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See detailTrop d'impôts pour les célibataires au Luxembourg? (Bref aperçu historique comparatif sur la fiscalité des célibataires dans le monde).
Danescu, Elena UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit ... [more ▼]

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, né dans sa forme actuelle en 1839, est issu, indirectement, de la révolution belge. Parmi les impôts indirects perçus sous le régime hollandais après 1815 figurent:le droit de mouture sur les céréales, donc un impôt sur le pain, le droit d’abattage qui frappe les bouchers et éleveurs, l’impôt sur le vin qui touche les petits viticulteurs de la Moselle, les accises sur l’alcool qui pénalisent les distilleries industrielles du nord du pays et les milliers de petites distilleries familiales. En matière d’impôts directs, le jeune Grand-Duché hérite de la nouvelle philosophie de la fiscalité introduite par les Lumières et la Révolution française qui remplace l’impôt-tribut par l’impôt échange et introduit le principe d’égalité devant l’impôt et de proportionnalité, c.-à-d. d’impôt à taux unique (flat tax). L’histoire de la fiscalité est ensuite étroitement liée à l’histoire idéologique et politique de l’Etat-nation et de l’Etat social. La réforme fiscale actuelle mérite d'être analysée à la lumière de histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Iron Curtain: An Historical Overview
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2019, October 21)

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See detailBGL: L’histoire d’un siècle
Zahlen, Paul UL; Duval, Cécile UL; Danescu, Elena UL et al

Computer development (2019)

L’exposition retrace l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas depuis ses débuts en 1919 jusqu’à nos jours, ainsi que son rôle et sa participation dans l’économie et le développement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

L’exposition retrace l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas depuis ses débuts en 1919 jusqu’à nos jours, ainsi que son rôle et sa participation dans l’économie et le développement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Intitulée « BGL: L’histoire d’un siècle », l’exposition a été conçue et mise en œuvre en collaboration avec le Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) de l’Université du Luxembourg. Elle a comme but de donner une représentation moderne et didactique de l’histoire sur un support digital accessible à un public très large. L’exposition propose à l’utilisateur différentes possibilités pour découvrir des sujets variés: un aperçu chronologique en forme de ligne de temps interactive ancrant l’histoire de la banque dans le contexte politique et socio-économique de l’époque, une carte évolutive des implantations de la banque au fil du temps, et des dossiers thématiques portant sur l'architecture, la marque et les métiers de la banque. Pour réaliser ce projet, les chercheurs de l’université ont eu accès aux archives de la banque et ont compilé toute une documentation comprenant des textes, documents, images, photos et vidéos. Le projet de recherche est également lié à la réalisation d’une thèse de doctorat sur l’histoire de BGL BNP Paribas au Luxembourg. Il revêt en effet une pertinence scientifique importante pour l’historiographie du pays vu le rôle important de catalyseur joué par BGL BNP Paribas à la fois dans l’économie luxembourgeoise et dans le développement de la place financière du Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailAudiovisual work-Podcast: The Monster under the Bed - Brief history of the European Union Budget
Danescu, Elena UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

PODCAST: The budget of the European Union has three pillars: its expenditure, its financing and its audit. The podcast "The Monster under the Bed" looks at the origins of the budget, its development ... [more ▼]

PODCAST: The budget of the European Union has three pillars: its expenditure, its financing and its audit. The podcast "The Monster under the Bed" looks at the origins of the budget, its development through multiannual planning and annual budgeting, and the institutions involved in its financing, adoption, control and in the audit process. Since the creation of the European Coal and Steal Community (ECSC) in 1952, there has been a tension over budgeting among the European institutions and the Member States, and a close link between reforms to expenditure and those to the financing. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom financial and monetary innovation to Economic and Monetary Union: the European Investment Bank in the Luxembourg ecosystem
Danescu, Elena UL

Presentation (2019, July 10)

Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the political and regulatory context surrounding the EIB’s relocation to Luxembourg, exploring how the EIB became an integral ... [more ▼]

Drawing on archives and oral history sources, this paper aims to illustrate the political and regulatory context surrounding the EIB’s relocation to Luxembourg, exploring how the EIB became an integral part of the Luxembourg financial ecosystem and how its main stakeholders (banks, LuxSE, other institutions, regulatory authorities, people, networks, etc.) worked together to encourage financial and monetary innovation before the introduction of the European single currency (EUA, EURCO, ECU) and to pave the way for the establishment and consolidation of the euro. Particular attention will be paid to the benefits (and potential pitfalls) of this synergy over the long term for the EIB’s partners and how it equipped them to deal with the financial crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological risks and political challenges: the emergence of Luxembourg’s satellite policy
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 29)

In the early 1970s, in a bid to diversify its economy – at that time primarily based on a declining steel industry and a still nascent international financial centre –, the Luxembourg government decided ... [more ▼]

In the early 1970s, in a bid to diversify its economy – at that time primarily based on a declining steel industry and a still nascent international financial centre –, the Luxembourg government decided to invest in the country’s audiovisual sector and to pursue a policy to develop telecommunications satellites that would be used to broadcast European television programmes. This ambitious yet risky objective represented a major challenge in five specific areas: in technological terms (choosing to invest in medium-range rather than the more dominant long-range satellites), in political terms (opting for US hardware and technology at the expense of the European leaders in the field, France and Germany), and with regard to culture (favouring the broadcast of programmes in English over those in French and German), management (the satellites were run via a private company with the government as the only shareholder), and standardisation, regulation and competition (especially at pan-European level). The Société Européenne des Satellites (SES) was finally set up in 1985, and Luxembourg’s first satellite for television broadcasts (GDL/ASTRA) was launched in 1987. Drawing on new sources, this paper looks back at the emergence of the GDL/ASTRA project from a historical perspective, highlighting the main political, financial, technological and regulatory hurdles that had to be overcome, the influence of the project on Luxembourg’s relationship with the USA and with EEC Member States (especially France and Germany but also the UK, which at that time was embarking on the accession process) and its role in the completion of a common market for new media technologies and ultimately in the development of a European audiovisual area. The impact of the policy as a driver for the financial centre (especially the Luxembourg Stock Exchange) and for various niche markets will also be emphasised. [less ▲]

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See detailTaxation in Benelux countries
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 20)

The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative historical analysis of the development and specific characteristics of taxation in Luxembourg, as developed in a multidimensional context – national ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative historical analysis of the development and specific characteristics of taxation in Luxembourg, as developed in a multidimensional context – national (Luxembourg), regional (relations with traditional partners – Belgium and the Netherlands but also Germany and France), European (ECSC, EEC and EU) and international (OECD, GATT/WTO) – in the second half of the 20th century. The two aspects of taxation will be addressed: direct taxation (a prerogative of states) and indirect taxation (subject to international regulation). The time frame stretches from the end of the war (1944) to the Maastricht Treaty (1992). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Werner Report: Principles, Values and Challenges for a Europe Built through Currency
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 20)

The work of the Werner Committee, which in October 1970 resulted in a plan for an economic and monetary union (the Werner Report), was characterised by political and doctrinal differences between ... [more ▼]

The work of the Werner Committee, which in October 1970 resulted in a plan for an economic and monetary union (the Werner Report), was characterised by political and doctrinal differences between ‘economists’ and ‘monetarists’. At issue was the question of whether monetary integration was the means or the ultimate goal of economic integration. On one side, there were the ‘monetarists‘ (whose standard-bearers were the countries with weak currencies – France, Belgium and, to a certain extent, Italy), who argued for ‘institutions‘. The priority should be to set up institutions and lay down requirements to be met. After that, there would be a coordinating of economic policies, driven forward by concerted action on the single currency which would already exist. The only way to give any credibility to the prospect of monetary union and influence the behavior of players in the economy was to set a timetable and lay down some rules of conduct. On the other side were the ‘economists‘ (the countries with strong currencies – Germany and the Netherlands). According to them, a convergence of economic policies — monetary and budgetary policies — was vital and must come before the setting up of institutions. A single currency would come only at the end of the process, as the ‘finishing touch‘ to a harmonization which would already have been carried out. This dispute was ultimately resolved by the adoption of a parallel approach between economic cooperation and monetary coordination in the Member States, a principle of balance on the basis of which Pierre Werner (Prime Minister of Luxembourg and chairman of the expert committee) was able to secure a consensus. This paper makes extensive use of Pierre Werner’s previously unpublished archives and original interviews, adopting an interdisciplinary approach in order to analyse the negotiations within the Werner Committee by examining the relationships between the members of the group, the emergence of their views on EMU, their political commitment to a European currency, the similarities and differences between their ideas, their personal networks, the influence of the states they represented, their theoretical and methodological input and their contribution to the political consensus. The paper demonstrates how transnational, network-based cooperation led to the emergence of a monetary elite, which had a significant influence both on the transfer of political ideas and solutions within the Member States and also on the decision-making process at supranational level in the area of European economic and monetary integration in the 1970s. Elite transnational networks and the consensuses they reinforce, cultivate, and disseminate, are critical to our understanding of progress and change in world politics. [less ▲]

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See detailOral History and Linguistic Analysis. A Study in Digital and Contemporary European History
Armaselu, Florentina UL; Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

in Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings (2019), (159), 13

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of two use cases in European contemporary history research and ... [more ▼]

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of two use cases in European contemporary history research and teaching. Two experiments have been devised to analyse how interdisciplinary connections between history and linguistics are built and evaluated within a digital framework. The longer-term objective of this type of enquiry is to draw up an “inventory” of strengths and weaknesses and potentially build an online collection of use cases to share reflections and render more transparent the process of applying language technology to research and teaching in different areas of study in the humanities. [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner and Luxembourg: A vision for Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, May 24)

Pierre Werner was one of the rare politicians to be associated with all the major milestones in the building of a united Europe, from the 1950 Schuman Plan to the Fontainebleau European Council in 1984 ... [more ▼]

Pierre Werner was one of the rare politicians to be associated with all the major milestones in the building of a united Europe, from the 1950 Schuman Plan to the Fontainebleau European Council in 1984. He placed the European integration process at the centre of Luxembourg domestic policy, convinced of the need to preserve national identity and sovereignty by adopting an international outlook. Determined to set the country on a forward-looking path, he pursued a pragmatic yet ambitious approach to economic diversification, focusing in particular on consolidating the international financial centre from the 1960s onwards, nurturing the idea for a national shipping flag, developing the audiovisual sector and launching the innovative satellite project [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner and Luxembourg: A vision for Europe
Danescu, Elena UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Dr Elena Danescu, a Research Scientist in the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) at the University of Luxembourg, then presented her book “Pierre Werner and Europe. The Archives ... [more ▼]

Dr Elena Danescu, a Research Scientist in the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C²DH) at the University of Luxembourg, then presented her book “Pierre Werner and Europe. The Archives Behind the Werner Report”, containing a foreword by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker and a preface by Professor Harold James from Princeton University, recently released by the prestigious academic publisher Palgrave Macmillan. This book, the result of a multidisciplinary research project based on the exploration of Pierre Werner’s family archives – opened for the first time for research purposes –, as well as various international archives and a series of original oral history interviews, looks back at the career and achievements of a man who was Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Luxembourg for many decades, leaving his legacy on the future of his country and the European integration process. Many of the bold initiatives he pioneered – including diversifying and expanding Luxembourg’s economy, promoting the country to the status of an international financial centre, developing the audiovisual industry via the satellite project, laying the foundations for an economic and monetary union in Europe and developing a culture of social dialogue and consensus – were subsequently taken up by his successors. [less ▲]

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See detailUn nouveau narratif de l’integration européenne au défi des sources orales (Documentaire biographique et Podcast)
Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

Presentation (2019, May 11)

À l’ère numérique et face à un besoin croissant de connaissance, l’histoire fait appel à de nouvelles sources. Depuis le milieu des années 1970, l’histoire orale enrichit progressivement les sources et la ... [more ▼]

À l’ère numérique et face à un besoin croissant de connaissance, l’histoire fait appel à de nouvelles sources. Depuis le milieu des années 1970, l’histoire orale enrichit progressivement les sources et la méthodologie de la recherche sur l’intégration européenne, aux côtés des sources traditionnelles (archives, sources éditées, publications officielles, etc) ou nouvelles (web-archives, bases de données en ligne). Cette «continuité épistémologique entre l’écrit et l’oral» (Bloch, 1921) implique que les sources et ressources orales contribuent à la construction et à la transmission du savoir historique, tout en lui apportant une dimension à la fois mémorielle et patrimoniale (Ritchie, 2003). Même si l’histoire orale se dessine comme une « histoire négociée » (Janesick, 2010) ou une « histoire intermédiée, sous influence » (Descamps, 2006) – à savoir réélaborée par l’historien de concert avec le témoin – elle est reconnue comme une discipline des sciences humaines dont l’analyse critique demeure essentielle. Sur la base de ce volet original, de documents audiovisuels issus des archives Werner et d’autres sources inédites, nous avons réalisé le documentaire biographique (audiovisuel) « Pierre Werner, une vocation européenne », qui retrace le parcours personnel de cet homme d’État et se focalise sur le rapport Werner (1970) qui a jeté les bases de l’UEM et de l’euro. Dans une démarche différente, nous avons aussi réalisé la série de podcasts « Un homme dans son siècle » (7 épisodes de 10 minutes) qui à retrace, à travers des étapes-clés de la vie de Werner, un siècle d’histoire luxembourgeoise et européenne. On tente de montrer, dans le contexte de l’époque, comment son action a influé sur l’évolution et le rayonnement du Luxembourg après la Seconde Guerre Mondiale: les réformes de société, la stratégie de diversification économique, l’essor de la place financière internationale et l’émergence du projet de satellites de télécommunications (SES). A travers cette communication, nous poursuivons un double objectif. - concernant le documentaire biographique audiovisuel, nous souhaitons décrire cette expérience originale et, plus particulièrement, revenir sur les écueils dans la réalisation d’un récit biographique qui dégage, en même temps, un nouveau narrative de l’UEM. La mémoire individuelle de nombreux témoins qui croisent leurs souvenirs et nous livrent leurs perceptions spécifiques sur divers événements de la construction européenne et le rôle de Werner trouvent ainsi écho dans la mémoire collective. - concernant les podcasts radio (réalisées dans une approche différente) nous souhaitons exposer l’émergence de la démarche méthodologique, ainsi que la construction effective de la série. On montre la manière de sélectionner et combiner témoignages oraux, archives audiovisuelles, interventions d’experts pour créer un récit original destiné au public le plus large, tout en conservant une approche historique rigoureuse. [less ▲]

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See detailVarieties of Democracy (V-DEM) Annual Report 2019 - "Democracy Facing Global Challenges”
Danescu, Elena UL

Report (2019)

Democracy in decline in more countries than ever before. The 2019 Democracy Report is titled “Democracy Facing Global Challenges”. Democratic declines now affect more countries than ever before. Still ... [more ▼]

Democracy in decline in more countries than ever before. The 2019 Democracy Report is titled “Democracy Facing Global Challenges”. Democratic declines now affect more countries than ever before. Still, most democracies remain resilient despite challenges such as the financial crises and the rampant spread of fake news on social media. Yet, we show that government manipulation of the media, weakening of civil society, the rule of law and even elections is increasing. There are also some positive stories to report from 2018. Central Asia recorded its first ever peaceful handover of power from one democratically elected leader to another in Kyrgyzstan. In Malaysia, an autocrat surprisingly lost in the elections despite electoral manipulation – showing that even in autocratic settings, elections can be a force for change. Pro-democratic movements have also mobilized masses of people across the globe in 2018 and 2019, for instance in Algeria, Armenia, Slovakia, and Sudan. [less ▲]

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See detailA Symbol of History
Danescu, Elena UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

As the fifth sovereign of the national dynasty since 1890, Grand Duke Jean was a head of state who perfectly embodied the ideals of service to his country and commitment to European integration.

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See detailConvergence, concurrence, harmonisation – une analyse comparative de la fiscalité Be-Ne-Lux (1945-1992)
Danescu, Elena UL

Scientific Conference (2019, April 04)

The paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition and fiscal justice, with a focus on the taxation of Beneux countries. The analysis is carried out ... [more ▼]

The paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition and fiscal justice, with a focus on the taxation of Beneux countries. The analysis is carried out at the intersection of several historical fields – national, regional, European and international –, and in a interdisciplinary approach. The research is based on a wide range of primary sources (original archives from Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Germany and international organisations), by taking into account of a variety of institutions, players and mechanisms, and through the prism of the existing literature in the field. The findings emerged of this analysis may make a valuable addition to this historiography and provide new information, nuances and interpretations in the ongoing debates. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Roumanie, une synthèse des diversités
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2019)

Lors de la onzième présidence luxembourgeoise du Conseil de l’UE, l’Europe accueille deux nouveaux membres – la Roumanie et la Bulgarie – qui signent le Traité d’adhésion le 25 avril 2005, à l’Abbaye de ... [more ▼]

Lors de la onzième présidence luxembourgeoise du Conseil de l’UE, l’Europe accueille deux nouveaux membres – la Roumanie et la Bulgarie – qui signent le Traité d’adhésion le 25 avril 2005, à l’Abbaye de Neumünster. En ce début d’année, la Roumanie entame sa première présidence européenne, dont le point d’orgue est le sommet de Sibiu (Hermannstadt) du 9 mai 2019. Si son passé récent est plus connu car souvent présent dans les médias, l’histoire ancienne de la Roumanie, ses affinités multiséculaires avec le Luxembourg et leur héritage culturel commun le sont moins et méritent d’être davantage mis en exergue. [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner, A Mënsch a Sengem Joerhonnert
Danescu, Elena UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

E Politiker a seng Zäit 10. Feb 2019 - 09:04 Pierre Werner: e Politiker a seng Zäit. - Europäesche Staatsmann a Visionär, national Pappefigur oder Inkarnatioun vum reformresistente politesche ... [more ▼]

E Politiker a seng Zäit 10. Feb 2019 - 09:04 Pierre Werner: e Politiker a seng Zäit. - Europäesche Staatsmann a Visionär, national Pappefigur oder Inkarnatioun vum reformresistente politesche Katholizismus - wie war dee Mann, deen der Nokrichszäit säi Stempel opgesat huet? Fir doriwwer ze schwätzen diskutéieren elo d'Historikerin Elena Danescu vum Institut fir Zäit- an digital Geschicht op der Uni Lëtzebuerg, d'Danièle Fonck, fréier Journalistin a Generaldirektesch vum Tageblatt, an de Jacques Santer, Finanzminister ënner dem Pierre Werner a säi Successeur als Premierminister. Moderatioun: Mick Entringer. [less ▲]

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See detailPierre Werner and Europe: The Family Archives Behind the Werner Report. Foreword by Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, and Foreword by Professor Harold James (Princeton University)
Danescu, Elena UL

Book published by Palgrave Macmillan (2019)

This book - which features a foreword by Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, and a Preface by Professor Harold James (Princeton Unviersity) -examines the European vocation and ... [more ▼]

This book - which features a foreword by Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, and a Preface by Professor Harold James (Princeton Unviersity) -examines the European vocation and achievements of Pierre Werner (1913–2002),former Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Foreign Minister of Luxembourg, unanimously recognized as one of the architects of the Economic and Monetary Union. The author makes extensive use of Pierre Werner’s previously unpublished archives belonging to the Werner family, opened for the first time for research purposes. The book analyses the Werner Report, negotiations within the Werner Committee, the emergence of the Committee’s views on EMU, their political commitment to a European currency, the similarities and differences between their ideas, their personal networks, the influence of the states they represented, their theoretical and methodological input and their contribution to the political consensus. Chapters shed new light on various aspects of the European integration process and also on the role of Luxembourg and its European policy. In addition, the author has carried out a series of original interviews with Luxembourg and European figures who share their memories and thoughts concerning Pierre Werner, his achievements and his views on the European integration process, and also other topics such as the Economic and Monetary Union and Luxembourg‘s European policy. This book will be of interest and value to researchers, EU policy makers and students in the fields of political economy, political science, economic history and history of economic thought. [less ▲]

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See detailL'euro en quête d'un nouveau souffle
Danescu, Elena UL

Article for general public (2018)

L’euro est l’une des grandes aventures du XXe siècle. Pour la première fois des pays égaux et souverains consentent d’abandonner leurs monnaies nationales - symbole intrinsèque aux États nations - pour ... [more ▼]

L’euro est l’une des grandes aventures du XXe siècle. Pour la première fois des pays égaux et souverains consentent d’abandonner leurs monnaies nationales - symbole intrinsèque aux États nations - pour créer une monnaie unique gérée par une nouvelle institution, une banque centrale à l’échelon de l’Europe. Si l’euro ressemble davantage à un instrument technique pour une meilleure intégration économique, il représente surtout une construction institutionnelle originale et une forte avancée politique, néanmoins incomplète. [less ▲]

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See detailOral History and Linguistic Analysis. A Study in Digital and Contemporary European History
Armaselu, Florentina UL; Danescu, Elena UL; Klein, Francois UL

Scientific Conference (2018, October 09)

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of European contemporary history research and teaching. Two ... [more ▼]

The article presents a workflow for combining oral history and language technology, and for evaluating this combination in the context of European contemporary history research and teaching. Two experiments are devised to analyse how interdisciplinary connections between history and linguistics are built and evaluated within a digital framework. The longer term objective of this type of enquiry is to draw an “inventory” of strengths and weaknesses of language technology applied to the study of history. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 126 (32 UL)