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See detailPerseverative thinking in depression and anxiety
Sorg, Sonja UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Furka, Nadine et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2012), 3

The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would ... [more ▼]

The current study investigated the impact of worry and brooding as moderators of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety (TMDA). We hypothesized that both types of perseverative thinking would moderate the association between negative affectivity (NA) and both anxiety and depression. Complete data sets for this questionnaire survey were obtained from 537 students. Participants’ age ranged from 16 to 49 years with a mean age of 21.1 years (SD = 3.6). Overall, results from path analyses supported the assumptions of the TMDA, in that negative affectivity was a non-specific predictor for both depression and anxiety whilst lack of positive affectivity was related to depression only. Unexpectedly, perseverative thinking had an effect on the dependency of negative and positive affectivity. Worry was a significant moderator for the path NA – anxiety. All other hypothesized associations were only marginally significant. Alternative pathways as well as methodological implications regarding similarities and differences of the two types of perseverative thinking are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFood cravings discriminate differentially between successful and unsuccessful dieters and non-dieters: Validation of the Food Cravings Questionnaires in German
Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika UL; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Appetite (2012), 1(58), 88-97

Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have ... [more ▼]

Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have suggested the Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) to measure food cravings as a multidimensional con- struct at trait- and state-level. In the current study, we validated a German version of the FCQs in an online study (N = 616). The factor structure of the state and trait versions could partially be replicated, but yielded fewer than the originally proposed factors. Internal consistencies of both versions were very good (Cronbach’s a > .90), whereas retest reliability of the state version was expectedly lower than that of the trait version. Construct validity of the trait version (FCQ-T) was demonstrated by high correlations with related eating behavior questionnaires and low correlations with questionnaires unrelated to eating. Most importantly, FCQ-T-subscales were able to discriminate between successful and unsuccessful diet- ers and non-dieters. Validity of the state version was supported by positive relations with food depriva- tion and current negative affect. Taken together, the German version of the FCQs has good psychometric properties. Moreover, this study provided first evidence that distinct dimensions of food cravings are differentially related to success and failure in dieting. [less ▲]

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See detailHeart rate variability biofeedback reduces food cravings in high food cravers
Meule, Adrian; Freund, Rebecca; Skirde, Ann Kathrin et al

in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (2012), 37(4), 241-251

Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self ... [more ▼]

Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self-regulation were found in non-clinical samples, e.g., in individuals with strong chocolate cravings or unsuccessful dieting. The current study aimed at decreasing food cravings with HRV-biofeedback in individuals frequently experiencing such cravings. Participants (N = 56) with strong or low food cravings associated with a lack of control over eating were selected from the local community. Half of the participants with strong cravings (craving-biofeedback; n = 14) performed 12 sessions of HRV-biofeedback while the other half (craving-control; n = 14) and a group with low cravings (non-craving-control; n = 28) received no intervention. Subjective food cravings related to a lack of control over eating decreased from pre- to post-measurement in the craving-biofeedback group, but remained constant in the control groups. Moreover, only the craving-biofeedback group showed a decrease in eating and weight concerns. Although HRV-biofeedback was successful in reducing food cravings, this change was not accompanied by an increase in HRV. Instead, HRV decreased in the craving-control group. This study provides preliminary evidence that HRV-biofeedback could be beneficial for attenuating dysfunctional eating behavior although specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-calorie food-cues impair working memory performance in high and low food cravers.
Meule, Adrian; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Freund, Rebecca et al

in Appetite (2012), 59

The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait ... [more ▼]

The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and intense (high cravers, n = 28) and less pronounced food cravings (low cravers, n = 28). Participants performed an n-back task that contained either pictures of high-calorie sweets, high-calorie savory foods, or neutral objects. Current subjective food craving was assessed before and after the task. All participants showed slower reaction times and made more omission errors in response to food-cues, particularly savory foods. There were no differences in task performance between groups. State cravings did not differ between groups before the task, but increased more in high cravers compared to low cravers during the task. Results support findings about food cravings impairing visuo-spatial working memory performance independent of trait cravings. They further show that this influence is not restricted to chocolate, but also applies to high-calorie savory foods. Limiting working memory capacity may be especially crucial in persons who are more prone to high-calorie food-cues and experience such cravings habitually. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes disgust increase parasympathetic activation in individuals with a history of fainting? A psychophysiological analysis of disgust stimuli with and without blood-injection- injury association.
Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anne N.; Vögele, Claus UL; Gerlach, Alexander L.

in Journal of Anxiety Disorders (2012), 26(8)

People with blood-injection-injury fear can faint when being confronted with blood, injections or injuries. Page (1994) holds that people with blood-injury phobia faint, because they are disgust sensitive ... [more ▼]

People with blood-injection-injury fear can faint when being confronted with blood, injections or injuries. Page (1994) holds that people with blood-injury phobia faint, because they are disgust sensitive and disgust facilitates fainting by eliciting parasympathetic activity. We tested the following two hypotheses: (1) Disgusting pictures elicit more disgust in blood-injection-injury anxious people with a history of fainting than they do in controls. (2) Disgust causes parasympathetic activation. Subjects were 24 participants with high blood-injection-injury fear and a history of fainting in anxiety relevant situations and 24 subjects with average blood-injection-injury fear and no fainting history. We analyzed self-reported feelings of disgust, anxiety and faintness and reactions in heart rate, skin conductance, blood pressure and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the confrontation with disgusting pictures with and without blood content.We did not find any evidence that the blood-injection-injury anxious subjects were more disgust sensitive than the control subjects and we also did not find any evidence that disgust elicits parasympathetic activation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of resting heart rate variability on performance in the P300 brain-computer interface
Kaufmann, Tobias; Vögele, Claus UL; Sütterlin, Stefan UL et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2012), 83(3), 336-341

Objective: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) can serve as a communication system for people with severe impairment in speech and motor function due to neurodegenerative disease or injury. Reasons for inter ... [more ▼]

Objective: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) can serve as a communication system for people with severe impairment in speech and motor function due to neurodegenerative disease or injury. Reasons for inter-individual differences in capability of BCI usage are not yet fully understood. Paradigms making use of the P300 event-related potential are widely used. Success in a P300 based BCI requires the capability to focus attention and inhibit interference by distracting irrelevant stimuli. Such inhibitory control has been closely linked to peripheral physiological parameters, such as heart rate variability (HRV). The present study investigated the association between resting HRV and performance in the P300-BCI. Methods: Heart rate was recorded from 34 healthy participants under resting conditions, and subsequently a P300-BCI task was performed. Results: Frequency domain measures of HRV were significantly associated with BCI-performance, in that higher vagal activation was related to better BCI-performance. Conclusions: Resting HRV accounted for almost 26% of the variance of BCI performance and may, therefore, serve as a predictor for the capacity to control a P300 oddball based BCI. Significance: This is the first study to demonstrate resting vagal-cardiac activation to predict capability of P300-BCI usage. [less ▲]

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See detailRumination and age: some things get better
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Paap, Muirne C. S.; Babic, Stana et al

in Journal of Aging Research (2012), 267327

Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one’s attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style ... [more ▼]

Rumination has been defined as a mode of responding to distress that involves passively focusing one’s attention on symptoms of distress without taking action. This dysfunctional response style intensifies depressed mood, impairs interpersonal problem solving and leads to more pessimistic future perspectives and less social support. As most of these results were obtained from younger people, it remains unclear how age affects ruminative thinking. Three hundred members of the general public ranging in age from 15 to 87 years were asked about their ruminative styles using the Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ), depression and satisfaction with life. A Mokken Scale analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of the RSQ with brooding and reflective pondering as sub-components of rumination. Older participants (63 years and older) reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups. Life satisfaction was associated with brooding and highest for the earlier and latest life stages investigated in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailOf larks and hearts – morningness/eveningness, heart rate variability and cardiovascular stress response at different times of the day
Roeser, Karolin; Obergfell, Friederike; Meule, Adrian et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2012), 106 (2)

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that ... [more ▼]

Inter-individual differences in the circadian period of physical and mental functions can be described on the dimension of morningness/eveningness. Previous findings support the assumption that eveningness is related to greater impulsivity and susceptibility to stress than morningness. Heart rate variability (HRV) serves as a physiological correlate of self- and emotional regulation and has not yet been investigated in relation to chronotypes. The study explores differences in HRV and other cardiovascular measures in morning- and evening-types at rest and under stress at different times of day (8-11 a.m. or 4-7 p.m.). Students (N = 471) were screened for chronotype and n = 55 females (27 morning- and 28 evening-types) were recruited for testing. These participants performed a mental arithmetic task while heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Spectral components and a time-domain measure of HRV were calculated on HR data from resting and mental stress periods. Evening-types had significantly higher HR and systolic BP, but lower HRV than morning-types both at baseline and during stress. Stress induced in the evening had a significantly stronger impact on absolute and baseline corrected physiological measures in both chronotypes. The interaction of chronotype and testing time did not reach the level of significance for any of the dependent variables. The enhanced physiological arousal in evening-types might contribute to increased vulnerability to psychological distress. Hence, previous behavioral findings are supported by the physiological data of this study. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-based recommendations for the development of obesity prevention programs targeted at preschool children
Summerbell, Carolyn; Moore, Helen; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 129-132

As previously discussed in other papers in this Supplement of Obesity Reviews, the Toybox intervention was developed using an evidence-based approach, and refined through pilot testing. As part of that ... [more ▼]

As previously discussed in other papers in this Supplement of Obesity Reviews, the Toybox intervention was developed using an evidence-based approach, and refined through pilot testing. As part of that evidence base, two pieces of work were carried out. First, a series of narrative reviews of educational strategies and psychological approaches explaining young children’s acquisition and formation of energy-balance related behaviours, and facilitating their management (Gibson et al1; Vögele et al2; Kreichauf et al3, all published in this supplement). Second, a systematic review to identify behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions in pre-school and school settings for the prevention of obesity in children aged 4-6 years (Nixon et al4; published in this supplement). The aim of this short paper is to summarise and translate the findings from these two reviews into practical evidence-based recommendations for researchers and policy makers to consider when developing and implementing interventions for the prevention of overweight and obesity in young (aged 4-6) children. [less ▲]

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See detailA narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk
Gibson, E. Leigh; Wildgruber, Andreas; Kreichauf, Susanne et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 85-95

Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and ... [more ▼]

Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, ‘enjoyment of food’ and ‘satiety responsiveness’. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by 5-10 repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children’s eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. [less ▲]

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See detailA systematic review to identify behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions in pre-primary and primary settings for the prevention of obesity in children aged 4-6 years.
Nixon, Catherine A.; Moore, Helen J.; Douthwaite, Wayne et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 106-117

The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most important behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions aimed at preventing or counteracting obesity in 4-6 year olds ... [more ▼]

The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most important behavioural models underpinning school-based interventions aimed at preventing or counteracting obesity in 4-6 year olds. Searching was conducted in April 2010, with relevant literature included in the review from 1995 up to and including the search date on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow up periods of six months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. A total of twelve individual studies were included in review. The most commonly used model was Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)/Social Learning Theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. Those interventions that combine (a) high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning and (b) that target physical activity plus dietary change, require further consideration in the development of useful interventions for children aged 4-6 years old. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical narrative review to identify educational strategies promoting physical activity in preschool.
Kreichauf, S.; Wildgruber, A.; Krombholz, H. et al

in Obesity Reviews (2012), 13(Suppl 1), 96-105

The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes ... [more ▼]

The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes. Literature search was conducted between April and August 2010 in English and German databases (PubMED, PsychINFO, PSYNDEX, ERIC, FIS Bildung). Outcomes considered were time and intensity of physical activity, motor skills or measures of body composition. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten studies added physical activity lessons into their curriculum, one study provided more time for free play, eight studies focused on the social and play environment. Studies reporting positive outcomes implemented physical activity sessions that lasted at least 30 min d(-1). Several studies showed that children are most active in the first 10-15 min. The existence or installation of playground markings or fixed play equipment had no effect, whereas the presence or addition of portable play equipment was positively correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Teacher training may be a key element for successful interventions. To overcome time constraints, a suggested solution is to integrate physical activity into daily routines and other areas of the preschool curriculum. [less ▲]

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See detailStressbewältigung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen.
Vögele, Claus UL

in Meinlschmidt, G.; Schneider, S.; Margraf, J. (Eds.) Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie: Materialien für die Psychotherapie., 4 (2011)

Körperliche und psychische Probleme, die durch Stress verursacht oder begünstigt werden, treten in zunehmendem Maß schon im Kindes- und Jugendalter auf (7 Kap. II/30). So leiden viele Kinder im ... [more ▼]

Körperliche und psychische Probleme, die durch Stress verursacht oder begünstigt werden, treten in zunehmendem Maß schon im Kindes- und Jugendalter auf (7 Kap. II/30). So leiden viele Kinder im Grundschulalter unter Stresssymptomen wie Nervosität, Unkonzentriertheit, Bauch- und Kopfschmerzen oder Schlafschwierigkeiten. Jugendliche berichten häufig über Kopfschmerzen, Schlafprobleme und Appetitlosigkeit, aber auch über Gefühle der Anspannung und Überforderung. Die Gründe dafür sind vielfältig, auch wenn die Belastung durch die Schule und soziale Konfliktsituationen mit Geschwistern, Eltern oder Freunden die am häufigsten von Kindern und Jugendlichen genannten Alltagsbelastungen sind. Dazu kommt, dass die Adoleszenz mit ihren vielfältigen körperlichen, psychischen und sozialen Veränderungen eine Lebensphase erhöhter Vulnerabilität für Belastungen darstellt, die erfolgreich bewältigt werden muss. Viele Kinder und Jugendliche bewältigen diese Anforderungen mit Strategien wie Problemlösung, Suche nach sozialer Unterstützung und Ablenkung erfolgreich und nützen die Erfahrung in der Auseinandersetzung mit der Belastung, um ein Bewältigungspotenzial aufzubauen. Andere fühlen sich überfordert und zeigen Fehlanpassungen bzw. reagieren mit Resignation, Aggression, Ruminieren und passiver Vermeidung. Insgesamt sprechen die derzeitigen empirischen Befunde dafür, dass durch die Förderung günstiger Bewältigungsstrategien Belastungssymptome reduziert und das Gesundheitsverhalten oder der Verlauf bereits aufgetretener chronisch-körperlicher Erkrankungen günstig beeinflusst werden (Lohaus et al. 2006a). Wie bei Erwachsenen auch (7 Kap. II/30, Kap. IV/37) bedarf es dazu eines breiten Angebots innerhalb eines Stressbewältigungstrainings. Beispielsweise sind Programme, die nur Entspannungsverfahren oder Problemlösetrainings als alleinige Interventionen einsetzten, langfristig wenig erfolgreich (Seiffge-Krenke u. Lohaus 2007). Deshalb integrieren erfolgreiche Stressbewältigungstrainings für Kinder und Jugendliche mehrere unterschiedliche Interventionsmethoden in multimodalen Programmen. Diese beruhen zum größten Teil auf dem Stressimpfungstraining (SIT) von Meichenbaum (2003; 7 Kap. II/30) und passen es kindgerecht an. Das SIT vermittelt Methoden der Entspannung und übt den Aufbau von sozialen Fertigkeiten und das Erlernen von schulbezogenen oder allgemeinen Problemlösestrategien. Wesentlich ist jedoch die kognitive Umstrukturierung, d. h. die Erfahrung, dass Belastungssituationen nicht als persönliche Bedrohung, sondern als lösbare Probleme bewertet werden sollen. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden nur wenige ausgewählte übergeordnete Materialien vorgestellt und es wird auf eine Auswahl der wichtigsten deutschsprachigen diagnostischen Verfahren zur Erfassung von Bewältigungsstrategien und therapeutischen Interventionen zur Stressbewältigung im Kindes- und Jugendalter verwiesen. [less ▲]

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See detailVon der Forschung zur Praxis - 13. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation - DGVM
Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2011), 21 (suppl1)

Abstract-Band des 13. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verhaltensmedizin und Verhaltensmodifikation, Luxemburg, 29.9.-1.10.2011

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See detailStressbewältigung
Vögele, Claus UL

in Meinlschmidt, G.; Schneider, S.; Margraf, J. (Eds.) Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie: Materialien für die Psychotherapie, 4 (2011)

Das Thema Stressbewältigung (7 Kap. II/30) hat seit den 1960er Jahren einen rasanten Aufschwung genommen. Die damals beginnende Abkehr von dem bis dahin vorherrschenden biologisch-medizinischen Modell ... [more ▼]

Das Thema Stressbewältigung (7 Kap. II/30) hat seit den 1960er Jahren einen rasanten Aufschwung genommen. Die damals beginnende Abkehr von dem bis dahin vorherrschenden biologisch-medizinischen Modell, die zunehmende Unzufriedenheit mit der traditionellen Psychiatrie und die wachsende Bedeutung psychologischer Modelle und klinisch-psychologischer Interventionen haben dazu beigetragen, dass über die letzten 50 Jahre mehr als 4.000 wissenschaft liche Artikel zu diesem Th ema veröffentlicht wurden. Dabei finden sich die unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereiche, z. B. Stressbewältigung im Arbeitsbereich, in der Psychotherapie, in der Gesundheitsförderung und der medizinischen Versorgung, in der Paartherapie und in der Krisenintervention. Die Breite dieser Anwendungsbereiche ist sicherlich einer unter mehreren Gründen für die Unterschiedlichkeit der Interventionsmethoden, die unter dem Begriff Stressbewältigungstraining (z. B. Kaluza 2004) zusammengefasst werden. Üblicherweise beginnen die Stressbewältigungsprogramme mit einer allgemeinen Einführung zum Thema »was ist Stress«, ergänzt um eine Darstellung psychobiologischer Zusammenhänge und körperlicher Folgen vonchronischem Stress (7 Kap. IV/19). Die einzelnen Module beziehen sich dann auf spezifische Bereiche, die auch in anderen klinischen Kontexten von Relevanz sind. Dazu gehören Entspannungsverfahren (progressive Muskelrelaxation nach Jacobson, Meditation, autogenes Training, Biofeedback, Atementspannung; 7 Kap. IV/6), klinischpsychologische Interventionen (kognitive Umstrukturierung; 7 Kap. IV/11), Problemlösetraining, Training sozialerFertigkeiten (7 Kap. IV/10), Kommunikationstraining, Genusstraining (7 Kap. IV/8), Aufb au von Aktivitäten (7 Kap. IV/34)) und edukative Maßnahmen (Beratung zu Ernährung, Bewegung und Gesundheit sowie Techniken zur Optimierung von Arbeitsabläufen, Lernen oder Zeitmanagement). Bei aller Verschiedenartigkeit haben Stressbewältigungstrainings allerdings ein gemeinsames Ziel: die Förderung der körperlichen und psychischen Gesundheit und des Wohlbefindens durch eine Verbesserung der individuellen Kompetenzen zur Stressbewältigung. Genauer gesagt besteht das Ziel in der Erhöhung der Flexibilität im Umgang mit Belastungen. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen und den individuellen Bewältigungskompetenzen des Einzelnen gerecht zu werden, bedarf es eines breiten Angebots innerhalb eines Stressbewältigungstrainings. Deshalb integrieren die meisten Stressbewältigungstrainings mehrere unterschiedliche Interventionsmethoden in multimodale Programme. Wie bei anderen Interventionen auch, kann ein auf die einzelne Person zugeschnittenes Stressbewältigungstraining allerdings erst nach einer genauen Diagnostik der individuellen Voraussetzungen und Bedürfnisse durchgeführt werden. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden nur wenige ausgewählte übergeordnete Materialien vorgestellt und es wird auf eine Auswahl der wichtigsten deutschsprachigen diagnostischen Verfahren zur Erfassung von Bewältigungsstrategien und therapeutischen Interventionen zur Stressbewältigung verwiesen. Verschiedene Bausteine zur Stressbewältigung können zudem – auf die individuellen Bedürfnisse eines Patienten angepasst – aus den o. g. Kapiteln zusammengestellt werden. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition in Action - Inhibitory Components in the Behavioral Activation System
Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Andersson, Stein; Vögele, Claus UL

in Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (2011), 1(3), 160-166

Over the past two decades, the neurobiological substrates of the reinforcement theory have been discussed in terms of a behavioral activation system (BAS) and a behavioral inhibition system (BIS). While ... [more ▼]

Over the past two decades, the neurobiological substrates of the reinforcement theory have been discussed in terms of a behavioral activation system (BAS) and a behavioral inhibition system (BIS). While the BAS has been conceptualized as both an activating system and an approach-related system, the empirical evidence for either approach remains inconclusive. In the current study we hypothesize that the inclusion of self-regula-tory capacity contributes to a better understanding of the BAS. In a sample of 29 volunteers motor response inhibition elicited by a stop-signal task and heart rate variability (HRV) as a proxy of self-regulatory capacity were related to BAS scores (BIS/BAS scales [1]). Results show significant positive associations between inhibitory capacity and the sensitivity of the behavioral activation system, suggesting markers of self-regu-lation as components of the BAS. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychometrische Evaluation der deutschen Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Kurzversion (BIS-15) - Psychometric evaluation of the German Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Short Version (BIS-15).
Meule, Adrian; Vögele, Claus UL; Kübler, Andrea

in Diagnostica (2011), 57(3), 126-133

Impulsivity is a personality trait which is characterized by rapid, unplanned actions regardless of possible negative consequences. One of the most widely used methods to assess impulsivity is the Barratt ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity is a personality trait which is characterized by rapid, unplanned actions regardless of possible negative consequences. One of the most widely used methods to assess impulsivity is the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11; Patton, Stanford & Barratt, 1995). The three factors nonplanning, motor, and attentional impulsivity can be measured sufficiently well with a short version of the BIS-11 (BIS-15; Spinella, 2007). The present study introduces the German version of this short version of the BIS-11. Reliability and factorial structure of this questionnaire were determined in a sample of predominantly university students (N = 752). The three-factorial solution was replicated. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s α = .81). Associations with another impulsivity questionnaire (UPPS) in a second study (N = 51) proved convergent validity. We recommend the BIS-15 for assessing impulsivity in German-speaking regions because of its good psychometric properties and economic procedure. [less ▲]

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See detail“What am I going to say here?” The experiences of doctors and nurses communicating with patients in a cancer unit.
Cleland, Jennifer A.; McLean, Margaret; Worrell, Marcia et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2011), 2

This paper describes a study investigating the provider-patient communication perceptions, experiences, needs and strategies of doctors and nurses working together in a UK cancer setting. This was a ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a study investigating the provider-patient communication perceptions, experiences, needs and strategies of doctors and nurses working together in a UK cancer setting. This was a qualitative study using individual interviews and 32 focus group discussions. Interpretative Phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to underpin data collection and analysis. Twenty-six staff participated in the project (18 nurses and 8 doctors). Both professional groups identified an inherent emotional strain in their daily interactions with patients. The strategies they adopted to reduce this strain fell into two main categories: 1) Handling or managing the patient to keep negative emotion at bay; and 2) Managing self to keep negative emotion at bay. These strategies allowed staff to maintain a sense of control in an emotionally-stressful environment. Most believed that their communication skills were sufficient. In conclusion, communicating with and caring for cancer patients causes considerable psycho-social burden for doctors and nurses. Managing this burden influences their communication with patients. Without recognition of the need for staff to protect their own emotional well-being, communication skills training programmes, emphasised in current UK cancer care guidelines, may have little impact on practice. [less ▲]

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See detailARTiiFACT: a tool for heart rate artifact processing and heart rate variability analysis
Kaufmann, Tobias; Sütterlin, Stefan UL; Schulz, Stefan M. et al

in Behavior Research Methods (2011), 43(4), 1161-1170

The importance of appropriate handling of artifacts in interbeat interval (IBI) data must not be underestimated. Even a single artifact may cause unreliable heart rate variability (HRV) results. Thus, a ... [more ▼]

The importance of appropriate handling of artifacts in interbeat interval (IBI) data must not be underestimated. Even a single artifact may cause unreliable heart rate variability (HRV) results. Thus, a robust artifact detection algorithm and the option for manual intervention by the researcher form key components for confident HRV analysis. Here, we present ARTiiFACT, a software tool for processing electrocardiogram and IBI data. Both automated and manual artifact detection and correction are available in a graphical user interface. In addition, ARTiiFACT includes time- and frequency-based HRV analyses and descriptive statistics, thus offering the basic tools for HRV analysis. Notably, all program steps can be executed separately and allow for data export, thus offering high flexibility and interoperability with a whole range of applications. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEnhanced behavioral inhibition in restrained eaters
Meule, Adrian; Lukito, Steve; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Eating Behaviors (2011), 12(2), 152-155

Impulsivity has been found to play a decisive role in both addiction and disordered eating. Behavioral and self-report measures show impulsive tendencies to even occur in non-clinical samples, e.g ... [more ▼]

Impulsivity has been found to play a decisive role in both addiction and disordered eating. Behavioral and self-report measures show impulsive tendencies to even occur in non-clinical samples, e.g. restrained eaters. Within this group, these traits interact with high reactivity to food-related cues leading to overeating. The aim of the present study was to investigate if restrained eaters show this behavioral disinhibition specifically in response to food-cues. Participants performed a Go/No-Go-task with stimuli encircled by pictures of high caloric foods or neutral objects. In contrast to our hypotheses, participants with medium-to-high restrained eating made less commission errors in response to both food and neutral pictures than unrestrained eaters. Additionally, participants' inhibitory performance in the high-restrained group were enhanced in the presence of food pictures. Results are in line with expanding evidence of counteractive-control mechanisms when restrained eaters are confronted with tempting food-related cues. [less ▲]

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