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See detail"Vouloir, connaître, agir"
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

Au sein de l’Union européenne, le Luxembourg est le pays qui peut se targuer de la plus longue expérience d’intégration économique et politique – 170 ans. Au sortir de la Seconde Guerre mondiale ... [more ▼]

Au sein de l’Union européenne, le Luxembourg est le pays qui peut se targuer de la plus longue expérience d’intégration économique et politique – 170 ans. Au sortir de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, l’implication active du Grand-Duché dans ce processus fut le fruit d’un choix délibéré, motivé par sa situation géopolitique et économique, par sa nature de petit État et par une conviction profonde. Effectivement, le Luxembourg s’est toujours illustré comme médiateur et force de proposition pour l’Europe unie, que ce soit en tant qu’État, à travers ses personnalités, ou par l’action de diverses associations, dont la Fondation du Mérite Européen occupe une place de choix depuis un demi-siècle. [less ▲]

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See detailUne crise révélatrice. (Pandémie du Covid-19 : Quel rôle pour l’Union européenne ?)
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

La pandémie du Covid-19 dont l’Europe a un temps été l’épicentre, a entrainé de lourdes conséquences pour la santé et la vie quotidienne des citoyens. Les 27 membres de l’UE ont pris de mesures nationales ... [more ▼]

La pandémie du Covid-19 dont l’Europe a un temps été l’épicentre, a entrainé de lourdes conséquences pour la santé et la vie quotidienne des citoyens. Les 27 membres de l’UE ont pris de mesures nationales exceptionnelles (état d'urgence, confinement, limitation de l'activité économique et des déplacements, fermeture des frontières) en agissant en ordre dispersé. L’Union a été épinglée pour son manque de répondant .Mais quelles sont ses prérogatives en matière sanitaire? Qu’est-ce que l’UE peut faire – et ne peut pas faire – lorsqu’elle est confrontée à une crise de cette magnitude? [less ▲]

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See detailAux origines de l’espace européen sans frontières
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

Prévues par le traité de Rome (1957) dans le cadre du marché intérieur, les quatre libertés de circulation (des personnes, des marchandises, des capitaux et paiements, ainsi que des services) sont au ... [more ▼]

Prévues par le traité de Rome (1957) dans le cadre du marché intérieur, les quatre libertés de circulation (des personnes, des marchandises, des capitaux et paiements, ainsi que des services) sont au coeur du projet européen. Le principe de la libre circulation des personnes, qui compte parmi les droits de l’homme, prend une autre dimension lorsque cinq États membres de la Communauté européenne – le Luxembourg, la Belgique, les Pays-Bas, la France et l’Allemagne – concluent, le 14 juin 1985, l’Accord de Schengen, qui allait préfigurer la citoyenneté européenne et mener vers un espace unique de sécurité et de justice. Trente-cinq ans après, un rappel historique s’impose. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport Werner en suspens. Les débats autour de l'Union économique et monétaire en 1973
Danescu, Elena UL

in Wilkens, Andreas (Ed.) Une année particulière: 1973 et les tourments de l'Europe (2020)

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See detailDe la déclaration du 9 mai 1950 vers l’Union européenne
Danescu, Elena UL; da Silva, Joana UL; Backes, Yuriko et al

in Danescu, Elena; da Silva, Joana; Europe Direct Information Centre de l'Université du Luxembourg, (Eds.) et al De la déclaration du 9 mai 1950 vers l’Union européenne (2020)

Destiné à un large public de tous horisons, cette publications originale traite de la signification historique de la Déclaration prononcée le 9 mai 1950 par Robert Schuman, de ses échos dans le présent ... [more ▼]

Destiné à un large public de tous horisons, cette publications originale traite de la signification historique de la Déclaration prononcée le 9 mai 1950 par Robert Schuman, de ses échos dans le présent, ainsi que des liens de Robert Schuman avec le Luxembourg et du rôle du Grand-Duché dans la construction européenne. Une section distincte est consacrée à la Maison de Robert Schuman située à Clausen sur laquelle l'Université du Luxembourg veille depuis 2016, le Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH). Une chronologie retrace les étapes-clé du proessus de la construction européenne. [less ▲]

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See detail"Un texte qui a changé le monde"
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

L’Union européenne plonge ses racines dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1945), le conflit le plus meurtrier de l’histoire de l’humanité. Alors que l’Europe tente de se reconstruire, des tensions ... [more ▼]

L’Union européenne plonge ses racines dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1945), le conflit le plus meurtrier de l’histoire de l’humanité. Alors que l’Europe tente de se reconstruire, des tensions politiques fracturent le continent entre l’Est et l’Ouest et la guerre froide naissante fait resurgir le spectre d’une nouvelle confrontation. Mais comment forger une paix durable entre les adversaires d’hier ? Le problème principal réside dans la relation entre la France et l'Allemagne, ennemies héréditaires, qui se sont fait par trois fois la guerre (1870, 1914 et 1939). Le chemin de la paix passe par la réconciliation de ces deux puissances antagonistes pour ensuite pouvoir rassembler toutes les nations libres d'Europe afin de bâtir ensemble une « communauté de destin ». C’est la vision que partagent deux personnalités françaises aux rôles complémentaires — Jean Monnet (1888-1979), commissaire général du Plan, et Robert Schuman (1886-1963), ministre des Affaires étrangères [less ▲]

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See detailVarieties of Democracy (V-DEM) Report "Autocratization Surges - Resistance Grows" (2020)
Danescu, Elena UL

Report (2020)

Main findings 2020. Autocratization – the decline of democratic traits – accelerates in the world: for the first time since 2001, autocracies are in the majority: 92 countries – home to 54% of the global ... [more ▼]

Main findings 2020. Autocratization – the decline of democratic traits – accelerates in the world: for the first time since 2001, autocracies are in the majority: 92 countries – home to 54% of the global population. Almost 35% of the world’s population live in autocratizing nations – 2.6 billion people. EU has its first non-democracy as a member: Hungary is now classed as an electoral authoritarian regime. Major G20 nations and all regions of the world are part of the “third wave of autocratization”: autocratization is affecting Brazil, India, the United States of America, and Turkey, which are major economies with sizeable populations, exercising substantial global military, economic, and political influence. Latin America is back to a level last recorded in the early 1990s while Eastern Europe and Central Asia are at post-Soviet Union lows. India is on the verge of losing its status as a democracy due to the severely shrinking of space for the media, civil society, and the opposition under Prime Minister Modi’s government. Pro-democracy resistance grows from 27% in 2009 to 44% in 2019 amidst the autocratization surge. During 2019, citizens in 29 democracies mobilized against autocratization, such as in Bolivia, Poland, and Malawi. Citizens staged mass protests in 34 autocracies, among them Algeria, Hong Kong, and Sudan. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxing intangible assets: issues and challenges for a digital Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020)

Value creation is increasingly based on knowledge and intangible assets. This trend has gained momentum with the development of the service sector, the rise in competition as a result of globalisation and ... [more ▼]

Value creation is increasingly based on knowledge and intangible assets. This trend has gained momentum with the development of the service sector, the rise in competition as a result of globalisation and deregulation, and the impact of the digital revolution.Innovation has proven to be a key factor in economic growth. In the aftermath of the global crisis; public authorities, states, European organisations (the EU and the Council of Europe) and transnational and international bodies (UN, OECD, WTO, IMF) have a major role to play in regulating the multi-dimensional potential of global growth and defending against the problems inherent in these new, unavoidable processes.The EU sees the Digital Single Market (DSM) and the capital markets union as two priority aspects in the completion of the European Single Market (ESM). To cite this article: Elena Danescu (2020): Taxing intangible assets: issues and challenges for a digital Europe, Internet Histories, DOI: 10.1080/24701475.2020.1749806 [less ▲]

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See detailViviane Reding on her action in the field of the information society and media (2004-2010)
Danescu, Elena UL

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020)

The following pages are taken from a long interview (more than eight hours of footage in total) that Viviane Reding granted us in 2015 in connection with the “Pierre Werner and Europe” research project ... [more ▼]

The following pages are taken from a long interview (more than eight hours of footage in total) that Viviane Reding granted us in 2015 in connection with the “Pierre Werner and Europe” research project. Drawing on more than 40 years’ experience in politics, Viviane Reding spoke about her career, the role of Luxembourg and Luxembourgers in the European integration process, and various key events in which she played a part. In these extracts, she discusses her role as a member of the first and second Barroso Commissions (2004-2009 and 2010-2014) and her efforts to help build an information and knowledge society in Europe, one that serves citizens and protects their rights and fundamental freedoms. Her achievements in this respect include capping mobile phone roaming charges (they were subsequently abolished in 2017), advocating for the introduction of a single emergency number (112) in all EU countries, launching the Europeana digital library, and spearheading a programme to use technological innovation for climate and energy solutions. She also describes the process of developing a Digital Agenda for Europe to improve the continent’s digital competitiveness compared with the United States, China and Japan – a complex and challenging task given the context of globalisation and the divergent interests of the various stakeholders (research, industry, consumers, etc.). Finally, she mentions the reform of personal data protection that she initiated (leading to the GDPR, adopted in April 2016). [less ▲]

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See detailTaxing intangible assets in Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2020, January 29)

The globalisation of the digital economy is indicative of a changing multidimensional paradigm driven by a number of factors: the primacy of intangible assets in value creation; a growing transnational ... [more ▼]

The globalisation of the digital economy is indicative of a changing multidimensional paradigm driven by a number of factors: the primacy of intangible assets in value creation; a growing transnational and international dimension in the production and consumption of goods and services; the transition from human labour to artificial intelligence; the increasing dominance of networks of stakeholders over individual players; the emergence of new forms of sharing, creation, collaboration and innovation; and the need to harmonise rules, standards and policies (including in the area of taxation) within a multilateral framework. In a competitive geopolitical environment, the EU, characterised by disparities between its Member States and sometimes opposing national interests, is some way behind China and the uncontested leader of the digital pack, the United States. But Europe can carve out a place for itself alongside these digital giants, since it outperforms its competitors in some sectors of the DSM. These include the production of digital services (the main driver of digital globalisation) and the digital consumption of financial operations. [less ▲]

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See detail“If we think small, we stay small” - Introduction to the interview with Viviane Reding
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2020, January 29)

In the line of women who have helped build Europe, Luxembourg’s Viviane Reding (born on 27 April 1951 in Esch-sur-Alzette) is a key figure. After her studies, including a PhD in Human Science at Paris ... [more ▼]

In the line of women who have helped build Europe, Luxembourg’s Viviane Reding (born on 27 April 1951 in Esch-sur-Alzette) is a key figure. After her studies, including a PhD in Human Science at Paris Sorbonne University, she worked as a journalist at the Luxemburger Wort for more than 20 years and chaired the Luxembourg Union of Journalists. She joined the Christian Social People’s Party (CSV) and was elected to the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies (1979-1989 and since 2018), where she particularly focused on social affairs and international relations, before becoming a Member of the European Parliament for three terms (1981-1999 and 2014-2018) and turning her attention to social affairs, employment and the working environment, as well as civil liberties. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Werner report and the financial crisis during the 1970s
Danescu, Elena UL; Tedeschi, Paolo

in Leboutte, René; Tedeschi, Paolo (Eds.) Euro changes: European Responses to Economics and Social Changes. From de 1970s to the new Millennium. (2020)

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See detailLuxembourg: A Country Survey
Danescu, Elena UL

in Hartley, Cathy (Ed.) Western Europe 2020 (2019)

Beginning in the 20th century, Luxembourg experienced several periods of transition. The largely agriculture-based economy became industrialized, driven by a powerful steel industry which remained the ... [more ▼]

Beginning in the 20th century, Luxembourg experienced several periods of transition. The largely agriculture-based economy became industrialized, driven by a powerful steel industry which remained the dominant sector from the immediate post-Second World War years to the mid-1970s. The country had a considerable competitive advantage in this respect owing to iron ore deposits in Luxembourg itself and in the neighbouring French region of Lorraine. The industrial flagship was Aciéries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange (ARBED), founded in 1911, which developed its production in Europe and established a global network of sales outlets. Between 1953 and 1968 the steel industry contributed approximately 25% of the country’s GDP growth, while steel production represented 50% of its added industrial value. Over the same period, the nominal wage grew by 29.3%. The improvement in living standards led to the emergence of the middle class and to an increase in urbanization. The Government improved the social security regime and extended it to all workers, thus helping to close the gap in social equality, raise living standards further and boost social cohesion in the country over the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges in completing EMU: asymmetric competition vs fiscal harmonisation. A case study of the Benelux countries
Danescu, Elena UL

in Journal of Contemporary European Research [=JCER] (2019)

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative factors at work via a case study of the Benelux countries – both founder members of the EU and pioneers of EMU – and to examine the impact on European and international regulations in the field. In particular, it will endeavour to provide a comprehensive interpretation of fiscal policy in the Benelux countries via a comparative approach and from a historical perspective. It will look at the development of respective domestic fiscal policies, driven by national interests and by membership of a Community that is subject to requirements in terms of harmonisation and taxation, but also by constant contact (and frequent clashes) with the multilateral international environment. [less ▲]

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See detailTrop d'impôts pour les célibataires au Luxembourg? (Bref aperçu historique comparatif sur la fiscalité des célibataires dans le monde).
Danescu, Elena UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit ... [more ▼]

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit de mouture sur les céréales, donc un impôt sur le pain, le droit d’abattage qui frappe les bouchers et éleveurs, l’impôt sur le vin qui touche les petits viticulteurs de la Moselle, les accises sur l’alcool qui pénalisent les distilleries industrielles du nord du pays et les milliers de petites distilleries familiales. En matière d’impôts directs, le jeune Grand-Duché hérite de la nouvelle philosophie de la fiscalité introduite par les Lumières et la Révolution française qui remplace l’impôt-tribut par l’impôt échange et introduit le principe d’égalité devant l’impôt et de proportionnalité, c.-à-d. d’impôt à taux unique (flat tax). L’histoire de la fiscalité est ensuite étroitement liée à l’histoire idéologique et politique de l’Etat-nation et de l’Etat social. La réforme fiscale actuelle mérite d'être analysée à la lumière de histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Iron Curtain: An Historical Overview
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2019, October 21)

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See detailBGL: L’histoire d’un siècle
Zahlen, Paul UL; Duval, Cécile UL; Danescu, Elena UL et al

Computer development (2019)

L’exposition retrace l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas depuis ses débuts en 1919 jusqu’à nos jours, ainsi que son rôle et sa participation dans l’économie et le développement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

L’exposition retrace l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas depuis ses débuts en 1919 jusqu’à nos jours, ainsi que son rôle et sa participation dans l’économie et le développement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Intitulée « BGL: L’histoire d’un siècle », l’exposition a été conçue et mise en œuvre en collaboration avec le Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) de l’Université du Luxembourg. Elle a comme but de donner une représentation moderne et didactique de l’histoire sur un support digital accessible à un public très large. L’exposition propose à l’utilisateur différentes possibilités pour découvrir des sujets variés: un aperçu chronologique en forme de ligne de temps interactive ancrant l’histoire de la banque dans le contexte politique et socio-économique de l’époque, une carte évolutive des implantations de la banque au fil du temps, et des dossiers thématiques portant sur l'architecture, la marque et les métiers de la banque. Pour réaliser ce projet, les chercheurs de l’université ont eu accès aux archives de la banque et ont compilé toute une documentation comprenant des textes, documents, images, photos et vidéos. Le projet de recherche est également lié à la réalisation d’une thèse de doctorat sur l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas au Luxembourg. Il revêt en effet une pertinence scientifique importante pour l’historiographie du pays vu le rôle important de catalyseur joué par BGL BNP Paribas à la fois dans l’économie luxembourgeoise et dans le développement de la place financière du Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work-Podcast: The Monster under the Bed - Brief history of the European Union Budget
Danescu, Elena UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

PODCAST: The budget of the European Union has three pillars: its expenditure, its financing and its audit. The podcast "The Monster under the Bed" looks at the origins of the budget, its development ... [more ▼]

PODCAST: The budget of the European Union has three pillars: its expenditure, its financing and its audit. The podcast "The Monster under the Bed" looks at the origins of the budget, its development through multiannual planning and annual budgeting, and the institutions involved in its financing, adoption, control and in the audit process. Since the creation of the European Coal and Steal Community (ECSC) in 1952, there has been a tension over budgeting among the European institutions and the Member States, and a close link between reforms to expenditure and those to the financing. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom financial and monetary innovation to Economic and Monetary Union: the European Investment Bank in the Luxembourg ecosystem
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2019, July 10)

Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the political and regulatory context surrounding the EIB’s relocation to Luxembourg, exploring how the EIB became an integral ... [more ▼]

Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the political and regulatory context surrounding the EIB’s relocation to Luxembourg, exploring how the EIB became an integral part of the Luxembourg financial ecosystem and how its main stakeholders (banks, LuxSE, other institutions, regulatory authorities, people, networks, etc.) worked together to encourage financial and monetary innovation before the introduction of the European single currency (EUA, EURCO, ECU) and to pave the way for the establishment and consolidation of the euro. Particular attention will be paid to the benefits (and potential pitfalls) of this synergy over the long term for the EIB’s partners and how it equipped them to deal with the financial crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological risks and political challenges: the emergence of Luxembourg’s satellite policy
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 29)

In the early 1970s, in a bid to diversify its economy – at that time primarily based on a declining steel industry and a still nascent international financial centre –, the Luxembourg government decided ... [more ▼]

In the early 1970s, in a bid to diversify its economy – at that time primarily based on a declining steel industry and a still nascent international financial centre –, the Luxembourg government decided to invest in the country’s audiovisual sector and to pursue a policy to develop telecommunications satellites that would be used to broadcast European television programmes. This ambitious yet risky objective represented a major challenge in five specific areas: in technological terms (choosing to invest in medium-range rather than the more dominant long-range satellites), in political terms (opting for US hardware and technology at the expense of the European leaders in the field, France and Germany), and with regard to culture (favouring the broadcast of programmes in English over those in French and German), management (the satellites were run via a private company with the government as the only shareholder), and standardisation, regulation and competition (especially at pan-European level). The Société Européenne des Satellites (SES) was finally set up in 1985, and Luxembourg’s first satellite for television broadcasts (GDL/ASTRA) was launched in 1987. Drawing on new sources, this paper looks back at the emergence of the GDL/ASTRA project from a historical perspective, highlighting the main political, financial, technological and regulatory hurdles that had to be overcome, the influence of the project on Luxembourg’s relationship with the USA and with EEC Member States (especially France and Germany but also the UK, which at that time was embarking on the accession process) and its role in the completion of a common market for new media technologies and ultimately in the development of a European audiovisual area. The impact of the policy as a driver for the financial centre (especially the Luxembourg Stock Exchange) and for various niche markets will also be emphasised. [less ▲]

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