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See detailTaxing intangible assets in Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2020, January 29)

The globalisation of the digital economy is indicative of a changing multidimensional paradigm driven by a number of factors: the primacy of intangible assets in value creation; a growing transnational ... [more ▼]

The globalisation of the digital economy is indicative of a changing multidimensional paradigm driven by a number of factors: the primacy of intangible assets in value creation; a growing transnational and international dimension in the production and consumption of goods and services; the transition from human labour to artificial intelligence; the increasing dominance of networks of stakeholders over individual players; the emergence of new forms of sharing, creation, collaboration and innovation; and the need to harmonise rules, standards and policies (including in the area of taxation) within a multilateral framework. In a competitive geopolitical environment, the EU, characterised by disparities between its Member States and sometimes opposing national interests, is some way behind China and the uncontested leader of the digital pack, the United States. But Europe can carve out a place for itself alongside these digital giants, since it outperforms its competitors in some sectors of the DSM. These include the production of digital services (the main driver of digital globalisation) and the digital consumption of financial operations. [less ▲]

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See detail“If we think small, we stay small” - Introduction to the interview with Viviane Reding
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2020, January 29)

In the line of women who have helped build Europe, Luxembourg’s Viviane Reding (born on 27 April 1951 in Esch-sur-Alzette) is a key figure. After her studies, including a PhD in Human Science at Paris ... [more ▼]

In the line of women who have helped build Europe, Luxembourg’s Viviane Reding (born on 27 April 1951 in Esch-sur-Alzette) is a key figure. After her studies, including a PhD in Human Science at Paris Sorbonne University, she worked as a journalist at the Luxemburger Wort for more than 20 years and chaired the Luxembourg Union of Journalists. She joined the Christian Social People’s Party (CSV) and was elected to the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies (1979-1989 and since 2018), where she particularly focused on social affairs and international relations, before becoming a Member of the European Parliament for three terms (1981-1999 and 2014-2018) and turning her attention to social affairs, employment and the working environment, as well as civil liberties. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforcing the social dimension of Europe
Danescu, Elena UL; Schmit, Nicolas; Backes, Yuriko

Speeches/Talks (2020)

On 20 January 2020, the inauguration of EDIC University of Luxembourg was followed, at the Maison des Arts et des Etudiants in Esch-Belval, by a public debate – a “Citizens' Dialogue” - with Nicolas ... [more ▼]

On 20 January 2020, the inauguration of EDIC University of Luxembourg was followed, at the Maison des Arts et des Etudiants in Esch-Belval, by a public debate – a “Citizens' Dialogue” - with Nicolas Schmit, the EU Commissioner for Jobs and Social Rights, moderated by Elena Danescu. Over 350 persons, including many students of the Greater Region, attended the event and took the opportunity to ask questions about youth unemployment, the European youth programme, Brexit, the integration of refugees in the economy, the minimum pay wage, the future measures against the gender pay gap, the workforce of the European Union and the improvement of social rights in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Werner report and the financial crisis during the 1970s
Danescu, Elena UL; Tedeschi, Paolo

in Leboutte, René; Tedeschi, Paolo (Eds.) Euro changes: European Responses to Economics and Social Changes. From de 1970s to the new Millennium. (2020)

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See detailLuxembourg: A Country Survey
Danescu, Elena UL

in Hartley, Cathy (Ed.) Western Europe 2020 (2019)

Beginning in the 20th century, Luxembourg experienced several periods of transition. The largely agriculture-based economy became industrialized, driven by a powerful steel industry which remained the ... [more ▼]

Beginning in the 20th century, Luxembourg experienced several periods of transition. The largely agriculture-based economy became industrialized, driven by a powerful steel industry which remained the dominant sector from the immediate post-Second World War years to the mid-1970s. The country had a considerable competitive advantage in this respect owing to iron ore deposits in Luxembourg itself and in the neighbouring French region of Lorraine. The industrial flagship was Aciéries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange (ARBED), founded in 1911, which developed its production in Europe and established a global network of sales outlets. Between 1953 and 1968 the steel industry contributed approximately 25% of the country’s GDP growth, while steel production represented 50% of its added industrial value. Over the same period, the nominal wage grew by 29.3%. The improvement in living standards led to the emergence of the middle class and to an increase in urbanization. The Government improved the social security regime and extended it to all workers, thus helping to close the gap in social equality, raise living standards further and boost social cohesion in the country over the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges in completing EMU: asymmetric competition vs fiscal harmonisation. A case study of the Benelux countries
Danescu, Elena UL

in Journal of Contemporary European Research (2019)

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative factors at work via a case study of the Benelux countries – both founder members of the EU and pioneers of EMU – and to examine the impact on European and international regulations in the field. In particular, it will endeavour to provide a comprehensive interpretation of fiscal policy in the Benelux countries via a comparative approach and from a historical perspective. It will look at the development of respective domestic fiscal policies, driven by national interests and by membership of a Community that is subject to requirements in terms of harmonisation and taxation, but also by constant contact (and frequent clashes) with the multilateral international environment. [less ▲]

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See detailTrop d'impôts pour les célibataires au Luxembourg? (Bref aperçu historique comparatif sur la fiscalité des célibataires dans le monde).
Danescu, Elena UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit ... [more ▼]

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit de mouture sur les céréales, donc un impôt sur le pain, le droit d’abattage qui frappe les bouchers et éleveurs, l’impôt sur le vin qui touche les petits viticulteurs de la Moselle, les accises sur l’alcool qui pénalisent les distilleries industrielles du nord du pays et les milliers de petites distilleries familiales. En matière d’impôts directs, le jeune Grand-Duché hérite de la nouvelle philosophie de la fiscalité introduite par les Lumières et la Révolution française qui remplace l’impôt-tribut par l’impôt échange et introduit le principe d’égalité devant l’impôt et de proportionnalité, c.-à-d. d’impôt à taux unique (flat tax). L’histoire de la fiscalité est ensuite étroitement liée à l’histoire idéologique et politique de l’Etat-nation et de l’Etat social. La réforme fiscale actuelle mérite d'être analysée à la lumière de histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Iron Curtain: An Historical Overview
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2019, October 21)

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See detailBGL: L’histoire d’un siècle
Zahlen, Paul UL; Duval, Cécile UL; Danescu, Elena UL et al

Computer development (2019)

L’exposition retrace l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas depuis ses débuts en 1919 jusqu’à nos jours, ainsi que son rôle et sa participation dans l’économie et le développement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

L’exposition retrace l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas depuis ses débuts en 1919 jusqu’à nos jours, ainsi que son rôle et sa participation dans l’économie et le développement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Intitulée « BGL: L’histoire d’un siècle », l’exposition a été conçue et mise en œuvre en collaboration avec le Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) de l’Université du Luxembourg. Elle a comme but de donner une représentation moderne et didactique de l’histoire sur un support digital accessible à un public très large. L’exposition propose à l’utilisateur différentes possibilités pour découvrir des sujets variés: un aperçu chronologique en forme de ligne de temps interactive ancrant l’histoire de la banque dans le contexte politique et socio-économique de l’époque, une carte évolutive des implantations de la banque au fil du temps, et des dossiers thématiques portant sur l'architecture, la marque et les métiers de la banque. Pour réaliser ce projet, les chercheurs de l’université ont eu accès aux archives de la banque et ont compilé toute une documentation comprenant des textes, documents, images, photos et vidéos. Le projet de recherche est également lié à la réalisation d’une thèse de doctorat sur l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas au Luxembourg. Il revêt en effet une pertinence scientifique importante pour l’historiographie du pays vu le rôle important de catalyseur joué par BGL BNP Paribas à la fois dans l’économie luxembourgeoise et dans le développement de la place financière du Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work-Podcast: The Monster under the Bed - Brief history of the European Union Budget
Danescu, Elena UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

PODCAST: The budget of the European Union has three pillars: its expenditure, its financing and its audit. The podcast "The Monster under the Bed" looks at the origins of the budget, its development ... [more ▼]

PODCAST: The budget of the European Union has three pillars: its expenditure, its financing and its audit. The podcast "The Monster under the Bed" looks at the origins of the budget, its development through multiannual planning and annual budgeting, and the institutions involved in its financing, adoption, control and in the audit process. Since the creation of the European Coal and Steal Community (ECSC) in 1952, there has been a tension over budgeting among the European institutions and the Member States, and a close link between reforms to expenditure and those to the financing. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom financial and monetary innovation to Economic and Monetary Union: the European Investment Bank in the Luxembourg ecosystem
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2019, July 10)

Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the political and regulatory context surrounding the EIB’s relocation to Luxembourg, exploring how the EIB became an integral ... [more ▼]

Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the political and regulatory context surrounding the EIB’s relocation to Luxembourg, exploring how the EIB became an integral part of the Luxembourg financial ecosystem and how its main stakeholders (banks, LuxSE, other institutions, regulatory authorities, people, networks, etc.) worked together to encourage financial and monetary innovation before the introduction of the European single currency (EUA, EURCO, ECU) and to pave the way for the establishment and consolidation of the euro. Particular attention will be paid to the benefits (and potential pitfalls) of this synergy over the long term for the EIB’s partners and how it equipped them to deal with the financial crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological risks and political challenges: the emergence of Luxembourg’s satellite policy
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 29)

In the early 1970s, in a bid to diversify its economy – at that time primarily based on a declining steel industry and a still nascent international financial centre –, the Luxembourg government decided ... [more ▼]

In the early 1970s, in a bid to diversify its economy – at that time primarily based on a declining steel industry and a still nascent international financial centre –, the Luxembourg government decided to invest in the country’s audiovisual sector and to pursue a policy to develop telecommunications satellites that would be used to broadcast European television programmes. This ambitious yet risky objective represented a major challenge in five specific areas: in technological terms (choosing to invest in medium-range rather than the more dominant long-range satellites), in political terms (opting for US hardware and technology at the expense of the European leaders in the field, France and Germany), and with regard to culture (favouring the broadcast of programmes in English over those in French and German), management (the satellites were run via a private company with the government as the only shareholder), and standardisation, regulation and competition (especially at pan-European level). The Société Européenne des Satellites (SES) was finally set up in 1985, and Luxembourg’s first satellite for television broadcasts (GDL/ASTRA) was launched in 1987. Drawing on new sources, this paper looks back at the emergence of the GDL/ASTRA project from a historical perspective, highlighting the main political, financial, technological and regulatory hurdles that had to be overcome, the influence of the project on Luxembourg’s relationship with the USA and with EEC Member States (especially France and Germany but also the UK, which at that time was embarking on the accession process) and its role in the completion of a common market for new media technologies and ultimately in the development of a European audiovisual area. The impact of the policy as a driver for the financial centre (especially the Luxembourg Stock Exchange) and for various niche markets will also be emphasised. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxation in Benelux countries
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 20)

The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative historical analysis of the development and specific characteristics of taxation in Luxembourg, as developed in a multidimensional context – national ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative historical analysis of the development and specific characteristics of taxation in Luxembourg, as developed in a multidimensional context – national (Luxembourg), regional (relations with traditional partners – Belgium and the Netherlands but also Germany and France), European (ECSC, EEC and EU) and international (OECD, GATT/WTO) – in the second half of the 20th century. The two aspects of taxation will be addressed: direct taxation (a prerogative of states) and indirect taxation (subject to international regulation). The time frame stretches from the end of the war (1944) to the Maastricht Treaty (1992). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Werner Report: Principles, Values and Challenges for a Europe Built through Currency
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 20)

The work of the Werner Committee, which in October 1970 resulted in a plan for an economic and monetary union (the Werner Report), was characterised by political and doctrinal differences between ... [more ▼]

The work of the Werner Committee, which in October 1970 resulted in a plan for an economic and monetary union (the Werner Report), was characterised by political and doctrinal differences between ‘economists’ and ‘monetarists’. At issue was the question of whether monetary integration was the means or the ultimate goal of economic integration. On one side, there were the ‘monetarists‘ (whose standard-bearers were the countries with weak currencies – France, Belgium and, to a certain extent, Italy), who argued for ‘institutions‘. The priority should be to set up institutions and lay down requirements to be met. After that, there would be a coordinating of economic policies, driven forward by concerted action on the single currency which would already exist. The only way to give any credibility to the prospect of monetary union and influence the behavior of players in the economy was to set a timetable and lay down some rules of conduct. On the other side were the ‘economists‘ (the countries with strong currencies – Germany and the Netherlands). According to them, a convergence of economic policies — monetary and budgetary policies — was vital and must come before the setting up of institutions. A single currency would come only at the end of the process, as the ‘finishing touch‘ to a harmonization which would already have been carried out. This dispute was ultimately resolved by the adoption of a parallel approach between economic cooperation and monetary coordination in the Member States, a principle of balance on the basis of which Pierre Werner (Prime Minister of Luxembourg and chairman of the expert committee) was able to secure a consensus. This paper makes extensive use of Pierre Werner’s previously unpublished archives and original interviews, adopting an interdisciplinary approach in order to analyse the negotiations within the Werner Committee by examining the relationships between the members of the group, the emergence of their views on EMU, their political commitment to a European currency, the similarities and differences between their ideas, their personal networks, the influence of the states they represented, their theoretical and methodological input and their contribution to the political consensus. The paper demonstrates how transnational, network-based cooperation led to the emergence of a monetary elite, which had a significant influence both on the transfer of political ideas and solutions within the Member States and also on the decision-making process at supranational level in the area of European economic and monetary integration in the 1970s. Elite transnational networks and the consensuses they reinforce, cultivate, and disseminate, are critical to our understanding of progress and change in world politics. [less ▲]

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See detailOral History and Linguistic Analysis. A Study in Digital and Contemporary European History
Armaselu, Florentina UL; Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

in Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings (2019), (159), 13

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of two use cases in European contemporary history research and ... [more ▼]

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of two use cases in European contemporary history research and teaching. Two experiments have been devised to analyse how interdisciplinary connections between history and linguistics are built and evaluated within a digital framework. The longer-term objective of this type of enquiry is to draw up an “inventory” of strengths and weaknesses and potentially build an online collection of use cases to share reflections and render more transparent the process of applying language technology to research and teaching in different areas of study in the humanities. [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner and Luxembourg: A vision for Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, May 24)

Pierre Werner was one of the rare politicians to be associated with all the major milestones in the building of a united Europe, from the 1950 Schuman Plan to the Fontainebleau European Council in 1984 ... [more ▼]

Pierre Werner was one of the rare politicians to be associated with all the major milestones in the building of a united Europe, from the 1950 Schuman Plan to the Fontainebleau European Council in 1984. He placed the European integration process at the centre of Luxembourg domestic policy, convinced of the need to preserve national identity and sovereignty by adopting an international outlook. Determined to set the country on a forward-looking path, he pursued a pragmatic yet ambitious approach to economic diversification, focusing in particular on consolidating the international financial centre from the 1960s onwards, nurturing the idea for a national shipping flag, developing the audiovisual sector and launching the innovative satellite project [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner and Luxembourg: A vision for Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Dr Elena Danescu, a Research Scientist in the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) at the University of Luxembourg, then presented her book “Pierre Werner and Europe. The Archives ... [more ▼]

Dr Elena Danescu, a Research Scientist in the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) at the University of Luxembourg, then presented her book “Pierre Werner and Europe. The Archives Behind the Werner Report”, containing a foreword by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker and a preface by Professor Harold James from Princeton University, recently released by the prestigious academic publisher Palgrave Macmillan. This book, the result of a multidisciplinary research project based on the exploration of Pierre Werner’s family archives – opened for the first time for research purposes –, as well as various international archives and a series of original oral history interviews, looks back at the career and achievements of a man who was Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg for many decades, leaving his legacy on the future of his country and the European integration process. Many of the bold initiatives he pioneered – including diversifying and expanding Luxembourg’s economy, promoting the country to the status of an international financial centre, developing the audiovisual industry via the satellite project, laying the foundations for an economic and monetary union in Europe and developing a culture of social dialogue and consensus – were subsequently taken up by his successors. [less ▲]

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See detailUn nouveau narratif de l’integration européenne au défi des sources orales (Documentaire biographique et Podcast)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

Presentation (2019, May 11)

À l’ère numérique et face à un besoin croissant de connaissance, l’histoire fait appel à de nouvelles sources. Depuis le milieu des années 1970, l’histoire orale enrichit progressivement les sources et la ... [more ▼]

À l’ère numérique et face à un besoin croissant de connaissance, l’histoire fait appel à de nouvelles sources. Depuis le milieu des années 1970, l’histoire orale enrichit progressivement les sources et la méthodologie de la recherche sur l’intégration européenne, aux côtés des sources traditionnelles (archives, sources éditées, publications officielles, etc) ou nouvelles (web-archives, bases de données en ligne). Cette «continuité épistémologique entre l’écrit et l’oral» (Bloch, 1921) implique que les sources et ressources orales contribuent à la construction et à la transmission du savoir historique, tout en lui apportant une dimension à la fois mémorielle et patrimoniale (Ritchie, 2003). Même si l’histoire orale se dessine comme une « histoire négociée » (Janesick, 2010) ou une « histoire intermédiée, sous influence » (Descamps, 2006) – à savoir réélaborée par l’historien de concert avec le témoin – elle est reconnue comme une discipline des sciences humaines dont l’analyse critique demeure essentielle. Sur la base de ce volet original, de documents audiovisuels issus des archives Werner et d’autres sources inédites, nous avons réalisé le documentaire biographique (audiovisuel) « Pierre Werner, une vocation européenne », qui retrace le parcours personnel de cet homme d’État et se focalise sur le rapport Werner (1970) qui a jeté les bases de l’UEM et de l’euro. Dans une démarche différente, nous avons aussi réalisé la série de podcasts « Un homme dans son siècle » (7 épisodes de 10 minutes) qui à retrace, à travers des étapes-clés de la vie de Werner, un siècle d’histoire luxembourgeoise et européenne. On tente de montrer, dans le contexte de l’époque, comment son action a influé sur l’évolution et le rayonnement du Luxembourg après la Seconde Guerre Mondiale: les réformes de société, la stratégie de diversification économique, l’essor de la place financière internationale et l’émergence du projet de satellites de télécommunications (SES). A travers cette communication, nous poursuivons un double objectif. - concernant le documentaire biographique audiovisuel, nous souhaitons décrire cette expérience originale et, plus particulièrement, revenir sur les écueils dans la réalisation d’un récit biographique qui dégage, en même temps, un nouveau narrative de l’UEM. La mémoire individuelle de nombreux témoins qui croisent leurs souvenirs et nous livrent leurs perceptions spécifiques sur divers événements de la construction européenne et le rôle de Werner trouvent ainsi écho dans la mémoire collective. - concernant les podcasts radio (réalisées dans une approche différente) nous souhaitons exposer l’émergence de la démarche méthodologique, ainsi que la construction effective de la série. On montre la manière de sélectionner et combiner témoignages oraux, archives audiovisuelles, interventions d’experts pour créer un récit original destiné au public le plus large, tout en conservant une approche historique rigoureuse. [less ▲]

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See detailVarieties of Democracy (V-DEM) Annual Report 2019 - "Democracy Facing Global Challenges”
Danescu, Elena UL

Report (2019)

Democracy in decline in more countries than ever before. The 2019 Democracy Report is titled “Democracy Facing Global Challenges”. Democratic declines now affect more countries than ever before. Still ... [more ▼]

Democracy in decline in more countries than ever before. The 2019 Democracy Report is titled “Democracy Facing Global Challenges”. Democratic declines now affect more countries than ever before. Still, most democracies remain resilient despite challenges such as the financial crises and the rampant spread of fake news on social media. Yet, we show that government manipulation of the media, weakening of civil society, the rule of law and even elections is increasing. There are also some positive stories to report from 2018. Central Asia recorded its first ever peaceful handover of power from one democratically elected leader to another in Kyrgyzstan. In Malaysia, an autocrat surprisingly lost in the elections despite electoral manipulation – showing that even in autocratic settings, elections can be a force for change. Pro-democratic movements have also mobilized masses of people across the globe in 2018 and 2019, for instance in Algeria, Armenia, Slovakia, and Sudan. [less ▲]

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See detailA Symbol of History
Danescu, Elena UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

As the fifth sovereign of the national dynasty since 1890, Grand Duke Jean was a head of state who perfectly embodied the ideals of service to his country and commitment to European integration.

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (2 UL)