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See detailStore-operated Ca2+ channels formed by TRPC1, TRPC6 and Orai1 and non-store-operated channels formed by TRPC3 are involved in the regulation of NADPH oxidase in HL-60 granulocytes
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Melchior, Chantal UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL et al

in Cell Calcium (2008)

Ca(2+) influx has been shown to be essential for NADPH oxidase activity which is involved in the inflammatory process. Ca(2+) conditions underlying the oxidative response are clearly delineated. Here, we ... [more ▼]

Ca(2+) influx has been shown to be essential for NADPH oxidase activity which is involved in the inflammatory process. Ca(2+) conditions underlying the oxidative response are clearly delineated. Here, we show that store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is required at the beginning of NADPH oxidase activation in response to fMLF (N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine ) in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. When extracellular Ca(2+) is initially removed, early addition of Ca(2+) after stimulation causes a complete restoration of Ca(2+) entry and H(2)O(2) production. Both Ca(2+) entry and H(2)O(2) production are decreased by purported SOCE blockers, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB) and SK&F 96365. Endogenously expressed TRPC (transient receptor potential canonical) homologues and Orai1 were investigated for their role in supporting store-operated Ca(2+) channels activity. TRPC1, TRPC6 and Orai1 knock-out by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and H(2)O(2) production in response to fMLF and thapsigargin while suppression of TRPC3 had no effect on thapsigargin induced-SOCE. 2-APB and SK&F 96365 were able to amplify the reduction of fMLF-stimulated Ca(2+) entry and H(2)O(2) production observed in cells transfected by TRPC3 siRNA. In summary, Ca(2+) influx in HL-60 cells relies on different membrane TRPC channels and Orai1 for allowing NADPH oxidase activation. TRPC3 primarily mediates SOCE-independent pathways and TRPC1, TRPC6 and Orai1 exclusively contribute to SOCE. [less ▲]

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See detailCa2+-dependent regulation of NOX2 activity via MRP proteins in HL-60 granulocytes
Schenten, Véronique UL; Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Melchior, Chantal UL et al

in Calcium Binding Proteins (2008), 3(1), 25-30

Recently, two proteins of the S100 protein family, the myeloid-related calcium-binding proteins MRP-8 and MRP-14 have been implicated in the Ca2+-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2 ... [more ▼]

Recently, two proteins of the S100 protein family, the myeloid-related calcium-binding proteins MRP-8 and MRP-14 have been implicated in the Ca2+-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) but the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, the role of MRP-8/14 in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of NOX2 activity was characterized in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knock-down endogenous MRP-8 and/or MRP-14 expression. Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed that MRP-8 and MRP-14 expression was 20 times higher in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 cells compared to quiescent HL-60 cells. Knock-down of MRP-8 and MRP-14 in differentiated HL-60 cells decreased protein levels by 30 and 45% respectively. The impact of the reduced MRP-8/14 protein expression on NOX2 activity was investigated by measuring fMLF-induced H2O2 production. In cells simultaneously transfected with MRP-8 and MRP14 siRNAs, H2O2 production was reduced by 50%, suggesting that both MRP-8 and MRP-14 are required for NOX2 activity; single knock-downs were inefficient. To elucidate the role of Ca2+ in MRP8/14, and consequently in NOX2 activation, siRNA-transfected cells were treated with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin prior to stimulation with PMA, a Ca2+-independent protein kinase C activator. PMA-induced H2O2 production was enhanced by ionomycin. This amplification of NOX2 activity was abolished by MRP8/14 knock-down, indicating that both MRP-8 and MRP-14 are necessary to regulate Ca2+-induced NOX2 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that the mechanism of MRPs activation is highly dependent on the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level for a full activation of NOX2. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation by cADPr of Ca2+ mobilization and oxidative response in dimethylsulfoxide- or retinoic acid-differentiated HL-60 cells
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Brunello, A.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2006), 1763(1), 129-36

In human phagocytic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in response to N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine (fMLF) is largely dependent on cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2 ... [more ▼]

In human phagocytic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in response to N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine (fMLF) is largely dependent on cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr) is able to regulate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores through the ryanodine receptor but its potential role in biological responses has so far not been determined. In this study, we examined whether extracellular and intracellular cADPr is required in fMLF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and consequently in the oxidative response in human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells differentiated with dimethylsulfoxide or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). We establish that extracellular cADPr cannot elicit [Ca2+]i elevation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that 8-Br-cADPr, a functional antagonist of cADPr, inhibits Ca2+ entry into HL-60 cells differentiated with ATRA and stimulated with fMLF (95+/-4 and 148+/-5 nM respectively, n=3). Finally, we show that this partial inhibition of Ca2+ mobilization is unrelated to ROS production (10.0+/-0.3 vs. 9.6+/-0.5 A.U., n=3). In conclusion, we showed that cADPr can control fMLF-induced Ca2+ influx but is unable to regulate a Ca2+-dependent biological response, i.e. H2O2 production. [less ▲]

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See detailRosuvastatin treatment protects against nitrate-induced oxidative stress in eNOS knockout mice: implication of the NAD(P)H oxidase pathway
Otto, A.; Fontaine, J.; Tschirhart, Eric UL et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2006), 148(4), 544-52

Nitrate tolerance is associated with an enhanced superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production and may be attenuated by statins as they interact with the two main endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and NAD(P)H ... [more ▼]

Nitrate tolerance is associated with an enhanced superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production and may be attenuated by statins as they interact with the two main endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase pathways involved in this oxidative stress. Groups of wild-type (wt, C57Bl/6J) and eNOS knock-out mice (eNOS(-/-)) received rosuvastatin (20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) for 5 weeks and a cotreatment with the statin plus nitroglycerin (NTG; 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1), subcutaneous injections b.i.d.) for the last 4 days. Another group received only NTG (30 mg kg(-1) d(-1), b.i.d. for 4 days) and finally control mice from both strains received no treatment. Rings of thoracic aortas from these groups were studied in organ baths. Relaxations to NTG (0.1 nM-0.1 mM) were determined on thromboxane analogue (U44619)-precontracted rings and O(2)(-) production (RLU 5 s(-1) mg(-1) of total protein content) was assessed in aorta homogenates with the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on aortas from both mice strains. In vivo NTG treatment induced a significant rightward shift of the concentration-effect curve to NTG compared to control group. There was, however, no cross-tolerance with non-nitrate sources of NO (unaltered response to acetylcholine in wt group). The rosuvastatin + NTG cotreatment was able to protect against the development of nitrate tolerance in both mice strains and L-mevalonate abolished this protective effect of rosuvastatin. In vivo treatment with apocynin, a purported NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, also produced a similar protection to that observed with rosuvastatin in both strains.Superoxide anion formation was increased after NTG treatment in both mice strains and the rosuvastatin + NTG cotreatment was able to reduce that production. Moreover, rosuvastatin treatment abolished the increase in gp91phox mRNA (an endothelial membrane NAD(P)H oxidase subunit) expression induced by in vivo exposure to NTG. These findings suggest that long-term rosuvastatin treatment protects against nitrate tolerance by counteracting NTG-induced increase in O(2)(-) production, probably via a direct interaction with the NAD(P)H oxidase pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailInterleukin-8 primes oxidative burst in neutrophil-like HL-60 through changes in cytosolic calcium
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Cell Calcium (2005), 37(6), 531-40

In response to a variety of stimuli, neutrophils release large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase. This process known as the respiratory burst is dependent on cytosolic ... [more ▼]

In response to a variety of stimuli, neutrophils release large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase. This process known as the respiratory burst is dependent on cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) may modulate ROS generation through a priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human IL-8 on ROS production in neutrophil-like dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells (not equalHL-60 cells) and further to examine the role of Ca(2+) mobilization during the priming. IL-8 at 10 nM induced no ROS production but a [Ca(2+)](i) rise (254 +/- 36 nM). IL-8 induced a strongly enhanced (2 fold) ROS release during stimulation with 1 microM of N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLF). This potentiation of ROS production is dependent of extracellular Ca(2+) (17.0+/-4.5 arbitrary units (A.U.) in the absence of Ca(2+) versus 56.6 +/- 3.9 A.U. in the presence of 1.25 mM of Ca(2+)). Also, IL-8 enhanced fMLF-stimulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) (375 +/- 35 versus 245 +/- 21 nM, 0.1 microM of fMLF). IL-8 had no effect on not equalHL-60 cells in response to 1 microM of thapsigargin (472 +/- 66 versus 470 +/- 60 nM). In conclusion, Ca(2+) influx is necessary for a full induction of neutrophil priming by IL-8. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidative stress activates MMP-2 in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells
Valentin, F.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Kieffer, P. et al

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (2005), 19(6), 661-7

Oxidative stress is a cardinal feature of the inflammatory process and is involved in various pathologies including atherosclerosis. One of the important mechanisms in which oxidative stress may play a ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress is a cardinal feature of the inflammatory process and is involved in various pathologies including atherosclerosis. One of the important mechanisms in which oxidative stress may play a role is activation of matrix metalloproteinases such as MMP-2, which are involved in plaque destabilization. We investigated the mechanisms by which oxidative stress induces MMP-2 activation in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Using zymography and Western blot analysis, we showed that oxidized low-density lipoproteins activate MMP-2 through up-regulation of the expression and activation of a membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). A second mechanism of MMP-2 activation involves oxidative radicals generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase complex (X/Xo). Research on these two mechanisms of MMP activation could lead to the elaboration of new vascular therapies for the treatment of atheroma based on interruption of a specific oxidative stress pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Use of In Vitro Systems for Evaluating Immunotoxicity: The Report and Recommendations of an ECVAM Workshop
Gennari, Alessandra; Ban, Masarin; Braun, Armin et al

in Journal of Immunotoxicology (2005), 2(2), 61-83

This is the report of a workshop organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to ... [more ▼]

This is the report of a workshop organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods that are of importance to the biosciences and which replace, reduce or refine the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures that would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organization of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (Anonymous, 1994). The workshop on "The use of in vitro systems for evaluating Immunotoxicity" was held at ECVAM (Ispra), Italy, on 24th-26th November 2003. The participants represented academia, national organizations, international regulatory bodies and industry. The aim of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro immunotoxicology, and to develop strategies towards the replacement of in vivo testing. At the end of this report are listed the recommendations that should be considered for prevalidation and validation of relevant and reliable procedures, that could replace the use of animals in chemical and cosmetics toxicity testing. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman umbilical cord blood monocyte-derived eosinophils produce superoxide but not nitric oxide
Zardini, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Inflammation Research (2001), 50(7), 357-61

Both N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine, and 1-O-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine induced superoxide release in umbilical cord eosinophils, while no response was observed with ... [more ▼]

Both N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine, and 1-O-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine induced superoxide release in umbilical cord eosinophils, while no response was observed with lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-4 and/or interferon-gamma. Furthermore, upon activation with different inflammatory stimuli, neither induction of nitric oxide synthesis nor expression of the constitutive and/or inducible nitric oxide synthase were observed in these eosinophils derived in vitro. Human umbilical cord derived eosinophils are able to produce superoxide as peripheral blood eosinophils. Whether human peripheral eosinophils are capable of NO synthesis is still the subject of considerable debate, nevertheless, our results suggest that these in vitro derived eosinophils are not capable of nitric oxide synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailReceptor-independent effects of natural cannabinoids in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro
Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Lambert, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1538(2-3), 252-9

Cannabinoids can activate CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. Since a CB(2) mRNA has been described in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC), we investigated a series of cannabinoids and derivatives for their capacity ... [more ▼]

Cannabinoids can activate CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. Since a CB(2) mRNA has been described in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC), we investigated a series of cannabinoids and derivatives for their capacity to stimulate RPMC. Effects of natural cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), Delta(8)-THC, endocannabinoids (anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide) and related compounds (N-decanoyl-, N-lauroyl-, N-myristoyl-, N-stearoyl- and N-oleoyl-ethanolamines; N-palmitoyl derivatives (-butylamine, -cyclohexylamine, -isopropylamine); and N-palmitoyl, O-palmitoylethanolamine), and synthetic cannabinoids including WIN 55,212-2, SR141716A and SR144528 were assessed for their capacity to induce histamine release or prime RPMC stimulated by compound 48/80. Only Delta(9)-THC and Delta(8)-THC could induce non-lytic, energy- and concentration-dependent histamine releases from RPMC (respective EC(50) values: 23.5+/-1.2; 53.4+/-20.6 microM, and maxima: 71.2+/-5.5; 55.7+/-2.7% of the total RPMC histamine content). These were not blocked by CB(1) (SR141716A) or CB(2) (SR144528) antagonists, but reduced by pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml). Endocannabinoids and analogues did neither induce histamine secretion, nor prime secretion induced by compound 48/80 (0.2 microg/ml). Delta(9)-THC and Delta(8)-THC induced in vitro histamine secretion from RPMC through CB receptor-independent interactions, partly involving G(i/o) protein activation. [less ▲]

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See detailRac-1-mediated O2- secretion requires Ca2+ influx in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells
Valentin, F.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Capdeville-Atkinson, C. et al

in Cell Calcium (2001), 29(6), 409-15

Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells reacted to N -formyl- l -Methionyl- l -Leucyl- l -P henylalanine (f MLP) with a rise in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2]i), NADPH oxidase activation, and ... [more ▼]

Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells reacted to N -formyl- l -Methionyl- l -Leucyl- l -P henylalanine (f MLP) with a rise in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2]i), NADPH oxidase activation, and increased superoxide anion (O2-) production. [Ca2+]i mobilization and superoxide production were largely dependent on extracellular calcium (Ca2+]e) and a capacitative calcium entry. The monomeric G-protein, Rac-1, regulates NADPH oxidase activity. We tested the effect of removal of Ca2+]e on Rac-1 plasma membrane sequestration and activation of NADPH oxidase using immunodetection and a double labelling fluorescent method. Results showed that Rac-1 activation is mediated via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive heteromeric G-protein pathway, and that Rac-1 membrane sequestration was preceded by [Ca2+]i mobilization following entry of Ca2+ e. Therefore, we propose that O2- production is dependent on activation of PTX-sensitive G-proteins and sequestration of Rac-1 in the plasma membrane, following entry of Ca2+ e. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of G(i)-proteins in norepinephrine-mediated vasoconstriction in rat tail artery smooth muscle
Petitcolin, M. A.; Spitzbarth-Régrigny, E.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2001), 61(9), 1169-75

We showed, in rat de-endothelialised tail artery, that pertussis toxin (PTX) (1 microg/mL, 2 hr) attenuated norepinephrine (NE)-induced vasoconstriction without modifying intracellular calcium ... [more ▼]

We showed, in rat de-endothelialised tail artery, that pertussis toxin (PTX) (1 microg/mL, 2 hr) attenuated norepinephrine (NE)-induced vasoconstriction without modifying intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+](i) mobilisation. We suggested the existence of two NE-induced intracellular pathways: a first, which would be insensitive to PTX and lead to [Ca2+](i) mobilisation, and a second sensitive to PTX and involved in the [Ca2+](i) sensitivity of NE-induced contraction. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of the second intracellular pathway. PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-proteins in rat tail artery SMC membrane were identified by immunoblot and ADP-ribosylation. [(32)P]ADP-ribosylation of alpha(i/o)-subunits was demonstrated in situ by perfusing rat de-endothelialised tail artery segments with PTX (1 microg/mL, 2 hr), which suggested that G(i/o)-protein inactivation was involved in the reduction by PTX of the [Ca2+](i) sensitivity of NE-induced contraction. Coupling between G(i/o)-proteins and NE receptors was confirmed by the NE-induced increase in G(i/o)-specific GTPase activity (24.1 +/- 1.9 vs 8.8 +/- 0.4 pmol P(i)/mg protein at 5 min; P < 0.05 vs basal). [(3)H]Prazosin-binding data showed the presence of a heterogeneous alpha(1)-AR population in rat tail artery smooth muscle cells. We demonstrated the in vitro coupling between alpha(1A)-AR subtype and alpha(i)-subunits. In conclusion, we identified, in rat de-endothelialised tail artery, a PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-protein-modulated pathway that is coupled to NE receptors via alpha(1A)-AR. We suggest that NE stimulates two alpha(1)-AR-mediated intracellular pathways: a first, which is mediated by a G(q)-protein and leads to [Ca2+](i) mobilisation and contraction, and a second, which is mediated by a G(i)-protein and is involved in the amplification of the [Ca2+](i) sensitivity of NE-induced tension. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins in norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction of rat aorta smooth muscle
Petitcolin, M. A.; Vandeputte, C.; Spitzbarth-Régrigny, E. et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2001), 61(4), 485-91

Several studies have shown that stimulation of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins amplified alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) agonist-induced vasoconstriction in small muscular and resistance arteries ... [more ▼]

Several studies have shown that stimulation of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins amplified alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha-AR) agonist-induced vasoconstriction in small muscular and resistance arteries. The aim of this study was to assess the potential involvement of PTX-sensitive G-proteins in norepinephrine (NE)-induced constriction in a large diameter artery, the rat aorta. PTX (1 microg/mL, 2 hr; 3 microg/mL, 4 hr) did not modify concentration-response curves to NE in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. However, several lines of evidence suggested that aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) had a PTX-sensitive G-protein pathway. [alpha-(32)P]ADP-ribosylation of G(i/o)-proteins by PTX (3 microg/mL, 4 hr) was demonstrated in situ in the intact aorta without endothelium. alpha(i/o) subunits were identified in vitro by both immunoblotting and ADP-ribosylation experiments in rat aorta SMC membranes. The measurement of G(i/o)-specific GTPase activity evidenced an effective coupling between NE receptors and G(i/o)-proteins, as NE induced an increase in basal G(i/o)-specific GTPase activity (20.7 +/- 2.8 vs 7.2 +/- 2.2 pmol P(i)/mg protein at 5 min; P < 0.05 vs basal). Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the in vitro coupling between alpha(1D)-ARs and G(i)-protein in rat aorta SMC membranes. In conclusion, we identified a PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-protein pathway in rat endothelium-denuded aorta. We showed an effective coupling between NE receptors and G(i)-proteins via alpha(1D)-ARs. Since PTX has no effect on NE-induced vasoconstriction, the PTX-sensitive G(i)-protein pathway does not play a predominant role in NE-induced responses in rat aorta SMC in contrast to small diameter muscular and resistance arteries. [less ▲]

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See detailPertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-proteins and intracellular calcium sensitivity of vasoconstriction in the intact rat tail artery
Spitzbarth-Régrigny, E.; Petitcolin, M. A.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2000), 131(7), 1337-44

1. We studied the involvement of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins in the sensitivity of arterial constriction to intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization. 2. Vasoconstriction was ... [more ▼]

1. We studied the involvement of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins in the sensitivity of arterial constriction to intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization. 2. Vasoconstriction was measured in vitro in perfused, de-endothelialized rat tail arteries loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 and treated or not with PTX (30 - 1000 ng ml(-1)). Arteries were stimulated with noradrenaline (NA, 0.1 - 100 microM) or KCl (15 - 120 mM). 3. KCl elicited a smaller vasoconstrictor response (E(max)=94+/-8 mmHg) than NA (E(max)=198+/-9 mmHg) although [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization was similar (E(max)=123+/-8 and 135+/-7 nM for KCl and NA, respectively). PTX (1000 ng ml(-1)) had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization but lowered NA- (but not KCl-) induced vasoconstriction (E(max)=118+/-7 mmHg). 4. G(i/o)-proteins were revealed by immunoblotting with anti-G(i alpha) and anti-G(o alpha) antibodies in membranes prepared from de-endothelialized tail arteries. [alpha(32)P]-ADP-ribosylation of G-proteins by PTX (1000 ng ml(-1)) was demonstrated in the intact rat tail artery (pixels in the absence of PTX: 3150, presence: 25053). 5. In conclusion, we suggest that smooth muscle cells possess a PTX-sensitive G(i)-protein-mediated intracellular pathway which amplifies [Ca(2+)](i) sensitivity of contraction in the presence of agonists such as NA. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of SK&F 96365 on extracellular Ca2+ -dependent O2- production in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells
Gallois, A.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in European Journal of Pharmacology (1999), 361(2-3), 293-8

Store-operated Ca2+ entry is referred to a capacitative current activated by Ca2+ -stores depletion in various non-excitable cells. Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells responded to N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L ... [more ▼]

Store-operated Ca2+ entry is referred to a capacitative current activated by Ca2+ -stores depletion in various non-excitable cells. Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells responded to N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine (fMLP) by an early O2- production preceded by a [Ca2+]i rise. Cell stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in a major reduction of [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. A purported inhibitor of store-operated Ca2+ entry, SK&F 96365 (1-(beta-(3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)propoxyl)-4-methoxy-phenetyl)- 1H-imidazole hydrochloride), inhibited extracellular Ca2+ -dependent [Ca2+]i rise by 30% but did not alter O2- production. In conclusion, SK&F 96365 did not modify extracellular Ca2+ -dependent O2- production, despite a significant but limited reduction in fMLP-activated membrane Ca2+ fluxes which can be ascribed to store-operated Ca2+ entry. Furthermore, Ca2+ influx is necessary for a full induction and maintenance of the biological response. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective differentiation and proliferation of human eosinophils from umbilical cord blood: calcium fluxes and superoxide ion secretion
Zardini, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Thérapie (1999), 54(1), 103-9

Investigation of the physiologic mechanisms involved in the activation of eosinophils is crucial to comprehend their role in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. To overcome the difficulty of obtaining ... [more ▼]

Investigation of the physiologic mechanisms involved in the activation of eosinophils is crucial to comprehend their role in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. To overcome the difficulty of obtaining large numbers of eosinophils, we differentiated in vitro eosinophils from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. These cells responded to fMLP or PAF with an increase in [Ca2+]i, associated with O2 production. Deprivation or chelation of extracellular calcium induced a reduction of fMLP or PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. Similar results were obtained with extracellular Ni2+ addition. Chelation of intracellular calcium induced an inhibition of fMLP- or PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and a decrease in O2- production. Our results indicate that fMLP- and PAF-dependent O2- production in eosinophils requires intra- and extracellular Ca2+ and that Ca2+ influx is necessary for optimal activation. [less ▲]

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See detailRelease of O2- by human umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils: role of intra- and extracellular calcium
Zardini, D. M.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Cell Calcium (1999), 25(5), 381-9

The aim of our study was to investigate the physiologic mechanisms involved in eosinophil activation as an essential prerequisite to disrupting the biochemical cascade that triggers inflammation, thereby ... [more ▼]

The aim of our study was to investigate the physiologic mechanisms involved in eosinophil activation as an essential prerequisite to disrupting the biochemical cascade that triggers inflammation, thereby attenuating the effect of this activation or, ideally, preventing it from occurring. We have, therefore, examined the nature of the fMLP- and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and the relationship between the [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production in human umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils cultured in the presence of IL-3 and IL-5. These cells responded to fMLP or PAF (1 microM each) with an increase in [Ca2+]i (217.3 +/- 22.1 and 197.8 +/- 22.1 nM respectively) which was associated with production of O2- (40.2 +/- 8.2 and 35.2 +/- 7.6 pmol/min/10(6) cells respectively). The role of Ca2+ in the induced respiratory burst was studied by changing the availability of Ca2+ in the intra- and extracellular compartments. Removal or chelation of extracellular Ca2+ induced a reduction of both the fMLP and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of fMLP- and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and caused a decrease in O2- production. SK&F 96365 had a stimulatory effect on PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and on fMLP-induced O2- production, this phenomenon was not observed with extracellular Ca2+ removal or chelation. Furthermore, Ni2+ exhibited an inhibition of both fMLP and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. Finally, both fMLP and PAF induced an increase in divalent cation influx that was further augmented by thapsigargin. Our results indicate that fMLP and PAF dependent O2- production in human eosinophils require intra- and extracellular Ca2+ and that Ca2+ influx is necessary for optimal activation. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalogues and homologues of N-palmitoylethanolamide, a putative endogenous CB(2) cannabinoid, as potential ligands for the cannabinoid receptors
Lambert, D. M.; DiPaolo, F. G.; Sonveaux, P. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1999), 1440(2-3), 266-74

The presence of CB(2) receptors was reported in the rat basophilic cell line RBL-2H3 and N-palmitoylethanolamide was proposed as an endogenous, potent agonist of this receptor. We synthesized a series of ... [more ▼]

The presence of CB(2) receptors was reported in the rat basophilic cell line RBL-2H3 and N-palmitoylethanolamide was proposed as an endogenous, potent agonist of this receptor. We synthesized a series of 10 N-palmitoylethanolamide homologues and analogues, varying by the elongation of the fatty acid chain from caproyl to stearoyl and by the nature of the amide substituent, respectively, and evaluated the affinity of these compounds to cannabinoid receptors in the rat spleen, RBL-2H3 cells and CHO-CB(1) and CHO-CB(2) receptor-transfected cells. In rat spleen slices, CB(2) receptors were the predominant form of the cannabinoid receptors. No binding of [(3)H]SR141716A was observed. [(3)H]CP-55,940 binding was displaced by WIN 55,212-2 and anandamide. No displacement of [(3)H]CP-55,940 or [(3)H]WIN 55,212-2 by palmitoylethanolamide derivatives was observed in rat spleen slices. In RBL-2H3 cells, no binding of [(3)H]CP-55,940 or [(3)H]WIN 55,212-2 could be observed and conversely, no inhibitory activity of N-palmitoylethanolamide derivatives and analogues was measurable. These compounds do not recognize the human CB(1) and CB(2) receptors expressed in CHO cells. In conclusion, N-palmitoylethanolamide was, in our preparations, a weak ligand while its synthesized homologues or analogues were essentially inactive. Therefore, it seems unlikely that N-palmitoylethanolamide is an endogenous agonist of the CB(2) receptors but it may be a compound with potential therapeutic applications since it may act via other mechanisms than cannabinoid CB(1)-CB(2) receptor interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils cultured in the presence of IL-3 and IL-5 respond to fMLP with [Ca2+]i variation and O2- production
Zardini, D. M.; Heuschling, Paul UL; Gallois, A. et al

in Journal of Immunological Methods (1997), 205(1), 1-9

In the presence of interleukin-3 and interleukin-5, eosinophil precursors from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were regularly differentiated into mature eosinophil-like cells expressing ... [more ▼]

In the presence of interleukin-3 and interleukin-5, eosinophil precursors from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were regularly differentiated into mature eosinophil-like cells expressing normal morphology and cyanide-resistant peroxidase. O2- production and [Ca2+]i rise were measured in these in vitro differentiated eosinophils after fMLP stimulation; with dihydrorhodamine-123 and fura-2, respectively. Umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils responded to fMLP (0.01 nM to 3 microM) with a concentration-dependent production of O2- (EC50 = 63.1 +/- 17.2 nM; Emax = 71.0 +/- 6.2 pmol/min/10(6) cells). O2- production was correlated with an fMLP concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i (EC50 = 32.5 +/- 14.9 nM; Emax = 200.0 +/- 23.9 nM). These results indicate that human umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils demonstrate functional characteristics similar to adult human peripheral blood eosinophils after activation by fMLP. Therefore, the large numbers of eosinophils (2-3 x 10(6)/ml cord blood) which can be obtained by culture of human cord blood mononuclear cells may serve as a useful model for future studies which will provide insight into the pathogenesis of diseases associated with eosinophils. [less ▲]

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See detailEndothelin-1 does not modulate O2.release and [Ca(2+)]i variations in resting or differentiated HL-60 cells
Gallois, A.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (1996), 10(1), 28-32

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) by itself was not an effective stimulus for inducing superoxide (O2.) generation in human resting or DMSO-differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. ET-1 (0.01-100 nM) was not able to ... [more ▼]

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) by itself was not an effective stimulus for inducing superoxide (O2.) generation in human resting or DMSO-differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. ET-1 (0.01-100 nM) was not able to modulate O2. generation stimulated by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP, EC50 = 4.24 +/- 1.63 nM in the absence and 3.16 +/- 1.95 nM in the presence of ET-1). Neither did ET-1 (0.01-100 nM) promote the mobilization of intracellular calcium ions or modulate fMLP-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in this model of human neutrophils. Phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, was not able to reveal any biological (O2.) or biochemical ([Ca(2+)]i response to ET-1 in the absence or in the presence of fMLP in these cells. These results indicate that DMSO-differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 cells are not sensitive to ET-1 in terms of O2. generation or [Ca(2+)]i variations. [less ▲]

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See detailA double-labelling fluorescent assay for concomitant measurements of [Ca2+]i and O2. production in human macrophages
Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Gallois, A.; Schneider, J. C. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1995), 1244(1), 79-84

To measure intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and superoxide (O2) production in human alveolar macrophages, we used the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2 and the O2-sensitive dye ... [more ▼]

To measure intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and superoxide (O2) production in human alveolar macrophages, we used the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2 and the O2-sensitive dye dihydrorhodamine-123, which becomes fluorescent in its oxidized form, rhodamine-123. We describe a new double-dye technique whereby the kinetics of both [Ca2+]i levels and O2. production can be monitored simultaneously. This technique was developed in the dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated monocytic-like U-937 cell line (not equal to U-937), validated by comparison with single dye measurements and applied to human alveolar macrophages. The chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine induced in both cell types a similar transient elevation in [Ca2+]i, followed within seconds by a sustained increase in O2 production, which was however 4-fold weaker in not equal to U-937 cells. These results indicate that O2 production is an early event following the stimulation of human alveolar macrophages. This new double-dye technique may be relevant to other O2 ion-producing cells and could help to define more precisely the kinetics of the events leading to this biological response. [less ▲]

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