). We found that 89% of cookie banners violated applicable laws. In particular, 61% of banners violated the purpose specificity requirement by mentioning vague purposes, including “user experience enhancement”. Further, 30% of banners used positive framing, breaching the freely given and informed consent requirements. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations that regulators can find useful. We also describe future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailAll in one stroke? Intervention Spaces for Dark Patterns
Rossi, Arianna UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This position paper draws from the complexity of dark patterns to develop arguments for differentiated interventions. We propose a matrix of interventions with a \textit{measure axis} (from user-directed ... [more ▼]

This position paper draws from the complexity of dark patterns to develop arguments for differentiated interventions. We propose a matrix of interventions with a \textit{measure axis} (from user-directed to environment-directed) and a \textit{scope axis} (from general to specific). We furthermore discuss a set of interventions situated in different fields of the intervention spaces. The discussions at the 2021 CHI workshop "What can CHI do about dark patterns?" should help hone the matrix structure and fill its fields with specific intervention proposals. [less ▲]

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See detail"I am definitely manipulated, even when I am aware of it. It’s ridiculous!" - Dark Patterns from the End-User Perspective
Bongard-Blanchy, Kerstin UL; Rossi, Arianna UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of ACM DIS Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (2021)

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their ... [more ▼]

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their personal data. To protect users from the lure of such designs, we asked: are users aware of the presence of dark patterns? If so, are they able to resist them? By surveying 406 individuals, we found that they are generally aware of the influence that manipulative designs can exert on their online behaviour. However, being aware does not equip users with the ability to oppose such influence. We further find that respondents, especially younger ones, often recognise the "darkness" of certain designs, but remain unsure of the actual harm they may suffer. Finally, we discuss a set of interventions (e.g., bright patterns, design frictions, training games, applications to expedite legal enforcement) in the light of our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailHeuristic Evaluation of COVID-19 Chatbots
Hoehn, Sviatlana UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL

in Proceedings of CONVERSATIONS 2020 (2020, November 23)

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See detailDark Patterns: Deception or Simply Bad Design?
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

Poster (2019)

Lately, researchers, journalists, and regulators are devoting attention to dark patterns, defined as "design choices that benefit an online service by coercing, steering or deceiving users into making ... [more ▼]

Lately, researchers, journalists, and regulators are devoting attention to dark patterns, defined as "design choices that benefit an online service by coercing, steering or deceiving users into making decisions that, if fully informed and capable of selecting alternatives, they would not make". Those patterns that have the purpose" or the "substantial effect of obscuring, subverting, or impairing user autonomy, decision-making, or choice" have also been qualified as dark. These definitions are dense: they contain concepts like coercion, nudging, and deception that all alone would deserve an entire work to be discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 250 (25 UL)