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See detailA theory-driven design framework for smartphone applications to support healthy and sustainable grocery shopping
Blanke, Julia UL; Billieux, Joel; Vögele, Claus UL

in Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies (in press)

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See detailCognitive processes underlying impaired decision-making in gambling disorder.
Brevers, Damien UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Billieux, Joël

in Zaleskiewicz, Thomas (Ed.) Psychological Perspectives on Financial Decision Making. (in press)

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See detailWell-being and working from home during COVID-19
Schifano, Sonia UL; Clark, Andrew; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Information Technology and People (in press)

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from ... [more ▼]

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from home. The authors also consider the role of pandemic-policy stringency in affecting well-being in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The authors have four waves of novel harmonised longitudinal data in France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Sweden, covering the period May–November 2020. Well-being is measured in five dimensions: life satisfaction, a worthwhile life, loneliness, depression and anxiety. A retrospective diary indicates whether the individual was working in each month since February 2020 and if so whether at home or not at home. Policy stringency is matched in per country at the daily level. The authors consider both cross- section and panel regressions and the mediating and moderating effects of control variables, including household variables and income. Findings – Well-being among workers is lower for those who work from home, and those who are not working have the lowest well-being of all. The panel results are more mitigated, with switching into working at home yielding a small drop in anxiety. The panel and cross-section difference could reflect adaptation or the selection of certain types of individuals into working at home. Policy stringency is always negatively correlated with well-being. The authors find no mediation effects. The well-being penalty from working at home is larger for the older, the better-educated, those with young children and those with more crowded housing. Originality/value – The harmonised cross-country panel data on individuals’ experiences during COVID-19 are novel. The authors relate working from home and policy stringency to multiple well-being measures. The authors emphasise the effect of working from home on not only the level of well-being but also its distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailMothers’ and fathers’ reflective functioning and its association with parenting behaviors and cortisol reactivity during a conflict interaction with their adolescent children
Decarli, Alessandro; Schulz, André UL; Pierrehumbert, Blaise et al

in Emotion (in press)

We assessed parental reflective functioning (PRF) with the Parent Development Interview - Revised, and investigated its association with parenting behaviors, i.e., autonomy support and psychological ... [more ▼]

We assessed parental reflective functioning (PRF) with the Parent Development Interview - Revised, and investigated its association with parenting behaviors, i.e., autonomy support and psychological control (operationalized in terms of behaviors promoting and undermining autonomy relatedness), and stress responses (cortisol reactivity) during a parent-child conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task). Participants were 40 mothers and 28 fathers, who took part in the study together with their adolescent children (N = 49). Mothers had significantly lower PRF and displayed more psychologically controlling behaviors in the interaction with their children than fathers. Rather than sex per se, high levels of PRF were the best predictors of autonomy support, whereas lower levels of PRF predicted more psychological control. Higher levels of PRF were also the best predictor for lower levels of parenting stress. Stress in the context of parenting was neither related to autonomy support nor to psychological control, which were best predicted by divorced family status. The findings point to the potential utility of interventions aimed at improving PRF and stress management in the context of parenting, especially in divorced families, given their protective effects on parenting behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailEinleitung
Heinen, Andreas UL; Samuel, Robin UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Heinen, Andreas; Samuel, Robin; Vögele, Claus (Eds.) et al Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit im Jugendalter (2022)

Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit im Kindheits- und Jugendalter haben in den vergangenen Jahren in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung an Bedeutung gewonnen. Im Vordergrund steht dabei vor allem die ... [more ▼]

Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit im Kindheits- und Jugendalter haben in den vergangenen Jahren in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung an Bedeutung gewonnen. Im Vordergrund steht dabei vor allem die Erforschung der Bedingungsfaktoren für die Entwicklung eines „guten“ Wohlbefindens und einer „guten“ Gesundheit bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Die verschiedenen Fachdisziplinen beschäftigen sich mit Fragen zu Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit von Jugendlichen aus ihrer jeweiligen Perspektive. [less ▲]

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See detailWohlbefinden und Gesundheit im Jugendalter: Theoretische Perspektiven, empirische Befunde und Praxisansätze
Heinen, Andreas UL; Samuel, Robin UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

Book published by Springer VS Wiesbaden (2022)

Dieser Open-Access-Band bietet eine Übersicht disziplinärer Zugänge und aktueller empirischer Befunde zum Wohlbefinden und gesundheitsrelevanten Verhalten von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen ... [more ▼]

Dieser Open-Access-Band bietet eine Übersicht disziplinärer Zugänge und aktueller empirischer Befunde zum Wohlbefinden und gesundheitsrelevanten Verhalten von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen. Internationale Perspektiven renommierter Experten sowie Beiträge von Akteuren aus verschiedenen Praxisfeldern in Luxemburg ergänzen die Sammlung. Sie machen diesen Band zu einem unverzichtbaren Werk nicht nur für Wissenschaftler, sondern auch für Fachpersonen aus der Praxis mit einem Interesse am Thema Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit junger Menschen. [less ▲]

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See detailMental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: The Role of Child Attachment and Parental Reflective Functioning
Decarli, Alessandro; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Schulz, André UL et al

in Heinen, Andreas; Samuel, Robin; Vögele, Claus (Eds.) et al Wohlbefinden und Gesundheit im Jugendalter (2022)

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See detailDistraction from Pain in Aging – the Impact of Acute Stress
Dierolf, Angelika UL; van der Meulen, Marian UL; Schulz, André UL et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

While older people report acute and chronic pain more often than younger people, and, therefore, would benefit significantly from non-pharmacological pain treatment, little is known about how age affects ... [more ▼]

While older people report acute and chronic pain more often than younger people, and, therefore, would benefit significantly from non-pharmacological pain treatment, little is known about how age affects psychological strategies of pain modulation. Distraction from pain by cognitive engagement, an efficient pain modulation strategy, relies on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC, however, is an area affected by age-related cognitive decline, which might lead to reduced pain relief through distraction in older adults. Acute stress, a common concomitant phenomenon of pain, might additionally reduce the pain relief effect by its negative impact on PFC and PFC-based executive functions. Healthy young (18-30 years) and older participants (65+ years) performed a pain distraction task before and after acute stress induction using the Trier Social Stress Test, or a respective control condition. An n-Back working memory task with low and high cognitive load served as the distraction paradigm, during which participants received non-painful and moderately painful stimuli. These stimuli were individually adjusted transdermal electrical pulse trains to the inner forearm and participants rated them regarding their intensity and unpleasantness. Pain-related evoked potentials were recorded with a 64-channel EEG, and several saliva samples were collected to measure hormonal stress responses. First analyses on the currently small sample suggest a negative impact of acute stress on distraction from pain in both age groups. Our final results will contribute to a deeper understanding on the efficacy of pain modulation in aging and potential influencing factors, helping to optimize pain treatments in this population. [less ▲]

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See detailAkuter Stress und kardiale interozeptive Genauigkeit in einer Herzschlagzählaufgabe
Hansen, Greta UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Bellingrath, Silja et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Interozeption, d.h. die Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung körperinnerer Signale, hängt mit der Aktivität eines Körperorgans (z.B. kardiale Aktivierung) zusammen. Die Organaktivität wird maßgeblich durch Stress ... [more ▼]

Interozeption, d.h. die Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung körperinnerer Signale, hängt mit der Aktivität eines Körperorgans (z.B. kardiale Aktivierung) zusammen. Die Organaktivität wird maßgeblich durch Stress beeinflusst, der beispielsweise durch soziale Situationen oder Schmerz ausgelöst wird. Auch wenn erste Erkenntnisse implizieren, dass Stress die bewusste Ebene der Interozeption („interozeptive Genauigkeit“/IG) beeinflussen könnte, sind der Zeitverlauf dieses Effekts und die Rolle von Organaktivierung bislang unklar. Anhand eines Gruppenexperiments mit gesunden Versuchspersonen (je n=33 Stress- und Kontrollgruppe, w=48) wurde die Auswirkung von akutem Stress (sozial-evozierter Kaltwassertest) auf IG in einer Herzschlagzählaufgabe zu vier unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten (pre-Stress/post-Stress-1/2/3) untersucht. Der Stressor führte zu einem Anstieg von selbstberichtetem Stress (sowie Speichelcortisol). Die Herzrate (Organaktivität) sowie die IG blieben jedoch, entgegen der Erwartungen, sowohl zwischen den Gruppen als auch über die Zeit, unverändert. Unabhängig von der Bedingung und den Zeitpunkten zeigte sich außerdem eine Tendenz, die tatsächlichen Herzschläge zu 56% zu unterschätzen. Bei konstanter Herzrate (M=81.5 bpm) über alle Versuchsbedingungen hinweg konnten die gezählten Herzschläge alleine (M=28.55) somit die IG (M=.43) vorhersagen (r=.962, p<.001). Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass sowohl die zentrale Rolle der gezählten Herzschläge auf die IG, als auch jene Organaktivierung, die durch akuten Stress verändert wird und sich in einer Veränderung der gezählten Herzschläge widerspiegelt, bei Anwendung der Herzschlagzählaufgabe, berücksichtigt werden muss. [less ▲]

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See detailA Theory-Informed, Personalized mHealth Intervention for Adolescents (Mobile App for Physical Activity): Development and Pilot Study
Domin, Alex; Uslu, Sinan UL; Schulz, André UL et al

in JMIR Formative Research (2022), 6(6), 35118

Background: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is crucial as it usually results in adequate PA levels in adulthood. Given the ubiquitous use of smartphones by ... [more ▼]

Background: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) during childhood and adolescence is crucial as it usually results in adequate PA levels in adulthood. Given the ubiquitous use of smartphones by adolescents, these devices may offer feasible means to reach young populations and deliver interventions aiming to increase PA participation and decrease sedentary time. To date, very few studies have reported smartphone-based interventions promoting PA for adolescents. In addition, most available fitness apps do not include the latest evidence-based content. Objective: This paper described the systematic development of a behavior change, theory-informed Mobile App for Physical Activity intervention with personalized prompts for adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. The within-subject trial results provided the first evidence of the general effectiveness of the intervention based on the outcomes step count, sedentary time, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes. The effectiveness of the intervention component personalized PA prompt was also assessed. Methods: A 4-week within-subject trial with 18 healthy adolescents aged 16 to 18 years was conducted (mean age 16.33, SD 0.57 years). After the baseline week, the participants used the Mobile App for Physical Activity intervention (Fitbit fitness tracker+app), which included a daily personalized PA prompt delivered via a pop-up notification. A paired 1-tailed t test was performed to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Change-point analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of a personalized PA prompt 30 and 60 minutes after prompt delivery. Results: The results showed that the intervention significantly reduced sedentary time in adolescents during the first week of the trial (t17=−1.79; P=.04; bootstrapped P=.02). This trend, although remaining positive, diminished over time. Our findings indicate that the intervention had no effect on metabolic equivalent of task–based MVPA minutes, although the descriptive increase may give reason for further investigation. Although the results suggested no overall change in heart rate–based MVPA minutes, the results from the change-point analyses suggest that the personalized PA prompts significantly increased heart rate per minute during the second week of the study (t16=1.84; P=.04; bootstrapped P=.04). There were no significant increases in participants’ overall step count; however, the personalized PA prompts resulted in a marginally significant increase in step counts per minute in the second week of the study (t17=1.35; P=.09; bootstrapped P=.05). Conclusions: The results of the trial provide preliminary evidence of the benefit of the Mobile App for Physical Activity intervention for modest yet significant reductions in participants’ sedentary time and the beneficial role of personalized PAprompts. These results also provide further evidence of the benefits and relative efficacy of personalized activity suggestions for inclusion in smartphone-based PA interventions. This study provides an example of how to guide the development of smartphone-based mobile health PA interventions for adolescents. [less ▲]

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See detailLess efficient cognitive pain modulation in healthy older adults – the impact of executive functions, chronic stress, and physical activity
Heiler, Ann-Sophie; van der Meulen, Marian UL; Miltner, Wolfgang et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Demographic change and the associated increasing prevalence of chronic pain have contributed to increased research interest in the field of aging. Aging has been associated with less efficient pain ... [more ▼]

Demographic change and the associated increasing prevalence of chronic pain have contributed to increased research interest in the field of aging. Aging has been associated with less efficient pain inhibition through cognitive distraction. As pain modulation and executive functioning mainly involve the prefrontal cortical network, which shows age-related atrophy, we hypothesized an association between deteriorating cognitive modulation of pain in healthy older adults and reduced executive functions. As chronic stress can decrease executive functioning through prefrontal cortical impairment, we expected a negative impact on distraction from pain. In contrast, physical activity can have a stress-buffering effect and positively influences executive functions in older age. Therefore, increased physical activity should lead to better distraction from pain. Healthy young (18 -30 years) and older adults (65+ years) took part in a pain distraction paradigm (N-back) while receiving non-painful and moderately painful electric stimuli. Before, we examined executive functions, including response inhibition (Go/No-Go-task), inhibitory control (Stroop task), and working memory (Sternberg task). Additionally, chronic stress and physical activity were assessed using self-report questionnaires, supported by physiological measurements (heart rate variability). Preliminary results indicate a negative impact of chronic stress on distraction from pain particular in young participants, while physical fitness was related to more successful pain modulation in older adults. Our final results will contribute to a more differentiated view on executive functioning and pain modulation in aging, thereby leading to a better understanding of the impact of aging on non-pharmacological pain treatment and to better adapted pain therapies in this population. [less ▲]

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See detailGastrische Interozeption und gastrische myoelektrische Aktivität bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen und Reizdarmsyndrom
Schulz, André UL; Welsch, Sina; Etringer, Sarah et al

in Heinrichs, Markus; Schönauer, Monika (Eds.) 47. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn (2022)

Viszerale Hypersensitivität wird als zentraler Mechanismus bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED) und Reizdarmsyndrom (RDS) diskutiert, welche beide mit einer erheblichen Einschränkung der ... [more ▼]

Viszerale Hypersensitivität wird als zentraler Mechanismus bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED) und Reizdarmsyndrom (RDS) diskutiert, welche beide mit einer erheblichen Einschränkung der Lebensqualität einhergehen. Bisherige Studien verwenden zumeist invasive Verfahren, die jedoch typischerweise mit der Messung viszeraler Wahrnehmung interferieren. Diese Studie untersucht daher, ob CED und RDS mit einer veränderten Wahrnehmung „natürlicher“ (nicht-invasiver) gastrischer Dehnungen assoziiert sind („Interozeption“). Zwanzig CED-Patienten in Remission (13 Morbus Crohn, 7 Colitis Ulcerosa), 12 RDS-Patienten, sowie 20/12 parallelisierte gesunde Kontrollprobanden absolvierten den 2-stufigen Water-Load-Test, bei dem eine beliebige Menge Wasser getrunken wird, bis die subjektiven Schwelle der Sättigung (Stufe 1) und des Völlegefühls (Stufe 2) erreicht sind. Gastrische Motilität wurde mittels Elektrogastrographie untersucht. CED-Patienten tranken signifikant mehr Wasser bis zur Sättigungsschwelle als RDS-Patienten, während es keine Unterschiede zu den Kontrollgruppen gab. Die getrunkene Wassermenge bis zur Schwelle des Völlegefühls unterschied sich nicht zwischen den Gruppen. Die elektrogastrographischen Muster zeigten ebenfalls keine Gruppenunterschiede, was impliziert, dass es keine Pathologien in der gastrischen Motilität gab. Die getrunkene Wassermenge bis zur Sättigung korrelierte negativ mit darmbezogener Lebensqualität bei CED-Patienten, aber positiv mit emotionalem Wohlbefinden bei RDS-Patienten. Diese Ergebnisse legen eine relative gastrische Hypersensitivität bei RDS und eine relative gastrische Hyposensitivität bei CED nahe, was jeweils mit spezifischen Facetten der wahrgenommenen Lebensqualität assoziiert ist. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher cardiovascular activation, but normal heartbeat-evoked potentials and cardiac interoceptive accuracy in somatoform disorders and major depressive disorder
Schulz, André UL; Dierolf, Angelika UL; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Psychiatry Research Communications (2022), 2(3), 100052

The perception-filter model posits that the generation of medically-unexplained symptoms is associated with (I.) more intense afferent bodily signals, (II.) impaired filter system activity to ... [more ▼]

The perception-filter model posits that the generation of medically-unexplained symptoms is associated with (I.) more intense afferent bodily signals, (II.) impaired filter system activity to differentiate relevant from irrelevant signals, and (III.) altered perception of bodily signals. We tested these assumptions for cardiac perception in patients with somatoform disorders (SFD), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control (HC) individuals. Heart rate (variability; HR/HRV) and blood pressure served as indicators of bodily signals (I.); heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) assessed during a heartbeat counting task (HCT) and a distraction task indicated filter system activity (II.); interoceptive accuracy (IAc) in the HCT was interpreted as an index of perception (III.). All indicators were assessed before and after a socially-evaluated cold pressor stress task (SECPT) and a control intervention. SFD patients (n ​= ​24) showed higher average HR and diastolic blood pressure, as well as lower HRV than HC individuals (n ​= ​22), but there were no differences in HEPs or IAc. Neither were there significant differences between the SFD and the MDD groups (n ​= ​24), nor any stress effect on HEPs or IAc. Our findings suggest that increased intensity of bodily signals (I.) is the only model assumption that could be supported for patients with fully-developed SFD. [less ▲]

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See detailGastric interoception and gastric myoelectrical activity in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder
van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Blechert, Jens et al

in International Journal of Eating Disorders (2021), 54(7), 1106-1115

Objective: Identifying factors that control food intake is crucial to the understanding and treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating. In healthy individuals, stomach distension plays an ... [more ▼]

Objective: Identifying factors that control food intake is crucial to the understanding and treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating. In healthy individuals, stomach distension plays an important role in the development of satiation, but gastric sensations might be overridden in binge eating. The present study investigated the perception of gastric signals (i.e., gastric interoception) and gastric motility in patients experiencing binge eating episodes, i.e. bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: Twenty-nine patients with BN or BED (ED group) and 32 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls (HC group) participated in the study. The onset of satiation and stomach fullness were assessed using a novel 2-step water load test (WLT-II). Gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) was measured by electrogastrography (EGG) before and after ingestion of non-caloric water. Results: Individuals in the ED group drank significantly more water until reporting satiation during the WLT-II. The percentage of normal gastric myoelectrical power was significantly smaller in the ED group compared to HC, and negatively related to the number of objective binge-eating episodes per week in bulimic patients. Power in the bradygastria range was greater in ED than in HC subjects. Discussion: Patients with EDs have a delayed response to satiation compared to HC participants, together with abnormal GMA. Repeated binge eating episodes may induce disturbances to gastric motor function. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative mood increases desire to eat, but not event-related potentials, for food images in bulimia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Georgii, Claudio; Blechert, Jens et al

Scientific Conference (2021, March 12)

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See detailMood-induced changes in the cortical processing of food images in bulimia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Dierolf, Angelika; van Dyck, Zoé UL et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2021), 113

Background Negative mood often triggers binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN). We investigated motivational salience as a possible underlying mechanism using event-related potentials (ERPs) as indicators ... [more ▼]

Background Negative mood often triggers binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN). We investigated motivational salience as a possible underlying mechanism using event-related potentials (ERPs) as indicators of motivated attention allocation (P300) and sustained processing (LPP). Methods We collected ERPs (P300: 350–400 ms; LPP: 600–1000 ms) from 21 women with full-syndrome or partially remitted BN and 21 healthy women (HC), matched for age and body mass index. Idiosyncratic negative and neutral situations were used to induce corresponding mood states (counterbalanced), before participants viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and neutral objects, and provided ratings for pleasantness and desire to eat. Results P300 was larger for foods than objects; LPP was largest for high-calorie foods, followed by low-calorie foods, then objects. The BN group showed an increased desire to eat high-calorie foods under negative mood and stronger mood induction effects on ERPs than the HC group, with generally reduced P300 and a small increase in LPP for high-calorie foods. Effects were limited to circumscribed electrode positions. Exploratory analyses showed clearer effects when comparing high vs. low emotional eaters. Conclusion We argue that negative mood decreased the availability of cognitive resources (decreased P300) in BN, thereby facilitating disinhibition and food cravings (increased desire-to-eat ratings). Increased sustained processing might be linked to emotional eating tendencies rather than BN pathology per se, and reflect approach motivation, conflict, or regulatory processes. Negative mood appears to induce complex changes in food image processing, whose understanding may contribute to the development of tailored interventions in the future. [less ▲]

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