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See detailOptimism, self-efficacy, and perceived stress as predictors of self-reported health symptoms in college students
Schulz, Heiko; Vögele, Claus UL; Meyer, Björn

in Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie (2009), 17

Studies provide support for the notion of increased vulnerability to upper respiratory track infections (URIs) with exposure to psychological stress, but only few have examined whether optimism and self ... [more ▼]

Studies provide support for the notion of increased vulnerability to upper respiratory track infections (URIs) with exposure to psychological stress, but only few have examined whether optimism and self-efficacy might moderate this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine (a) the influence of academic exam stress on susceptibility to URIs and (b) the extent to which these personality characteristics buffer against stress-related vulnerability to URIs. Using a repeated-measures design, URI infection status was measured in a sample of 80 college students with self-reports both during an exam period and outside such a period. Results suggested that optimism may protect from the adverse influence of heightened stress and that pessimistic, low self-efficacious participants may be at elevated risk for the development of URIs at times of increased stress. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential of including the UK in comparisons with other European countries in research on teenage pregnancy
Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Gilvarry, Catherine et al

in Critical Social Policy (2009), 29

This article is a response to Arai (2003) ‘British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries’ (Critical Social Policy 23: 89–102). It ... [more ▼]

This article is a response to Arai (2003) ‘British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries’ (Critical Social Policy 23: 89–102). It discusses the arguments put forward by Arai there that cross-cultural comparisons in the area of teenage pregnancy are often problematic due to the unique demographics of the UK. While Arai’s considerations are important for cross-cultural research, they need to be more sensitive to the differences between countries included in these comparisons. Our article illustrates the potential value of cross-cultural research, using Germany as an exam- ple, and concludes that, as long as countries for such comparisons are cho- sen carefully, the merit of cross-cultural research on topics such as teenage pregnancy far exceeds its limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary restriction, cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in bulimic women
Vögele, Claus UL; Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

in Physiology and Behavior (2009), 98

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and ... [more ▼]

Recent !ndings suggest sympathetic inhibition during dietary restriction as opposed to increased sympathetic activity during re-feeding. The present study investigated cardiac autonomic regulation and stress reactivity in relation to biochemical markers of dietary restriction status in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We predicted that bulimic individuals (BN) with a biochemical pro!le indicating dietary restriction exhibit reduced cardiac sympathetic and/or increased vagal activity. We also hypothesized, that BN with a biochemical pro!le within a normal range (i.e. currently not dieting or malnourished) would show heart rate variability responses (HRV) and reactivity to mental stress indicating increased sympathetic activation compared with non-eating disordered controls. Seventeen female volunteers diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized according to their serum pro!le (glucose, pre-albumin, IGF-1, TSH, leptin) into currently fasting versus non-fasting and compared with 16 non-eating disordered controls matched for age and BMI. Spectral components of HRV were calculated on heart rate data from resting and mental stress periods (standardized achievement challenge) using autoregressive analysis. Compared to non-fasting BN and controls, fasting BN showed increased vagal and decreased sympathetic modulation during both resting and recovery periods. Cardiac autonomic regulation was not impaired in response to mental challenge. No differences could be found between non-fasting BN and controls. The results con!rm the notion of cardiac sympathetic inhibition and vagal dominance during dietary restriction and suggest the speci!city of starvation related biochemical changes for cardiac autonomic control. The results are discussed in terms of the higher incidence in cardiac complications in these patients. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily structure, body mass index and eating behaviour
Hasenböhler, Kathrin; Munsch, Simone; Meyer, Andrea H. et al

in International Journal of Eating Disorders (2009), 42

Objective: To explore associations between family structure, children’s body mass index (BMI), and eating behaviors of children and their mothers. Method: Fifty-seven mothers and their children took part ... [more ▼]

Objective: To explore associations between family structure, children’s body mass index (BMI), and eating behaviors of children and their mothers. Method: Fifty-seven mothers and their children took part in an experimental study. BMI of children was measured. Mothers were asked to provide self- report data on sociodemographic back- ground, mental health, and eating behaviors about themselves and their children. Parent-child-dyads represented their family structure using the Family System Test. Results: We found negative associations in typical family situations between family hierarchy and children’s BMI, mothers’ emotional eating and mothers’ restrained eating. Family cohesion and restrained eating of the children were also negatively correlated. We obtained positive associa- tions in typical and conflict family situa- tions between family cohesion and external eating of the children. Discussion: We found indications that family structure is associated with overweight and with eating behavior in children and their mothers. VC 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailPreference for attractiveness and thinness in a partner: Influence of internalization of the thin ideal and shape/weight dissatisfaction in heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbians, and gay men
Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Schäfer, Corinna et al

in Body Image (2009), 6

This study assesses whether characteristics of one’s own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women ... [more ▼]

This study assesses whether characteristics of one’s own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women (n = 67), lesbian women (n = 73), heterosexual men (n = 61) and gay men (n = 82) participated in an internet survey assessing attitudes towards the body and preferences of attractiveness in a partner. Men in particular were found to prefer attractive partners, regardless of sexual orientation. Weight/shape dissatisfaction was found to be a negative predictor for heterosexual men and women. For gay men, preferences were better explained by internalization and weight/shape dissatisfaction. No such associations were found in the lesbian group. Levels of weight/shape dissatisfaction and internalization of socio-cultural slenderness ideals influence expectations of thinness and attractiveness in a partner with this effect being modified by gender and sexual orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailSympathetic activity relates to adenosine A2A receptor gene variation in blood-injury phobia
Hohoff, Christa; Domschke, Katharina; Schwarte, Kathrin et al

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2009), 116

Variation in the candidate genes adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been suggested to influence vulnerability to panic ... [more ▼]

Variation in the candidate genes adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been suggested to influence vulnerability to panic disorder. We therefore investigated patients with another anxiety disorder with an even higher heritability, the blood-injury phobia, for association of these variants and used sympathetic measures during venipuncture, which serve as a naturalistic trigger of anxiety and autonomic hyperarousal, as an intermediate phenotype of anxiety. Patients homozygous for the A(2A)R 1976T allele as compared to patients carrying at least one 1976C allele exhibited a significantly increased respiratory rate with a trend towards elevated measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiratory minute volume. None of the sympathetic measures were influenced by the COMT or NET polymorphisms.This study provides preliminary data suggesting an influence of the A(2A)R 1976C/T polymorphism on sympathetic psychophysiological indicators of anxiety-related arousal in blood-injury phobia and thereby further supports a role of the A(2A)R gene in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailHealthy food and healthy choices: a new European profile approach
Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Brighenti, Furio; Paoletti, Rodolfo et al

in Atherosclerosis. Supplements (2009), 10(4), 1-11

Poor or unbalanced nutrition, or both, is linked to the development of a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, which collectively represent significant ... [more ▼]

Poor or unbalanced nutrition, or both, is linked to the development of a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, which collectively represent significant causes of disability and premature death and impose a substantial economic burden. As a result, health authorities and regulatory bodies across Europe are implementing policies to promote healthy eating habits with the aim to attenuate the burgeoning incidence of diet-related diseases. In order to support these efforts, and within the context of a project dedicated to interrelations between nutrition and atherosclerosis, European experts convened on October 24, 2008 at a Session on “Healthy food and healthy choices: A new European profile approach,” during an international symposium in Venice, Italy. The aim of this session was to review issues relating to dietary policies, eating behaviour, food labelling, and nutritional profiling of foods. The present article highlights the key points of this session. Since eating takes place in a behavioural, social, and cultural context, a more relaxed pattern of interacting with food needs to be fostered, especially in children. Excessive regulation alone is insufficient and probably counter-productive to substantially impact population eating practices because automatic behaviour dominates our decision-making process with respect to food choices. Consumers urgently need simple, practical tools to help them make healthy food choices in a real-life setting. Front of pack labelling allows consumers to see the levels of key nutrients in foods; nevertheless more research is needed to assess how people use the different food labelling systems in real-life contexts. While policy changes including legislation and regulation can play an important role in changing behaviour, individuals need more assistance, education, and tools to help them to increase their personal responsibility for their health particularly with respect to diet. [less ▲]

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See detailMental disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Vögele, Claus UL; von Leupoldt, Andreas

in Respiratory Medicine (2008), 102

Recent research using questionnaire measures has demonstrated high prevalence rates of mental disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, clinical interviews and clinical rather ... [more ▼]

Recent research using questionnaire measures has demonstrated high prevalence rates of mental disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, clinical interviews and clinical rather than healthy control groups have rarely been employed. The aim of the present study was to assess mental disorders in patients with COPD with advanced methodology, to identify moderating factors explaining mental co-morbidities and to compare results with a clinical control group without COPD. A standardized clinical interview (F-DIPS) and a range of questionnaires were used to assess mental disorders, perceived physical symptoms and cognitions in 20 hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (mean FEV(1)/VC (%)=61.3). Results were compared with a hospitalized clinical control group without pulmonary dysfunction (CCG; N=20). Results showed that 55% of patients with COPD received a diagnosis of a mental disorder compared to 30% of CCG patients. All principal mental diagnoses in the COPD group were anxiety disorders (especially Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia), while CCG patients received a wider range of diagnoses (anxiety, pain, alcohol abuse). There was no systematic association between anxiety levels and respiratory function in the whole COPD group, but a positive correlation between anxiety levels and perceived physical symptoms (p<0.001) as well as negative cognitions (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively) for COPD patients with anxiety disorder (N=11). The present results confirm the high prevalence rate of anxiety in patients with COPD and suggest further that anxiety in COPD patients may be mediated by cognitive processes. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of parental control practices in explaining children’s diet, activity and BMI
Brown, Kerry A.; Ogden, Jane; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Appetite (2008), 50

This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children's diets and to assess the impact of these practices on children's dietary patterns and ... [more ▼]

This paper aimed to investigate which parents use which types of parenting control practices to manage their children's diets and to assess the impact of these practices on children's dietary patterns and their BMI. A cross-sectional survey of 518 parents with children aged 4-7 years was carried out in 18 primary schools across the South of England. Measures included aspects of parental control practices and the child's diet. Results showed that older parents with a lower BMI and who were stay at home parents used more "snack overt control", "snack covert control" and "meal covert control" and those with more education used more covert control strategies. In contrast, male, non-white parents with younger children used more "pressure to eat". In terms of the children's diet, the results showed links between parental and child demographics and aspects of unhealthy and healthy food intake. In addition, links were also found for parental control practices. For example, eating more unhealthy snacks was related to less covert control and more pressure to eat, eating fruit and vegetables was related to higher levels of both overt and covert control over meals and less pressure to eat and being neophobic was related to less covert control over meals and more pressure to eat. The children's BMIs were unrelated to any variables measured in the study. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily hassles and emotional eating in obese adolescents under restricted dietary conditions – the role of ruminative thinking
Kubiak, Thomas; Vögele, Claus UL; Siering, Mareike et al

in Appetite (2008), 51

Emotional eating is conceptualized as eating in response to negative affect or distress and is discussed as a mechanism leading to eating binges. Recent evidence suggests that eating may not only be ... [more ▼]

Emotional eating is conceptualized as eating in response to negative affect or distress and is discussed as a mechanism leading to eating binges. Recent evidence suggests that eating may not only be triggered by negative affect, but also ruminative thinking. We report results of an experience sampling study examining the role of rumination for emotional eating in 16 obese adolescents (M=15.5 years, S.D.=1.4; range 14-17, body mass index M = 31.1 kgm(-2), S.D.=5.5) under restricted dietary conditions. We hypothesized that daily hassles type of stress predicted the individuals' desire to eat, with the predictive value further increased when negative affect and rumination were accounted for. The results of mixed regression modeling were in line with our predictions, suggesting a significant contribution of ruminative thinking to the mechanisms of negative affect induced eating. [less ▲]

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See detailElektrodermale Aktivität
Vögele, Claus UL

in Gauggel, S.; Herrmann, M. (Eds.) Handbuch der Neuro- und Biopsychologie (2007)

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See detailGesundheitsförderung und Gesundheitserziehung
Vögele, Claus UL

in Kerr, J.; Weitkunat, R.; Moretti, M. (Eds.) ABC der Verhaltensänderung (2007)

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See detailKardiovaskuläre Aktivität
Vögele, Claus UL

in Gauggel, S.; Herrmann, M. (Eds.) Handbuch der Neuro- und Biopsychologie (2007)

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See detailKardiovaskuläre Reaktivität und Bluthochdruck
Vögele, Claus UL

in Leupoldt, A.v.; Ritz, T. (Eds.) Verhaltensmedizin – Perspektiven aus Psychobiologie, Psychopathologie und klinischer Anwendung (2007)

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See detailSurgery
Vögele, Claus UL

in Ayers, S.; Baum, A.; McManus, C. (Eds.) et al Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health & Medicine (2007)

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See detailSurgery and stress
Vögele, Claus UL

in Fink, G. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Stress, 3 (2007)

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See detailCue reactivity in male restrained eaters: the role of negative cognitions as predictors of food intake
Hilbert, Anja; Vögele, Claus UL; Himmelmann, Uta

in Eating and Weight Disorders (2007), 12

OBJECTIVE: While restrained eating is one of the most well-established risk factors of eating disorders in females, its role for eating disturbances in males remains largely unclear. The present study ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: While restrained eating is one of the most well-established risk factors of eating disorders in females, its role for eating disturbances in males remains largely unclear. The present study investigates eating behaviour in response to food cues and negative cognitions in male restrained eaters. METHODS: Twenty-four restrained eaters and 21 unrestrained eaters volunteered in a cue reactivity experiment consisting of two exposure trials with and without response prevention. Food and macronutrient intake were monitored, and negative cognitions were assessed using a self-report cognition inventory. RESULTS: Male restrained eaters consumed a larger amount of food, specifically carbohydrates, than unrestrained eaters. This greater food intake was predicted by negative cognitions about self-esteem and occurred in restrained eaters who had reported binge eating episodes in the diagnostic interview. DISCUSSION: Results suggest marked cue reactivity in male restrained eaters with an increased risk of overeating in those who experience low situational self-esteem and who are binge eaters. [less ▲]

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See detailSexualverhalten
Vögele, Claus UL

in Lohaus, A.; Jerusalem, M.; Klein-Heßling, J. (Eds.) Gesundheitsförderung im Kindes- und Jugendalter (2006)

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See detailSport und körperliche Aktivität
Lippke, Sonja UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Renneberg, B.; Hammelstein, P. (Eds.) Gesundheitspsychologie (2006)

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See detailErnährung, Über- und Untergewicht
Vögele, Claus UL; Ellrott, Thomas

in Lohaus, A.; Jerusalem, M.; Klein-Heßling, J. (Eds.) Gesundheitsförderung im Kindes- und Jugendalter (2006)

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