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See detailRegards sur la construction européenne
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2017)

L’année 2017 est marquée par la commémoration de deux événements charnières pour l’Union européenne – le 60e anniversaire du traité de Rome et le 25e anniversaire du traité de Maastricht. Établi à ... [more ▼]

L’année 2017 est marquée par la commémoration de deux événements charnières pour l’Union européenne – le 60e anniversaire du traité de Rome et le 25e anniversaire du traité de Maastricht. Établi à l’origine entre six États membres, le projet européen, dont le Luxembourg et ses personnalités comptent parmi les précurseurs, ambitionnait de garantir une paix durable et la prospérité en Europe par le biais de la coopération et de l’intégration. Forgé au gré des succès et des crises, ce processus a progressivement porté ses fruits. Le grand marché intérieur avec ses quatre libertés fondamentales, l’euro, la promotion de la démocratie, d’un modèle social européen et des droits humains, la citoyenneté européenne, les infrastructures du savoir font actuellement partie de la vie quotidienne de 510 millions d’Européens. Élargie à 28 membres, l’UE pèse aujourd’hui comme facteur de progrès et de solidarité sur le destin d’un monde de plus en plus globalisé. Parallèlement aux grands chantiers de l’Union politique, énergétique, fiscale et de la défense européenne, l’année 2017 est empreinte par bon nombre d’incertitudes. La mise en œuvre du Brexit, la crise des réfugiés, la tentation du repli identitaire attisé par les batailles électorales, sont autant de sources de fragmentation qui nourrissent l’euroscepticisme et assombrissent l’avenir de l’UE. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work - Biographical documentary "PIERRE WERNER AND EUROPE" (lenght 00:24:26)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2017)

Biographical Documentary "PIERRE WERNER AND EUROPE". Based on the version produced in 2013 to mark the centenary of Pierre Werner’s birth, the enhanced biographical documentary ‘Pierre Werner, a European ... [more ▼]

Biographical Documentary "PIERRE WERNER AND EUROPE". Based on the version produced in 2013 to mark the centenary of Pierre Werner’s birth, the enhanced biographical documentary ‘Pierre Werner, a European vocation’ presented in 2016 is primarily composed of video accounts by major players in the European integration process recorded by the CVCE in connection with its ‘Pierre Werner and Europe’ research project, as well as images and photos from the Pierre Werner family archives, to which the CVCE has been granted exclusive access. The film features contributions from the following figures (in alphabetical order): Michel Camdessus, Honorary Governor of the Banque de France, Managing Director of the IMF (1987–2000); Étienne Davignon, Member of the European Commission (1977–1981) and Vice-President of the European Commission (1981–1985); Mark Eyskens, Belgian Finance Minister (1980–1981) and Prime Minister (1981); Luc Frieden, Luxembourg Finance Minister (2009–2013); Albert Hansen, Secretary-General of the Luxembourg Government (1979–1998); Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission since 2014, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (1995–2013), first permanent President of the Eurogroup (2005–2013); Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of the FRG (1982–1998); Jacques de Larosière, Assistant Director (1967–1974) then Director of the French Treasury (1974–1978), Managing Director of the IMF (1978–1987); Wilfried Martens (1936–2013), Prime Minister of Belgium (1979–1981/1981–1992); Philippe Maystadt, Belgian Finance Minister (1988–1998), President of the European Investment Bank (2000–2011); Yves Mersch, Member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank (since 2012), President of the Banque centrale du Luxembourg (1998–2012); Guy de Muyser, Marshal of the Grand Ducal Court (1971–1981); Charles-Ferdinand Nothomb, President of the Belgian Chamber of Representatives (1979–1980; 1988–1995), Honorary President of the Pierre Werner European Circle; Viviane Reding, Member of the European Commission (1999–2010), Vice-President of the European Commission with responsibility for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship (2010–2014), Member of the European Parliament (since 2014); Lex Roth, Director of the Information and Press Service of the Luxembourg Government (1988–1993); Charles Ruppert, Chairman of the Luxembourg Bankers’ Association (1992–1995), Chairman of the Pierre Werner Foundation; Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (1984–1995), President of the European Commission (1995–1999); Gaston Thorn (1928–2007), Prime Minister of Luxembourg (1974–1979), President of the European Commission (1981–1985); Bernard Snoy et d’Oppuers, International President of the European League for Economic Cooperation, President of Robert Triffin International; Hans Tietmeyer, President of the Deutsche Bundesbank (1993–1999), Member of the Werner Committee (1970); Henri Werner, son of Pierre Werner; Marie-Anne Werner, daughter of Pierre Werner. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work- Interview with Niels Thygesen, Copenhagen 9 April 2016 (Lenght 02:35:03)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Thygesen, Niels

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2017)

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe, Interview with Niels Thygesen, Professor of Economics at the University of Copenhagen from 1964 to 1969 and from 1971 to 2004, Adviser ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe, Interview with Niels Thygesen, Professor of Economics at the University of Copenhagen from 1964 to 1969 and from 1971 to 2004, Adviser to the Governor of the Danmarks Nationalbank from 1973 to 1983 and a member of the Delors Committee set up to study and propose practical steps that would lead to the gradual establishment of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) from 1988 to 1989, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) on 9 March 2016 at Niel Thygesen’s home in Copenhagen. The interview was conducted by Dr Elena Danescu, a Researcher at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the following subjects: Denmark and the European integration process, the Delors Report on the establishment of Economic and Monetary Union, and the challenges and prospects for the euro and the banking union. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work - Part 1_Interview with Astrid Lulling, Sanem, 24 November 2015 (length: 04:49:09)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Lulling, Astrid

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (6 UL)
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See detailAudiovisual work - Part 2_Interview with Astrid Lulling, Sanem, 16 January 2016 (length: 04:49:09)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Lulling, Astrid

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (8 UL)
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See detailAudiovisual work- Interview with Philippe Maystadt, Nivelles 11 November 2016 (Lenght 01:57:16)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Maystadt, Philippe

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2017)

In the framework of the research project "Pirre Werner and Europe", interview with Philippe Maystadt, Professor of Law at the Université catholique de Louvain since 1989, Belgian Deputy Prime Minister and ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the research project "Pirre Werner and Europe", interview with Philippe Maystadt, Professor of Law at the Université catholique de Louvain since 1989, Belgian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Economic Affairs from 1986 to 1988, Minister for Finance from 1988 to 1995, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Finance and Foreign Trade from 1995 to 1998, Chairman of the Board of Governors of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) from 1997 to 1998 and President of the European Investment Bank (EIB) from 2000 to 2011, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) on 11 November 2015 at Philippe Maystadt’s home in Nivelles. The interview was conducted by Dr Elena Danescu, a Researcher at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the following subjects: Belgium and the European integration process, the Delors Report and the establishment of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the creation and aims of the EBRD, Maystadt’s time as President of the EIB and the Maystadt report on the reform of European governance. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work- Interview with Fabrizio Saccomanni, Rome 19 April 2016 (Lenght 02:59:58)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Saccomanni, Fabrizio

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2017)

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Fabrizio Saccomanni, Head of the Foreign Department at the Bank of Italy from 1984 to 1997 and Managing Director for ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Fabrizio Saccomanni, Head of the Foreign Department at the Bank of Italy from 1984 to 1997 and Managing Director for International Affairs at the Bank of Italy from 1997 to 2003, Vice President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) from 2003 to 2006, a Member of the Governing Board and Senior Deputy Governor of the Bank of Italy from 2006 to 2013 and Italian Minister for Economic Affairs and Finance from 2013 to 2014, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) on 19 April 2016 at the Bank of Italy in Rome. The interview was conducted by Dr Elena Danescu, a Researcher at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the following subjects: the role of the Bank of Italy in the development of Economic and Monetary Union, the Delors Committee and the Delors Report, the introduction of the euro in Italy and the euro zone crises. [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner and Luxembourg: a Vision of Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2016, December 12)

One of the major research projects currently under way is dedicated to the European vocation and achievements of Pierre Werner, a former Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Foreign Minister of Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

One of the major research projects currently under way is dedicated to the European vocation and achievements of Pierre Werner, a former Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Foreign Minister of Luxembourg, unanimously recognised as one of the architects of Economic and Monetary Union. The first stage of the research project particularly focuses on the plan for the establishment by stages of an economic and monetary union (more widely known as the Werner Report or the Werner Plan), drawn up by a group of experts chaired by Pierre Werner and officially presented on 8 October 1970 in Luxembourg. The project will then concentrate on the events that subsequently led to Economic and Monetary Union, as seen through the eyes of Pierre Werner and from the perspective of his own contribution; it will also examine a number of issues in which the former Luxembourg Prime Minister was particularly involved, such as the question of the seats of the institutions, the Luxembourg Compromise, the accession of the United Kingdom, and cooperation between the Benelux countries and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU). Project Manager: Dr Elena Danescu (elena.danescu@uni.lu) [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailLuxembourg, a Country Survey
Danescu, Elena UL

in Hartley, Cathy (Ed.) WESTERN EUROPE 2017 (2016)

With a long tradition of political stability and social democracy, a creative development model, skilled human capital and a culture of consensus, Luxembourg is at the forefront of Europe. Its main ... [more ▼]

With a long tradition of political stability and social democracy, a creative development model, skilled human capital and a culture of consensus, Luxembourg is at the forefront of Europe. Its main strategic challenge is how to achieve economic diversification while maintaining the sustainability of the Luxembourg social model. The country has embarked on the "third industrial revolution", with innovation as the main driver of sustainable growth and the University of Luxembourg as a major player. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailPierre Werner, A visionary European and Consensus Builder
Danescu, Elena UL

in Dyson, Kenneth; Maes, Ivo (Eds.) Architects of the Euro . Intellectuals in the making of European Monetary Union (2016)

As prime minister and finance minister of Luxembourg over 30 years, Pierre Werner played a major role in the building of a united Europe. This Christian Democratic intellectual and committed federalist ... [more ▼]

As prime minister and finance minister of Luxembourg over 30 years, Pierre Werner played a major role in the building of a united Europe. This Christian Democratic intellectual and committed federalist gained strong reputation as a consensus-builder between larger powers (Germany and France) and between diametrically opposed positions (‘economists’ and ‘monetarists’), as well as for his ideas on monetary integration. From early 1950s, Werner advocates a European monetary system based on a currency unit and on a clearing house for central banks. In 1968 he delivered a clear roadmap to EMU founded on a symmetrical economic and monetary union, with political union as the ultimate goal. Werner’s vital input and the ‘effective parallelism’ principle he imagined, were evident in the Werner Report of 1970, which was offered as the blueprint for EMU in the EU. Based on the Werner family archives and original interviews, this chapter highlights Werner’s contribution as architect of EMU in a threefold way: intellectual input, negotiation methods and consensus building. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 176 (8 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa construction européenne dans les années 1970: Pierre Werner et le couple franco-allemand.
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2016, August 15)

Quel regard jettent les autres Etats européens sur 50 ans de coopération franco-allemande (traité de l'Elysée de 1963) ? Ne sont-ils pas les mieux placés pour jauger de l'intensité de leurs relations, de ... [more ▼]

Quel regard jettent les autres Etats européens sur 50 ans de coopération franco-allemande (traité de l'Elysée de 1963) ? Ne sont-ils pas les mieux placés pour jauger de l'intensité de leurs relations, de leurs dysfonctionnements, de leurs apports aux relations interétatiques et de la construction européenne ? Les autres Etats sont un excellent miroir pour la relation franco-allemande et nous apprennent autant sur la coopération entre les deux riverains du Rhin qu'une investigation centrée sur le seul tandem franco-allemand. [less ▲]

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See detailUne vie pour l'idéal européen
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2016)

Pierre Werner (29 décembre 1913 – 24 juin 2002) fut une personnalité aux multiples talents qui a traversé le XXe siècle. Ministre d’État, Premier Ministre et ministre des Finances pendant de longues ... [more ▼]

Pierre Werner (29 décembre 1913 – 24 juin 2002) fut une personnalité aux multiples talents qui a traversé le XXe siècle. Ministre d’État, Premier Ministre et ministre des Finances pendant de longues dé¬cennies, cet intellectuel chrétien et démocrate résolu fut l’un des rares hommes d’État à avoir pris part à l’unification européenne depuis l’après-guerre jusqu’au milieu des années 1980. Il fait de l’intégration européenne l’axe central de la politique luxembourgeoise. Sur le plan intérieur, il joue un rôle majeur dans la modernisation de la société. Le dénouement de la crise sidérurgique, la promotion du Luxembourg au rang de place financière internationale, le développement du secteur audiovisuel à travers le projet des satellites, la culture de la concertation sociale font partie des initiatives. [less ▲]

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See detailA new reading of primary sources via the digital analysis of social networks. ‘The Werner Committee and the debates on European economic and monetary integration’
Danescu, Elena UL; Heimbach, Henriette; During, Marten UL et al

Scientific Conference (2016, June 10)

This pilot project was carried out in connection with the CVCE’s strategy of combining humanities and social sciences research with digital tools and publishing the results via its digital research ... [more ▼]

This pilot project was carried out in connection with the CVCE’s strategy of combining humanities and social sciences research with digital tools and publishing the results via its digital research infrastructure on European integration, CVCE.eu. Methods borrowed from social network analysis and qualitative data analysis were applied to a specific section of the digital publication on the 1970 Werner Report, a publication which was compiled on the basis of the ‘traditional’ exploration and interpretation of a vast number of previously unpublished primary sources. 2 The aim of the analysis was to summarise and visualise the negotiations within the Werner Committee so as to shed new light on the historical facts. By using this innovative technique we were able to demonstrate links, affinities and oppositions among the members of the committee, identify the influence of individual Member States in the ongoing dispute between ‘economists’ and ‘monetarists’ which characterised the debates on EMU, and highlight contributions to the political consensus on the Werner Report. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Luxembourg et l’intégration européenne 1945-2016
Gabellini, Marco UL; Danescu, Elena UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le Luxembourg abandonne sa politique de neutralité et se lance dans une politique de coopération internationale dans les domaines économique et militaire (OECE et pacte ... [more ▼]

Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le Luxembourg abandonne sa politique de neutralité et se lance dans une politique de coopération internationale dans les domaines économique et militaire (OECE et pacte de Bruxelles en 1948, OTAN en 1949). Déjà en septembre 1944, les gouvernements en exil du Luxembourg, de la Belgique et des Pays-Bas avaient signé à Londres une convention douanière instituant le Benelux. Le Grand-Duché prend également part aux premiers projets d’intégration européenne. Ainsi, il signe le 5 mai 1949 le statut du Conseil de l’Europe par lequel les États membres s’engagent, dans le cadre d’une organisation de coopération politique, à préserver les principes de la démocratie et du respect des droits de l’homme. Puis, le 9 mai 1950, Robert Schuman, ministre français des Affaires étrangères, d’origine luxembourgeoise, propose la mise en commun des ressources de charbon et d'acier de la France et de l’Allemagne dans une organisation ouverte aux autres pays d'Europe. La création d’une Communauté européenne du charbon et de l’acier (CECA) donne le vrai coup d’envoi à l'intégration européenne. Pour la première fois, des États souverains envisagent de transférer l’exercice d’une part de leurs compétences à une organisation supranationale. Le 18 avril 1951, le Luxembourg signe avec la Belgique, la France, l'Italie, les Pays-Bas et la République fédérale d'Allemagne le traité instituant la CECA et confirme son engagement sur la voie de l'intégration européenne. Le traité entre en vigueur le 23 juillet 1952. Dans la nuit du 24 au 25 juillet 1952, après d'interminables négociations diplomatiques à Paris sur le choix du siège de la CECA, Joseph Bech propose la ville de Luxembourg comme lieu d'installation provisoire de la nouvelle organisation. La capitale du Grand-Duché devient ainsi le siège provisoire de la Haute-Autorité, du Comité consultatif et de la Cour de justice de la CECA. Les réunions du Conseil spécial de ministres y ont également lieu. Et même si les séances de l’Assemblée se tiennent à Strasbourg, un embryon d'administration parlementaire est, de même, constitué au Luxembourg. Suite à l’échec de la Communauté européenne de défense (CED) et à l’abandon du projet d’une Communauté politique européenne (CPE) en 1954, la Communauté traverse une crise grave. Pour relancer l’intégration européenne, les Six se mettent d’accord pour créer un Marché commun, s'inspirant notamment du mémorandum Benelux de mai 1955. C'est finalement le 25 mars 1957, que les traités de Rome instituant une Communauté économique européenne (CEE) et une Communauté européenne d’énergie atomique (CEEA ou Euratom) sont signés. La question du siège des institutions européennes est cependant loin d’être réglée. En 1965, la signature du traité de fusion des exécutifs des trois Communautés (CECA, CEE et CEEA), entraîne le regroupement de la plupart des services du Conseil et de la Commission à Bruxelles. Le Luxembourg perd le siège de la Haute Autorité de la CECA, mais s’assure en contrepartie de la présence des institutions judiciaires et financières européennes dans sa capitale. À plusieurs reprises, la question du siège donnera encore lieu à de vives discussions politiques. Aujourd'hui, les institutions européennes suivantes sont établies à Luxembourg: la Cour de justice et le Tribunal de première instance, la Cour des comptes européenne et la Banque européenne d'investissement. Par ailleurs, le Secrétariat général du Parlement européen et ses services, de même que quelques services de la Commission y sont installés. Pendant les mois d'avril, de juin et d'octobre, le Conseil tient également ses sessions à Luxembourg. Fin 2012, le pays devient le siège du Mécanisme européen de stabilité (MES), une organisation intergouvernementale dépendante de l'Union européenne. Tout au long du processus d'intégration européenne, le Luxembourg a été le lieu de plusieurs actions politiques décisives pour le développement de l’Europe. En 1966, le «compromis de Luxembourg» permet de mettre fin à la crise de la chaise vide. Quatre ans plus tard l’élaboration, par le groupe d’experts présidé par Pierre Werner, du «plan Werner» constitue le premier pas vers l’Union économique et monétaire européenne (UEM). En 1985 les pays du Benelux, la France et l’Allemagne signent l’accord de Schengen (du nom de la petite bourgade luxembourgeoise à la convergence des frontières du Grand-Duché, de la France et de l’Allemagne) qui supprime graduellement les contrôles aux frontières communes. Le Luxembourg est en outre le pays qui a fourni à l’Europe le contingent de hauts responsables le plus important en proportion de sa taille. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work- Interview with Michel Camdessus, Paris 8 october 2015 (Lenght 01:31:36)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Camdessus, Michel

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2016)

Interview de Michel Camdessus, directeur du Trésor en France de 1982 à 1984, gouverneur de la Banque de France de 1984 à 1987 et directeur général du Fonds monétaire international (FMI) de 1987 à 2000 ... [more ▼]

Interview de Michel Camdessus, directeur du Trésor en France de 1982 à 1984, gouverneur de la Banque de France de 1984 à 1987 et directeur général du Fonds monétaire international (FMI) de 1987 à 2000, réalisée par le Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe (CVCE) dans le cadre du projet de recherche "Pierre Werner et l'Europe" le 8 octobre 2015 à Paris. Conduit par Dr Elena Danescu, chercheur au CVCE, l'entretien porte particulièrement sur les sujets suivants: le Trésor français et la construction européenne, la Banque de France et l’Union économique et monétaire, la politique du FMI suite à la chute du mur de Berlin et face aux crises financières mondiales et l’évolution du système monétaire international. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work Part 2- Interview with Viviane Reding, Sanem 11 September 2015 (Lenght 01:56:43)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Reding, Viviane

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2016)

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Viviane Reding, Member of the Luxembourg Parliament from 1979 to 1989, Member of the European Parliament from 1989 to ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Viviane Reding, Member of the Luxembourg Parliament from 1979 to 1989, Member of the European Parliament from 1989 to 1999 and since 2014, Member of the European Commission from 1999 to 2010 and Vice-President of the Commission from 2010 to 2014, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) on 11 September 2015 at the Château de Sanem. The interview was conducted by Dr Elena Danescu, a Researcher at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the following subjects: the circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Prodi Commission (1999) and her action as European Commissioner in the fields of education and culture (1999–2004), youth and sport (1999–2004), the information society and media (2004–2010) and justice, fundamental rights and citizenship (2010–2014). [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work Part 3- Interview with Viviane Reding, Sanem 4 December 2015 (Lenght 02:06:08)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Reding, Viviane

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2016)

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Viviane Reding, a Member of the Luxembourg Parliament from 1979 to 1989, a Member of the European Parliament from 1989 ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Viviane Reding, a Member of the Luxembourg Parliament from 1979 to 1989, a Member of the European Parliament from 1989 to 1999 and since 2014, a Member of the European Commission from 1999 to 2010 and Vice-President of the Commission from 2010 to 2014, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) on 4 December 2015 at the Château de Sanem. The interview was conducted by Dr Elena Danescu, a Researcher at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the following subjects: the digital and knowledge economy, the development of the European Commission, enlargement, identity, borders and the future of the European Union. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work - Interview with Baron Bernard Snoy et d'Oppuers, Ophain, 23 October 2015 (Length: 03:06:30)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL; Baron Snoy et d'Oppuers, Bernard

in Collection "Oral History of European Integration" (2016)

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Bernard Snoy et d’Oppuers, an official at the World Bank from 1974 to 1979 and from 1980 to 1986, Economic Adviser at ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe", interview with Bernard Snoy et d’Oppuers, an official at the World Bank from 1974 to 1979 and from 1980 to 1986, Economic Adviser at the Commission of the European Communities in the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs from 1986 to 1988, Executive Director of the World Bank from 1991 to 1994, Director of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) from 1994 to 2002 and Chairman of Robert Triffin International since 2008, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe (CVCE) on 23 October 2015 at his home, the Château de Bois-Seigneur-Isaac, in Ophain, Belgium. The interview was conducted by Dr Elena Danescu, a Researcher at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the following subjects: the personality and work of his father Jean-Charles Snoy et d’Oppuers, the World Bank in the 1970s and 1980s, the composition and work of the Delors Committee, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Belgium and the Maastricht Treaty negotiations, the transition to democracy of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Working Table on ‘Economic reconstruction, development and cooperation’ within the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 136 (6 UL)