Results 1-20 of 205.
((uid:50002348))

Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailForecasting of a complex microbial community using meta-omics
Delogu, Francesco UL; Kunath, Benoît UL; Queirós, P. M. et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Microbial communities are complex assemblages whose dynamics are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. A major challenge concerns correctly forecasting the community behaviour in the future. In this ... [more ▼]

Microbial communities are complex assemblages whose dynamics are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. A major challenge concerns correctly forecasting the community behaviour in the future. In this context, communities in biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTPs) represent excellent model systems, because forecasting them is required to ultimately control and operate the plants in a sustainable manner. Here, we forecast the microbial community from the water-air interface of the anaerobic tank of a BWWTP via longitudinal meta-omics (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics) data covering 14 months at weekly intervals. We extracted all the available time-dependent information, summarised it in 17 temporal signals (explaining 91.1 of the temporal variance) and linked them over time to rebuild the sequence of ecological phenomena behind the community dynamics. We forecasted the signals over the following five years and tested the predictions with 21 extra samples. We were able to correctly forecast five signals accounting for 22.5 of the time-dependent information in the system and generate mechanistic predictions on the ecological events in the community (e.g. a predation cycle involving bacteria, viruses and amoebas). Through the forecasting of the 17 signals and the environmental variables readings we reconstructed the gene abundance and expression for the following 5 years, showing a nearly perfect trend prediction (coefficient of determination >= 0.97) for the first 2 years. The study demonstrates the maturity of microbial ecology to forecast composition and gene expression of open microbial ecosystems using year-spanning interactions between community cycles and environmental parameters. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDelineation of functionally essential protein regions for 242 neurodevelopmental genes
Iqbal, Sumaiya; Brünger, Tobias; Pérez-Palma, Eduardo et al

in Brain (2022), awac381

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including severe pediatric epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities are heterogeneous conditions in which clinical genetic testing can often identify a ... [more ▼]

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including severe pediatric epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities are heterogeneous conditions in which clinical genetic testing can often identify a pathogenic variant. For many of them, genetic therapies will be tested in this or the coming years in clinical trials. In contrast to first-generation symptomatic treatments, the new disease-modifying precision medicines require a genetic test-informed diagnosis before a patient can be enrolled in a clinical trial. However, even in 2022, most identified genetic variants in NDD genes are ‘Variants of Uncertain Significance’. To safely enroll patients in precision medicine clinical trials, it is important to increase our knowledge about which regions in NDD-associated proteins can ‘tolerate’ missense variants and which ones are ‘essential’ and will cause a NDD when mutated. In addition, knowledge about functionally indispensable regions in the three-dimensional (3D) structure context of proteins can also provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease variants. We developed a novel consensus approach that overlays evolutionary, and population based genomic scores to identify 3D essential sites (Essential3D) on protein structures. After extensive benchmarking of AlphaFold predicted and experimentally solved protein structures, we generated the currently largest expert curated protein structure set for 242 NDDs and identified 14,377 Essential3D sites across 189 gene disorders associated proteins. We demonstrate that the consensus annotation of Essential3D sites improves prioritization of disease mutations over single annotations. The identified Essential3D sites were enriched for functional features such as intermembrane regions or active sites and discovered key inter-molecule interactions in protein complexes that were otherwise not annotated. Using the currently largest autism, developmental disorders, and epilepsies exome sequencing studies including >360,000 NDD patients and population controls, we found that missense variants at Essential3D sites are 8-fold enriched in patients. In summary, we developed a comprehensive protein structure set for 242 neurodevelopmental disorders and identified 14,377 Essential3D sites in these. All data are available at https://es-ndd.broadinstitute.org for interactive visual inspection to enhance variant interpretation and development of mechanistic hypotheses for 242 NDDs genes. The provided resources will enhance clinical variant interpretation and in silico drug target development for NDD-associated genes and encoded proteins. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailbinny: an automated binning algorithm to recover high-quality genomes from complex metagenomic datasets
Hickl, Oskar UL; Queirós, Pedro; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in Briefings in Bioinformatics (2022)

The reconstruction of genomes is a critical step in genome-resolved metagenomics and for multi-omic data integration from microbial communities. Here, we present binny, a binning tool that produces high ... [more ▼]

The reconstruction of genomes is a critical step in genome-resolved metagenomics and for multi-omic data integration from microbial communities. Here, we present binny, a binning tool that produces high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG) from both contiguous and highly fragmented genomes. Based on established metrics, binny outperforms or is highly competitive with commonly used and state-of-the-art binning methods and finds unique genomes that could not be detected by other methods. binny uses k-mer-composition and coverage by metagenomic reads for iterative, nonlinear dimension reduction of genomic signatures as well as subsequent automated contig clustering with cluster assessment using lineage-specific marker gene sets. When compared with seven widely used binning algorithms, binny provides substantial amounts of uniquely identified MAGs and almost always recovers the most near-complete (⁠>95% pure, >90% complete) and high-quality (⁠>90% pure, >70% complete) genomes from simulated datasets from the Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation initiative, as well as substantially more high-quality draft genomes, as defined by the Minimum Information about a Metagenome-Assembled Genome standard, from a real-world benchmark comprised of metagenomes from various environments than any other tested method. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMobilome-driven segregation of the resistome in biological wastewater treatment
de Nies, Laura UL; Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Kunath, Benoît UL et al

in eLife (2022), 11

Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) are considered to be hotspots of evolution and subsequent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) promote the mobilization ... [more ▼]

Biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) are considered to be hotspots of evolution and subsequent spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) promote the mobilization and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and are thereby critical mediators of AMR within the BWWTP microbial community. At present, it is unclear whether specific AMR categories are differentially disseminated via bacteriophages (phages) or plasmids. To understand the segregation of AMR in relation to MGEs, we analyzed meta-omic (metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic) data systematically collected over 1.5 years from a BWWTP. Our results showed a core group of fifteen AMR categories which were found across all timepoints. Some of these AMR categories were disseminated exclusively (bacitracin) or primarily (aminoglycoside, MLS and sulfonamide) via plasmids or phages (fosfomycin and peptide), whereas others were disseminated equally by both MGEs. Combined and timepoint-specific analyses of gene, transcript and protein abundances further demonstrated that aminoglycoside, bacitracin and sulfonamide resistance genes were expressed more by plasmids, in contrast to fosfomycin and peptide AMR expression by phages, thereby validating our genomic findings. In the analyzed communities, the dominant taxon Candidatus Microthrix parvicella was a major contributor to several AMR categories whereby its plasmids primarily mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Importantly, we also found AMR associated with ESKAPEE pathogens within the BWWTP, for which MGEs also contributed differentially to the dissemination of ARGs. Collectively our findings pave the way towards understanding the segmentation of AMR within MGEs, thereby shedding new light on resistome populations and their mediators, essential elements that are of immediate relevance to human health. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGenotype-phenotype correlations in SCN8A-related disorders reveal prognostic and therapeutic implications
Johannesen, Katrine M.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Koko, Mahmoud et al

in Brain (2022)

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of ... [more ▼]

We report detailed functional analyses and genotype-phenotype correlations in 392 individuals carrying disease-causing variants in SCN8A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.6, with the aim of describing clinical phenotypes related to functional effects. Six different clinical subgroups could be identified: 1) Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) (n = 15, normal cognition, treatable seizures), 2) intermediate epilepsy (n = 33, mild ID, partially pharmaco-responsive), 3) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE, n = 177, severe ID, majority pharmaco-resistant), 4) generalized epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID, frequently with absence seizures), 5) unclassifiable epilepsy (n = 127), and 6) neurodevelopmental disorder without epilepsy (n = 20, mild to moderate ID). Groups 1–3 presented with focal or multifocal seizures (median age of onset: four months) and focal epileptiform discharges, whereas the onset of seizures in group 4 was later (median: 42 months) with generalized epileptiform discharges. We performed functional studies expressing missense variants in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells and primary neuronal cultures using recombinant tetrodotoxin-insensitive human NaV1.6 channels and whole-cell patch-clamping. Two variants causing DEE showed a strong gain-of-function (GOF, hyperpolarising shift of steady-state activation, strongly increased neuronal firing rate), and one variant causing BFIE or intermediate epilepsy showed a mild GOF (defective fast inactivation, less increased firing). In contrast, all three variants causing generalized epilepsy induced a loss-of-function (LOF, reduced current amplitudes, depolarising shift of steady-state activation, reduced neuronal firing). Including previous studies, functional effects were known for 170 individuals. All 136 individuals carrying a functionally tested GOF variant had either focal (97, groups 1–3), or unclassifiable epilepsy (39), whereas 34 with a LOF variant had either generalized (14), no (11) or unclassifiable (6) epilepsy; only three had DEE. Computational modeling in the GOF group revealed a significant correlation between the severity of the electrophysiological and clinical phenotypes. GOF variant carriers responded significantly better to sodium channel blockers (SCBs) than to other anti-seizure medications, and the same applied for all individuals of groups 1–3.In conclusion, our data reveal clear genotype-phenotype correlations between age at seizure onset, type of epilepsy and gain- or loss-of-function effects of SCN8A variants. Generalized epilepsy with absence seizures is the main epilepsy phenotype of LOF variant carriers and the extent of the electrophysiological dysfunction of the GOF variants is a main determinant of the severity of the clinical phenotype in focal epilepsies. Our pharmacological data indicate that SCBs present a treatment option in SCN8A-related focal epilepsy with onset in the first year of life. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLoss-of-function variants in the KCNQ5 gene are implicated in genetic generalized epilepsies
Krüger, Johanna; Schubert, Julian; Kegele, Josua et al

in eBioMedicine (2022), 84

Summary Background De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage-gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described to cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability ... [more ▼]

Summary Background De novo missense variants in KCNQ5, encoding the voltage-gated K+ channel KV7.5, have been described to cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or intellectual disability (ID). We set out to identify disease-related KCNQ5 variants in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) and their underlying mechanisms. Methods 1292 families with GGE were studied by next-generation sequencing. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biotinylation and phospholipid overlay assays were performed in mammalian cells combined with homology modelling. Findings We identified three deleterious heterozygous missense variants, one truncation and one splice site alteration in five independent families with GGE with predominant absence seizures; two variants were also associated with mild to moderate ID. All missense variants displayed a strongly decreased current density indicating a loss-of-function (LOF). When mutant channels were co-expressed with wild-type (WT) KV7.5 or KV7.5 and KV7.3 channels, three variants also revealed a significant dominant-negative effect on WT channels. Other gating parameters were unchanged. Biotinylation assays indicated a normal surface expression of the variants. The R359C variant altered PI(4,5)P2-interaction. Interpretation Our study identified deleterious KCNQ5 variants in GGE, partially combined with mild to moderate ID. The disease mechanism is a LOF partially with dominant-negative effects through functional deficits. LOF of KV7.5 channels will reduce the M-current, likely resulting in increased excitability of KV7.5-expressing neurons. Further studies on network level are necessary to understand which circuits are affected and how this induces generalized seizures. Funding DFG/FNR Research Unit FOR-2715 (Germany/Luxemburg), BMBF rare disease network Treat-ION (Germany), foundation ‘no epilep’ (Germany). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGenetic stratification of motor and QoL outcomes in Parkinson's disease in the EARLYSTIM study
Weiss, Daniel; Landoulsi, Zied UL; May, Patrick UL et al

in Parkinsonism and Related Disorders (2022)

Purpose The decision for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical predictors. Whether genetic variables could predict favourable or unfavourable ... [more ▼]

Purpose The decision for subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on clinical predictors. Whether genetic variables could predict favourable or unfavourable decisions is under investigation. Objective First, we aimed to reproduce the previous observation that SNCA rs356220 was associated with favourable STN-DBS motor response. In additional exploratory analyses, we studied if other PD risk and progression variants from the latest GWAS are associated with therapeutic outcome. Further, we evaluated the predictive value of polygenic risk scores. Methods We comprehensively genotyped patients from the EarlyStim cohort using NeuroChip, and assessed the clinico-genetic associations with longitudinal outcome parameters. Results The SNCA rs356220 variant did not predict UPDRS III outcomes. However, it was associated with quality of life improvement in secondary analyses. Several polymorphisms from previously identified GWAS hits predicted motor or quality of life outcomes in DBS patients. Polygenic risk scores did not predict any outcome parameter. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that different common genetic markers are associated with favourable quality of life outcomes of STN-DBS in PD. These findings can be the basis for further validation in larger and independent cohorts. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBenchmarking of univariate pleiotropy detection methods applied to epilepsy
Adesoji, Oluyomi M.; Schulz, Herbert; May, Patrick UL et al

in Human Mutation (2022), 43(9), 1314-1332

AbstractPleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon that may increase insight into the etiology of biological and disease traits. Since genome-wide association studies frequently provide information on a single ... [more ▼]

AbstractPleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon that may increase insight into the etiology of biological and disease traits. Since genome-wide association studies frequently provide information on a single trait only, only univariate pleiotropy detection methods are applicable, with yet unknown comparative performance. Here, we compared five such methods with respect to their ability to detect pleiotropy, including meta-analysis, ASSET, cFDR, CPBayes, and PLACO, by performing extended computer simulations that varied the underlying etiological model for pleiotropy for a pair of traits, including the number of causal variants, degree of traits’ overlap, effect sizes as well as trait prevalence, and varying sample sizes. Our results indicate that ASSET provides the best trade-off between power and protection against false positives. We then applied ASSET to a previously published ILAE consortium dataset on complex epilepsies, comprising genetic generalized epilepsy and focal epilepsy cases and corresponding controls. We identified a novel candidate locus at 17q21.32 and confirmed locus 2q24.3, previously identified to act pleiotropically on both epilepsy subtypes by a mega-analysis. Functional annotation, tissue-specific expression and regulatory function analysis as well as Bayesian co-localization analysis corroborated this result, rendering 17q21.32 a worthwhile candidate for follow-up studies on pleiotropy in epilepsies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConserved patterns across ion channels correlate with variant pathogenicity and clinical phenotypes
Brünger, Tobias; Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; Montanucci, Ludovica et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2022)

Clinically identified genetic variants in ion channels can be benign or cause disease by increasing or decreasing the protein function. Consequently, therapeutic decision-making is challenging without ... [more ▼]

Clinically identified genetic variants in ion channels can be benign or cause disease by increasing or decreasing the protein function. Consequently, therapeutic decision-making is challenging without molecular testing of each variant. Our biophysical knowledge of ion channel structures and function is just emerging, and it is currently not well understood which amino acid residues cause disease when mutated.We sought to systematically identify biological properties associated with variant pathogenicity across all major voltage and ligand-gated ion channel families. We collected and curated 3,049 pathogenic variants from hundreds of neurodevelopmental and other disorders and 12,546 population variants for 30 ion channel or channel subunits for which a high-quality protein structure was available. Using a wide range of bioinformatics approaches, we computed 163 structural features and tested them for pathogenic variant enrichment. We developed a novel 3D spatial distance scoring approach that enables comparisons of pathogenic and population variant distribution across protein structures.We discovered and independently replicated that several pore residue properties and proximity to the pore axis were most significantly enriched for pathogenic variants compared to population variants. Using our 3D scoring approach, we showed that the strongest pathogenic variant enrichment was observed for pore-lining residues and alpha-helix residues within 5Å distance from the pore axis center and not involved in gating. Within the subset of residues located at the pore, the hydrophobicity of the pore was the feature most strongly associated with variant pathogenicity. We also found an association between the identified properties and both clinical phenotypes and functional in vitro assays for voltage-gated sodium channels (SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B) encoding genes. In an independent expert-curated dataset of 1,422 neurodevelopmental disorder pathogenic patient variants and 679 electrophysiological experiments, we show that pore axis distance is associated with seizure age of onset and cognitive performance as well as differential gain vs. loss-of-channel function.In summary, we identified biological properties associated with ion-channel malfunction and show that these are correlated with in vitro functional read-outs and clinical phenotypes in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our results suggest that clinical decision support algorithms that predict variant pathogenicity and function are feasible in the future. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvaluation of SORL1 in Lewy Body Dementia Identifies No Significant Associations
Ray, Anindidta; Reho, Paolo; Shah, Zalak et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, fluctuating mental status, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior ... [more ▼]

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, fluctuating mental status, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. LBD lies along a spectrum between Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and recent evidence suggests that the genetic architectures of these age-related syndromes are intersecting. In summary, we did not find a significant enrichment of rare, damaging SORL1 mutations in our well-powered LBD cohort. Our data set is, to our knowledge, the largest genome-sequence cohort in this understudied disease. Although it is possible that an association was missed due to allelic heterogeneity, our findings indicate that caution should be exercised when interpreting SORL1 mutations in LBD, as the current evidence does not conclusively support an association with disease risk. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detailEarly-to-mid idiopathic Parkinson’s disease shows a more cytotoxic but declined CD8-regulatory peripheral immune profile
Capelle, Christophe; Cire, Séverine; Hansen, Maxime UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Brain neuroinflammation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. However, the involvement of the peripheral immune system has not been ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Brain neuroinflammation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. However, the involvement of the peripheral immune system has not been systematically investigated. Here we analyzed >700 combinatorial immunological features in fresh blood of 28 early-to-mid-stage PD patients and 24 matched controls. We found an enhanced cytotoxic immune profile in idiopathic PD patients (iPD), with a higher frequency of terminally-differentiated effector CD8 T (TEMRA), late-differentiated CD8+ natural killer T cells and neutrophils. This immune profile was intensified by elevated serum granzyme A, reduced percentages of CD8+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells with immunosuppressive or tolerance-inducing functions. The frequency of CD8 TEMRA was negatively correlated with disease duration, suggesting a contribution to PD pathogenesis. Our work provides a comprehensive map on disturbed peripheral adaptive and innate immune cells in early-to-mid iPD, proposing easily-accessible candidates for early diagnosis and treatments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGRN Mutations Are Associated with Lewy Body Dementia
Reho, Paolo; Koga, Shunsuke; Shah, Zalak et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

ABSTRACT Background Loss-of-function mutations in GRN are a cause of familial frontotemporal dementia, and common variants within the gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background Loss-of-function mutations in GRN are a cause of familial frontotemporal dementia, and common variants within the gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Although TDP-43-positive inclusions are characteristic of GRN-related neurodegeneration, Lewy body copathology has also been observed in many GRN mutation carriers. Objective The objective of this study was to assess a Lewy body dementia (LBD) case–control cohort for pathogenic variants in GRN and to test whether there is an enrichment of damaging mutations among patients with LBD. Methods We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data generated for 2591 European-ancestry LBD cases and 4032 neurologically healthy control subjects to identify disease-causing mutations in GRN. Results We identified six heterozygous exonic GRN mutations in seven study participants (cases: n = 6; control subjects: n = 1). Each variant was predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic. We found significant enrichment of GRN loss-of-function mutations in patients with LBD compared with control subjects (Optimized Sequence Kernel Association Test P = 0.0162). Immunohistochemistry in three definite LBD cases demonstrated Lewy body pathology and TDP-43-positive neuronal inclusions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that deleterious GRN mutations are a rare cause of familial LBD. © 2022 International Parkinson Movement Disorder Society. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Interaction between HLA-DRB1 and Smoking in Parkinson's Disease Revisited
Domenighetti, Cloé; Douillard, Venceslas; Sugier, Pierre-Emmanuel et al

in Movement Disorders (2022)

Abstract Background Two studies that examined the interaction between HLA-DRB1 and smoking in Parkinson's disease (PD) yielded findings in opposite directions. Objective To perform a large-scale ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background Two studies that examined the interaction between HLA-DRB1 and smoking in Parkinson's disease (PD) yielded findings in opposite directions. Objective To perform a large-scale independent replication of the HLA-DRB1 × smoking interaction. Methods We genotyped 182 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with smoking initiation in 12 424 cases and 9480 controls to perform a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis in strata defined by HLA-DRB1. Results At the amino acid level, a valine at position 11 (V11) in HLA-DRB1 displayed the strongest association with PD. MR showed an inverse association between genetically predicted smoking initiation and PD only in absence of V11 (odds ratio, 0.74, 95 confidence interval, 0.59–0.93, PInteraction = 0.028). In silico predictions of the influence of V11 and smoking-induced modifications of α-synuclein on binding affinity showed findings consistent with this interaction pattern. Conclusions Despite being one of the most robust findings in PD research, the mechanisms underlying the inverse association between smoking and PD remain unknown. Our findings may help better understand this association. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe role of common genetic variation in presumed monogenic epilepsies
Campbell, Ciarán; Leu, Costin; Feng, Yen-Chen Anne et al

in eBioMedicine (2022), 81

Summary: Background The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of epilepsies which co-present with developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). DEEs usually ... [more ▼]

Summary: Background The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of epilepsies which co-present with developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). DEEs usually occur in people without a family history of epilepsy and have emerged as primarily monogenic, with damaging rare mutations found in 50% of patients. Little is known about the genetic architecture of patients with DEEs in whom no pathogenic variant is identified. Polygenic risk scoring (PRS) is a method that measures a person's common genetic burden for a trait or condition. Here, we used PRS to test whether genetic burden for epilepsy is relevant in individuals with DEEs, and other forms of epilepsy with ID. Methods: Genetic data on 2,759 cases with DEEs, or epilepsy with ID presumed to have a monogenic basis, and 447,760 population-matched controls were analysed. We compared PRS for ‘all epilepsy’, ‘focal epilepsy’, and ‘genetic generalised epilepsy’ (GGE) between cases and controls. We performed pairwise comparisons between cases stratified for identifiable rare deleterious genetic variants and controls. Findings 0.0002) relative to controls, which explain between 0.08% and 3.3% of phenotypic variance. PRS was increased in cases both with and without an identified deleterious variant of major effect, and there was no significant difference in PRS between the two groups. Interpretation: We provide evidence that common genetic variation contributes to the aetiology of DEEs and other forms of epilepsy with ID, even when there is a known pathogenic variant of major effect. These results provide insight into the genetic underpinnings of the severe epilepsies and warrant a shift in our understanding of the aetiology of the DEEs as complex, rather than monogenic, disorders. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 UL)
Full Text
See detailGenome-wide meta-analysis of over 29,000 people with epilepsy reveals 26 loci and subtype-specific genetic architecture
International League Against Epilepsy Consortium on Complex Epilepsies Krause, Roland; Landoulsi, Zied UL; May, Patrick UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Epilepsy is a highly heritable disorder affecting over 50 million people worldwide, of which about one-third are resistant to current treatments. Here, we report a trans-ethnic GWAS including 29,944 cases ... [more ▼]

Epilepsy is a highly heritable disorder affecting over 50 million people worldwide, of which about one-third are resistant to current treatments. Here, we report a trans-ethnic GWAS including 29,944 cases, stratified into three broad- and seven sub-types of epilepsy, and 52,538 controls. We identify 26 genome-wide significant loci, 19 of which are specific to genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). We implicate 29 likely causal genes underlying these 26 loci. SNP-based heritability analyses show that common variants substantially close the missing heritability gap for GGE. Subtype analysis revealed markedly different genetic architectures between focal and generalized epilepsies. Gene-set analysis of GGE signals implicate synaptic processes in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the brain. Prioritized candidate genes overlap with monogenic epilepsy genes and with targets of current anti-seizure medications. Finally, we leverage our results to identify alternate drugs with predicted efficacy if repurposed for epilepsy treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGenome-wide Association and Meta-analysis of Age-at-Onset in Parkinson Disease: Evidence From COURAGE-PD Consortium 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200699
Grover, Sandeep; Ashwin, Ashok Kumar Sreelatha; Pihlstrom, Lasse et al

in Neurology (2022)

Background and Objectives: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature concerning genetic determinants of the age of onset (AAO) of Parkinson\textquoterights disease (PD), which could be ... [more ▼]

Background and Objectives: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the literature concerning genetic determinants of the age of onset (AAO) of Parkinson\textquoterights disease (PD), which could be attributed to lack of well-powered replication cohorts. The previous largest GWAS identified SNCA and TMEM175 loci on chromosome (Chr) 4 with a significant influence on AAO of PD, these have not been independently replicated. The present study aims to conduct a meta-analysis of GWAS of PD AAO and validate previously observed findings in worldwide populations.Methods: A meta-analysis was performed on PD AAO GWAS of 30 populations of predominantly European ancestry from the Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson\textquoterights Disease (COURAGE-PD) consortium. This was followed up by combining our study with the largest publicly available European ancestry dataset compiled by the International Parkinson disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC).Results: The COURAGE-PD included a cohort of 8,535 patients with PD (91.9\%: Europeans, 9.1\%: East-Asians). The average AAO in the COURAGE-PD dataset was 58.9 years (SD=11.6), with an under-representation of females (40.2\%). The heritability estimate for AAO in COURAGE-PD was 0.083 (SE=0.057). None of the loci reached genome-wide significance (P\<5x10-8). Nevertheless, the COURAGE-PD dataset confirmed the role of the previously published TMEM175 variant as genetic determinant of AAO of PD with Bonferroni-corrected nominal levels of significance (P\<0.025): (rs34311866:β(SE)COURAGE=0.477(0.203), PCOURAGE=0.0185). The subsequent meta-analysis of COURAGE-PD and IPDGC datasets (Ntotal=25,950) led to the identification of two genome-wide significant association signals on Chr 4, including the previously reported SNCA locus (rs983361:β(SE)COURAGE+IPDGC=0.720(0.122), PCOURAGE+IPDGC=3.13x10-9) and a novel BST1 locus (rs4698412:β(SE)COURAGE+IPDGC=-0.526(0.096), PCOURAGE+IPDGC=4.41x10-8).Discussion: Our study further refines the genetic architecture of Chr 4 underlying the AAO of the PD phenotype through the identification of BST1 as a novel AAO PD locus. These findings open a new direction for the development of treatments to delay the onset of PD. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPolygenic Resilience Modulates the Penetrance of Parkinson Disease Genetic Risk Factors
Liu, Hui; Dehestani, Mohammad; Blauwendraat, Cornelis et al

in Annals of Neurology (2022)

Objective: The aim of the current study is to understand why some individuals avoid developing Parkinson disease (PD) despite being at relatively high genetic risk, using the largest datasets of ... [more ▼]

Objective: The aim of the current study is to understand why some individuals avoid developing Parkinson disease (PD) despite being at relatively high genetic risk, using the largest datasets of individual-level genetic data available. Methods: We calculated polygenic risk score to identify controls and matched PD cases with the highest burden of genetic risk for PD in the discovery cohort (International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium, 7,204 PD cases and 9,412 controls) and validation cohorts (Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson's Disease, 8,968 cases and 7,598 controls; UK Biobank, 2,639 PD cases and 14,301 controls; Accelerating Medicines Partnership–Parkinson's Disease Initiative, 2,248 cases and 2,817 controls). A genome-wide association study meta-analysis was performed on these individuals to understand genetic variation associated with resistance to disease. We further constructed a polygenic resilience score, and performed multimarker analysis of genomic annotation (MAGMA) gene-based analyses and functional enrichment analyses. Results: A higher polygenic resilience score was associated with a lower risk for PD (β = −0.054, standard error [SE] = 0.022, p = 0.013). Although no single locus reached genome-wide significance, MAGMA gene-based analyses nominated TBCA as a putative gene. Furthermore, we estimated the narrow-sense heritability associated with resilience to PD (h2 = 0.081, SE = 0.035, p = 0.0003). Subsequent functional enrichment analysis highlighted histone methylation as a potential pathway harboring resilience alleles that could mitigate the effects of PD risk loci. Interpretation: The present study represents a novel and comprehensive assessment of heritable genetic variation contributing to PD resistance. We show that a genetic resilience score can modify the penetrance of PD genetic risk factors and therefore protect individuals carrying a high-risk genetic burden from developing PD. ANN NEUROL 2022 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBenchmarking Low-Frequency Variant Calling With Long-Read Data on Mitochondrial DNA
Lüth, Theresa; Schaake, Susen; Grünewald, Anne UL et al

in Frontiers in Genetics (2022), 13

Background: Sequencing quality has improved over the last decade for long-reads, allowing for more accurate detection of somatic low-frequency variants. In this study, we used mixtures of mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

Background: Sequencing quality has improved over the last decade for long-reads, allowing for more accurate detection of somatic low-frequency variants. In this study, we used mixtures of mitochondrial samples with different haplogroups (i.e., a specific set of mitochondrial variants) to investigate the applicability of nanopore sequencing for low-frequency single nucleotide variant detection.Methods: We investigated the impact of base-calling, alignment/mapping, quality control steps, and variant calling by comparing the results to a previously derived short-read gold standard generated on the Illumina NextSeq. For nanopore sequencing, six mixtures of four different haplotypes were prepared, allowing us to reliably check for expected variants at the predefined 5%, 2%, and 1% mixture levels. We used two different versions of Guppy for base-calling, two aligners (i.e., Minimap2 and Ngmlr), and three variant callers (i.e., Mutserve2, Freebayes, and Nanopanel2) to compare low-frequency variants. We used F<sub>1</sub> score measurements to assess the performance of variant calling.Results: We observed a mean read length of 11 kb and a mean overall read quality of 15. Ngmlr showed not only higher F<sub>1</sub> scores but also higher allele frequencies (AF) of false-positive calls across the mixtures (mean F<sub>1</sub> score = 0.83; false-positive allele frequencies < 0.17) compared to Minimap2 (mean F<sub>1</sub> score = 0.82; false-positive AF < 0.06). Mutserve2 had the highest F<sub>1</sub> scores (5% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.99, 2% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.54, and 1% level: F<sub>1</sub> score >0.70) across all callers and mixture levels.Conclusion: We here present the benchmarking for low-frequency variant calling with nanopore sequencing by identifying current limitations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (2 UL)
Full Text
See detailMitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy distinguishes disease manifestation in PINK1- and PRKN-linked Parkinson's disease 2022.05.17.22275087
Trinh, Joanne; Hicks, Andrew A.; Koenig, Inke R. et al

E-print/Working paper (2022)

Biallelic mutations in PINK1 and PRKN cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Though some studies suggest that PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutations may not contribute to risk, deep phenotyping ... [more ▼]

Biallelic mutations in PINK1 and PRKN cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Though some studies suggest that PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutations may not contribute to risk, deep phenotyping assessment showed that PINK1 or PRKN monoallelic pathogenic variants were at a significantly higher rate in PD compared to controls. Given the established role of PINK1 and Parkin in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, we explored mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and inflammation as potential disease modifiers in carriers of mutations in these genes. MtDNA integrity, global gene expression and serum cytokine levels were investigated in a large collection of biallelic (n=84) and monoallelic (n=170) carriers of PINK1/PRKN mutations, iPD patients (n=67) and controls (n=90). Affected and unaffected PINK1/PRKN monoallelic mutation carriers can be distinguished by heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load (AUC=0.83, CI:0.74-0.93). Biallelic PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers harbor more heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in blood (p=0.0006, Z=3.63) compared to monoallelic mutation carriers. This enrichment was confirmed in iPSC-derived and postmortem midbrain neurons from biallelic PRKN-PD patients. Lastly, the heteroplasmic mtDNA variant load was found to correlate with IL6 levels in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers (r=0.57, p=0.0074). PINK1/PRKN mutations predispose individuals to mtDNA variant accumulation in a dose- and disease-dependent manner. MtDNA variant load over time is a potential marker of disease manifestation in PINK1/PRKN mutation carriers.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThe authors wish to thank the many patients and their families who volunteered, and the efforts of the many clinical teams involved. Funding has been obtained from the German Research Foundation (ProtectMove; FOR 2488, GR 3731/5-1; SE 2608/2-1; KO 2250/7-1), the Luxembourg National Research Fund in the ATTRACT (Model-IPD, FNR9631103), NCER-PD (FNR11264123) and INTER programmes (ProtectMove, FNR11250962; MiRisk-PD, C17/BM/11676395, NB 4328/2-1), the BMBF (MitoPD), the Hermann and Lilly Schilling Foundation, the European Community (SysMedPD), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Peter and Traudl Engelhorn Foundation. Initial studies in Tunisia on familial parkinsonism were in collaboration with Lefkos Middleton, Rachel Gibson, and the GlaxoSmithKline PD Programme Team (2002-2005). We would like to thank Dr Helen Tuppen from the Welcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Newcastle University, UK for providing us with the plasmid p7D1. Moreover, this project was supported by the high throughput/high content screening platform and HPC facility at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, and the University of Luxembourg.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:University of Lubeck Ethics CommitteeI confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesAll data produced in the present study are available upon reasonable request to the authors [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailmGlu3 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as a Target for the Treatment of Absence Epilepsy: Preclinical and Human Genetics Data
Celli, Roberta; Striano, Pasquale; Citraro, Rita et al

in Current Neuropharmacology (2022)

Abstract: Background: Previous studies suggest that different metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes are potential drug targets for treating absence epilepsy. However, no information is available ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Background: Previous studies suggest that different metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes are potential drug targets for treating absence epilepsy. However, no information is available on mGlu3 receptors. Objective: To examine whether (i) changes of mGlu3 receptor expression/signaling are found in the somatosensory cortex and thalamus of WAG/Rij rats developing spontaneous absence seizures; (ii) selective activation of mGlu3 receptors with LY2794193 affects the number and duration of spike- wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats; and (iii) a genetic variant of GRM3 (encoding the mGlu3 receptor) is associated with absence epilepsy. Methods: Animals: immunoblot analysis of mGlu3 receptors, GAT-1, GLAST, and GLT-1; real- time PCR analysis of mGlu3 mRNA levels; assessment of mGlu3 receptor signaling; EEG analysis of SWDs; assessment of depressive-like behavior. Humans: search for GRM3 and GRM5 missense variants in 196 patients with absence epilepsy or other Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (IGE)/ Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) and 125,748 controls. Results: mGlu3 protein levels and mGlu3-mediated inhibition of cAMP formation were reduced in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex of pre-symptomatic (25-27 days old) and symptomatic (6-7 months old) WAG/Rij rats compared to age-matched controls. Treatment with LY2794193 (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced absence seizures and depressive-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats. LY2794193 also enhanced GAT1, GLAST, and GLT-1 protein levels in the thalamus and somatosensory cortex. GRM3 and GRM5 gene variants did not differ between epileptic patients and controls. Conclusion: We suggest that mGlu3 receptors modulate the activity of the cortico-thalamo-cortical circuit underlying SWDs and that selective mGlu3 receptor agonists are promising candidate drugs for absence epilepsy treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 UL)