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See detailAggregating Energy Flexibility for Demand-Side Management in Manufacturing Companies – A Two-Step Method
Lindner, M; Wenninger, Simon; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Production at the Leading Edge of Technology (2022)

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that ... [more ▼]

Towards greener production, manufacturing companies face several challenges, for example peak load shaving or flexible production planning as parts of demand-side management (DSM). DSM uses processes that can be shut down, shifted, or controlled. Advances in digitalization in the energy sector and manufacturing systems create transparency which in turn offers new opportunities to commercialize energy flexibility potentials as optimally and automatically as possible. The variety of flexibilities in manufacturing systems and various dependencies of different kinds of complex manufacturing processes complicate the modelling and aggregation of flexibility. To overcome this challenge, we developed a method for the aggregation of energy flexibilities that is based on a generic energy flexibility data model. The method proposes a two-step approach to aggregate flexibilities cost efficiently and considers manufacturing specific limitations. For cost-efficient aggregation, we use in the first step the merit-order model known from the energy industry and in the second step the bin-packing problem originating from combinatorial optimization, adapted according to the generic data model. The two-step approach allows energy flexibilities to be aggregated across industries, facilities, and systems, thus ensuring broad applicability. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the surplus accuracy of data-driven energy quantification methods in the residential sector
Wederhake, Lars; Wenninger, Simon; Wiethe, Christian et al

in Energy Informatics (2022), 5(1), 7

Increasing trust in energy performance certificates (EPCs) and drawing meaningful conclusions requires a robust and accurate determination of building energy performance (BEP). However, existing and by ... [more ▼]

Increasing trust in energy performance certificates (EPCs) and drawing meaningful conclusions requires a robust and accurate determination of building energy performance (BEP). However, existing and by law prescribed engineering methods, relying on physical principles, are under debate for being error-prone in practice and ultimately inaccurate. Research has heralded data-driven methods, mostly machine learning algorithms, to be promising alternatives: various studies compare engineering and data-driven methods with a clear advantage for data-driven methods in terms of prediction accuracy for BEP. While previous studies only investigated the prediction accuracy for BEP, it yet remains unclear which reasons and cause–effect relationships lead to the surplus prediction accuracy of data-driven methods. In this study, we develop and discuss a theory on how data collection, the type of auditor, the energy quantification method, and its accuracy relate to one another. First, we introduce cause–effect relationships for quantifying BEP method-agnostically and investigate the influence of several design parameters, such as the expertise of the auditor issuing the EPC, to develop our theory. Second, we evaluate and discuss our theory with literature. We find that data-driven methods positively influence cause–effect relationships, compensating for deficits due to auditors’ lack of expertise, leading to high prediction accuracy. We provide recommendations for future research and practice to enable the informed use of data-driven methods. [less ▲]

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See detailThe transparency challenge of blockchain in organizations
Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Lautenschlager, Jonathan; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Electronic Markets (2022), 32(3), 1779--1794

This position paper discusses the challenges of blockchain applications in businesses and the public sector related to an excessive degree of transparency. We first point out the types of sensitive data ... [more ▼]

This position paper discusses the challenges of blockchain applications in businesses and the public sector related to an excessive degree of transparency. We first point out the types of sensitive data involved in different patterns of blockchain use cases. We then argue that the implications of blockchains’ information exposure caused by replicated transaction storage and execution go well beyond the often-mentioned conflicts with the GDPR’s “right to be forgotten” and may be more problematic than anticipated. In particular, we illustrate the trade-off between protecting sensitive information and increasing process efficiency through smart contracts. We also explore to which extent permissioned blockchains and novel applications of cryptographic technologies such as self-sovereign identities and zero-knowledge proofs can help overcome the transparency challenge and thus act as catalysts for blockchain adoption and diffusion in organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarking building energy performance: Accuracy by involving occupants in collecting data - A case study in Germany
Wederhake, Lars; Wenninger, Simon; Wiethe, Christian et al

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2022), 379

Energy performance certificates (EPC) aim to provide transparency about building energy performance (BEP) and benchmark buildings. Despite having qualified auditors examining buildings through on-site ... [more ▼]

Energy performance certificates (EPC) aim to provide transparency about building energy performance (BEP) and benchmark buildings. Despite having qualified auditors examining buildings through on-site visits, BEP accuracy in EPCs is frequently criticized. Qualified auditors are often bound to engineering-based energy quantification methods. However, recent studies have revealed data-driven methods to be more accurate regarding benchmarking. Unlike engineering methods, data-driven methods can learn from data that non-experts might collect. This raises the question of whether data-driven methods allow for simplified data collection while still achieving the same accuracy as prescribed engineering-based methods. This study presents a method for selecting building variables, which even occupants can reliably collect and which at the same time contribute most to a data-driven method's predictive power. The method is tested and validated in a case study on a real-world data set containing 25,000 German single-family houses. Having all data collected by non-experts, results show that the data-driven method achieves about 35% higher accuracy than the currently used engineering method by qualified auditors. Our study proposes a stepwise method to design data-driven EPCs, outlines design recommendations, and derives policy implications. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial Intelligence in Energy Demand Response : A Taxonomy of Input Data Requirements
Michaelis, Anne; Halbrügge, Stephanie; Körner, Marc-Fabian et al

in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (2022)

The ongoing energy transition increases the share of renewable energy sources. To combat inherent intermittency of RES, increasing system flexibility forms a major opportunity. One way to provide ... [more ▼]

The ongoing energy transition increases the share of renewable energy sources. To combat inherent intermittency of RES, increasing system flexibility forms a major opportunity. One way to provide flexibility is demand response (DR). Research already reflects several approaches of artificial intelligence (AI) for DR. However, these approaches often lack considerations concerning their applicability, i.e., necessary input data. To help putting these algorithms into practice, the objective of this paper is to analyze, how input data requirements of AI approaches in the field of DR can be systematized from a practice-oriented information systems perspective. Therefore, we develop a taxonomy consisting of eight dimensions encompassing 30 characteristics. Our taxonomy contributes to research by illustrating how future AI approaches in the field of DR should represent their input data requirements. For practitioners, our developed taxonomy adds value as a structuring tool, e.g., to verify applicability with respect to input data requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailSystemic risks in electricity systems: A perspective on the potential of digital technologies
Körner, Marc-Fabian; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Energy Policy (2022), 164

In the last decades, several developments have transformed electricity systems in Europe towards liberalized and decentralized systems that are coupled inter-sectorally and inter-regionally. These ... [more ▼]

In the last decades, several developments have transformed electricity systems in Europe towards liberalized and decentralized systems that are coupled inter-sectorally and inter-regionally. These developments have yielded various significant benefits, such as increased efficiency and robustness. However, we argue that they have also caused new interdependencies and complexity with a corresponding increase in associated systemic risks, e.g., local failures may spread faster and more extensively throughout the system. In this paper, we illustrate how systemic risks may arise in European electricity systems by discussing three exemplary developments. We also discuss the decisive role of the digital transformation that, on the one hand, speeds up the transition of electricity systems and challenges electricity systems’ stability through rapid change, but on the other hand may also provide solutions to tackle systemic risks. We argue that, especially in a strongly interconnected world, policymakers must implement a global perspective on these critical and increasingly complex systems, requiring adequate cooperation with respect to data. Using an exemplary case from Germany, we finally illustrate how an intensified data exchange may help to address systemic risks. In this context, we draw a perspective on the potential of emerging digital technologies, like self-sovereign identities, blockchains, and privacy-enhancing technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailObstacles to demand response: Why industrial companies do not adapt their power consumption to volatile power generation
Leinauer, Christina; Schott, Paul; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy Policy (2022), 165

Various flexibility options in power systems, such as storage, grid expansion, and demand flexibility, gain increasing importance to balance the intermittent power supply of renewables. On the demand side ... [more ▼]

Various flexibility options in power systems, such as storage, grid expansion, and demand flexibility, gain increasing importance to balance the intermittent power supply of renewables. On the demand side, especially the industrial sector represents promising potential for Demand Response, i.e., the alignment of its power demand with the current power supply of renewables. However, there exist various obstacles that currently prevent companies from investing in new or (fully) exploiting existing flexibility potentials. In this paper, we investigate how economic, regulatory, technological, organizational, behavioral, informational, and competence obstacles pose barriers for companies to adjust their power consumption flexibly. For this purpose, we combine both a structured literature analysis and a case study. For the case study, we conduct 16 interviews with energy experts from companies from different industries. Our findings reveal that due to technical risk of disrupting the production process, lacking revenues, and too low cost savings, companies do not flexibilize their power consumption. Moreover, in particular, contradictory legislative incentives and missing IT standardization and interoperability represent key obstacles. Therefore, our results constitute a basis for targeted policy making in order to foster the exploitation of (existing) flexibility potential of industrial companies on the demand side. [less ▲]

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See detailHow different electricity pricing systems affect the energy trilemma: Assessing Indonesia's electricity market transition
Heffron, Raphael J.; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Sumarno, Theresia et al

in Energy Economics (2022), 107

Indonesia's current energy policy, which relies on cheap fossil fuels and focuses on two out of the three horns of the energy trilemma, namely, energy security and energy equity, may impede its efforts to ... [more ▼]

Indonesia's current energy policy, which relies on cheap fossil fuels and focuses on two out of the three horns of the energy trilemma, namely, energy security and energy equity, may impede its efforts to higher shares of renewable energy sources. This paper develops three generic models that allow policymakers to analyze the impact of introducing a wholesale electricity market managed under either a nodal, a zonal, or a uniform pricing system on the three horns of the energy trilemma. It evaluates the models using a simplified network representation of the Indonesian electricity sector. The results indicate that under the model assumptions made, and given the used input parameters as well as the used metrics for the three horns of the energy trilemma, a uniform pricing system might help Indonesia to balance its energy trilemma. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Germany achieved a record share of renewables during the COVID-19 pandemic while relying on the European interconnected power network
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy (2022)

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international ... [more ▼]

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international transmission flexibility, i.e., electricity imports and exports. In fact, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Germany changed from a former electricity net exporter to a net importer. This paper, therefore, analyzes what we can learn from the resulting development of German electricity imports as a flexibility measure from a market, environmental, and network perspective. We analyze data on electricity imports/exports, generation, prices, and interconnection capacities of 38 bidding zones, respectively 11 countries within the ENTSO-E. In particular, we formulate three hypotheses to partition our overarching research question. Our results reveal that from a market perspective, Germany's increased need for transmission flexibility did not generally result in increased prices for German electricity imports. Also, from an environmental perspective, Germany increasingly relied on electricity imports from countries that exhibited a lower share of renewables. Finally, during the COVID-19 pandemic some of Germany's interconnection capacities to its neighboring countries exhibited a higher utilization. In view of our results, German policymakers may reflect on decarbonization policies considering a holistic European perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration der Flexibilitätsvermarktung
Ahrens, Raphael; Köberlein, Jana; Bank, Lukas et al

in Energieflexibilität in der deutschen Industrie: Band 2 - Markt- und Stromsystem, Managementsysteme und Technologien energieflexibler Fabriken (DOI: https://doi.org/10.24406/publica-258) (2022)

Die Energiesynchronisationsplattform adressiert den gesamten Prozess des automatisierten Energieflexibilitätshandels von der Maschine bis zu den Vermarktungsservices. Sie stellt somit das übergeordnete ... [more ▼]

Die Energiesynchronisationsplattform adressiert den gesamten Prozess des automatisierten Energieflexibilitätshandels von der Maschine bis zu den Vermarktungsservices. Sie stellt somit das übergeordnete Gesamtkonzept eines digitalen Ökosystems dar, welches industrielle Nachfrageflexibilität ermöglicht. Die Energiesynchronisationsplattform besteht dabei aus unternehmensindividuellen Unternehmensplattformen und einer zentralen Marktplattform. Der Marktplattform kommt die Rolle der Servicevermittlung zu. Dies ermöglicht es, auf Veränderungen innerhalb der Services bzw. der Marktplattform schnell reagieren zu können. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden beispielhafte Services der Unternehmens- und Marktplattformen beschrieben. Zudem wird ein Überblick über die Referenzabläufe für den Betrieb und die Vermarktung von Energieflexibilität gegeben. Die Prozesse werden anhand eines möglichen Anwendungsfalls dargestellt. Außerdem wird das weiterentwickelte Energieflexibilitätsdatenmodell vorgestellt und anhand von vier Klassen beschrieben. Zur Bedrohungsanalyse im Kontext der IT-Sicherheit werden Threat Models (Bedrohungsmodelle) angewandt und auf Basis verschiedener Sicherheitslevels vorgestellt. Darüber hinaus werden Rollen- und Rechtedefinitionen beschrieben und Anforderungen an die IT-Sicherheit abgeleitet. Eine Kurzvorstellung entwickelter Demonstratoren schließt das Kapitel ab. [less ▲]

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See detailNot yet another digital identity
Rieger, Alexander UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Nature Human Behaviour (2021)

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See detailElectricity Market Design 2030-2050: Moving Towards Implementation
Ashour Novirdoust, Amir; Bhuiyan, Rajon UL; Bichler, Martin et al

Report (2021)

Climate change and ambitious emission-reduction targets call for an extensive decarbonization of electricity systems, with increasing levels of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and demand flexibility to ... [more ▼]

Climate change and ambitious emission-reduction targets call for an extensive decarbonization of electricity systems, with increasing levels of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and demand flexibility to balance the variable and intermittent electricity supply. A successful energy transition will lead to an economically and ecologically sustainable future with an affordable, reliable, and carbon-neutral supply of electricity. In order to achieve these objectives, a consistent and enabling market design is required. The Kopernikus Project SynErgie investigates how demand flexibility of the German industry can be leveraged and how a future-proof electricity market design should be organized, with more than 80 project partners from academia, industry, governmental and non-governmental organizations, energy suppliers, and network operators. In our SynErgie Whitepaper Electricity Spot Market Design 2030-2050 [1], we argued for a transition towards Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) (aka. nodal prices) in Germany in a single step as a core element of a sustainable German energy policy. We motivated a well-designed transition towards LMPs, discussed various challenges, and provided a new perspective on electricity market design in terms of technological opportunities, bid languages, and strategic implications. This second SynErgie Whitepaper Electricity Market Design 2030-2050: Moving Towards Implementation aims at further concretizing the future German market design and provides first guidelines for an implementation of LMPs in Germany. Numerical studies –while not being free of abstractions –give evidence that LMPs generate efficient locational price signals and contribute to manage the complex coordination challenge in (long-term) electricity markets, ultimately reducing price differences between nodes. Spot and derivatives markets require adjustments in order to enable an efficient dispatch and price discovery, while maintaining high liquidity and low transaction costs. Moreover, a successful LMP implementation requires an integration into European market coupling and appropriate interfaces for distribution grids as well as sector coupling. Strategic implications with regard to long-term investments need to be considered, along with mechanisms to support RES investments. As a facilitator for an LMP system, digital technologies should be considered jointly with the market design transition under an enabling regulatory framework. Additional policies can address distributional effects of an LMP system and further prevent market power abuse. Overall, we argue for a well-designed electricity spot market with LMPs, composed of various auctions at different time frames, delivering an efficient market clearing, considering grid constraints, co-optimizing ancillary services, and providing locational prices according to a carefully designed pricing scheme. The spot market is tightly integrated with liquid and accessible derivatives markets, embedded into European market coupling mechanisms, and allows for functional interfaces to distribution systems and other energy sectors. Long-term resource adequacy is ensured and existing RES policies transition properly to the new market design. Mechanisms to mitigate market power and distributional effects are in place and the market design leverages the potential of modern information technologies. Arapid expansion of wind andsolar capacity will be needed to decarbonize the integrated energy system but will most likely also increase the scarcity of the infrastructure. Therefore, an efficient use of the resource "grid" will be a key factor of a successful energy transition. The implementation of an LMPs system of prices with finer space and time granularity promises many upsides and can be a cornerstone for a futureproof electricity system, economic competitiveness, and a decarbonized economy and society. Among the upsides, demand response (and other market participants with opportunity costs) can be efficiently and coherently incentivized to address network constraints, a task zonal systems with redispatch fail at. The transition to LMPs requires a thorough consideration of all the details and specifications involved in the new market design. With this whitepaper, we provide relevant perspectives and first practical guidelines for this crucial milestone of the energy transition. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Identities and Verifiable Credentials
Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021), 63(5), 603-613

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their ... [more ▼]

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their physical credentials, and sometimes, they can decide to whom their credentials are disclosed. These familiar privileges inspired a new type of digital credential called a verifiable credential (VC). Similar to physical credentials, individuals can store their verifiable credentials in a so-called digital wallet on their mobile phone, on another edge device, or in the cloud, and they can use verifiable credentials for identification, authentication, and authorization. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency of Blockchain Technologies
Papageorgiou, Orestis UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

Report (2021)

The purpose of this thematic report is to present an updated view of the aspects related to the energy efficiency of blockchain technologies. The topic of energy consumption of blockchains and especially ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this thematic report is to present an updated view of the aspects related to the energy efficiency of blockchain technologies. The topic of energy consumption of blockchains and especially of the Bitcoin blockchain has recently triggered a lot of discussions and a debate has started on the topic of making Bitcoin a sustainable ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Evolution of an Architectural Paradigm - Using Blockchain to Build a Cross-Organizational Enterprise Service Bus
Amend, Julia; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, Hawaii (Virtual) (2021, April)

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational ... [more ▼]

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational workflow management systems, address these requirements through centralized process management and architectures. However, such centralization is difficult and often undesirable in federal contexts. One alternative solution that emphasizes decentralized process management and a decentralized architecture is the blockchain solution of Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we investigate the architecture of this solution and examine how it addresses the requirements of federal contexts. We find that the solution’s architecture resembles an improvement and cross-organizational adaption of an old architectural paradigm, the enterprise service bus. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Retail Banking: Potentiale und Herausforderungen Künstlicher Intelligenz
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Rägo, Vadim et al

Report (2021)

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See detailO'Dair, Marcus: Distributed Creativity
Smethurst, Reilly UL; Fridgen, Gilbert UL

in Zeitschrift für Urheber- und Medienrecht (2021), (11),

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See detailThe Blockchain Effect: From Inter-Ecosystem to Intra-Ecosystem Competition
Höß, Alexandra UL; Schlatt, Vincent; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) (2021)

Blockchains enable distributed operation, decentralized control, and token-based representations of tangible and intangible assets. Organizations commonly use blockchain technology to foster collaboration ... [more ▼]

Blockchains enable distributed operation, decentralized control, and token-based representations of tangible and intangible assets. Organizations commonly use blockchain technology to foster collaboration. In this paper, we investigate the use of blockchain to foster competition. We conduct a single-case study of Germany’s mobility-as-a-service community and its efforts to use blockchain as a technical backbone for mobility ecosystems. The community views blockchain as a technology that embodies organizing principles of empowerment and equality. These principles motivated the community to rethink ecosystem structure. In particular, the community began to question the exclusive, non-adversarial position of mobility service aggregators. We find that rethinking this position might shift their competitive focus from the inter- to the intra-ecosystem level and enables the creation of a larger ecosystem. As a second-order effect, the community began to rethink ecosystem governance. Specifically, it began to explore options for effectively distributed decision making while safeguarding efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailSmarter charging: Power allocation accounting for travel time of electric vehicle drivers
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Thimmel, Markus; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment (2021), 97

Growing electric vehicle (EV) dissemination will increase charging infrastructure installation at home. Similar daily routines are associated with high peak loads due to simultaneous EV charging. However ... [more ▼]

Growing electric vehicle (EV) dissemination will increase charging infrastructure installation at home. Similar daily routines are associated with high peak loads due to simultaneous EV charging. However, predominantly residential power transmission is not designed for such high loads, yielding charging bottlenecks and restricting future charging at home. Addressing such bottleneck situations and including the EV driver perspective, we introduce a power allocation mechanism that considers the total travel time of the upcoming trip, consisting of actual driving time and time required for charging externally (including the detour to public charging facilities). Assuming that travel time generally negatively correlates with EV driver utility, our optimization model maximizes the resulting utility of EV drivers. Avoiding unnecessary external charging stops due to an insufficient state of charge at the time of departure, our approach generates travel time savings that increase overall EV driver utility. We illustrate our approach using exemplary cases. [less ▲]

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