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See detailNahrungsvermeidung versus Nahrungsaversion bei restriktiven Essstörungen.
Garcia-Burgos, David; Wilhelm, Peter; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie (2019), 67(1), 1-9

The terms food avoidance and food aversion are often used interchangeably in the eating disorders (EDs) literature. However, they represent two different (but closely related) constructs that are the ... [more ▼]

The terms food avoidance and food aversion are often used interchangeably in the eating disorders (EDs) literature. However, they represent two different (but closely related) constructs that are the result of different processes. In patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant / restrictive food intake disorder, food avoidance / restriction is usually assumed to be motivated by fear / anxiety (e. g., “intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat” or “being afraid to eat after a frightening episode of choking”). In contrast, studies show that taste aversion often leads to food avoidance. Unlike fear-motivated avoidance in which the flavour of food becomes a signal for danger, avoidance produced by taste aversions involves a reduction in the amount consumed due to a hedonic downshift. Here the attractiveness of the flavour changes by its association with a nauseogenic event. It is noteworthy that both sources of food avoidance exhibit different behavioural characteristics, contents of learning, and activate different brain regions and neuromodulators. This is especially important for the understanding and treatment of the EDs and their most serious behavioural manifestation: the life-threatening food refusal. Finally, the clinical implications of such a distinction and promising future research directions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of acute yohimbine administration on interoception in major depression and childhood adversity
Kuehl, L. K.; Deuter, C. E.; Breden, I.-H. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2019), 107(Supplement 1), 4

Acute stress, release of stress hormones and chronic stress can affect the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals at different brain levels, which are important for interoception. However, it ... [more ▼]

Acute stress, release of stress hormones and chronic stress can affect the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals at different brain levels, which are important for interoception. However, it remains unclear if these effects are due to activation of the sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) axis or hypothalamicpituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. With this study, we aimed to investigate the selective effect of SAM axis activation on interoceptive accuracy. Central alpha2-adrenergic receptors represent a negative feedback mechanism of the SAM axis. For major depressive disorder (MDD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), alterations in the biological stress systems, including density and sensitivity of central alpha2-adrenergic receptors, have been shown. Healthy individuals without ACE (n = 46), healthy individuals with ACE (n = 23), patients with MDD and without ACE (n = 26) and patients with MDD with ACE (n = 22, all without antidepressant medication) were tested after oral administration of 10mg of yohimbine (alpha2-adrenergic receptors antagonist) and placebo administration in a repeated measures design. Interoceptive accuracy and sensibility were assessed in a heartbeat tracking task. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after yohimbine administration in all groups confirmed successful activation of the SAM axis. Interoceptive accuracy decreased after yohimbine intake only in the healthy group with ACE, but remained unchanged in all other groups. This ‘group’בdrug’ interaction effect may be due to selective up-regulation of alpha2- adrenergic receptors after experience of childhood trauma, which reduces capacity for attention focus on heartbeats. Suppressed processing of physical sensations in stressful situations may represent an adaptive response in healthy individuals with childhood adversity. [less ▲]

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See detailDo interoceptive deficits contribute to decision-making problems in academic procrastination
Breden, I.-H.; Dincher, K.; Pereira Pedrosa, R. et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Interoception plays an important role for intuitive decision-making. One possible explanation is that the perception of somatic markers when simulating the outcome of different action alternatives guides ... [more ▼]

Interoception plays an important role for intuitive decision-making. One possible explanation is that the perception of somatic markers when simulating the outcome of different action alternatives guides the selection for the potentially best option. In the present study, we aimed at investigating if chronically procrastinating individuals show interoceptive deficits, which may explain poor decision-making performance. We tested 19 chronic procrastinators (14 females) and 22 nonprocrastinating control individuals (14 females), recruited from students and staff of the University of Luxembourg. This study consisted of a laboratory experiment including questionnaires assessing procrastinating behavior and two separate behavioral paradigms. Using the Schandry Heartbeat Perception Task as an indicator for interoceptive accuracy and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) for the assessment of decision-making performance. Questionnaire data confirmed significantly higher procrastination scores in that group. While male participants showed a significantly higher interoceptive accuracy score than their female counterparts, procrastinators and non-procrastinators did not differ significantly in interoception. Furthermore, no differences in the choice of deck selections were found between procrastinators and non-procrastinators. Interoceptive accuracy was unrelated to decision-making performance. No significant group differences were found for either analysis regarding the performance development as well as sex differences in the IGT. We observed a learning effect in the IGT, with choices for profitable decks increasing over time and poor choices declining. The current study did neither support reduced decision-making problems, nor interoceptive deficits in procrastination. Future studies should incorporate interoceptive indicators of other organ systems and self-report measures to elucidate possible alterations in procrastination. [less ▲]

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See detailErhöhte Reaktivität Herzschlag-evozierter Potenziale während der Aufmerksamkeits- fokussierung auf den eigenen Herzschlag und erhöhte kardiovaskuläre Aktivität bei Personen mit hoher somatoformer Symptombelastung
Schulz, André UL; Rost, S.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Die psychobiologischen Mechanismen der Entstehung körperlicher Symptome bei somatoformen Störungen sind weitgehend unklar. Im Perception-Filter-Modell wird postuliert, dass (1.) verstärkte ... [more ▼]

Die psychobiologischen Mechanismen der Entstehung körperlicher Symptome bei somatoformen Störungen sind weitgehend unklar. Im Perception-Filter-Modell wird postuliert, dass (1.) verstärkte Signalübermittlung von Körperorganen und (2.) verringerte Filterfunktion im ZNS zu (3.) verstärkter Wahrnehmung von Symptomen führt. Bislang existiert jedoch keine Evidenz, die diesen Zusammenhang an einer von somatoformen Symptomen belasteten Population unterstützt. Um diesen Sachverhalt aufzudecken, wurden zunächst 486 Personen aus der Allgemeinbevölkerung anhand einer Online- Version des Screenings für Somatoforme Störungen (SOMS-2) anhand des oberen und unteren Centils in Personen mit hoher (HSB) und niedriger somatoformer Symptombelastung (NSB) geteilt. Jeweils 29 NSB- (21 Frauen; 26,0 J.) und HSBPersonen (27 Frauen; 28,4 J.) wurden im Labor anhand (1.) verstärkter Körpersignale hinsichtlich kardiovaskulärer Aktivität und Cortisol-Aufwachreaktion, sowie (2.) Filterfunktionen im ZNS hinsichtlich Herzschlag-evozierter Potentiale (HEPs) während der Durchführung eines Herzschlagwahrnehmungstests und während Ruhe untersucht. HEPs reflektieren die Repräsentation kardio-afferenter Signale im ZNS. Die HSB-Gruppe zeigte eine höhere Ruhe-Herzrate (72,7 vs. 66,8 bpm) und eine geringere Herzratenvariabilität (RMSSD: 36,8 vs. 52,5 ms) als die LSB-Gruppe. Außerdem zeigten die HSB-Personen bei der Aufmerksamkeitsfokussierung auf den eigenen Herzschlag eine höhere Reaktivität der HEP-Amplitude als die LSB-Personen. Es gab keine Gruppenunterschiede hinsichtlich der Cortisol-Aufwachreaktion. Die Ergebnisse belegen sowohl (1.) die verstärkte Signalübermittlung von Körperorganen, als auch (2.) verringerte Filterfunktionen bei Personen mit hoher somatoformer Symptombelastung. Dies spricht für die Gültigkeit des Perception-Filter-Modells. Die erhöhte HEP-Reaktivität bezüglich der Aufmerksamkeitsfokussierung auf Körperprozesse könnte einen Biomarker für Personen mit hohem Risiko für die Entwicklung von somatoformen Störungen darstellen. [less ▲]

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See detailTask interference and distraction efficacy in patients with fibromyalgia: an experimental investigation
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Rost, Silke; Kissi, Ama et al

in Pain (2018), 159(6), 1119-1126

Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought ... [more ▼]

Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought to be reduced in fibromyalgia patients. In this study, we investigated task interference and distraction efficacy in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and a matched healthy control group. Forty-nine fibromyalgia patients and 49 heathy volunteers performed as quickly as possible (a) a visual localization task in the presence of non-painful vibrating or painful electric somatic stimuli, and (b) a somatosensory localization task (using non-painful or painful stimuli). Participants reported on their experience of the somatic stimuli on some of the trials during both localisation tasks. Results indicated that pain interferes with performance of the visual task, in both FM patients and healthy individuals. Furthermore, participants experienced the pain stimulus as less intense when directing attention away from the pain than when focusing on the pain. Overall, task performance of FM patients was slower compared to the task performance in the healthy control group. In contrast to our hypotheses, FM patients and healthy volunteers did not differ in the magnitude of the interference effect and distraction-efficacy. In conclusion, current study provides support for contemporary theories claiming that attention modulates the experience of pain and vice versa. However, no evidence was however found for an altered attentional processing of pain in fibromyalgia patients. Furthermore, results indicate that task interference and distraction-efficacy are not just two sides of the same coin. [less ▲]

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See detailBlunted endocrine response to a combined physical-cognitive stressor in adults with early life adversity
Hengesch, X.; Elwenspoek, M.M.C.; Schaan, Violetta UL et al

in Child Abuse and Neglect (2018)

The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However ... [more ▼]

The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However, many previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions as to whether ELA induces a long-term increase or decrease in stress reactivity. Therefore, we tested the association of ELA exposure and adult stress reactivity in a sample of early life adoptees and controls.Two previously validated stressful elements (bilateral feet CPT and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)) were combined in an extended Cold Pressor Test (CPT). This test was performed on 22 participants who had experienced severe ELA (separation from biological parents, institutionalization, and adoption in early childhood), and in 22 age-matched control participants.A prior history of ELA was associated with blunted reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Cohen´s d = 0.680). Cardiovascular reactivity remained unchanged, and affective reactivity (self-report ratings) were increased in participants exposed to ELA compared to the control group (range Cohen´s d: 0.642–0.879).Our results suggest that the activity of the HPA axis reactivity was inhibited in ELA participants. Importantly, cardiovascular stress responsiveness was not affected by ELA. This separation of the HPA axis and cardiovascular stress responses may best be explained by ELA selectively enhancing central feedback-sensitivity to glucocorticoids, but preserving cardiovascular/ autonomic stress reactivity. [less ▲]

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See detailLate heartbeat-evoked potentials are associated with survival after cardiac arrest
Schulz, André UL; Stammet, P.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Resuscitation (2018), 126(1), 7-13

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. METHODS: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 hours after resuscitation. All patients were treated with targeted temperature management and a standardized sedation protocol during assessment. We investigated the association between HEP amplitude (180- 320 ms, 455-595 ms, 860-1000 ms) and 6-month survival. RESULTS: Twenty-five of 55 patients (45%) were still alive at 6-month follow-up. Survivors showed a higher HEP amplitude at frontopolar and frontal electrodes in the late HEP interval than non-survivors. This effect remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in terms of age, Fentanyl dose, and time lag between resuscitation and EEG assessment. There were no group differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. CONCLUSION: Brain-heart communication, as reflected by HEPs, is associated with survival after CA. Future studies should address the brain-heart axis in CA. [less ▲]

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See detailThe D²Rwanda Study: March 2018 Report
Kallestrup, Per; Vögele, Claus UL; Uwizihiwe, JeanPaul et al

Report (2018)

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed ... [more ▼]

The Community- and MHealth-Based Integrated Management of Diabetes in Primary Healthcare in Rwanda: the D²Rwanda Study (which stands for Digital Diabetes Study in Rwanda) is a twin PhD project, developed in collaboration with Aarhus University (AU) and the University of Luxembourg (UL), and under the auspices of the University of Rwanda and Rwanda Biomedical Centre. The project involves two PhD students, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe (enrolled at AU) and Charilaos Lygidakis (enrolled at UL), and is kindly sponsored by the Karen Elise Jensens Foundation, alongside AU and UL. In this report we wished to narrate what we had been working on for the past two years: from the first steps to understanding better the context and mapping the territory; from obtaining the necessary authorisations to developing the app and translating the questionnaires. [less ▲]

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See detailA Latent State-Trait Analysis of Interoceptive Accuracy
Wittkamp, M.; Bertsch, K.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2018), e0185802

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), i.e. the ability to accurately perceive one’s own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations, such as stress, may affect IAc. We ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAc), i.e. the ability to accurately perceive one’s own bodily signals, is widely assumed to be a trait, although experimental manipulations, such as stress, may affect IAc. We used structural equation modeling to estimate the reliability of IAc, and the proportions of individual differences in IAc, explained by a trait and occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interactions. We assessed IAc in 59 healthy participants (40 women, MAge = 23.4 years) on three consecutive measurement occasions, approx. one week apart, in a ‘rest’ and ‘poststress’ condition, using a heartbeat counting and a heartbeat discrimination task. The results show fair temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.38) and good reliability (Mdn = .63; range .49-.83) for both methods. While around 40% of the variance of a single IAc measurement could be explained by a trait, approx. 27% were accounted for by occasion-specific effects of situation and person-situation interaction. These results suggest that IAc measures are relatively consistent and that situations and person-situation interactions impact IAc as measured at a certain point in time. An aggregation across at least two measurements is recommended when using IAc as a trait variable. [less ▲]

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See detailOperationsvorbereitung
Vögele, Claus UL

in Kohlmann, Carl-Walter; Salewski, Christel; Wirtz, Markus Antonius (Eds.) Psychologie in der Gesundheitsförderung (2018)

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See detailTrends and transitions
Vögele, Claus UL

in European Journal of Health Psychology (2018), 25(1), 1

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See detailDie Erweiterung von Konzepten und Definitionen von Suchtverhalten
Billieux, Joël UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltenstherapie (2018), 28(4), 209-211

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See detailEffects of cold stimulation on cardiac-vagal activation: Randomized controlled trial with healthy participants
Jungmann, Manuela; Vencatachellum, Shervin UL; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Journal of Medical Internet Research (2018), 2(2), 10257

Background: The experience of psychological stress has not yet been adequately tackled with digital technology by catering to healthy individuals who wish to reduce their acute stress levels. For the ... [more ▼]

Background: The experience of psychological stress has not yet been adequately tackled with digital technology by catering to healthy individuals who wish to reduce their acute stress levels. For the design of digitally mediated solutions, physiological mechanisms need to be investigated that have the potential to induce relaxation with the help of technology. Research has shown that physiological mechanisms embodied in the face and neck regions are effective for diminishing stress related symptoms. The study described in this paper expands on these areas with the design for a wearable in mind. As this study charts new territory in research, it also represents a first evaluation of the viability for a wearables concept to reduce stress. We inquire into the effects of cold stimulation on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in the neck region using a Thermode device. Objective: The objectives of this study were to assess whether (a) HRV is increased and (b) HR is decreased during a cold stimulation compared to a (non-stimulated) control condition. Effects were in particular expected in the neck and cheek regions and less in the forearm area (c). Methods: Participants were seated in a lab chair and tested with cold stimulation on the right side of the body. A Thermode was placed on the neck, cheek and forearm. Participants’ electrocardiogram was recorded and subsequently analyzed. The study was a fully randomized, within subject design. The cold stimulation was applied in 16 s intervals over 4 trials per testing location. The control condition proceeded exactly like the cold condition, except the thermal variable was manipulated to remain on the baseline temperature. HR was measured in msec IBI. rMSSD analyses were used to index HRV. Data were analyzed using a repeated measurements analysis of variance approach with two repeated measurements factors, i.e. Body Location (neck, cheek, forearm) and Condition (cold, control) Results: The data analysis of 61 participants (on exclusion of outliers) showed a main effect for body location for HR and HRV, a main effect for condition for HR and HRV and an interaction effect for condition and body location for HR and HRV. The results obtained demonstrate a pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to cold stimulation, suggesting an increase in cardiac-vagal activation. The effect was found to be significant for cold stimulation in the lateral neck area. Conclusion: The results confirmed our main hypothesis. This sets the stage for further investigations of the stress reduction potential in the neck region by developing a wearable prototype that can be used for cold application. Future studies should include a stress condition, test for a range of temperatures and durations, and collect self-report data on perceived stress levels to advance current findings. [less ▲]

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See detailMood, emotions and eating disorders
Vögele, Claus UL; Lutz, Annika UL; Gibson, E. Leigh

in Agras, W. Stewart; Robinson, Athena (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Eating Disorders, Second Edition (2018)

Mood and emotions are intrinsically involved with eating. This chapter discusses basic mechanisms, findings, and models that help our understanding of the interactions between eating and emotions, in both ... [more ▼]

Mood and emotions are intrinsically involved with eating. This chapter discusses basic mechanisms, findings, and models that help our understanding of the interactions between eating and emotions, in both clinical and nonclinical populations. The finding that negative affect predicts EDs transdiagnostically, and that comorbidity with depressive disorders and anxiety disorders is the norm among patients with EDs suggests that EDs may not necessarily be restricted to domains of eating behavior and body image but may also be associated with significant difficulties in affective functioning. This chapter reviews the evidence relating to the notion that EDs are disturbances of mood regulation, in which regulatory strategies specifically related to eating and the body are used to diminish negative affect associated with food, body image, or stress. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiratory modulation of startle: effects on subjective intensity and psychomotor response times
Münch, Eva Elisabeth UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Hennig, J.; Stark, R. (Eds.) Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It ... [more ▼]

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It remains unclear, however, whether this respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms; binaural; instantaneous rise time), which were presented during peak and ongoing inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task at 0.25 Hz. Participants first responded to the startle probes by `as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the acoustic stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into pre-motor (from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and motor response time (from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and evaluative response times accelerated during on-going expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and motor response time. We conclude, therefore, that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of acoustic startle stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiratory modulation of startle: effects on subjective intensity and psychomotor response times
Münch, Eva Elisabeth UL; Vögele, Claus UL; Van Diest, Ilse et al

in Abstractband Psychologie und Gehirn 2018 (2018)

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It ... [more ▼]

Respiratory cycle time modulates reflexive startle eye blink responses to acoustic stimuli. Responsible for this effect seems to be the afferent input of slow adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. It remains unclear, however, whether this respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms; binaural; instantaneous rise time), which were presented during peak and ongoing inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task at 0.25 Hz. Participants first responded to the startle probes by `as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the acoustic stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into pre-motor (from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and motor response time (from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and evaluative response times accelerated during on-going expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and motor response time. We conclude, therefore, that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of acoustic startle stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailBinge-watching engagement as determined by motivations, impulsivity and emotional reactivity: A cluster analytic approach.
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research (2018), 42 (Suppl. 2)

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