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See detailHow did the German and other European electricity systems react to the COVID-19 pandemic?
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Schott, Paul; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Applied Energy (2021), 285

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity ... [more ▼]

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity generation via Renewable Energy Sources rose above 55% in the first half of 2020, as compared to 47% for the same period in 2019. Given these altered circumstances, in this paper we analyze how the German and other European electricity systems behaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use data visualization and descriptive statistics to evaluate common figures for electricity systems and markets, comparing developments during the COVID-19 pandemic with those of previous years. Our evaluation reveals noticeable changes in electricity consumption, generation, prices, and imports/exports. However, concerning grid stability and ancillary services, we do not observe any irregularities. Discussing the role of various flexibility options during the COVID-19 pandemic, a relatively higher grid capacity resulting from a decreased electricity consumption, in particular, may have contributed to grid stability. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Blockchain to Coordinate Federal Processes: The Case of Germany's Federal Office for Migration and Refugees
Amend, Julia; van Dun, Christopher; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Urbach, Nils; Röglinger, Maximilian; Kautz, Karlheinz (Eds.) et al Digitalization Cases Vol. 2: Mastering Digital Transformation for Global Business (2021)

(a)Situation faced: The German asylum procedure requires close cooperation and information exchange between various authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels. Federal separation of ... [more ▼]

(a)Situation faced: The German asylum procedure requires close cooperation and information exchange between various authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels. Federal separation of competencies inhibits the delegation of process governance to a central authority such as the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). This separation also leads to regional differences as federal laws govern the procedure's general steps, whereas state laws govern implementation. Moreover, existing solutions for cross-organizational collaboration are limited in terms of flexibility, security, and data quality. As a result, the exchange of certain data on asylum procedures still occurs using Excel spreadsheets and e-mails.(b)Action taken: Against this backdrop, the BAMF explored technological options that would support the decentralized governance of the asylum procedure. After a preliminary evaluation, the BAMF decided to explore a solution based on blockchain technology. Building upon a successful proof of concept, the BAMF initiated a pilot project with Saxony's central immigration authority. This project aims to develop a blockchain solution that supports the coordination of asylum procedures and can be easily adapted to local differences and functional requirements.(c)Results achieved: The use of the blockchain solution allows for efficient, secure, and timely distribution of status information. It supports communication and improves coordination between authorities. Despite an apparent conflict between blockchain principles and data privacy requirements, the BAMF's design complies with relevant regulation (notably the GDPR). As a first-of-its-kind project, it outlines best practices and provides valuable insights into opportunities and challenges arising from the use of blockchain in the public sector.(d)Lessons learned: The BAMF's case demonstrates that blockchain solutions can be promising alternatives when the delegation of process governance to a central party is not desirable and when federal principles of organization are to be reflected technologically. However, blockchain projects require special attention to managing know-how and capabilities, software development activities, stakeholders, the regulatory context, and cross-organizational governance. [less ▲]

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See detailToken Economy
Sunyaev, Ali; Kannengießer, Niclas; Beck, Roman et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021)

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See detailEnergieflexibilitätsdatenmodell der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Duda, Sebastian; Schott, Paul et al

Report (2021)

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially ... [more ▼]

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially) automated information technology processing of a wide variety of flexibility. The aim is to develop a comprehensive data model to map flexibility in a flexibility space and concrete flexibility measures. The aim is not to create a completely realistic representation of a flexibility. The focus is on mapping technically and energetically relevant information in a granularity that enables the communication of flexibility between industrial companies and energy markets. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimierung auf der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Schlip, Johannes; Bank, Lukas; Köberlein, Jana et al

Report (2021)

This discussion paper is intended to present the range of optimisers developed in the SynErgie project and to go into more detail on the methodological aspects. In this discussion paper, a distinction is ... [more ▼]

This discussion paper is intended to present the range of optimisers developed in the SynErgie project and to go into more detail on the methodological aspects. In this discussion paper, a distinction is made between optimisers on the company platform and on the market platform. On the company platform, the goal is to ensure optimal operation of the plants, so that in addition to energy, other operational key figures are included in the analysis. These include various optimisers from production planning and control (PPC), which, in addition to energy costs, also track logistical target variables, such as the on-time delivery of products, as key figures. In addition to the production systems, the facilities of the technical building equipment (TGA) are also optimised on the company platform. Furthermore, within the discussion paper, we differentiate between energy-oriented and energy-flexible optimisation. Energy-oriented optimisation, pursues the goal of minimise energy costs, uses information from the energy markets, such as electricity price forecasts. With flexible optimisation, for example, flexibilities are determined or scheduled, which can then be transmitted to the market. The discussion paper also deals with the optimisation services of the optimisation services of the market platform, which determines the optimal marketing opportunity for the determined. The optimiser calculates the optimal time for different markets in order to maximise the proceeds of the maximise the revenue of the flexibility offered or minimise the costs. Should a flexibility provider decide to use a service to take over the marketing of his flexibility measure, information on the flexibility is transmitted between the flexibility is transmitted between the service and the company in order to be able to implement the measure in the company. [less ▲]

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See detailReferenzarchitektur der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; van Stiphoudt, Christine UL et al

Report (2021)

The Energy Synchronisation Platform (ESP) maps the entire process of information-automated energy flexibility trading from the machine to the energy market. The ESP is thus the overall concept that ... [more ▼]

The Energy Synchronisation Platform (ESP) maps the entire process of information-automated energy flexibility trading from the machine to the energy market. The ESP is thus the overall concept that enables industrial demand flexibility. This discussion paper on the ESP reference architecture is an update of an older version presented in Reinhart et al. (2020). Since then, the development of individual services has been discontinued and the market platform (MP) is no longer designed as a broker architecture. It now serves as the first point of contact between industrial companies and service providers and takes on an intermediary role. The Enterprise Platform (UP) thus takes on a more important role in terms of communication within ESP, as all communication with services now takes place via the UP. Furthermore, in this detailed discussion paper we provide a collection of the different services that have been developed within SynErgie for the MP and the UP. Each service presented includes a brief description, the relevant inputs and outputs, and other relevant comments. Furthermore, an overview of the primary reference processes considered for the operation and marketing of flexibility is provided. These are presented on the basis of three possible use cases. Thus, logic and interactions of the different processes within the ESP are shown [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity Spot Market Design 2030-2050
Novirdoust, Amir Ashour; Bichler, Martin; Bojung, Caroline UL et al

Report (2021)

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce ... [more ▼]

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce harmful CO2 emissions. The German government plans that even before the year 2050, all electricity generated and consumed in Germany should be greenhouse gas neutral [1]. To successfully integrate renewable energies, a future energy system must be able to handle the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. One important means to address such electricity production variability is demand-side flexibility. Here, industry plays a major role in responding to variable electricity supply with adequate flexibility. This is where the Kopernikus project SynErgie comes in with more than 80 project partners from academia, industry, governmental, and non-governmental organizations as well as energy suppliers and network operators. The Kopernikus project SynErgie investigates how to best leverage demand-side flexibility in the German industry. The current electricity market design in Germany is not well suited to deal with increasing levels of re- newable energy, and it does not embrace demand-side flexibility. Almost 6 GW of curtailed power in 2019 provide evidence that changes are needed with respect to the rules governing electricity markets. These rules were designed at a time when electricity generation was concentrated on a few large and dispatchable conventional power plants and demand was considered inelastic. The SynErgie Cluster IV investigates how a future-proof electricity market design should be organized. The corresponding Work Package IV.3.1 more specifically deals with analyzing and designing allocation and pricing rules on electricity spot markets. The resulting design must be well suited to accommodate demand-side flexibility and address the intermittent nature of important renewable energy sources. This whitepaper is the result of a fruitful collaboration among the partners involved in SynErgie Cluster IV which include Germany’s leading research organizations and practitioners in the field. The collaboration led to an expert workshop in October 2020 with participation from a number of international energy market experts such as Mette Bjørndal (NHH), Endre Bjørndal (NHH), Peter Cramton (University of Maryland and University of Cologne), and Raphael Heffron (University of Dundee). The whitepaper details the key recommendations from this workshop. In particular, the whitepaper recommends a move to a locational, marginal price-based system together with new bidding formats allowing to better express flexibility. We argue in favor of a one-step introduction of locational, marginal prices instead of repeatedly splitting existing zones. Frequent zone splitting involves recurring political debates as well as short- and long-run instabilities affecting the basis for financial con- tracts, for example. Importantly, the definition of stable prize zones is very challenging with increasing levels of distributed and renewable energy sources. The recommendation is the outcome of an intense debate about advantages and downsides of different policy alternatives. However, such a transition to locational, marginal prices is not without challenges, and it is a call to arms for the research community, policymak- ers, and practitioners to develop concepts on how to best facilitate the transition and ensure a reliable and efficient electricity market of the future. We’d like to thank all the project partners and are grateful for the financial support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as well as the Project Management Jülich. Hans Ulrich Buhl (Cluster Lead) Martin Bichler (Work Package Lead) [less ▲]

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See detailEin Blick auf aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Blockchains und deren Auswirkungen auf den Energieverbrauch
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Informatik-Spektrum (2020)

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However ... [more ▼]

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However, blockchain technology is far from homogeneous—not only with regard to its applications, which now go far beyond cryptocurrencies and have reached businesses and the public sector, but also with regard to its technical characteristics and, in particular, its power consumption. This paper summarizes the status quo of the power consumption of various implementations of blockchain technology, with special emphasis on the recent ‘‘Bitcoin Halving’’ and so-called ‘‘zk-rollups’’. We argue that although Bitcoin and other proof-of-work blockchains do indeed consume a lot of power, alternative blockchain solutions with significantly lower power consumption are already available today, and new promising concepts are being tested that could further reduce in particulary the power consumption of large blockchain networks in the near future. From this we conclude that although the criticism of Bitcoin’s power consumption is legitimate, it should not be used to derive an energy problem of blockchain technology in general. In many cases in which processes can be digitized or improved with the help of more energy-efficient blockchain variants, one can even expect net energy savings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe search for the perfect match: Aligning power-trading products to the energy transition
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Michaelis, Anne; Rinck, Maximilian et al

in Energy Policy (2020), 144

Given the growing share of uncertain renewable energy production, the energy transition challenges modern power systems and especially calls for increased flexibility. However, relevant information on the ... [more ▼]

Given the growing share of uncertain renewable energy production, the energy transition challenges modern power systems and especially calls for increased flexibility. However, relevant information on the highly assetspecific flexibility potential is typically only known to plant operators themselves and not, e.g., to transmission system operators. Therefore, liberalized electricity markets use prices that set explicit monetary incentives to disclose the relevant private information about the market participants’ assets. In this way, information asymmetries may be reduced. Given the different challenges of an integration of renewables, we argue that the associated new forms of volatile power profiles require new forms of power-trading products. In particular, based on recent advances in technical power measurement and billing, individual and market participant-specific power profiles may be superior to the current trading of average volumes. Against this background, we first outline various evolutionary adjustments of existing power-trading products and their underlying product parameters including (1) strengthening local pricing, (2) finer temporal granularity, (3) smaller minimum volume, and (4) shorter gate-closure time. Second, we open up a new perspective in form of a more disruptive shift towards power-profile trade, where market participants define their trading product using the actual power profile as a new product parameter. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustrial demand-side flexibility: A key element of a just energy transition and industrial development
Heffron, Raphael; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Wagner, Jonathan et al

in Applied Energy (2020)

In many countries, industry is one of the largest consumers of electricity. Given the special importance of electricity for industry, a reliable electricity supply is a basic prerequisite for further ... [more ▼]

In many countries, industry is one of the largest consumers of electricity. Given the special importance of electricity for industry, a reliable electricity supply is a basic prerequisite for further industrial development and associated economic growth. As countries worldwide transition to a low-carbon economy (in particular, by the development of renewable energy sources), the increasing fluctuation in renewable energy production requires new flexibility options within the electricity system in order to guarantee security of supply. It is advanced in this paper that such a flexibility transition with an active participation of industry in general has unique potential: It will not only promote green industrial development, but also become an engine for inclusive industrial development and growth as well as delivering a just transition to a low-carbon economy. Given the high potential of industrial demand-side flexibility, a first monitoring approach for such a flexibility transition is illustrated, which bases on a flexibility index. Our flexibility index allows for an indication of mis-developments and supports an appropriate implementation of countermeasures together with relevant stakeholders. Hence, it holds various insights for both policy-makers and practice with respect to how industrial demand-side flexibility can ensure advances towards an inclusive, just, and sustainable industrial development. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting Citizens’ Political Decision-Making Using Information Visualisation
Graf, Vanessa; Graf-Drasch, Valerie; Tiefenbeck, Verena et al

in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) (2020, June 17)

Individual decision-making is a complex process. If carried out by individual citizens in the context of politically relevant decisions, serious consequences at all levels of a society might occur. That ... [more ▼]

Individual decision-making is a complex process. If carried out by individual citizens in the context of politically relevant decisions, serious consequences at all levels of a society might occur. That is why these decisions need to be made with care and preferably on a broad set of information to reflect citizens’ true preferences. However, due to limited attention, citizens often consider only salient aspects in their decision-making. To mitigate unwanted consequences following therefrom, citizens are in dire need of decision-support. We address this need by developing an Information Systems (IS) tool. Being based on information visualisation, our tool supports citizens by providing instant feedback. To ensure a meaningful engagement, the IS tool is designed according to gamification principles. A first instantiation in the context of renewable energy acceptance in Germany yields three key findings: First, we find indications that young, urban, and environmentally aware citizens are willing to accept a high percentage of renewable wind energy. Second, we find that the tool influences citizens’ decision-making. Third, we find citizens to update, however not completely turn over their preferred level of renewable wind energy after interaction with the tool. This holds true across different cross-sections of the population. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Energy Consumption of Blockchain Technology: Beyond Myth
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2020)

When talking about blockchain technology in academia, business, and society, frequently generalizations are still heared about its – supposedly inherent – enormous energy consumption. This perception ... [more ▼]

When talking about blockchain technology in academia, business, and society, frequently generalizations are still heared about its – supposedly inherent – enormous energy consumption. This perception inevitably raises concerns about the further adoption of blockchain technology, a fact that inhibits rapid uptake of what is widely considered to be a groundbreaking and disruptive innovation. However, blockchain technology is far from homogeneous, meaning that blanket statements about its energy consumption should be reviewed with care. The article is meant to bring clarity to the topic in a holistic fashion,looking beyond claims regarding the energy consumption of Bitcoin, which have, so far, dominated the discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe token’s secret: the two-faced financial incentive of the token economy
Drasch, Benedict J; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Manner-Romberg, Tobias et al

in Electronic Markets (2020)

Multi-sided platforms are omnipresent in today’s digital world. However, establishing a platform includes challenges: The platform utility usually increases with the number of participants. At an early ... [more ▼]

Multi-sided platforms are omnipresent in today’s digital world. However, establishing a platform includes challenges: The platform utility usually increases with the number of participants. At an early stage, potential participants expect the platform utility to be low and lack an incentive to join (i.e., “chicken and egg” problem). Blockchain-enabled utility tokens hold the promise to overcome this problem. They supposedly provide a suitable financial incentive for their owners to join the platform as soon as possible. In the first half of 2018, investors seemed to believe in the presumption and spent more than US$ 17.6 billion in token sales. To date, we know little about this financial incentive in the context of the token economy. For this purpose, we model the token value development and the associated incentives in a multi-sided blockchain-enabled platform. The resulting findings suggest that blockchain-enabled utility tokens can help to overcome the “chicken and egg” problem. However, these tokens lead to contradictory incentives for platform participants, and can even inhibit platform usage. The contribution of our work is twofold: First, we develop one of the first models for token value development. Second, our research contributes to a deeper understanding of the utility token’s financial incentive. [less ▲]

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See detailThe insurance effect of renewable distributed energy resources against uncertain electricity price developments
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Halbrügge, Stephanie; Olenberger, Christian et al

in Energy Economics (2020), 91

To combat climate change, many countries all around the world currently foster the development of renewable energy sources (RES). However, in contrast to traditional energy systems that relied on few ... [more ▼]

To combat climate change, many countries all around the world currently foster the development of renewable energy sources (RES). However, in contrast to traditional energy systems that relied on few central power plants, RES are typically highly decentral and spread all over a country. Against this backdrop, the promotion of a decentralization of the energy system by fostering a regional balance of energy demand and supply with a corresponding increase in energy democracy is seen as a promising approach. However, energy democracy driven by an increasing involvement of consumers requires adequate investments of consumers in their own local RES in order to become active players, usually called prosumers. Risk associated with uncertain long-term electricity price developments is generally seen as a barrier to investments. In contrast, we describe that an investment in distributed energy resources (DERs) may actually serve as a consumer's insurance against price risk. Our results set out that the consideration of risk-aversion may actually positively shift an investment decision in renewable DERs. This is due to the prosumer becoming more self-sufficient and less dependent on uncertain price developments. To analyze such an insurance effect, we create a formal decision model considering the prosumer's risk-aversion and derive the prosumer's optimal investment in renewable DERs. However, our results also indicate that under some circumstances the insurance effect disappears: When a prosumer turns into a predominant producer, the prosumer is again exposed to risk in terms of uncertain revenues. Ultimately, our work highlights the importance of a consideration of the insurance effect when assessing an investment in renewable DERs. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Develop a GDPR-Compliant Blockchain Solution for Cross-Organizational Workflow Management: Evidence from the German Asylum Procedure.
Guggenmos, Florian; Lockl, Jannik; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020 (2020)

Blockchain technology has the potential to resolve trust concerns in cross-organizational workflows and to reduce reliance on paper-based documents as trust anchors. Although these prospects are real, so ... [more ▼]

Blockchain technology has the potential to resolve trust concerns in cross-organizational workflows and to reduce reliance on paper-based documents as trust anchors. Although these prospects are real, so is regulatory uncertainty. In particular, the reconciliation of blockchain with Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is proving to be a significant challenge. We tackled this challenge with the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we explain how we used Action Research to guide the Federal Office in creating a GDPR-compliant blockchain solution for the German asylum procedure. Moreover, we explain the architecture of the Federal Office’s solution and present two design principles for developing GDPR- compliant blockchain solutions for cross- organizational workflow management. [less ▲]

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See detailDemand response through automated air conditioning in commercial buildings—a data-driven approach
Drasch, Benedict J.; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Häfner, Lukas

in Business Research (2020), 13(3), 1491--1525

Building operation faces great challenges in electricity cost control as prices on electricity markets become increasingly volatile. Simultaneously, building operators could nowadays be empowered with ... [more ▼]

Building operation faces great challenges in electricity cost control as prices on electricity markets become increasingly volatile. Simultaneously, building operators could nowadays be empowered with information and communication technology that dynamically integrates relevant information sources, predicts future electricity prices and demand, and uses smart control to enable electricity cost savings. In particular, data-driven decision support systems would allow the utilization of temporal flexibilities in electricity consumption by shifting load to times of lower electricity prices. To contribute to this development, we propose a simple, general, and forward-looking demand response (DR) approach that can be part of future data-driven decision support systems in the domain of building electricity management. For the special use case of building air conditioning systems, our DR approach decides in periodic increments whether to exercise air conditioning in regard to future electricity prices and demand. The decision is made based on an ex-ante estimation by comparing the total expected electricity costs for all possible activation periods. For the prediction of future electricity prices, we draw on existing work and refine a prediction method for our purpose. To determine future electricity demand, we analyze historical data and derive data-driven dependencies. We embed the DR approach into a four-step framework and demonstrate its validity, utility and quality within an evaluation using real-world data from two public buildings in the US. Thereby, we address a real-world business case and find significant cost savings potential when using our DR approach. [less ▲]

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See detailScheduling Flexible Demand in Cloud Computing Spot Markets
Keller, Robert; Häfner, Lukas; Sachs, Thomas et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2020), 62(1), 25--39

The rapid standardization and specialization of cloud computing services have led to the development of cloud spot markets on which cloud service providers and customers can trade in near real-time ... [more ▼]

The rapid standardization and specialization of cloud computing services have led to the development of cloud spot markets on which cloud service providers and customers can trade in near real-time. Frequent changes in demand and supply give rise to spot prices that vary throughout the day. Cloud customers often have temporal flexibility to execute their jobs before a specific deadline. In this paper, the authors apply real options analysis (ROA), which is an established valuation method designed to capture the flexibility of action under uncertainty. They adapt and compare multiple discrete-time approaches that enable cloud customers to quantify and exploit the monetary value of their short-term temporal flexibility. The paper contributes to the field by guaranteeing cloud job execution of variable-time requests in a single cloud spot market, whereas existing multi-market strategies may not fulfill requests when outbid. In a broad simulation of scenarios for the use of Amazon EC2 spot instances, the developed approaches exploit the existing savings potential up to 40 percent – a considerable extent. Moreover, the results demonstrate that ROA, which explicitly considers time-of-day-specific spot price patterns, outperforms traditional option pricing models and expectation optimization. [less ▲]

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See detailStrukturierte Analyse von Nachfrageflexibilität im Stromsystem und Ableitung eines generischen Geschäftsmodells für (stromintensive) Unternehmen
Haupt, Leon; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Schoepf, Michael UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft (2020)

The expansion of renewable energy requires appropriate flexibility in the electricity system in order to maintain the balance between electricity generation and consumption at all times. The industrial ... [more ▼]

The expansion of renewable energy requires appropriate flexibility in the electricity system in order to maintain the balance between electricity generation and consumption at all times. The industrial sector plays a central role for a successful energy transition due to the power-intensive processes and the resulting high electricity demand. Industrial demand response may be a cost-effective alternative to other flexibility options. At the same time, companies can reduce electricity procurement costs by providing demand response. Nevertheless, due to a complex decision-making environment and a lack of planning security, only a few companies are currently exploiting the existing potential. To reach the goals of the energy transition, the potential used must still be raised significantly, i.e., companies must align their demand for electricity more closely to the existing supply of electricity. This article supports companies in this transformation process by illustrating dimensions and characteristics of a business model for demand response. Through a literature study and subsequent expert workshops, a generic business model for companies is derived that provides transparency regarding the necessary activities and resources for enabling and implementing demand response. The results were developed using the established Business Model Canvas. This supports companies that have not yet started to use demand response in their business model development and thus reduces barriers to entry. The results presented contribute to an increase in the demand response potential of the industry. [less ▲]

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See detailA holistic view on sector coupling
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Keller, Robert; Körner, Marc-Fabian et al

in Energy Policy (2020), 147

Sector coupling (SC) describes the concept of a purposeful connection and interaction of energy sectors to increase the flexibility of supply, demand, and storing. While SC is linked to research on smart ... [more ▼]

Sector coupling (SC) describes the concept of a purposeful connection and interaction of energy sectors to increase the flexibility of supply, demand, and storing. While SC is linked to research on smart energy system and locates itself in the research stream of 100% renewable energy systems, it currently focusses on counteracting challenges of temporal energy balancing induced by the intermittent feed-in of renewable energy sources. As regarding the coupling of grids, SC currently remains within classical energy grids. It does not exploit the coupled sectors’ potential to its full extent and, hence, lacks a holistic view. To include this view, we call on the use of all grids from coupled sectors for spatial energy transportation, resulting in an infrastructural system. By using the different loss structures of coupled grids, we illustrate how a holistic view on SC minimizes transportation losses. We argue that SC should include all grids that transport whichever type of energy (e.g., even transportation or communication grids). Ultimately, we derive and discuss implications relevant for policy makers and research: We illustrate why regulation and market design should be aligned in a way that the resulting incentives within and across the different sectors support climate change goals. [less ▲]

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