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See detailNeurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are linked, but independent of a-synuclein inclusions, in a seeding/spreading mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Garcia, Pierre UL; Wemheuer, W.; Uriarte, O. et al

in Glia (2022)

A key pathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the transneuronal spreading of α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein that, in PD, forms pathological inclusions. Other ... [more ▼]

A key pathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the transneuronal spreading of α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a presynaptic protein that, in PD, forms pathological inclusions. Other hallmarks of PD include neurodegeneration and microgliosis in susceptible brain regions. Whether it is primarily transneuronal spreading of α-syn particles, inclusion formation, or other mechanisms, such as inflammation, that cause neurodegeneration in PD is unclear. We used a model of spreading of α-syn induced by striatal injection of α-syn preformed fibrils into the mouse striatum to address this question. We performed quantitative analysis for α-syn inclusions, neurodegeneration, and microgliosis in different brain regions, and generated gene expression profiles of the ventral midbrain, at two different timepoints after disease induction. We observed significant neurodegeneration and microgliosis in brain regions not only with, but also without α-syn inclusions. We also observed prominent microgliosis in injured brain regions that did not correlate with neurodegeneration nor with inclusion load. Using longitudinal gene expression profiling, we observed early gene expression changes, linked to neuroinflammation, that preceded neurodegeneration, indicating an active role of microglia in this process. Altered gene pathways overlapped with those typical of PD. Our observations indicate that α-syn inclusion formation is not the major driver in the early phases of PD-like neurodegeneration, but that microglia, activated by diffusible, oligomeric α-syn, may play a key role in this process. Our findings uncover new features of α-syn induced pathologies, in particular microgliosis, and point to the necessity for a broader view of the process of α-syn spreading. [less ▲]

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See detailAn archaeal compound as a driver of Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis
Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Aho, Velma UL; Jäger, Christian UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) exhibit differences in their gut microbiomes compared to healthy individuals. Although differences have most commonly been described in the abundances of bacterial ... [more ▼]

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) exhibit differences in their gut microbiomes compared to healthy individuals. Although differences have most commonly been described in the abundances of bacterial taxa, changes to viral and archaeal populations have also been observed. Mechanistic links between gut microbes and PD pathogenesis remain elusive but could involve molecules that promote α-synuclein aggregation. Here, we show that 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HP) represents a key molecule for the pathogenesis of PD. We observe significantly elevated 2-HP levels in faecal samples from patients with PD or its prodrome, idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD), compared to healthy controls. 2-HP is correlated with the archaeal species Methanobrevibacter smithii and with genes involved in methane metabolism, and it is detectable in isolate cultures of M. smithii. We demonstrate that 2-HP is selectively toxic to transgenic α-synuclein overexpressing yeast and increases α-synuclein aggregation in a yeast model as well as in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived enteric neurons. It also exacerbates PD-related motor symptoms, α-synuclein aggregation, and striatal degeneration when injected intrastriatally in transgenic mice overexpressing human α-synuclein. Our results highlight the effect of an archaeal molecule in relation to the gut-brain axis, which is critical for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailA new synuclein-transgenic mouse model for early Parkinson's reveals molecular features of preclinical disease
Hendrickx, Diana M.; Garcia, Pierre; Ashrafi, Amer et al

in Molecular Neurobiology (2020), 58

Understanding Parkinson’s disease (PD) in particular in its earliest phases, is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, human brain samples are collected post- mortem, reflecting mainly end stage ... [more ▼]

Understanding Parkinson’s disease (PD) in particular in its earliest phases, is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, human brain samples are collected post- mortem, reflecting mainly end stage disease. Because brain samples of mouse models can be collected at any stage of the disease process, they are useful to investigate PD progression. Here, we compare ventral midbrain transcriptomics profiles from α- synuclein transgenic mice with a progressive, early PD-like striatal neurodegeneration across different ages using pathway, gene set and network analysis methods. Our study uncovers statistically significant altered genes across ages and between genotypes with known, suspected, or unknown function in PD pathogenesis and key pathways associated with disease progression. Among those are genotype-dependent alterations associated with synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission, as well as mitochondria-related genes and dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Age-dependent changes were among others observed in neuronal and synaptic activity, calcium homeostasis, and membrane receptor signaling pathways, many of which linked to G- protein coupled receptors. Most importantly, most changes occurred before neurodegeneration was detected in this model, which points to a sequence of gene expression events that may be relevant for disease initiation and progression. It is tempting to speculate that molecular changes similar to those changes observed in our model happen in midbrain dopaminergic neurons before they start to degenerate. In other words, we believe we have uncovered molecular changes that accompany the progression from preclinical to early PD. [less ▲]

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