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See detailDemocracy, Freedom and Truth at a Time of Digital Disruption: An equation with three unknowns?
Danescu, Elena UL

in Višňovský, Ján; Radošinská (Eds.) Fake News Is Bad News - Hoaxes, Half-truths and the Nature of Today's Journalism (2021)

The pattern of a knowledge-based society relies to a large extent on digital technologies and intangible outputs and generate considerable transnational financial flows and gains. These technologies also ... [more ▼]

The pattern of a knowledge-based society relies to a large extent on digital technologies and intangible outputs and generate considerable transnational financial flows and gains. These technologies also play a key role in providing free access to data and information, encouraging citizen participation in public decision-making, fostering transparency and scrutiny of government action and mobilising new players capable of identifying alternative means of civic and political participation worldwide. At the same time, the increasingly impact of online platforms in manipulating transnational public debates, and the surge in extremist groups using the digital ecosystem to incite hatred, hostility and violence are a warning sign that these modes of communication may be having an adverse effect on democracy and that the boundary between fact and fiction is not as clear as we may like to think. The US presidential election campaign and the Brexit referendum (2016), the theories about COVID-19 (that have flooded the web since 2019), the terrorist attack against French teacher Samuel Paty (16 October 2020) all highlight these trends. When the majority of the world’s citizens are using online media as their main source of information, the proliferation of disinformation and the related threat of radicalism and extremism have led to a growing awareness of these issues at international- and European Union level. What can be done to tackle the situation? How should the democratic states with new forms of private power in the algorithmic society? Where should the line be drawn between freedom of expression and media pluralism on the one hand, and intrusion and censorship of dissenting opinions on the other? How should information be defended as a fundamental right? Is there a moral or ethical code when it comes to information? How can be created an environment that is conducive to inclusive, pluralistic public debate? How to equip citizens to develop a critical approach and to take informed decisions? How to balance innovation with the need to ensure transparency and fairness? Could we be witnessing a situation in which algorithms are “dissolving” democracy? Drawing on the archives of the international and European multilateral organisations (UN/UNESCO, Council of Europe, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the European Union) and several public and private stakeholders worldwide, this chapter proposes: a) to take stock of the issues and challenges raised by the proliferation of fake news, social media and algorithms, and their impact on freedom and democracy; b) to review the regulatory provisions implemented in this area at European and international level; and c) to identify future prospects. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg Diplomacy at Work
Danescu, Elena UL; Wurth, Hubert; Gomes Samuel, Manuel et al

Speeches/Talks (2021)

After the Second World War, Luxembourg became a leading player in international relations. As a founding member of most of the major international institutions – including the United Nations (1945), the ... [more ▼]

After the Second World War, Luxembourg became a leading player in international relations. As a founding member of most of the major international institutions – including the United Nations (1945), the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (1949), the Council of Europe (1949), the European Communities (starting with the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951) and then the European Union (1993) –, Luxembourg assumed a key role in European integration and multilateralism. Its constant aim has always been to maintain and strengthen the framework of international law as a basis for democracy, human rights and the values of freedom, peace and security worldwide. Luxembourg’s diplomatic apparatus serves the people of Luxembourg, the country’s institutions, the private sector and civil society by supporting and defending Luxembourg’s political, economic, business, cultural and consular interests abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand l’Europe emménageait au Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2021)

Lorsque le 9 mai 1950, le ministre français des Affaires étrangères (natif du Luxembourg) Robert Schuman (1886-1963) énonce ce que l’Histoire retiendra comme la « Déclaration Schuman » et propose la ... [more ▼]

Lorsque le 9 mai 1950, le ministre français des Affaires étrangères (natif du Luxembourg) Robert Schuman (1886-1963) énonce ce que l’Histoire retiendra comme la « Déclaration Schuman » et propose la création d’une Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier (CECA) réunissant les ennemies héréditaires d’antan - la France et l’Allemagne - personne n’imaginait que cette initiative censée forger une paix durable en Europe allait se concrétiser en moins d’un an. Et pourtant, la première Communauté européenne devient réalité le 18 avril 1951, lorsque les représentants de six pays - Robert Schuman (France), Konrad Adenauer (RFA), Paul van Zeeland et Joseph Meurice (Belgique), le comte Carlo Sforza (Italie), Dirk Stikker et Jan Van den Brink (Pays-Bas) et Joseph Bech (Luxembourg) – concluent le traité de Paris. Le traité CECA d’il y a 70 ans, presque jour pour jour, signifie le début du destin européen du Grand-Duché en tant qu’État fondateur et acteur de marque de la construction européenne, et de Luxembourg-ville, en tant que « première capitale de l’Europe ». [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) Lessons from the past, future prospects
Danescu, Elena UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

The Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) was established on 25 July 1921. Some years later, in 1935, three additional sections were added to the BLEU Convention: on financial and monetary matters, a ... [more ▼]

The Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) was established on 25 July 1921. Some years later, in 1935, three additional sections were added to the BLEU Convention: on financial and monetary matters, a common trade regime and a “special revenue community” with specific excise duties. In 1963, the provisions of the BLEU were revised following the entry into force of the European Economic Community (EEC) and Benelux. The two countries renewed the Convention in a new enhanced version on 18 December 2002, reflecting a determination to extend their collaboration beyond the economic and monetary field and paving the way for closer political and administrative cooperation, especially in the areas of justice, citizenship, health and cross-border synergies in the Greater Region, and creating a framework for dialogue within the European Union. For one century now, Belgium and Luxembourg have enjoyed a strong bilateral partnership, one that has been marked by various difficulties and tensions but has been deepened and renewed over the years. The centenary of the BLEU, which occurs in a context beset by unprecedented challenges and uncertainties for the Greater Region, Europe and the international community, is an opportunity for discussion and reflection on the lessons that can be learned from the past, the current situation and prospects for the future of this union. [less ▲]

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See detailLe genre et l'Europe: Quo Vadis?
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2021)

L'égalité des genres est un principe fondateur de l'Union européenne (UE) inscrit dans les traités et constamment réaffirmé (Protocole social annexé au Traité de Maastricht, Traité d'Amsterdam, Charte ... [more ▼]

L'égalité des genres est un principe fondateur de l'Union européenne (UE) inscrit dans les traités et constamment réaffirmé (Protocole social annexé au Traité de Maastricht, Traité d'Amsterdam, Charte sociale européenne, Charte européenne des droits fondamentaux). Même si des progrès notables restent à accomplir, l’Europe démocratique constitue une source d’inspiration en matière de l'égalité entre les sexes et le développement des sociétés plus ouvertes et modernes. [less ▲]

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See detailWriting the Contemporary History of Europe: Old Concepts, New Tools?
Danescu, Elena UL; Itzel, Constanze; Douglas, McCarthy et al

Speeches/Talks (2021)

Although the idea of Europe dates back to ancient times and was crystallised in the Enlightenment, the plan for European unification emerged in the second half of the 20th century as a consequence of an ... [more ▼]

Although the idea of Europe dates back to ancient times and was crystallised in the Enlightenment, the plan for European unification emerged in the second half of the 20th century as a consequence of an economic process based on a single market and a single currency. European integration is therefore a recent chapter in the history of Europe, one which has been written before our very eyes, but it remains fragmented into disparate national histories. In the 21st century, those writing the history of Europe find themselves confronted with a threefold challenge: they must meet the demands of the digital age, adjust to the paradigm shift within the historical discipline and navigate the geopolitical upheavals that the continent has been experiencing since 1989 (the fall of communism; the enlargement of the European Union; the many crises the EU has faced, including Brexit; the divide between institutions and citizens; the socio-economic consequences of the global crisis, including the COVID-19 health crisis; the new nature of transatlantic relations, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailRule of Law, Democracy and the EU-East enlargement:Case Study on Hungary and Poland
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2021, January 18)

The European Communities (founded in 1951) with the ECSC and then the European Union started out as an exclusively west European enterprise. The guarantee of the “rule of law” was one of the criteria for ... [more ▼]

The European Communities (founded in 1951) with the ECSC and then the European Union started out as an exclusively west European enterprise. The guarantee of the “rule of law” was one of the criteria for accession to the European Union which the EU defined at the Copenhagen European Council in 1993, together with stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, human rights, and respect for and protection of minorities. the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union. Membership presupposes the candidate's ability to take on the obligations of membership including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union. In their Constitutions today, all the countries of Central and East Europe confess to the “rule of law” as either a fundamental prerequisite or one of the highest values/a fundamental value of the constitutional order as stated (by Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland), or by declaring their country operates under or is based on the “rule of law” as stated (by the Baltic countries, Hungary), or that it is a “law-governed state” as stated by (Bulgaria; Romania). In doing so, the countries confess to the “rule of law” at least in its formalistic understanding.The crucial question is what the “rule of law” as referred to by the EU in the Copenhagen Criteria and by the Constitutions of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe effectively means. What is the state practice? [less ▲]

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See detailBREXIT: état des lieux
Danescu, Elena UL; Esposito, Marie-Claude; Da Silva, Joana

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Au 31 janvier 2020 à minuit (heure de Bruxelles), le Royaume-Uni a quitté l'Union européenne. Cette sortie n'est pourtant pas totale : conformément à l’accord de retrait, le pays est entré dans une ... [more ▼]

Au 31 janvier 2020 à minuit (heure de Bruxelles), le Royaume-Uni a quitté l'Union européenne. Cette sortie n'est pourtant pas totale : conformément à l’accord de retrait, le pays est entré dans une transition qui lui permet de négocier sa future relation avec l’UE, tout en restant provisoirement intégré à un certain nombre de politiques européennes. Cette phase doit prendre fin au 31 décembre 2020 au plus tôt, mais les pourparlers semblent actuellement en impasse. S’il demeure la conséquence directe du référendum organisé le 23 juin 2016 par l’ancien Premier Ministre David Cameron, le « Brexit » reflète de longues décennies de rapports tumultueux avec l’Europe supranationale, qui ont nourri l’euroscepticisme et anti-européenisme des Britanniques.[...] [less ▲]

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See detailL'Europe des droits fondamentaux
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

Sept décennies après la signature de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme (Rome, 4 novembre 1950) et vingt ans après la proclamation la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne (Nice ... [more ▼]

Sept décennies après la signature de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme (Rome, 4 novembre 1950) et vingt ans après la proclamation la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l’Union européenne (Nice, 7 décembre 2000), la sauvegarde des libertés fondamentales et de l’État de droit mis en cause par certains État membres se trouvent parmi les défis majeurs de l’Europe. À l’heure ou l’Union cherche des réponses pour contrecarrer les atteintes portées à son socle des valeurs communes, un regard rétrospectif sur la problématique européenne des libertés et droits fondamentaux permettra de mieux comprendre la gravité des enjeux actuels. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the origins of the European idea
Danescu, Elena UL; Leboutte, René; Da Silva, Joana

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Puisant ses racines dans l’antiquité gréco-romaine, forgeant sa teneur dès l’apparition des premiers États-nations au Moyen-Âge, et se profilant de manière résolue à l’époque contemporaine, l’idée ... [more ▼]

Puisant ses racines dans l’antiquité gréco-romaine, forgeant sa teneur dès l’apparition des premiers États-nations au Moyen-Âge, et se profilant de manière résolue à l’époque contemporaine, l’idée européenne s’est effectivement concrétisée au XXe siècle. Avant qu’elle ne devienne un véritable projet politique, l’idée européenne est restée limitée au cercle des visionnaires, qui ambitionnaient de préserver la paix par la construction d’une Europe unie. Ces projets intellectuels sont restés souvent utopiques, tant que les puissances politiques ne les prenaient pas en charge. [...] [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg Economy Facing Challenges: A Historical Overview
Danescu, Elena UL

in Hartley (Ed.) Western Europe 2021 (2020)

The chapter focused on Luxembourg economy and history will endeavour to explain how Luxembourg managed to achieve transitions from an agrarian economy to a knowledge-driven economy; its current strengths ... [more ▼]

The chapter focused on Luxembourg economy and history will endeavour to explain how Luxembourg managed to achieve transitions from an agrarian economy to a knowledge-driven economy; its current strengths and weaknesses; and its future challenges in an increasingly globalized, competitive international environment [less ▲]

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See detailEU Blind Date avec Isabel Wiseler-Lima et Sébastien Varrette
Danescu, Elena UL; Da Silva, Joana

Speeches/Talks (2020)

La place du Luxembourg et de l'Europe dans la stratégie des nouvelles technologies, dans le développement 'software', notre dépendance de l’Asie en matière de 'hardware', mais également l'intelligence ... [more ▼]

La place du Luxembourg et de l'Europe dans la stratégie des nouvelles technologies, dans le développement 'software', notre dépendance de l’Asie en matière de 'hardware', mais également l'intelligence artificielle, ses règles et son éthique, la place des femmes dans les métiers de recherche en informatique, ne sont que quelques sujets abordés lors de cette découverte mutuelle. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Future of Money in the Digital Age
Brand, Claus; Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2020, October 09)

Research Seminar “The Future of Money in the Digital Age" (Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies. Digital Currencies vs Sovereign Currencies: Potential Implications for the Economic and Monetary Union.)

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See detailCrunch time for EMU
Danescu, Elena UL; Thygesen, Niels; Sapir, André et al

Speeches/Talks (2020)

As we mark the 50th anniversary of the Werner Report, it is well worth analysing the role of Economic and Monetary Union at a time of uncertainty as to the wider European project, via an interdisciplinary ... [more ▼]

As we mark the 50th anniversary of the Werner Report, it is well worth analysing the role of Economic and Monetary Union at a time of uncertainty as to the wider European project, via an interdisciplinary approach that draws on historical and archive research and takes into consideration the theoretical debates in the literature and the various methodological challenges.What are the multifaceted future provocation facing Economic and Monetary Union? What steps still need to be taken to complete the project? How can we strengthen the international role of the euro and bolster Europe’s economic and financial autonomy? How can we best tackle technological developments in the field of money and finance? And how is the COVID-19 crisis testing the boundaries of the European integration? [less ▲]

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See detailEpistemic communities in building EMU: Pierre Werner, Robert Triffin and Jean Monnet in European monetary cooperation.
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2020, October 07)

On 8 October 1970 in Luxembourg, Pierre Werner officially presented the plan by stages for an economic and monetary union (EMU) in the European Community. This document was the result of seven months of ... [more ▼]

On 8 October 1970 in Luxembourg, Pierre Werner officially presented the plan by stages for an economic and monetary union (EMU) in the European Community. This document was the result of seven months of discussions by a group of experts from the six Member States, chaired by the Luxembourg Prime Minister and Finance Minister. The Werner Report set out the broad lines, principles and stages of an EMU based on the principle of irreversibility and an approach rooted in perfect symmetry between the economic and monetary aspects, with political union as the ultimate objective. It provided for the creation of a “centre of decision for economic policy” that would be “politically responsible to a European Parliament” elected by universal suffrage, and a “Community system for the central banks”. It introduced the notion of strong macroeconomic governance, requiring the coordination of budgetary and monetary policies, and full financial integration. It also envisaged the involvement of the “social partners” (employers and unions) in defining economic and monetary policy, since the social dimension was seen as an intrinsic part of EMU. Although it was ultimately not implemented, the Werner Report led to the creation of the European Monetary Cooperation Fund (EMCF) in 1973 in Luxembourg – the embryo of the future European Central Bank. This institutional architecture was inspired by the reflections on a European reserve fund initiated in 1948 by Robert Triffin and subsequently developed through his discussions with Jean Monnet and Pierre Werner. The three were committed to the European cause and shared the same vision of EMU, rooted in “perfect parallelism”, democratic strength and a social dimension. Robert Triffin and Jean Monnet, together with other members of Monnet’s Action Committee for a United States of Europe, intended to work on the strategy devised by Pierre Werner to build a political consensus around the report. [less ▲]

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See detail#WernerReport@50 internet portal & conference
Danescu, Elena UL; Elisar, Ori UL; Guido, Daniele UL et al

Computer development (2020)

#WernerReport@50 internet portal is the result of an interdisciplinary project using state-of-the-art methods for the digital processing and presentation of historical content. The project was coordinated ... [more ▼]

#WernerReport@50 internet portal is the result of an interdisciplinary project using state-of-the-art methods for the digital processing and presentation of historical content. The project was coordinated at the C2DH by the following specialists: Ori Elisar, Daniele Guido, Robert Beta and Lars Wieneke (infrastructure), Elena Danescu (content), François Klein (audiovisual resources) and Sarah Cooper (linguistic aspects). [less ▲]

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See detail"Vouloir, connaître, agir"
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

Au sein de l’Union européenne, le Luxembourg est le pays qui peut se targuer de la plus longue expérience d’intégration économique et politique – 170 ans. Au sortir de la Seconde Guerre mondiale ... [more ▼]

Au sein de l’Union européenne, le Luxembourg est le pays qui peut se targuer de la plus longue expérience d’intégration économique et politique – 170 ans. Au sortir de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, l’implication active du Grand-Duché dans ce processus fut le fruit d’un choix délibéré, motivé par sa situation géopolitique et économique, par sa nature de petit État et par une conviction profonde. Effectivement, le Luxembourg s’est toujours illustré comme médiateur et force de proposition pour l’Europe unie, que ce soit en tant qu’État, à travers ses personnalités, ou par l’action de diverses associations, dont la Fondation du Mérite Européen occupe une place de choix depuis un demi-siècle. [less ▲]

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See detailRégions transfrontalières en Europe: quelle est la place du Luxembourg?
Danescu, Elena UL; Rommes, Jean-Jacques; Da Silva, Joana

Speeches/Talks (2020)

La coopération transfrontalière en Europe émerge dans les années 1960, dans le cadre de jumelages entre municipalités et sur la toile de fond marqué par la construction de la Communauté économique ... [more ▼]

La coopération transfrontalière en Europe émerge dans les années 1960, dans le cadre de jumelages entre municipalités et sur la toile de fond marqué par la construction de la Communauté économique européenne (CEE). Elle se développera sous l’impulsion du Conseil de l’Europe – qui promouvra les relations de bon voisinage entre les autorités locales des États concernés, et de la CEE – qui mettra en place un système d’accords de coopération transfrontalière entre les pays communautaires, ainsi qu’avec les pays voisins. La convention-cadre européenne sur la coopération transfrontalière entre collectivités ou autorités territoriales (la « Convention de Madrid ») a été signée par les États membres du Conseil de l’Europe le 25 mai 1980. Son texte a été renforcé par deux protocoles additionnels dédiés à la coopération transfrontalière (en 1995) et interterritoriale (en 1998). [...] [less ▲]

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See detailUne crise révélatrice. (Pandémie du Covid-19 : Quel rôle pour l’Union européenne ?)
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2020)

La pandémie du Covid-19 dont l’Europe a un temps été l’épicentre, a entrainé de lourdes conséquences pour la santé et la vie quotidienne des citoyens. Les 27 membres de l’UE ont pris de mesures nationales ... [more ▼]

La pandémie du Covid-19 dont l’Europe a un temps été l’épicentre, a entrainé de lourdes conséquences pour la santé et la vie quotidienne des citoyens. Les 27 membres de l’UE ont pris de mesures nationales exceptionnelles (état d'urgence, confinement, limitation de l'activité économique et des déplacements, fermeture des frontières) en agissant en ordre dispersé. L’Union a été épinglée pour son manque de répondant .Mais quelles sont ses prérogatives en matière sanitaire? Qu’est-ce que l’UE peut faire – et ne peut pas faire – lorsqu’elle est confrontée à une crise de cette magnitude? [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg, capitale permanente des institutions européennes
Danescu, Elena UL; Afonso Ferreira, Sara; Da Silva, Joana

Speeches/Talks (2020)

Situé au coeur de l’Europe, le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg a été d’emblée un acteur clé de l’unification européenne. Dès 1952, sa capitale devient le premier lieu de travail provisoire de la Communauté ... [more ▼]

Situé au coeur de l’Europe, le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg a été d’emblée un acteur clé de l’unification européenne. Dès 1952, sa capitale devient le premier lieu de travail provisoire de la Communauté Européenne du Charbon et de l’Acier (CECA) qui émerge après la Déclaration prononcée le 9 mai 1950 par Robert Schuman, ministre des Affaires étrangères de la France (qui naquit le 29 juin 1886 à Clausen, d’une mère luxembourgeoise et d’un père lorrain).[...]Si, depuis sa création la Cour de Justice de la CECA, puis des Communautés européennes et finalement de l’UE (CJUE) est basée au Luxembourg, c’est seulement à l’aube des années 1990 qu’elle élit domicile sur le plateau de Kirchberg, dans son nouveau Palais, dessiné par l’architecte français Dominique Perrault. [less ▲]

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