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See detailPractitioners’ language-supporting strategies in multilingual ECE institutions in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal (2021), 29(3),

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction ... [more ▼]

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction-promoting and language-modelling strategies for language development. In addition, teachers in bilingual contexts have been translanguaging to foster language learning. To this day, few research studies have examined these strategies in combination and their deployment in multilingual contexts. The present study takes place in multilingual Luxembourg where 64% of the four-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish. It focuses on three practitioners who took part in a professional development course on multilingual pedagogies and presents their language-supporting strategies as well as their translanguaging practices. The findings show that the practitioners use a range of strategies in Luxembourgish, French and home languages, in daily conversations, routines and language and literacy activities to address children’s linguistic needs. [less ▲]

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See detailPractices and experiences of distant education during the COVID-19 pandemic: The perspectives of six- to sixteen-year-olds from three high-income countries
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha et al

in International Journal of Educational Research Open (2021), 2(2), 11

The paper explores children’s perspectives of distance education, their learning experiences and school satisfac- tion in Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic ... [more ▼]

The paper explores children’s perspectives of distance education, their learning experiences and school satisfac- tion in Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data stem from an online questionnaire completed by 1773 primary and secondary school children aged 6–16. While the paper uses quantitative and qualitative data, it aligns with the qualitative research tradition and predominantly uses an inductive approach. The findings show that teachers offered varied types of distance education and that parents supported children. The children’s contact time with teachers and their time spent on schoolwork var- ied within and between countries. Their school satisfaction dropped in the three countries. The paper calls for training and development on distant education. [less ▲]

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: a paradigm shift?
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

in International Journal of Multilingualism (2021)

This paper is based in Luxembourg where a multilingual programme has been implemented in early childhood education in 2017. The research project examines the language use in daily communication and ... [more ▼]

This paper is based in Luxembourg where a multilingual programme has been implemented in early childhood education in 2017. The research project examines the language use in daily communication and literacy activities of educators and parents in day care centres, as reported by educators in two online-questionnaires. The findings show that the educators and parents use multiple languages when communicating, singing and reading with children in the centres. In addition to French and Luxembourgish which dominate, they use five other languages. Their reported multilingual practice reflects their beliefs that speaking and reading in several languages promotes language learning. However, while the programme is multilingual, a range of home languages are marginalised. The educators produce a language hierarchy in the centres which the parents reproduce. While collaboration with parents can be effective in bringing home languages into day care centres, educators need to be aware of language hierarchies and ideologies. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Pädagogik des Translanguaging: Möglichkeiten und Herausforderungen
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, March 20)

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See detailPromoting multilingualism and multiliteracies through storytelling: a case-study on the use of the app iTEO in preschools in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Lindgren, Eva; Breuer, Ester; Stavans, anat (Eds.) et al Multilingual Literacy (2021)

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See detailUnd was ist mit den Kindern? COVID-Kids: Daten aus der Schweitz
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, January 18)

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See detailMultilingual education in early years in Luxembourg: mind ideologies!
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 14)

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See detailProfessional development to promote innovative language teaching: examples from multilingual Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 13)

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language ... [more ▼]

While multilingual programmes have been implemented in early childhood education in several countries in Europe, professionals may still be unsure of how to promote multilingualism and deal with language diversity. There is a need for professional development (PD) which can influence the practitioners’ attitudes, knowledge and skills, and the quality of their teaching (Egert et al., 2018; Peleman et al., 2017). This presentation begins with an outline of several theoretical models of PD and explains why integrated models that are collaborative, inquiry-based, and performance-based are the most effective in contributing to change. I will then present a PD used in Luxembourg to help early childhood practitioners develop and implement multilingual pedagogies. The model, which comprised training sessions, network meetings, and coaching, aimed to deepen the practitioners’ understanding of multilingualism and language learning, familiarize them with translanguaging (García & Reid, 2019) and enable them to implement language and literacy activities in Luxembourgish, French and children’s home languages (Kirsch et al. forthcoming). Finally, I provide insights into the professional learning of two preschool teachers. The PD, the experience of engaging in multilingual activities, and the reflection on teaching and learning, enabled the teachers to develop a positive stance to multilingual education, design productive leaning environments based on social-constructivist theories, and monitor language use to guarantee responsible translanguaging (Kirsch 2020). [less ▲]

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See detailCollaboration with parents and multiliteracy in early childhood education
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Neumann, Sascha; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, October 09)

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See detailMoving beyond language(s): a case study on a newcomer’s translanguaging practices
Degano, Sarah UL; Kirsch, Claudine UL

in European Journal of Applied Linguistics (2020)

Numerous scholars have investigated translanguaging in students with a migration background by examining the deployment of their linguistic repertoire. By contrast, few studies have adopted a social ... [more ▼]

Numerous scholars have investigated translanguaging in students with a migration background by examining the deployment of their linguistic repertoire. By contrast, few studies have adopted a social semiotic perspective on translanguaging. Similarly, studies on newcomers in this field are scarce. Newcomers, especially those to the trilingual education system in Luxembourg, face significant language challenges. The present paper explores the ways in which Portuguese-speaking Harry combined the resources of his semiotic repertoire in science and French lessons in Year 4, and discusses different combinations of resources. Findings based on field notes and video-recordings of classroom activities show that the eleven-year-old engaged in learning by activating his prior knowledge and deploying his semiotic repertoire in resourceful ways. He mobilised features of five languages, coordinated linguistic, paralinguistic and extralinguistic resources, and aligned his resources to those of his peers. Furthermore, he reproduced the semiotic combinations of peers as well as the translanguaging practices in class. We show that a newcomer orchestrates his semiotic resources in complex ways to communicate, make meaning and engage in learning processes. Further research into the deployment of the semiotic repertoire at school is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Luxembourg COVID-Kids questionnaire
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailFlexible language use in multilingual early childhood education in Luxembourg: Reflecting on its nature and functions
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Seele, Claudia

in Panagiotopoulou, Argyro; Rosen, Lisa; Strzykala, Jenna (Eds.) Inclusion, Education, and Translanguaging: How to Promote Social Justice in (Teacher) Education? (2020)

An inclusive translanguaging pedagogy aims to promote learning and participation by drawing on the learners’ entire semiotic repertoire. The focus of this chapter are the translanguaging practices of four ... [more ▼]

An inclusive translanguaging pedagogy aims to promote learning and participation by drawing on the learners’ entire semiotic repertoire. The focus of this chapter are the translanguaging practices of four early years practitioners in Luxembourg. We analyse the deployment of their linguistic repertoire, their reasons for translanguaging, and the ways in which their practices contributed to inclusion and participation. We found that the practices comprised using linguistic resources dynamically, translating, and ‘home languaging,’ and depended on the practitioners’ pedagogical stance. We argue that multilingual practices need to be embedded in a reflexive translanguaging pedagogy in order to enhance inclusion. [less ▲]

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See detailYoung children’s language-based agency in multilingual contexts in Luxembourg and Israel
Schwartz, Mila; Kirsch, Claudine UL; Mortini, Simone

in Applied Linguistics Review (2020)

Drawing on two longitudinal case-studies, this study aimed to identify some salient characteristics of the agentic behaviour of two young emergent multilinguals in two different multilingual contexts ... [more ▼]

Drawing on two longitudinal case-studies, this study aimed to identify some salient characteristics of the agentic behaviour of two young emergent multilinguals in two different multilingual contexts: Luxembourg and Israel. Despite the fact that the studies were conducted independently, the two cases were analysed together owing to the similarities in the research methods such as video-recorded observations, and semi-structured interviews with teachers and parents. The data were analysed through thematic and conversational analyses. Findings showed that a boy who learned Luxembourgish in Luxembourg and a girl who learned Hebrew in Israel, were outgoing and active learners who influenced their learning environment. We identified ten types of agentic behaviour, including engaging in repetition after peers and the teacher, creatively producing language, translanguaging, and self-monitoring. Despite differences of the children's sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds, and the language policies of their educational settings, we found a striking overlap in their language-based agentic behaviours. We suggest that the identified types can encourage further research in this field. Although our study with talkative children allowed us to observe many types of agentic behaviours, we cannot claim that less outgoing children or children who do not show the same behaviours do not have ways of expressing their agency. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Language Education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Seele, Claudia

in Schwartz, Mila (Ed.) Handbook of Early Language Education (2020)

This chapter examines recent language education laws in Luxembourg as well as the ways in which early years practitioners appropriated the new policies and put them into practice. The chapter begins with ... [more ▼]

This chapter examines recent language education laws in Luxembourg as well as the ways in which early years practitioners appropriated the new policies and put them into practice. The chapter begins with a brief introduction of the linguistic landscape in Luxembourg and a summary of the dynamic development of the country’s early childhood education system. Special emphasis is put on recent changes in language education policies, which call for a more inclusive and multilingual early language education. Monolingual practices now need to open up to flexible language use and offer children opportunities to capitalize on their entire semiotic repertoire for communicating, meaning-making, and learning. The central concerns of this chapter are the ways in which policy changes influence educational practices in formal and non-formal settings and how professional development shapes this process. In order to address these questions, the authors review literature on language education policy, translanguaging and professional development and examine studies on early language education in Luxembourg. Next, they discuss recent initiatives of professional development in formal and non-formal early years settings as well as their outcomes. Finally, they present critical issues such as the practitioners’ reflexivity and responsibility and the sustainability of professional development. Future research directions include family language policies, partnerships between families and early childhood institutions and children’s languaging practices inside and across these institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailOpening minds to translanguaging pedagogies
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in System (2020)

Translanguaging pedagogies promise to capitalise on students’ language backgrounds, improve their academic achievements and address social inequalities. While research studies in monolingual, bilingual ... [more ▼]

Translanguaging pedagogies promise to capitalise on students’ language backgrounds, improve their academic achievements and address social inequalities. While research studies in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual contexts testify to the benefits of translanguaging for learning, well-being and identity-building, few studies focus on early childhood education and the use of more than two languages. Furthermore, little is known about the implementation of translanguaging pedagogies and the challenges faced by professionals. This article is based on a longitudinal research project which offered a professional development course to develop multilingual pedagogies in early childhood education in Luxembourg, where 63.7% of the 4-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish as their home language. The article presents challenges which three practitioners faced when implementing a translanguaging pedagogy in their preschool classes as well as the ways in which they overcame them. They changed their negative stance to multilingual education, developed a social-constructivist leaning environment and monitored their language use. The findings shed light on the complexities of the implementation process and the support needed for professional learning. [less ▲]

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See detailHeranführung an die mehrsprachige Pädagogik durch Filmaufnahmen in der Lehrerausbildung in Luxemburg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (2020), 25(1), 22

Aufgrund von gesellschaftlichen, sprach- und bildungspolitischen Entwicklungen soll mehrsprachige Bildung ein fester Bestandteil des Schul- und Vorschulunterrichts sein. Es gilt deshalb, angehende ... [more ▼]

Aufgrund von gesellschaftlichen, sprach- und bildungspolitischen Entwicklungen soll mehrsprachige Bildung ein fester Bestandteil des Schul- und Vorschulunterrichts sein. Es gilt deshalb, angehende LehrerInnen auf diese Neuerung vorzubereiten und ihnen beim Aneignen von Wissen und bei der Reflexion ihrer Haltungen zu helfen. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Filmaufnahmen aus einer empirischen Forschung zur frühen mehrsprachigen Bildung in der Lehrerausbildung in Luxemburg eingesetzt. Ein Fragebogen und Gruppeninterviews mit den Studierenden zeigen, dass sie durch das Filmmaterial neues Wissen erwarben und an ihren Einstellungen arbeiteten. Die Veranschaulichung in den Filmen, die theoriegeleiteten Diskussionen im Seminar und die tiefe Auseinandersetzung und Reflexion der Studierenden waren lernförderlich. Societal developments, language policies and new understandings of language learning call for multilingual education in schools. Prospective teachers need to be prepared for this change and develop a stance and knowledge that further multilingualism. To promote learning, videos of a research project on multilingual pedagogies in early years were used in teacher education in Luxembourg. A questionnaire and group interviews with students showed that they developed new knowledge and worked on their stance towards multilingual education. The illustrations in the videos, the theory-led discussions as well as the students’ deep engagement and reflection promoted learning. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslanguaging practices in early childhood education in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine; Duarte, Joana (Eds.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalizing on multilingualism in European mainstream education. (2020)

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home ... [more ▼]

Calls for multilingual pedagogies have reached early childhood education and some programmes have been implemented in Europe. However, their focus frequently remains on the majority language and home languages are given little space. For multilingual programmes to be inclusive and empowering, professionals need to break with monolingual practices based on monolingual ideologies. The resource-oriented pedagogy of translanguaging which challenges hegemonic practices, is one way in which professionals can give space to all languages, leverage children’s resources and contribute to their development. The present chapter presents the findings of a professional development on multilingual pedagogies in Luxembourg. Data stem from observations, video-recorded activities and interviews with four practitioners, two working in a formal education setting and two in a non-formal one. The findings show that the practitioners developed a positive stance towards translanguaging and multilingual education, learned to design a child-centred and holistic multilingual learning environment and used languages flexibly, deploying translation, code-switching and translanguaging. This dynamic language use facilitated communication, participation, language learning and well-being. There were differences between the practitioners’ flexible language use. The professionals in the school did not use pair talk, made less use of code-switching and used languages more strategically and responsibly than the caregivers in the crèche. [less ▲]

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See detailConclusion and future research
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Kirsch, Claudine (Ed.) Multilingual approaches for teaching and learning. From acknowledging to capitalising on multilingualism in European mainstream education (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 UL)