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See detailThe gambling craving experience questionnaire: Psychometric properties of a new scale based on the elaborated intrusion theory of desire
Cornil, Aurélien; Long, Jiang; Rothen, Stéphane et al

in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 95

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire ... [more ▼]

Both research and clinical practice acknowledge the importance of craving as a maintenance and relapse factor in gambling disorder. The elaborated intrusion theory (EIT; Kavanagh et al., 2005) of desire has been extensively investigated in relation to psychoactive substance or food cravings but, to date, has scarcely been studied in relation to gambling. In such a context, developing an assessment tool of gambling craving based on the EIT is warranted. To fill this gap in the literature, we aimed to develop and test the psychometric properties of a gambling-adapted version of the Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; May et al., 2014), which is the best established measure of craving theoretically anchored in the EIT. An online survey that included the gambling CEQ (g-CEQ) and a craving induction procedure was administered to 274 community participants involved in gambling at least a few times a year. Concurrent and convergent validity were explored through correlations with a scale that measured gambling urge and with a series of questionnaires that measured disordered gambling symptoms, gambling cognitions, and gambling motives. The confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the expected three-factor model of the “strength” and “frequency” forms of the g-CEQ and showed better model fit than a one-factor solution, corroborating the initial structure of the CEQ. Furthermore, the scale has good internal consistency and its validity is supported by correlations with gambling-related constructs. The g-CEQ is thus a theoretically and psychometrically sound instrument to measure gambling craving based on the EIT. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociation in Problematic Gaming: a Systematic Review
Guglielmucci, Fanny; Monti, Massimiliano; Franzoi, Isabella G. et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2019), 6(1), 1-14

Purpose of Review The present article consists of a systematic review of recent (2007–2018) empirical studies addressing the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation. Nineteen peer ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review The present article consists of a systematic review of recent (2007–2018) empirical studies addressing the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation. Nineteen peer-reviewed empirical studies that examined the relationship between problematic gaming and dissociation were identified. Recent Findings The findings suggest that excessive video game use is linked to a variety of dissociative phenomena (e.g. depersonalisation experiences, escapism, psychotic-like experiences, game transfer phenomena). Summary Dissociative experiences are associated with problematic gaming. The findings support the hypothesis that problematic video game use can represent a maladaptive coping strategy onwhich people can rely to escape from disturbing mental states, adverse emotions or real-life problems. In these circumstances, dissociative symptoms might represent the side effects of an alteration in consciousness that is generated by excessive video game use. However, further research (especially experimental and longitudinal) is required in order to establish a potential causal link between problematic gaming patterns and dissociation. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic video game use as an emotional coping strategy: Evidence from a sample of MMORPG gamers.
Blasi, Maria Di; Giardina, Alessandro; Giordano, Cecilia et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2019), 8(1), 25-34

BACKGROUND: A positive relationship between problematic gaming and escapism motivation to play video games has been well established, suggesting that problematic gaming may result from attempts to deal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A positive relationship between problematic gaming and escapism motivation to play video games has been well established, suggesting that problematic gaming may result from attempts to deal with negative emotions. However, to date, no study has examined how emotion dysregulation affects both escapism motives and problematic gaming patterns. METHODS: Difficulties in emotion regulation, escapism, and problematic involvement with video games were assessed in a sample of 390 World of Warcraft players. A structural equation modeling framework was used to test the hypothesis that escapism mediates the relationship between emotion dysregulation and problematic gaming. RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that difficulties in emotion regulation predicted both escapism motives and problematic gaming, and that escapism partially mediated this relationship. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the view that problematic players are likely to escape in online games as a maladaptive coping strategy for dealing with adverse emotional experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of childhood emotional maltreatment and body image dissatisfaction in problematic smartphone use among adolescents
Emirtekin⁠, Emrah; Balta, Sabah; Sural, İrfan et al

in Psychiatry Research (2019), 271

Growing empirical evidence has identified specific psychological and contextual risk factors associated with problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, the potential direct and indirect impact of ... [more ▼]

Growing empirical evidence has identified specific psychological and contextual risk factors associated with problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, the potential direct and indirect impact of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) on PSU remains largely unexplored, despite the established role of CEM in the onset of other excessive, problematic, and addictive behaviors. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to test the direct and indirect relationships of emotional abuse and neglect (two facets of CEM) with PSU via specific mediational pathways including body image dissatisfaction (BID), social anxiety, and depression. The sample comprised 443 adolescents who completed a questionnaire that included assessment tools of aforementioned variables. Multiple mediation model results indicated that CEM was directly and indirectly associated with PSU via BID, depression, BID-related depression, and BID-related social anxiety. Results suggested that emotionally traumatic experiences were associated with PSU in adolescents and that this relationship may partially be explained by BID and psychosocial risk factors. The present study draws caution to the amplifying roles of CEM and BID on increased PSU. The results of the study have important clinical and public health implications, but additional research is needed before interventions can be developed and implemented on the basis of present results. [less ▲]

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See detailUnfair play? Video games as exploitative monetized services: An examination of game patents from a consumer protection perspective
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Gainsbury, Sally M. et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 101

ABSTRACT Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections related to in-game purchasing by anticipating some of the potential design strategies that might contribute to higher risk consumer behavior. Attention was directed towards the analysis of patents for potential in-game purchasing systems, with 13 identified on Google Patents. The design features were analysed in relation to the consumer rights and guarantees described in the terms of use agreements of the patent assignees. The analysis revealed that some in-game purchasing systems could be characterized as unfair or exploitative. These systems describe tactics that capitalize on informational advantages (e.g., behavioral tracking) and data manipulation (e.g., price manipulation) to optimize offers to incentivize continuous spending, while offering limited or no guarantees or protections (e.g., refund entitlement), with the potential to exploit vulnerable players (e.g., adolescents, problematic gamers). These findings are critically discussed in relation to behavioral economics, addiction psychology, and the clinical conceptualization of gaming disorder. Appropriate policy and consumer protection measures, psychologically informed interventions, and ethical game design guidelines are needed in order to protect the interests and wellbeing of consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailLogic, evidence and consensus: Towards a more constructive debate on gaming disorder.
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Potenza, Marc N. et al

in The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (2019), 53(11), 1047-1049

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See detailMaladaptive player-game relationships in problematic gaming and gaming disorder: A systematic review.
King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Perales, Jose C. et al

in Clinical psychology review (2019), 73

While certain player vulnerabilities are known to increase risk of gaming disorder (GD), the topic of maladaptive playerxgame relationships in GD has received limited attention. This review aimed to: (1 ... [more ▼]

While certain player vulnerabilities are known to increase risk of gaming disorder (GD), the topic of maladaptive playerxgame relationships in GD has received limited attention. This review aimed to: (1) identify game types associated with GD symptomatology; and (2) evaluate individual differences (e.g., age, personality, depression) in the relationship between gaming and GD symptomatology. A systematic review of six databases identified 23 studies of the relations between game types and GD, including 13 studies employing multivariate analyses. Player vulnerabilities implicated in GD included impulsivity, risk-taking, psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), and stronger gaming motivations (e.g., escapism, achievement). MMORPG involvement had the strongest positive association with GD. Problematic MMORPG players tend to have a socially anxious profile and may be attracted to the work-like roles and conventions of this genre. Problematic players of shooters tend to score higher on measures of sensation-seeking and impulsivity than other players. These findings suggest that GD may develop more readily and at more severe levels in complex, endless, socially driven games, irrespective of person-level characteristics. Some player vulnerabilities may selectively increase risk of GD for certain game types. Further research should investigate different player-game interactions to refine current models and interventions for GD. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotion-related impulsivity moderates the cognitive interference effect of smartphone availability on working memory.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Doro, Mattia et al

in Scientific reports (2019), 9(1), 18519

Although recent studies suggest that the mere presence of a smartphone might negatively impact on working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and attentional processes, less is known about the individual ... [more ▼]

Although recent studies suggest that the mere presence of a smartphone might negatively impact on working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and attentional processes, less is known about the individual differences that are liable to moderate this cognitive interference effect. This study tested whether individual differences in emotion-related impulsivity traits (positive urgency and negative urgency) moderate the effect of smartphone availability on cognitive performance. We designed an experiment in which 132 college students (age 18-25 years) completed a laboratory task that assessed visual working memory capacity in three different conditions: two conditions differing in terms of smartphone availability (smartphone turned off and visible, smartphone in silent mode and visible) and a condition in which the smartphone was not available and was replaced by a calculator (control condition). Participants also completed self-reports that assessed their thoughts after the task performance, positive/negative urgency, and problematic smartphone use. The results showed that participants with higher positive urgency presented increased cognitive interference (reflected by poorer task performance) in the "silent-mode smartphone" condition compared with participants in the "turned-off smartphone" condition. The present study provides new insights into the psychological factors that explain how smartphone availability is liable to interfere with high-level cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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See detailReconsidering the roots, structure, and implications of gambling motives: An integrative approach.
Barrada, Juan R.; Navas, Juan F.; Ruiz de Lara, Cristian M. et al

in PloS one (2019), 14(2), 0212695

RATIONALE AND METHOD: Accurately identifying motives to gamble is crucial in the functional analysis of gambling behavior. In this study, a data-driven approach was followed to clarify the factor ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE AND METHOD: Accurately identifying motives to gamble is crucial in the functional analysis of gambling behavior. In this study, a data-driven approach was followed to clarify the factor structure underlying a pool of motives for gambling, selected from the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial (GMQ-F), and the Reasons for Gambling Questionnaire (RGQ), in a sample of regular problem and non-problem gamblers. Additionally, the role of gambling motives in the relationship between root behavioral activation/inhibition systems (BIS/BAS) and gambling severity, frequency, and preferences was explored using structural equation modelling (SEM). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified Social, Financial, and Fun/thrill-related gambling motives factors, but also a fourth factor in which some positive and negative reinforcement-based motives were grouped into a single and broader Affect regulation factor. This Affect regulation factor shared variance both with BIS and BAS-related measures, and was the only direct predictor of disordered gambling symptoms. The Fun/thrill factor was directly related to frequency of participation in high-arousal, skill-based games, and all factors were related to participation in lower-arousal, chance games (with Social motives negatively predicting both participation in the latter and total severity). In the SEM model, measures of BIS/BAS sensitivity were connected to gambling behavior only through gambling motives. Based on measures of items' specificity, a shortened Spanish scale (the brief Gambling Motives Inventory, bGMI) is proposed to assess gambling motives in accordance with the observed 4-factor structure. [less ▲]

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See detailAddictions (Section: Nouveautés en Médecine 2018)
Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Billieux, Joël UL; Achab, Sophia et al

in Revue medicale suisse (2019), 15(N° 632-633), 14-16

New drugs available in a click, plethora of games, new regulations on cannabis, addiction medicine has a lot to do ! In 2018, Switzerland recognized a training certificate in addiction medicine ... [more ▼]

New drugs available in a click, plethora of games, new regulations on cannabis, addiction medicine has a lot to do ! In 2018, Switzerland recognized a training certificate in addiction medicine, pathological gambling entered into ICD-11 and vaping, first considered with suspicion, found a place in the pharmacopoeia of the fight against tobacco. That's not all, on the alcohol front, we realized that even a small glass can hurt and the medicine of addictions evolved towards models of recovery that aim to improve quality of life with chronic diseases. Finally, the American opioid prescription epidemic is worrying in Switzerland, even if the situation and the context are very different. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Challenges in the Study of Behavioral Addictions: a Call for High Standard Methodologies
Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Brandt, Dominique; Demetrovics, Zsolt et al

in Current Addiction Reports (2019), 6(3), 331-337

Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the ... [more ▼]

Purpose of Review The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) categorizes gambling disorder in the section on substance-related and addictive disorders, and the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes both gambling and gaming disorder as disorders due to addictive behaviors. However, there is less evidence for other putative behavioral addictions. This review focuses on requirements for epidemiological studies of disorders that may be considered as behavioral addictions and compares the current state of research with principles of sound epidemiological research. Recent Findings In studies of behavioral addictions, samples are often quite small, which may lead to increased random error. The lack of sound assessment tools—particularly the lack of agreed-upon diagnostic criteria and standardized diagnostic interviews—may also increase systematic error. Other concerns related to systematic bias include the use of convenience samples, lack of pro-active recruitment, inadequate assessment of confounding variables, and a dearth of representative and longitudinal studies. Summary This review recommends that future studies of putative behavioral addictions should more closely adhere to methodological standards of epidemiological research to reduce random and systematic error. Specific recommendations are detailed to advance epidemiological research in this area with the aim of improving the evidence base and generating more refined public health recommendations and policies. [less ▲]

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See detailTen-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10): Measurement invariance and cross-cultural validation across seven language-based samples
Király, Orsolya; Bothe, Beáta; Ramos-Diaz, Jano et al

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2019), 33(1), 91-103

The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... [more ▼]

The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM–5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. According to initial studies conducted in 2014, the instrument showed promising psychometric characteristics. The present study tested the psychometric properties, including language and gender invariance, in a large international sample of online gamers. In this study, data were collected from 7,193 participants comprising Hungarian (n = 3,924), Iranian (n = 791), English-speaking (n = 754), French-speaking (n = 421), Norwegian (n = 195), Czech (n = 496), and Peruvian (n = 612) online gamers via gaming-related websites and gaming-related social-networking-site groups. A unidimensional factor structure provided a good fit to the data in all language-based samples. In addition, results indicated both language and gender invariance on the level of scalar invariance. Criterion and construct validity of the IGDT-10 was supported by its strong association with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire and moderate association with weekly gaming time, psychopathological symptoms, and impulsivity. The proportions of each sample that met the cut-off score on the IGDT-10 varied between 1.61% and 4.48% in the individual samples, except for the Peruvian sample (13.44%). The IGDT-10 shows robust psychometric properties and appears suitable for conducting cross-cultural and gender comparisons across seven languages. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Cultural Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale in Four Forms and Eight Languages
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J. et al

in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (2019), 22(7), 451-464

Abstract The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple ... [more ▼]

Abstract The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple adaptations of this instrument have led to versions in different languages (e.g., Arabic and French), and different numbers of items (e.g., from 5 to 16 items instead of the original 14). However, to date, the CIUS has never been simultaneously compared and validated in several languages and different versions. Consequently, the present study tested the psychometric properties of four CIUS versions (i.e., CIUS-14, CIUS-9, CIUS-7, and CIUS-5) across eight languages (i.e., German, French, English, Finnish, Spanish, Italian, Polish, and Hungarian) to (a) examine their psychometric properties, and (b) test their measurement invariance. These analyses also identified the optimal versions of the CIUS. The data were collected via online surveys administered to 4,226 voluntary participants from 15 countries, aged at least 18 years, and recruited from academic environments. All brief versions of the CIUS in all eight languages were validated. Dimensional, configural, and metric invariance were established across all languages for the CIUS-5, CIUS-7, and CIUS-9, but the CIUS-5 and CIUS-7 were slightly more suitable because their model fitted the ordinal estimate better, while for cross-comparisons, the CIUS-9 was slightly better. The brief versions of the CIUS are therefore reliable and structurally stable instruments that can be used for cross-cultural research across adult populations. [less ▲]

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See detailA transdiagnostic dimensional approach towards a neuropsychological assessment for addiction: an international Delphi consensus study.
Yucel, Murat; Oldenhof, Erin; Ahmed, Serge et al

in Addiction (2019), 114(6), 1095-1109

BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) seek to stimulate research into biologically validated neuropsychological dimensions across mental illness symptoms and diagnoses. The RDoC framework comprises 39 functional constructs designed to be revised and refined, with the overall goal to improve diagnostic validity and treatments. This study aimed to reach a consensus among experts in the addiction field on the 'primary' RDoC constructs most relevant to substance and behavioural addictions. METHODS: Forty-four addiction experts were recruited from Australia, Asia, Europe and the Americas. The Delphi technique was used to determine a consensus as to the degree of importance of each construct in understanding the essential dimensions underpinning addictive behaviours. Expert opinions were canvassed online over three rounds (97% completion rate), with each consecutive round offering feedback for experts to review their opinions. RESULTS: Seven constructs were endorsed by >/=80% of experts as 'primary' to the understanding of addictive behaviour: five from the Positive Valence System (Reward Valuation, Expectancy, Action Selection, Reward Learning, Habit); one from the Cognitive Control System (Response Selection/Inhibition); and one expert-initiated construct (Compulsivity). These constructs were rated to be differentially related to stages of the addiction cycle, with some more closely linked to addiction onset, and others more to chronicity. Experts agreed that these neuropsychological dimensions apply across a range of addictions. CONCLUSIONS: The study offers a novel and neuropsychologically informed theoretical framework, as well as a cogent step forward to test transdiagnostic concepts in addiction research, with direct implications for assessment, diagnosis, staging of disorder, and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Erweiterung von Konzepten und Definitionen von Suchtverhalten
Billieux, Joël UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2018), 28(4), 209-211

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See detailPrecise estimates of gaming-related harm should guide regulation of gaming
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2018), 7(3), 522-525

Regulation of gaming is largely based on the perception of gaming-related harm. This perception varies from one country to another and does not necessarily correspond to the real gaming-related harm. It ... [more ▼]

Regulation of gaming is largely based on the perception of gaming-related harm. This perception varies from one country to another and does not necessarily correspond to the real gaming-related harm. It is argued that there is a crucial need to define and assess domains of this harm in order to introduce policies that regulate gaming. Such policies would ideally be targeted at individuals at risk for problematic gaming and would be based more on educational efforts than on restrictive measures. The role of gaming industry in the regulation of gaming would depend on the more precise estimates of gaming-related harm. [less ▲]

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See detailLe jeu pathologique: un trouble des processus impliqués dans la prise de décision?
Brevers, Damien; Billieux, Joël UL

in Strowel, Alain; Philippe, Denis; Schamps, Geneviève (Eds.) Droit des jeux de hasard (2018)

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See detailSelfitis and behavioural addiction: A plea for terminological and conceptual rigour.
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL; Schimmenti, Adriano

in The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (2018), 52(10), 919-920

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See detailSelfitis, selfie addiction, Twitteritis: Irresistible appeal of medical terminology for problematic behaviours in the digital age
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL; Schimmenti, Adriano

in Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (2018), 52(5), 408-409

Behaviours that are performed compulsively and repetitively and are associated with certain negative consequences have been a conceptual challenge for psychopathology. They are usually labelled as ... [more ▼]

Behaviours that are performed compulsively and repetitively and are associated with certain negative consequences have been a conceptual challenge for psychopathology. They are usually labelled as behavioural addictions, although this term has been vague, misused and applied to an exceptionally wide variety of activities (Starcevic, 2016). A similar trend to medicalise problematic behaviours has appeared more recently, with an emergence of ‘selfitis’ (Balakrishnan and Griffiths, in press). This article draws attention to these troublesome tendencies and aims to shed more light on their origin and implications. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of metacognitive therapy in improving mental health: A meta-analysis of single-case studies
Rochat, Lucien; Manolov, Rumen; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Clinical Psychology (2018), 74(6), 896-915

Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of ... [more ▼]

Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of metacognitive therapy and/or attention training technique on mental health outcomes from single-case studies. Methods. Fourteen studies (53 patients) were included. The d-statistic for multiple baseline data and the percentage change index were used to compute the effect sizes. Results. Metacognitive therapy has a large effect on depression, anxiety, other psychopathological symptoms, and all outcomes together. Effect sizes were significantly moderated by the number of sessions, the severity and duration of symptoms, and patient gender, but not by study quality or attention training technique when used as a stand-alone treatment. At the follow-up, 77.36% of the individuals were considered recovered or had maintained improvement. Conclusion. Metacognitive therapy and attention training technique strongly contribute to improving mental health outcomes. This study effectively informs evidence-based practice in the clinical milieu. [less ▲]

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