Results 41-60 of 340.
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHospitalisation
Powell, Rachael; Vögele, Claus UL; Johnston, Marie

in Llewellyn, C.D.; Ayers, S.; McManus, C. (Eds.) et al Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health and Medicine (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFamily Violence Curricula in Europe (FAVICUE): a cross-sectional descriptive study protocol
Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL; Lygidakis, Charilaos UL; Feder, Gene et al

in BMJ Open (2019), 9

Introduction. Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem of epidemic proportions and serious consequences. Doctors may be the first or only point of contact for victims who may be hesitant ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Family violence (FV) is a widespread public health problem of epidemic proportions and serious consequences. Doctors may be the first or only point of contact for victims who may be hesitant or unable to seek other sources of assistance, and they tend not to disclose abuse to doctors if not specifically asked. A comprehensive healthcare response is key to a coordinated community-wide approach to FV, but most of the practising physicians have received either no or insufficient education or training in any aspect of FV. Training of medical students concerning FV is often delivered in an inconsistent or ad hoc manner. The main aim of this project, Family Violence Curricula in Europe (FAVICUE), is to (1) describe current FV education delivery in European medical universities (undergraduate period) and during the specialist training in general practice (GP)/family medicine (FM) (postgraduate residency programme), and (2) compare it with WHO recommendations for FV curriculum. Methods and analysis. This is the protocol of a cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of two self-report online surveys (for undergraduate and postgraduate training, respectively) with 40 questions each. For both surveys, general practitioners, residents, medical students and professionals involved in their education from countries of the European region will be identified through the European Regional Branch of the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA Europe) and will be invited to provide information regarding the training on FV. Descriptive tests will be carried out and a thematic analysis will be conducted on the open-ended questions. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained by the University of Luxembourg (ERP 17–015 FAVICUE). The results will provide important information concerning current curricula on FV, and can be used for mapping the educational needs and planning the implementation of future training interventions. They will be published and disseminated through WONCA Europe and its networks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 156 (11 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOvercoming the unitary exploration of binge-watching: A cluster analytical approach.
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Karila, Laurent et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2019), 8(3), 586-602

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) has recently become standard practice among TV series viewers; this expansion generates concerns regarding the potential negative outcomes associated with this habit. However, the investigation of its psychological correlates remains fragmentary, with few initial studies a priori conceptualizing this behavior as a new addictive disorder. This study explored these psychological correlates using cluster analysis of binge-watching behavior based on three key psychological factors: motivations, impulsivity, and emotional reactivity. METHODS: An online survey was completed by 4,039 TV series viewers. Data were analyzed using hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the validity of the clusters being finally determined through mutual comparisons with a selection of external correlates. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified: recreational TV series viewers (presenting low involvement in binge-watching), regulated binge-watchers (moderately involved), avid binge-watchers (presenting elevated but non-problematic involvement), and unregulated binge-watchers (presenting potentially problematic involvement associated with negative outcomes). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study underlines the heterogeneous and multidetermined nature of binge-watching. Our findings suggest that high engagement in binge-watching is distinct from problematic binge-watching, thus reinforcing the notion that conceptualizing binge-watching as an addictive disorder is of low relevance and might actually lead to the overpathologization of this highly popular leisure activity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailZur Validität zweier Herzschlagwahrnehmungsaufgaben: Höheres zentrales Blutvolumen durch Kipptischmanipulation verbessert interozeptive Genauigkeit, aber nicht die Genauigkeit zur Schätzung von Zeitintervallen
Back, S.; Schaan, V. K.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Kardiale Interozeption wird typischerweise mittels Herzschlagzählaufgaben (Schandry, 1981) oder Herzschlagdiskriminationsaufgaben (Whitehead et al., 1977) erfasst. Jedoch sind die Determinanten der ... [more ▼]

Kardiale Interozeption wird typischerweise mittels Herzschlagzählaufgaben (Schandry, 1981) oder Herzschlagdiskriminationsaufgaben (Whitehead et al., 1977) erfasst. Jedoch sind die Determinanten der Herzschlagwahrnehmung hinsichtlich Aktivitätsindizes des kardiovaskulären Systems bisher ungeklärt. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob die experimentelle Manipulation kardiovaskulärer Aktivität durch die Variation der Körperposition mittels Kipptisch einen Einfluss auf interozeptive Genauigkeit in Herzschlagzählaufgaben und Herzschlagdiskriminierungsaufgaben hat. Studierende (N=43) führten beide Herzschlagwahrnehmungsaufgaben in drei Körperpositionen (-10°,0° und 10°) durch. Zusätzlich wurde die Fähigkeit zur Einschätzung von Zeitintervallen geprüft (Kontrollaufgabe), da oft kritisiert wurde, dass interozeptive Genauigkeit basierend auf der Herzschlagzählaufgabe mit dieser Fähigkeit konfundiert ist. Die interozeptive Genauigkeit in der Herzschlagzählaufgabe war signifikant höher bei einem Neigungswinkel von -10° (über Kopf), sowie geringer bei 10° (Kopf aufrecht), jeweils im Vergleich zu 0° (horizontale Position). Deskriptiv ist das gleiche Muster bei der Herzschlagdiskriminationssaufgabe zu erkennen, jedoch statistisch nicht signifikant. Die Einschätzungsgenauigkeit von Zeitintervallen bleibt unabhängig von der Körperposition konstant. Regressionsanalysen zeigen, dass die Fähigkeit zur Diskriminierung von Herzschlägen signifikant die Herzschlagzählgenauigkeit vorhersagt und 32% der Gesamtvarianz aufklärt. Herzrate sowie die Einschätzungsgenauigkeit von Zeitintervallen tragen nicht signifikant als Prädiktoren in der Aufklärung der Zählgenauigkeit bei. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass kardiodynamische Parameter, wie z.B. Schlagvolumen, die durch die Variation der Körperposition manipuliert wurden, unabhängig von Variationen der Herzrate, eine Determinante interozeptiver Genauigkeit in Herzschlagzählaufgaben darstellen. Die Einschätzung von Zeitintervallen hat keinen Einfluss auf die Zähl- und Diskriminationsgenauigkeit von Herzschlägen und wird außerdem nicht von der Körperposition beeinflusst. Die Ergebnisse weisen auf gute konvergente und diskriminante Validität der Herzschlagwahrnehmungsaufgaben zur Erfassung kardialer Interozeption hin. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTime for a Plot Twist: Beyond Confirmatory Approaches to Binge-Watching Research
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Psychology of Popular Media Culture (2019), 8(3), 308-318

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one ... [more ▼]

The advent of the digital age with its progress in digital technology has been associated in recent years with an increase in binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in one session). Binge-watching has now become the new normative way to consume TV shows. Nevertheless, along with its recent massive rise has come concerns about the associated mental and physical health outcomes. Currently available results suggest the potential harmfulness and even addictive nature of binge-watching. The psychological investigation of this behavior, however, is still in its infancy, with most studies using a confirmatory approach and assuming a priori its genuine addictive nature. In contrast, the current perspective paper argues the case for an exploratory approach as an initial step for conducting research on behaviors that − at first sight − look like addiction when applying a symptom-based approach. A qualitative understanding of the phenomenological characteristics of binge-watching as the foundation of an initial comprehensive discussion makes it possible to formulate hypotheses concerning its potentially addictive nature and to emphasize challenges and directions for future research. Here we propose an exploration of the dynamics of binge-watching behavior based on a model involving emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of problem binge-watching. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 337 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVisceral-afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not urinary urge, affect startle eye blink
Schulz, André UL; Schilling, Thomas M.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Physiology and Behavior (2019), 199(1), 165-172

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid until 80% of the subjective urge to micturate was reached. EMG responses to acoustic startle stimuli were assessed before and after micturition, as well as in the early and late cardiac cycle phases (230 vs. 530 ms after a cardiac R-wave). Sonographic assessment confirmed bladder-filling status. Emotional arousal, stress, urge and unpleasantness ratings, as well as mean blood pressure were higher before than after micturition. Startle eye blink responses were lower during the early than during the late cardiac cycle phase, but were not affected by bladder filling status. We conclude that startle methodology is suitable for the investigation of afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not to reflect urinary urgency. This result may be due to different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying afferent signals from the bladder compared to other visceral organs or interference with affective states or sympathetic activation associated with bladder filling. Notwithstanding, the present research protocol of fluid intake, sonographic assessment of the bladder, and subjective reports, can be applied to examine visceral-afferent signals from the bladder. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (5 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEmotion regulation and sexual health: an online study protocol
Fischer, Vinicius; Andersson, gerhard; Billieux, Joël et al

in International Journal of Sexual Health (2019), 31

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssessing binge-watching behaviors: Development and validation of the “Watching TV Series Motives” and “Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms” questionnaires
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Canale, Natale; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019), 90

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation ... [more ▼]

The widespread practice of binge-watching (i.e. watching multiple episodes of a TV series in one session) recently generated concerns about associated negative outcomes. Its psychological investigation, however, remains fragmentary. Based on the previous phenomenological investigation of TV series watching, we developed and validated two original assessment instruments, assessing TV series watching motives and binge-watching engagement and symptoms, respectively. Preliminary items were created for each questionnaire, and a focus group with TV series viewers was conducted and analyzed to generate the final instruments. The questionnaires were then administered via an online survey (N=6556), together with complementary measures of affect, problematic Internet use and substance use. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, along with correlational analyses, were performed to examine both structural and external validity of the scales. The factorial analyses resulted in a 4-factor model (i.e. emotional enhancement, enrichment, coping-escapism and social) for the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire (WTSMQ), and in a 7-factor model (i.e. engagement, positive emotions, desire-savoring, pleasure preservation, binge-watching, dependency and loss of control) for the Binge-Watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire (BWESQ). The results suggest good psychometric properties for both scales. The current study thus provides theoretically-driven and psychometrically sound instruments for further research on binge-watching behaviors [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 450 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEnhanced Cortical Processing of Cardio-Afferent Signals in Anorexia Nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, U. et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2019), 130(9), 1620-1627

Objective: To assess cardiac interoception in anorexia nervosa (AN) using a multidimensional approach. Methods: We assessed the physiological dimensions of cardioception, i.e. the peripheral signal itself ... [more ▼]

Objective: To assess cardiac interoception in anorexia nervosa (AN) using a multidimensional approach. Methods: We assessed the physiological dimensions of cardioception, i.e. the peripheral signal itself (heart rate, HR, and heart rate variability, HRV) and its cortical representation (heartbeat evoked potentials, HEPs), and the psychological dimensions of interoceptive accuracy (heartbeat perception) and interoceptive sensibility (confidence ratings). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded concurrently during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task in a sample of 19 female in-patients with AN (DSM-5) and 19 healthy control women (HC). Results: HEPs, defined as mean EEG amplitude in a time window of 455-595 ms after the Rpeak of the ECG, were significantly larger in the AN than in the HC group across conditions (p = .002, d = 1.06). There was a trend toward better heartbeat perception in AN, but no group differences in HR, HRV, and confidence ratings. Conclusions: Individuals with AN showed an interoceptive profile of heightened cortical processing, a trend toward heightened interoceptive accuracy, and unaltered cardiac autonomic activation and interoceptive sensibility. Significance: In terms of neurobiological models of AN, enhanced cortical representations of interoceptive signals might reflect a mechanism, which promotes fasting by alleviating negative body states. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 128 (12 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSomatoforme Symptome: Zusammenhänge mit Low-Frequency-Herzratenvariabilität und Selbstberichte zu chronischem psychosozialen Stress, aber nicht mit HPA-Achsen-Aktivität
Hansen, G.; Larra, M. F.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Nach dem Perception-Filter-Modell der somatoformen Störungen (Rief & Barsky, 2005) könnte verstärkte Signalübermittlung von Körperorganen zur Symptomentstehung beitragen. Dabei wurden insbesondere das ... [more ▼]

Nach dem Perception-Filter-Modell der somatoformen Störungen (Rief & Barsky, 2005) könnte verstärkte Signalübermittlung von Körperorganen zur Symptomentstehung beitragen. Dabei wurden insbesondere das sympathische Nervensystem und die HPA-Achse als primäre physiologische Stressachsen diskutiert. Aufgrund hoher Heterogenität somatoformer Störungen ist die Befundlage zu beiden Achsen jedoch gemischt, was dafürspricht, größere Populationen ohne Multi-Komorbidität zu untersuchen. Bei einer studentischen Stichprobe (N=217; 113 w; Alter: 18-33 [M=23.0; SD=2.9] Jahre; BMI=22.2 [SD=2.8]) wurden selbstberichteter chronischer Stress (Trierer Inventar für Chronischen Stress/TICS) und somatoforme Symptome (Screening für Somatoforme Störungen/SOMS-2) erhoben. Alle Probanden lieferten Cortisol- Aufwachreaktionen (Erwachen, +15,+30,+45,+60 Min.) an zwei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen, sowie ein Cortisol-Tagesprofil. Zusätzlich wurde im Labor in einer 10-minütigen Ruhemessung EKG zur Bestimmung der Ruhe-Herzratenvariabilität (RMSSD, pNN50, SDNN; Low- und High-Frequency) als Indikatoren des zentralen sympathischen und parasympathischen Tonus erfasst. Diejenigen TICS-Skalen, die psychosozialen Stress reflektieren, sowie „Chronische Besorgnis“ waren zwischen r=.16 und .26 mit somatoformen Symptomen korreliert. Die Skala „Chronische Besorgnis“ korrelierte außerdem positiv mit dem Tagescortisolspiegel (r=.19), sowie negativ mit SDNN (r=-.20), RMSSD (r=-.17), pNN50 (r=-.17), LF-Power (r=-.19) und HF-Power (r=-.16; alle ps < .05). Somatoforme Symptome korrelierten hingegen nicht mit Indikatoren der physiologischen Stressachsen. In einem Regressionsmodell mit Somatisierungsindex als Kriterium zeigte sich nur für die TICS-Skalen „Mangel an sozialer Anerkennung“ (b=.19) und „Chronische Besorgnis“ (b=.25), sowie LF-HRV (b=.20) signifikante Vorhersagekraft. Die Annahmen des Perception-Filter-Modells konnten nur hinsichtlich des sympathischen Nervensystems bestätigt werden, was daher als Frühindikator für somatoforme Störungen betrachtet werden könnte. Dennoch sind selbstberichteter chronischer Stress, vor allem „Besorgnis“, bei gesunden Probanden die stärksten Prädiktoren für somatoforme Symptome. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCardiac cycle phase affect auditory-evoked potentials in response to acoustic startle stimuli, but not perceived intensity ratings
Bernard, Sam UL; Münch, E. E.; Hansen, G. et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Startle stimuli presented in the early cardiac cycle phase elicit lower responses than stimuli presented in the late cardiac cycle phase. This effect, named ‚Cardiac modulation of startle (CMS)‘, was ... [more ▼]

Startle stimuli presented in the early cardiac cycle phase elicit lower responses than stimuli presented in the late cardiac cycle phase. This effect, named ‚Cardiac modulation of startle (CMS)‘, was proposed to reflect baro-afferent signal processing in the central nervous system. It is yet unclear, however, whether the CMS is due to a general sensory attenuation effect by baro-afferent signal transmission or to a specific neural pathway that selectively attenuates startle stimulus processing, but may eventually enhance other processes. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to address this issue. In this present study 23 female participants were presented acoustic stimuli of varying intensities (95, 100, and 105 dBA) during early (R-wave + 230 ms) and late (R+ 530 ms) cardiac cycle phase. Startle responses (EMG of the M. Orbicularis Oculi), auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), and perceived intensity ratings of all stimuli were assessed. Higher startle stimulus intensities evoked higher perceived intensity ratings, stronger EMG startle responses, and higher N1, P2, and P3 AEPs. Startle stimuli in the early cardiac cycle phase elicited lower startle responses, and a positive shift of the N1 and P3 components as compared to the late cardiac cycle phase. Intensity ratings were unaffected by the cardiac cycle phases. The present AEP pattern associated with CMS appears to be unique across all startle modulation paradigms, supporting a more specific neural pathway, rather than a general sensory attenuation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNahrungsvermeidung versus Nahrungsaversion bei restriktiven Essstörungen.
Garcia-Burgos, David; Wilhelm, Peter; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie (2019), 67(1), 1-9

The terms food avoidance and food aversion are often used interchangeably in the eating disorders (EDs) literature. However, they represent two different (but closely related) constructs that are the ... [more ▼]

The terms food avoidance and food aversion are often used interchangeably in the eating disorders (EDs) literature. However, they represent two different (but closely related) constructs that are the result of different processes. In patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant / restrictive food intake disorder, food avoidance / restriction is usually assumed to be motivated by fear / anxiety (e. g., “intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat” or “being afraid to eat after a frightening episode of choking”). In contrast, studies show that taste aversion often leads to food avoidance. Unlike fear-motivated avoidance in which the flavour of food becomes a signal for danger, avoidance produced by taste aversions involves a reduction in the amount consumed due to a hedonic downshift. Here the attractiveness of the flavour changes by its association with a nauseogenic event. It is noteworthy that both sources of food avoidance exhibit different behavioural characteristics, contents of learning, and activate different brain regions and neuromodulators. This is especially important for the understanding and treatment of the EDs and their most serious behavioural manifestation: the life-threatening food refusal. Finally, the clinical implications of such a distinction and promising future research directions are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of acute yohimbine administration on interoception in major depression and childhood adversity
Kuehl, L. K.; Deuter, C. E.; Breden, I.-H. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2019), 107(Supplement 1), 4

Acute stress, release of stress hormones and chronic stress can affect the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals at different brain levels, which are important for interoception. However, it ... [more ▼]

Acute stress, release of stress hormones and chronic stress can affect the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals at different brain levels, which are important for interoception. However, it remains unclear if these effects are due to activation of the sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) axis or hypothalamicpituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. With this study, we aimed to investigate the selective effect of SAM axis activation on interoceptive accuracy. Central alpha2-adrenergic receptors represent a negative feedback mechanism of the SAM axis. For major depressive disorder (MDD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), alterations in the biological stress systems, including density and sensitivity of central alpha2-adrenergic receptors, have been shown. Healthy individuals without ACE (n = 46), healthy individuals with ACE (n = 23), patients with MDD and without ACE (n = 26) and patients with MDD with ACE (n = 22, all without antidepressant medication) were tested after oral administration of 10mg of yohimbine (alpha2-adrenergic receptors antagonist) and placebo administration in a repeated measures design. Interoceptive accuracy and sensibility were assessed in a heartbeat tracking task. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after yohimbine administration in all groups confirmed successful activation of the SAM axis. Interoceptive accuracy decreased after yohimbine intake only in the healthy group with ACE, but remained unchanged in all other groups. This ‘group’בdrug’ interaction effect may be due to selective up-regulation of alpha2- adrenergic receptors after experience of childhood trauma, which reduces capacity for attention focus on heartbeats. Suppressed processing of physical sensations in stressful situations may represent an adaptive response in healthy individuals with childhood adversity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo interoceptive deficits contribute to decision-making problems in academic procrastination
Breden, I.-H.; Dincher, K.; Pereira Pedrosa, R. et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Interoception plays an important role for intuitive decision-making. One possible explanation is that the perception of somatic markers when simulating the outcome of different action alternatives guides ... [more ▼]

Interoception plays an important role for intuitive decision-making. One possible explanation is that the perception of somatic markers when simulating the outcome of different action alternatives guides the selection for the potentially best option. In the present study, we aimed at investigating if chronically procrastinating individuals show interoceptive deficits, which may explain poor decision-making performance. We tested 19 chronic procrastinators (14 females) and 22 nonprocrastinating control individuals (14 females), recruited from students and staff of the University of Luxembourg. This study consisted of a laboratory experiment including questionnaires assessing procrastinating behavior and two separate behavioral paradigms. Using the Schandry Heartbeat Perception Task as an indicator for interoceptive accuracy and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) for the assessment of decision-making performance. Questionnaire data confirmed significantly higher procrastination scores in that group. While male participants showed a significantly higher interoceptive accuracy score than their female counterparts, procrastinators and non-procrastinators did not differ significantly in interoception. Furthermore, no differences in the choice of deck selections were found between procrastinators and non-procrastinators. Interoceptive accuracy was unrelated to decision-making performance. No significant group differences were found for either analysis regarding the performance development as well as sex differences in the IGT. We observed a learning effect in the IGT, with choices for profitable decks increasing over time and poor choices declining. The current study did neither support reduced decision-making problems, nor interoceptive deficits in procrastination. Future studies should incorporate interoceptive indicators of other organ systems and self-report measures to elucidate possible alterations in procrastination. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailErhöhte Reaktivität Herzschlag-evozierter Potenziale während der Aufmerksamkeits- fokussierung auf den eigenen Herzschlag und erhöhte kardiovaskuläre Aktivität bei Personen mit hoher somatoformer Symptombelastung
Schulz, André UL; Rost, S.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractband (2019)

Die psychobiologischen Mechanismen der Entstehung körperlicher Symptome bei somatoformen Störungen sind weitgehend unklar. Im Perception-Filter-Modell wird postuliert, dass (1.) verstärkte ... [more ▼]

Die psychobiologischen Mechanismen der Entstehung körperlicher Symptome bei somatoformen Störungen sind weitgehend unklar. Im Perception-Filter-Modell wird postuliert, dass (1.) verstärkte Signalübermittlung von Körperorganen und (2.) verringerte Filterfunktion im ZNS zu (3.) verstärkter Wahrnehmung von Symptomen führt. Bislang existiert jedoch keine Evidenz, die diesen Zusammenhang an einer von somatoformen Symptomen belasteten Population unterstützt. Um diesen Sachverhalt aufzudecken, wurden zunächst 486 Personen aus der Allgemeinbevölkerung anhand einer Online- Version des Screenings für Somatoforme Störungen (SOMS-2) anhand des oberen und unteren Centils in Personen mit hoher (HSB) und niedriger somatoformer Symptombelastung (NSB) geteilt. Jeweils 29 NSB- (21 Frauen; 26,0 J.) und HSBPersonen (27 Frauen; 28,4 J.) wurden im Labor anhand (1.) verstärkter Körpersignale hinsichtlich kardiovaskulärer Aktivität und Cortisol-Aufwachreaktion, sowie (2.) Filterfunktionen im ZNS hinsichtlich Herzschlag-evozierter Potentiale (HEPs) während der Durchführung eines Herzschlagwahrnehmungstests und während Ruhe untersucht. HEPs reflektieren die Repräsentation kardio-afferenter Signale im ZNS. Die HSB-Gruppe zeigte eine höhere Ruhe-Herzrate (72,7 vs. 66,8 bpm) und eine geringere Herzratenvariabilität (RMSSD: 36,8 vs. 52,5 ms) als die LSB-Gruppe. Außerdem zeigten die HSB-Personen bei der Aufmerksamkeitsfokussierung auf den eigenen Herzschlag eine höhere Reaktivität der HEP-Amplitude als die LSB-Personen. Es gab keine Gruppenunterschiede hinsichtlich der Cortisol-Aufwachreaktion. Die Ergebnisse belegen sowohl (1.) die verstärkte Signalübermittlung von Körperorganen, als auch (2.) verringerte Filterfunktionen bei Personen mit hoher somatoformer Symptombelastung. Dies spricht für die Gültigkeit des Perception-Filter-Modells. Die erhöhte HEP-Reaktivität bezüglich der Aufmerksamkeitsfokussierung auf Körperprozesse könnte einen Biomarker für Personen mit hohem Risiko für die Entwicklung von somatoformen Störungen darstellen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTask interference and distraction efficacy in patients with fibromyalgia: an experimental investigation
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Rost, Silke; Kissi, Ama et al

in Pain (2018), 159(6), 1119-1126

Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought ... [more ▼]

Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought to be reduced in fibromyalgia patients. In this study, we investigated task interference and distraction efficacy in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and a matched healthy control group. Forty-nine fibromyalgia patients and 49 heathy volunteers performed as quickly as possible (a) a visual localization task in the presence of non-painful vibrating or painful electric somatic stimuli, and (b) a somatosensory localization task (using non-painful or painful stimuli). Participants reported on their experience of the somatic stimuli on some of the trials during both localisation tasks. Results indicated that pain interferes with performance of the visual task, in both FM patients and healthy individuals. Furthermore, participants experienced the pain stimulus as less intense when directing attention away from the pain than when focusing on the pain. Overall, task performance of FM patients was slower compared to the task performance in the healthy control group. In contrast to our hypotheses, FM patients and healthy volunteers did not differ in the magnitude of the interference effect and distraction-efficacy. In conclusion, current study provides support for contemporary theories claiming that attention modulates the experience of pain and vice versa. However, no evidence was however found for an altered attentional processing of pain in fibromyalgia patients. Furthermore, results indicate that task interference and distraction-efficacy are not just two sides of the same coin. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBlunted endocrine response to a combined physical-cognitive stressor in adults with early life adversity
Hengesch, X.; Elwenspoek, M.M.C.; Schaan, Violetta UL et al

in Child Abuse & Neglect (2018)

The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However ... [more ▼]

The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However, many previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions as to whether ELA induces a long-term increase or decrease in stress reactivity. Therefore, we tested the association of ELA exposure and adult stress reactivity in a sample of early life adoptees and controls.Two previously validated stressful elements (bilateral feet CPT and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)) were combined in an extended Cold Pressor Test (CPT). This test was performed on 22 participants who had experienced severe ELA (separation from biological parents, institutionalization, and adoption in early childhood), and in 22 age-matched control participants.A prior history of ELA was associated with blunted reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Cohen´s d = 0.680). Cardiovascular reactivity remained unchanged, and affective reactivity (self-report ratings) were increased in participants exposed to ELA compared to the control group (range Cohen´s d: 0.642–0.879).Our results suggest that the activity of the HPA axis reactivity was inhibited in ELA participants. Importantly, cardiovascular stress responsiveness was not affected by ELA. This separation of the HPA axis and cardiovascular stress responses may best be explained by ELA selectively enhancing central feedback-sensitivity to glucocorticoids, but preserving cardiovascular/ autonomic stress reactivity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 115 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLate heartbeat-evoked potentials are associated with survival after cardiac arrest
Schulz, André UL; Stammet, P.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Resuscitation (2018), 126(1), 7-13

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. METHODS: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 hours after resuscitation. All patients were treated with targeted temperature management and a standardized sedation protocol during assessment. We investigated the association between HEP amplitude (180- 320 ms, 455-595 ms, 860-1000 ms) and 6-month survival. RESULTS: Twenty-five of 55 patients (45%) were still alive at 6-month follow-up. Survivors showed a higher HEP amplitude at frontopolar and frontal electrodes in the late HEP interval than non-survivors. This effect remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in terms of age, Fentanyl dose, and time lag between resuscitation and EEG assessment. There were no group differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. CONCLUSION: Brain-heart communication, as reflected by HEPs, is associated with survival after CA. Future studies should address the brain-heart axis in CA. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 209 (20 UL)