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See detailEntered into Force: The 2020 Space Law of Luxembourg
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Air and Space Law (2021), 46(4-5), 587-602

In comparison with the broad spectrum of Luxembourg’s activities, the national legal framework allowing for authorizing and supervising activities under Luxembourg’s jurisdiction was narrow. The 1991 Law ... [more ▼]

In comparison with the broad spectrum of Luxembourg’s activities, the national legal framework allowing for authorizing and supervising activities under Luxembourg’s jurisdiction was narrow. The 1991 Law on Electronic Media allowed for the authorization of the SES telecommunication satellites. The 2017 Space Resources Law was adopted speedily to welcome operators in this specific area. A legal basis for other activities was missing – there were no binding provisions enabling domestic authorities to regulate launching of space objects, Earth observation, navigation, or on-orbit activities. The Law of 15 December 2020 on Space Activity fills this gap. From 1 January 2021 onwards, future Luxembourg space operators can apply for an authorization of their space activity in or out of its territory, and the conditions for a successful application are known, as are the price and consequences. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 116 (1 UL)
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See detailTelecommunication Law
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Read, Peter (Ed.) Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Planetary Science (2021)

Telecommunication law is a broad complex of legal rules, the aim of which is to regulate telecommunication services—the conveyance of signals by means of telecommunication networks; it also covers ... [more ▼]

Telecommunication law is a broad complex of legal rules, the aim of which is to regulate telecommunication services—the conveyance of signals by means of telecommunication networks; it also covers satellite and space research services. The utmost purpose of these norms is to enable an interference-free transmission of signals, both on a domestic and an international scale. Telecommunication law is composed of three levels of regulations: international, regional, and domestic. The international regulation is performed traditionally by states organized in the International Telecommunication Union on the basis of the ITU Constitution, Convention, and Radio Regulations; trade aspects of telecommunications are regulated by the World Trade Organization. There are several regional cooperation structures dealing with telecommunications; the telecommunication framework of the European Union can serve as an example of a highly harmonized regional regulation based on the Electronic Communication Code. Domestic telecommunication laws are adopted by sovereign states; however, the international rules and regional regulations influence their content and structure. These legal mechanisms are very useful regulatory frameworks that guarantee that telecommunication signals are conveyed to their consumers without administrative and factual obstacles. They have functioned for decades on a pragmatic basis driven mostly by technical and economic needs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (0 UL)
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See detailPenetration of Union Law into the Space Sector
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Petrlik, David; Bobek, Michal; Passer, Jan (Eds.) et al Evolution des rapports entre les ordres juridiques de l'union européenne, international et nationaux (2020)

The chapter deals with the evolution of the space competence of the European Union and its interpretation. It analyses the complex relation of the EU to the ESA, and presents national legislation of EU ... [more ▼]

The chapter deals with the evolution of the space competence of the European Union and its interpretation. It analyses the complex relation of the EU to the ESA, and presents national legislation of EU member States. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 85 (1 UL)
See detailBuilding Blocks for the Development of an International Framework for the Governance of Space Resources Activities: A Commentary
de O. Bittencourt Neto, Olavo; Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja et al

Book published by Eleven - 1st (2020)

The publication is a result of the work of an international interdisciplinary working group which formulated principles of an international regime which can govern the space resources activities. It has ... [more ▼]

The publication is a result of the work of an international interdisciplinary working group which formulated principles of an international regime which can govern the space resources activities. It has been submitted to the UN Copuos. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 157 (1 UL)
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See detailDispute Resolution in Space
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Blount, Percy UL

in Max Planck Encyclopedia of International Procedural Law (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (2 UL)
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See detailITU Framework: A Model for an International Regime of Space Resources?
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Hofmann, Mahulena (Ed.) Proceedings of the 61th Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space (2019, November)

The contribution examines which elements of the ITU framework would be transferable to the future international regime of space resources activities. First, it gives a short description of space resources ... [more ▼]

The contribution examines which elements of the ITU framework would be transferable to the future international regime of space resources activities. First, it gives a short description of space resources activities, followed by an overview of the ITU regime, which may be relevant from the perspective of space mining. Furthermore, it describes the provisions elaborated by The Hague Space Resources Governance Group, the Building Blocks, which show several resemblances with the ITU regime. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (0 UL)
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See detailMining in Outer Space: Legal Aspects
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Bergamasco, Federico UL

in Tams, Christian; Bungenberg, Marc; Krajewski, Markus (Eds.) European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2018 (2019)

Outer space has become the focus of projects plannning exploration and excavation of natural resources. The central international legal source of the law of Outer Space is the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The ... [more ▼]

Outer space has become the focus of projects plannning exploration and excavation of natural resources. The central international legal source of the law of Outer Space is the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. The mining activities in outer space are compatible with international law under the condition that they respect this treaty, including its obligation to protect the environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 340 (20 UL)
See detailIntroduction to Space Law
Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Hofmann, Mahulena UL

Book published by Kluwer - revised (2019)

The expansion of space and communication activities requires an adaptation of the present international and national legal framework. The book gives an overview of legal norms applicable to space ... [more ▼]

The expansion of space and communication activities requires an adaptation of the present international and national legal framework. The book gives an overview of legal norms applicable to space activities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 292 (10 UL)
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See detailSpace Resources: Regulatory Aspects
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Hofmann, Mahulena; Blount, Percy (Eds.) Innovation in Outer Space: International and African Legal Perspectives (2018)

Space Resources activities are expanding. The US and Luxembourg adopted national legislation enabling their authorization. The chapter discusses the international legal framework of space resources ... [more ▼]

Space Resources activities are expanding. The US and Luxembourg adopted national legislation enabling their authorization. The chapter discusses the international legal framework of space resources activities, and their reflect in national US and Luxembourg legislation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 413 (5 UL)
See detailInnovation in Outer Space: International and African Legal Perspective
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Blount, Percy UL

Book published by Nomos/ Hart - 1st (2018)

The innovation of technology connected with the use of outer space and telecommunication require new approaches to the present international space law and telecommunications law. Specific attention is ... [more ▼]

The innovation of technology connected with the use of outer space and telecommunication require new approaches to the present international space law and telecommunications law. Specific attention is devoted to the space and telecommunication legislation in the countries of the African continent. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 167 (4 UL)
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See detailCommentary of Article 9 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Rautz, Günther

in Hofmann, Rainer; Malloy, Tove; Rein, Detlev (Eds.) The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (2018)

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities guarantees the members of national minorities in Europe their right to expression; this right is also guaranteed in the digital age ... [more ▼]

The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities guarantees the members of national minorities in Europe their right to expression; this right is also guaranteed in the digital age connected with the use of new media. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (1 UL)
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See detailEmerging Commercial Uses of Space: Regulation Reducing Risks
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Blount, Percy UL

in Journal of World Investment and Trade (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 133 (4 UL)
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See detailSpace-Based Services Supporting Refugees: Legal Aspects
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Aloisio, Gerome; Rinaldis, Loredana

in Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Blount, Percy; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law (2018)

In the last years, Europe has experienced the greatest mass movement of people since the Second World War. The EU agreed upon different measures to support the refugees. Almost all these activities use ... [more ▼]

In the last years, Europe has experienced the greatest mass movement of people since the Second World War. The EU agreed upon different measures to support the refugees. Almost all these activities use data gained with the help of space-based technologies. The article deals with the legal basis of these data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (2 UL)
See detailOwnership of Satellites: A Simple Legal Fact with Complex Consequences
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Hofmann, Mahulena; Loukakis, Andreas (Eds.) Ownership of Satellites (2017)

International space law does not always connect the obligation and rights of States Parties with the ownership of the satellite. However, the transfer of ownership is a relatively frequent phenomenon. The ... [more ▼]

International space law does not always connect the obligation and rights of States Parties with the ownership of the satellite. However, the transfer of ownership is a relatively frequent phenomenon. The main problem may occur if the satellite is sold in one of the non-launching States. The article analyses various scenarios and suggested solutions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 281 (20 UL)
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See detailCOSPAR Recommendations in a New Context? Environmental Aspects of Space Mining
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

in Blount, Percy; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the International Institute of Space Law 2016 (2017)

Projects related to space mining open numerous questions, including the guarantees of environmental standards of space activities. this contribution analyses the scope of the competences of COSPAR, the ... [more ▼]

Projects related to space mining open numerous questions, including the guarantees of environmental standards of space activities. this contribution analyses the scope of the competences of COSPAR, the legal character of its recommendations, and their applicability to space mining. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 145 (7 UL)
See detailOwnership of Satellites
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Loukakis, Andreas

Book published by Nomos/ Hart - 1st. (2017)

The ownership of a satellite is an important legal title which empowers the owner to specific activities. The UN space law, however, connects legal consequences with other preconditions. The book composed ... [more ▼]

The ownership of a satellite is an important legal title which empowers the owner to specific activities. The UN space law, however, connects legal consequences with other preconditions. The book composed of contributions by prominent authors analyses this discrepancy and offers several solutions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 157 (8 UL)
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See detailHumanitarian Law Implemented: Space Communication in the Service of International Humanitarian Law
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Florey, Loren Francois

in Moro-Aguilar, Rafael (Ed.) Humanitarian Law implemented: Space Communication in the Service of International Humanitarian Law (2016)

Ius in bello requires concrete measures in order o protect specific groups such as the civilian population. One of the project guaranteeing the fast deployment of satellite communication in context of ... [more ▼]

Ius in bello requires concrete measures in order o protect specific groups such as the civilian population. One of the project guaranteeing the fast deployment of satellite communication in context of humanitarian crises is emergency.lu. The article analyses its legal framework. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (1 UL)
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See detailFrans von der Dunk (ed.), Handbook on Space Law
Hofmann, Mahulena UL; Loukakis, Andreas; Spassova, Simona

in Journal on Space Law (2016), 40(1-2), 233-248

The Handbook on space law is a recent commentary on the most important legal documents related to space activities written by international experts edited by Frans von der Dunk (University of Nebraska ... [more ▼]

The Handbook on space law is a recent commentary on the most important legal documents related to space activities written by international experts edited by Frans von der Dunk (University of Nebraska-Lincoln). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (4 UL)
See detailDispute Settlement in the Area of Space Communication
Hofmann, Mahulena UL

Book published by Nomos (2015)

Space communication is connected with numerous situations where mechanisms for dispute settlement are needed. The book analyses these mechanisms, including those used by the ITU.

Detailed reference viewed: 271 (13 UL)