Publications of the CBA Research Group
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See detailUncovering everyday dynamics in students’ perceptions of instructional quality with experience sampling
Talic, Irma UL; Scherer, Ronny; Marsh, Herbert W. et al

in Learning and Instruction (in press)

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See detailDispositions for collaborative problem solving.
Scalise, Kathleen; Mustafic, Maida UL; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Kuger, Susanne; Klieme, Eckhard; Jude, Nina (Eds.) et al Assessing context of learning world-wide (in press)

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See detailAssessment of problem solving
Krkovic, K.; Mustafic, Maida UL; Wüstenberg, S. et al

in Griffin, P.; McGaw, B.; Care, E. (Eds.) Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (in press)

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See detailWell-being and working from home during COVID-19
Schifano, Sonia UL; Clark, Andrew; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Information Technology and People (in press)

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from ... [more ▼]

Purpose – The authors track the well-being of individuals across five European countries during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and relate their well-being to working from home. The authors also consider the role of pandemic-policy stringency in affecting well-being in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The authors have four waves of novel harmonised longitudinal data in France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Sweden, covering the period May–November 2020. Well-being is measured in five dimensions: life satisfaction, a worthwhile life, loneliness, depression and anxiety. A retrospective diary indicates whether the individual was working in each month since February 2020 and if so whether at home or not at home. Policy stringency is matched in per country at the daily level. The authors consider both cross- section and panel regressions and the mediating and moderating effects of control variables, including household variables and income. Findings – Well-being among workers is lower for those who work from home, and those who are not working have the lowest well-being of all. The panel results are more mitigated, with switching into working at home yielding a small drop in anxiety. The panel and cross-section difference could reflect adaptation or the selection of certain types of individuals into working at home. Policy stringency is always negatively correlated with well-being. The authors find no mediation effects. The well-being penalty from working at home is larger for the older, the better-educated, those with young children and those with more crowded housing. Originality/value – The harmonised cross-country panel data on individuals’ experiences during COVID-19 are novel. The authors relate working from home and policy stringency to multiple well-being measures. The authors emphasise the effect of working from home on not only the level of well-being but also its distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailStudents’ Personality and State Academic Self-Concept: Predicting Differences in Mean Level and Within-Person Variability in Everyday School Life
Hausen, Jennifer UL; Möller, Jens; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2022)

A positive academic self-concept (ASC) relates to many desirable educational outcomes. Research on which student characteristics relate to the formation of ASC is therefore crucial. To examine the ... [more ▼]

A positive academic self-concept (ASC) relates to many desirable educational outcomes. Research on which student characteristics relate to the formation of ASC is therefore crucial. To examine the importance of personality for ASC, we investigated the relation between Big Five traits and mean level as well as within-person variability in state general-school ASC for the first time using intensive longitudinal data. The sample comprised N = 291 German ninth and 10th graders who completed a 3-week e-diary after filling in a 60-item Big Five questionnaire assessing extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, negative emotionality, and open-mindedness as well as their respective subfacets (15 subfacets overall). To assess state ASC, students completed three items after each lesson in four different subjects (resulting in Mlessons = 21.32). We ran six mixed-effects location scale models: one with all broad Big Five domains and five (one for each Big Five domain) with the subfacets as predictors of state ASC. Higher scores in the domains and in at least one subfacet of open-mindedness, conscientiousness, and extraversion but lower scores in negative emotionality were related to higher mean levels of state ASC. Higher scores in depression (subfacet of negative emotionality) were related to greater within-person variability in state ASC. These findings suggest that Big Five traits are predictors of mean level and within-person variability in students’ state ASC, thus contributing to a more complete map of the formation of students’ ASC and the role of personality therein. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom self-concept to -knowledge to -regulation: A proposal based on students’ domain-specific academic self-concepts and achievements
Grund, Axel UL; Niepel, Christoph UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

We initially tested whether besides possessing a positive self-concept, possessing an accurate self-concept has an incremental effect on students’ school adaptation. As self-knowledge index, we calculated ... [more ▼]

We initially tested whether besides possessing a positive self-concept, possessing an accurate self-concept has an incremental effect on students’ school adaptation. As self-knowledge index, we calculated ipsative profile correlations between 9th grade students’ academic self-concepts (i.e., how well students think they do) in the domains Math, German, and French and their respective achievement test scores in these domains (i.e., how well students actually do). We then related students’ self-knowledge to their general performance across these tests, their school satisfaction, and their perceived quality of the teacher-student relationship, assuming that accurate self-concepts lay the foundation for adaptive self-regulation processes (e.g., building on strengths and remedying or accepting weaknesses). In a first sample (N = 6279), we found that self-knowledge explained an incremental amount of variance in school adaptation above and beyond students’ general and domain-specific self-concepts in multiple regression analyses. The better aligned students’ self-concept profile was with their actual achievement profile, the better their performance across these domains, the more satisfied students were with schooling, and the better their relationship with their teachers. Except for school satisfaction, these findings were replicated in another cohort of 9th grade students (N = 6493), and they remained robust when we used rang-correlation instead of Pearson-correlation to derive our self-knowledge index. Notably, both indices seemed largely independent from students’ self-concepts and, on average, students seem to better “know” about their academic abilities compared to other aspects of their personality. We discuss necessary improvements to further substantiate the adaptive role of self-knowledge in self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailAiding Reflective Navigation in a Dynamic Information Landscape: A Challenge for Educational Psychology
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; Han, Areum UL; Hausen, Jennifer UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2022)

Open access to information is now a universal phenomenon thanks to rapid technological developments across the globe. This open and universal access to information is a key value of democratic societies ... [more ▼]

Open access to information is now a universal phenomenon thanks to rapid technological developments across the globe. This open and universal access to information is a key value of democratic societies because, in principle, it supports well-informed decision-making on individual, local, and global matters. In practice, however, without appropriate readiness for navigation in a dynamic information landscape, such access to information can become a threat to public health, safety, and economy, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. In the past, this readiness was often conceptualized in terms of adequate literacy levels, but the contemporarily observed highest-ever literacy levels have not immunized our societies against the risks of misinformation. Therefore, in this Perspective, we argue that democratisation of access to information endows citizens with new responsibilities, and second, these responsibilities demand readiness that cannot be reduced to mere literacy levels. In fact, this readiness builds on individual adequate literacy skills, but also requires rational thinking and awareness of own information processing. We gather evidence from developmental, educational, and cognitive psychology to show how these aspects of readiness could be improved through education interventions, and how they may be related to healthy work-home balance and self-efficacy. All these components of education are critical to responsible global citizenship and will determine the future direction of our societies. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functions in birds
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Birds (2022)

Executive functions comprise of top-down cognitive processes that exert control over information processing, from acquiring information to issuing a behavioral response. These cogni- tive processes of ... [more ▼]

Executive functions comprise of top-down cognitive processes that exert control over information processing, from acquiring information to issuing a behavioral response. These cogni- tive processes of inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility underpin complex cognitive skills, such as episodic memory and planning, which have been repeatedly investigated in several bird species in recent decades. Until recently, avian executive functions were studied in relatively few bird species but have gained traction in comparative cognitive research following MacLean and colleagues’ large-scale study from 2014. Therefore, in this review paper, the relevant previous findings are collected and organized to facilitate further investigations of these core cognitive processes in birds. This review can assist in integrating findings from avian and mammalian cognitive research and further the current understanding of executive functions’ significance and evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailStudent profiles of self-concept and interest in four domains: A latent transition analysis
Franzen, Patrick UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2022), 95(5), 102-139

Dimensional comparisons lead to contrast effects between academic self-concepts, implying that students view themselves as a math-type or a verbal-type. This study examined the short-term stability of ... [more ▼]

Dimensional comparisons lead to contrast effects between academic self-concepts, implying that students view themselves as a math-type or a verbal-type. This study examined the short-term stability of these types and their generalizability to academic interest. N = 382 students completed questionnaires on self-concept and interest in math, physics, German, and English at two measurement waves over five weeks. Latent transition analyses were conducted with self-concepts and interests as indicators, revealing four profiles for both constructs. For self-concept a math + high profile, verbal + high profile, verbal + low profile and generally-moderate profile were found. For interest a math profile, verbal profile, generally-high profile, and generally-low profile were found. These profiles indicated that the formation of domain-specific self-concept and interest differs between groups of students. The profiles were stable across measurement waves. Relations to school grades and gender matched theoretical assumptions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe generalized internal/external frame of reference model with academic self-concepts, interests, and anxieties in students from different language backgrounds
van der Westhuizen, Lindie UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Contemporary Educational Psychology (2022)

Student motivation and affect play an important role in successful language learning. To investigate the formation of language learning motivation and affect, this study extended the generalized internal ... [more ▼]

Student motivation and affect play an important role in successful language learning. To investigate the formation of language learning motivation and affect, this study extended the generalized internal/external frame of reference (GI/E) model framework to multiple languages (German and French, along with math) and multiple motivational-affective outcomes (academic self-concept, interest, and anxiety). We examined whether social and dimensional comparisons play similar roles in the formation of students’ self-concepts, interests, and anxieties concerning different languages and whether dimensional comparisons result in contrast or assimilation effects. Moreover, we tested the generalizability of the GI/E model assumptions across students with different language backgrounds. Using a data set comprising virtually all ninth-grade students (N=6275; 48.0% female) from Luxembourg’s multilingual educational system, our findings indicated (1) clear contrast effects in the formation of self-concept and interest in math, German, and French, and (2) a combination of contrast, assimilation, and no effects in the formation of anxiety in math, German, and French. Using a subsample of 5837 students with valid language information (48.0% female), invariance tests demonstrated that the GI/E achievement–outcome relations operated equivalently across students from different home language backgrounds. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing Dynamic Relations Between Mathematics Self-Concept and Perceived Achievement From Lesson to Lesson: An Experience-Sampling Study
Niepel, Christoph UL; Marsh, Herbert W.; Guo, Jiesi et al

in Journal of Educational Psychology (2022), 6(114), 1380-1393

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See detailHow we explore, interpret, and solve complex problems: A cross-national study of problem-solving processes
Molnar, G; Alrababah, A. A.; Greiff, Samuel UL

in Heliyon (2022), (8), 08775

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See detailScience knowledge and trust in medicine affect individuals’ behavior in pandemic crises
Sailer, Michael; Stadler, Matthias UL; Botes, E'louise UL et al

in European Journal of Psychology of Education (2022), (37), 279-292

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See detailAssociations between coronavirus crisis perception, perceived economic risk of coronavirus, general self-efficacy, and coronavirus anxiety at the start of the pandemic. Differences by gender and race.
Garcia, Samantha; Hopfer, Suellen; Botes, E'louise UL et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2022), (19), 2872

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See detailWhy we need systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the testing and assessment literature
Iliescu, Dragos; Rusu, A; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2022)

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See detailAssessing collaborative problem-solving skills among elementary school students
Rojas, Matias; Nussbaum, Miguel; Chiuminatto, Pablo et al

in Computers and Education (2021), 175

As 21st century skills have become increasingly important, Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) is now considered essential in almost all areas of life. Different theoretical frameworks and assessment ... [more ▼]

As 21st century skills have become increasingly important, Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) is now considered essential in almost all areas of life. Different theoretical frameworks and assessment instruments have emerged for measuring this skill. However, more applied studies on its implementation and evaluation in real-life educational settings are required. In this sense, pre-post experimental designs are essential for identifying new methods for developing collaborative problem-solving skills. To do so, equivalent tests are needed to facilitate consistent score interpretations and reduce the practice effect. In the present study, a Design-Based Research approach is used to design and validate an assessment tool with two equivalent forms based on a framework proposed by the OECD and applied to a collaborative activity. A total of 719 students aged between 10 and 13 years old participated in the different stages of the study. The results show that the proposed instrument effectively measures the problem-solving dimension of collaborative problem-solving skills among students of this age. Moreover, the results from the test were equivalent for both forms and across genders. Finally, there were no significant differences when assessing collaborative problem-solving in human-human groups versus human-agent groups using the proposed instrument. For future work, we recommend including other data sources than just text-based conversations. This would allow us to capture the rich social interactions present in this type of activity. Future work should also consider exploring the extent to which skills could be trained. This could be done in an experimental design assessed using the equivalent forms of the proposed instrument as a pre- and post-test. Doing so would provide a more accurate measure of students’ collaborative skills. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping and Validating a Short-Form Questionnaire for the Assessment of Seven Facets of Conscientiousness in Large-Scale Assessments
Franzen, Patrick UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Journal of Personality Assessment (2021)

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no ... [more ▼]

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no short instrument assessing facets of conscientiousness in the educational context. Therefore, in the present multi-study report, we develop and validate a short-form questionnaire for the assessment of seven Conscientiousness facets, namely Industriousness, Perfectionism, Tidiness, Procrastination Refrainment, Control, Caution, and Task Planning. To this end, we examined multiple representative samples totaling N = 14,604 Grade 9 and 10 students from Luxembourg. The questionnaire was developed by adapting and shortening an existing scale using an exhaustive search algorithm. The algorithm was specified to select the best item combination based on model fit, reliability, and measurement invariance across the German and French language versions. The resulting instrument showed the expected factorial structure. The relations of the facets with personality constructs and academic achievement were in line with theoretical assumptions. Reliability was acceptable for all facets. Measurement invariance across language versions, gender, immigration status and cohort was established. We conclude that the presented questionnaire provides a short measurement of seven facets of Conscientiousness with valid and reliable scores. [less ▲]

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See detailFacets of conscientiousness and their relation to academic achievement: a person-centered approach
Franzen, Patrick UL; Niepel, Christoph UL; Arens, A Katrin et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 16)

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