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See detailTRIM32 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation and is necessary for normal adult muscle regeneration.
Nicklas, Sarah; Otto, Anthony; Wu, Xiaoli et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(1), 30445

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear ... [more ▼]

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H. [less ▲]

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See detailJAM-C is an apical surface marker for neural stem cells.
Stelzer, Sandra; Worlitzer, Maik M. A.; Bahnassawy, Lamia A et al

in Stem Cells & Development (2012), 21(5), 757-66

Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesive cell surface protein expressed in various cell types. JAM-C localizes to the apically localized tight junctions (TJs) between contacting endothelial ... [more ▼]

Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesive cell surface protein expressed in various cell types. JAM-C localizes to the apically localized tight junctions (TJs) between contacting endothelial and epithelial cells, where it contributes to cell-cell adhesions. Just as those epithelial cells, also neural stem cells are highly polarized along their apical-basal axis. The defining feature of all stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs) is their ability to self renew. This self-renewal depends on the tight control of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. In NSCs, the decision whether a division is symmetric or asymmetric largely depends on the distribution of the apical membrane and cell fate determinants on the basal pole of the cell. In this study we demonstrate that JAM-C is expressed on neural progenitor cells and neural stem cells in the embryonic as well as the adult mouse brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vivo JAM-C shows enrichment at the apical surface and therefore is asymmetrically distributed during cell divisions. These results define JAM-C as a novel surface marker for neural stem cells. [less ▲]

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See detailRegrowing the adult brain: NF-kappaB controls functional circuit formation and tissue homeostasis in the dentate gyrus.
Imielski, Yvonne; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Luningschror, Patrick et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(2), 30838

Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that ... [more ▼]

Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that genetic ablation of NF-kappaB resulted in severe defects in the neurogenic region (dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus. Despite increased stem cell proliferation, axogenesis, synaptogenesis and neuroprotection were hampered, leading to disruption of the mossy fiber pathway and to atrophy of the dentate gyrus during aging. Here, NF-kappaB controls the transcription of FOXO1 and PKA, regulating axogenesis. Structural defects culminated in behavioral impairments in pattern separation. Re-activation of NF-kappaB resulted in integration of newborn neurons, finally to regeneration of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by a complete recovery of structural and behavioral defects. These data identify NF-kappaB as a crucial regulator of dentate gyrus tissue homeostasis suggesting NF-kappaB to be a therapeutic target for treating cognitive and mood disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of inhibitors of microglial neurotoxicity acting through multiple mechanisms using a stem-cell-based phenotypic assay.
Hoing, Susanne; Rudhard, York; Reinhardt, Peter et al

in Cell Stem Cell (2012), 11(5), 620-32

Stem cells, through their ability to both self-renew and differentiate, can produce a virtually limitless supply of specialized cells that behave comparably to primary cells. We took advantage of this ... [more ▼]

Stem cells, through their ability to both self-renew and differentiate, can produce a virtually limitless supply of specialized cells that behave comparably to primary cells. We took advantage of this property to develop an assay for small-molecule-based neuroprotection using stem-cell-derived motor neurons and astrocytes, together with activated microglia as a stress paradigm. Here, we report on the discovery of hit compounds from a screen of more than 10,000 small molecules. These compounds act through diverse pathways, including the inhibition of nitric oxide production by microglia, activation of the Nrf2 pathway in microglia and astrocytes, and direct protection of neurons from nitric-oxide-induced degeneration. We confirm the activity of these compounds using human neurons. Because microglial cells are activated in many neurological disorders, our hit compounds could be ideal starting points for the development of new drugs to treat various neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailInduced pluripotent stem cells generated from adult bone marrow-derived cells of the nonhuman primate (Callithrix jacchus) using a novel quad-cistronic and excisable lentiviral vector.
Wiedemann, Anastasia; Hemmer, Kathrin; Bernemann, Inga et al

in Cellular reprogramming (2012), 14(6), 485-96

Regenerative medicine is in need of solid, large animal models as a link between rodents and humans to evaluate the functionality, immunogenicity, and clinical safety of stem cell-derived cell types. The ... [more ▼]

Regenerative medicine is in need of solid, large animal models as a link between rodents and humans to evaluate the functionality, immunogenicity, and clinical safety of stem cell-derived cell types. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an excellent large animal model, genetically close to humans and readily used worldwide in clinical research. Until now, only two groups showed the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the common marmoset using integrating retroviral vectors. Therefore, we reprogrammed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (MSCs) of adult marmosets in the presence of TAV, SB431542, PD0325901, and ascorbic acid via a novel, excisable lentiviral spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV)-driven quad-cistronic vector system (OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC). Endogenous pluripotency markers like OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC, LIN28, NANOG, and strong alkaline phosphatase signals were detected. Exogenous genes were silenced and additionally the cassette was removed with a retroviral Gag precursor system. The cell line could be cultured in absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and could be successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies and teratomas with presence of all three germ layers. Directed differentiation generated neural progenitors, megakaryocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteogenic cells. Thus, all criteria for fully reprogrammed bone marrow-MSCs of a nonhuman primate with a genetically sophisticated construct could be demonstrated. These cells will be a promising tool for future autologous transplantations. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by defined factors.
Han, Dong Wook; Tapia, Natalia; Hermann, Andreas et al

in Cell Stem Cell (2012), 10(4), 465-72

Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state, but the restricted proliferative and lineage potential of the resulting cells limits the scope of their potential applications. Here we show that a combination of transcription factors (Brn4/Pou3f4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, plus E47/Tcf3) induces mouse fibroblasts to directly acquire a neural stem cell identity-which we term as induced neural stem cells (iNSCs). Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into iNSCs is a gradual process in which the donor transcriptional program is silenced over time. iNSCs exhibit cell morphology, gene expression, epigenetic features, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capacity, as well as in vitro and in vivo functionality similar to those of wild-type NSCs. We conclude that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed directly into specific somatic stem cell types by defined sets of specific transcription factors. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural stem cells maintain their stemness through protein kinase C zeta-mediated inhibition of TRIM32.
Hillje, Anna-Lena; Worlitzer, Maik M. A.; Palm, Thomas et al

in Stem Cells (2011), 29(9), 1437-47

Several studies over the last couple of years have delivered insights into the mechanisms that drive neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms that ensure the maintenance of stemness ... [more ▼]

Several studies over the last couple of years have delivered insights into the mechanisms that drive neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms that ensure the maintenance of stemness characteristics in neural stem cells over several rounds of cell divisions are still largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the neuronal fate determinant TRIM32 binds to the protein kinase C zeta. Through this interaction, TRIM32 is retained in the cytoplasm. However, during differentiation, this interaction is abrogated and TRIM32 translocates to the nucleus to initiate neuronal differentiation by targeting c-Myc for proteasomal degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailCellular organization of adult neurogenesis in the Common Marmoset.
Bunk, Eva C.; Stelzer, Sandra; Hermann, Sven et al

in Aging Cell (2011), 10(1), 28-38

Adult neurogenesis within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle (LV) has been most intensely studied within the brains of ... [more ▼]

Adult neurogenesis within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle (LV) has been most intensely studied within the brains of rodents such as mice and rats. However, little is known about the cell types and processes involved in adult neurogenesis within primates such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Moreover, substantial differences seem to exist between the neurogenic niche of the LV between rodents and humans. Here, we set out to use immunohistochemical and autogradiographic analysis to characterize the anatomy of the neurogenic niches and the expression of cell type-specific markers in those niches in the adult common marmoset brain. Moreover, we demonstrate significant differences in the activity of neurogenesis in the adult marmoset brain compared to the adult mouse brain. Finally, we provide evidence for ongoing proliferation of neuroblasts within both the SGZ and SVZ of the adult brain and further show that the age-dependent decline of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is associated with a decrease in neuroblast cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 regulates neuronal polarization.
Khazaei, Mohammad R.; Bunk, Eva C.; Hillje, Anna-Lena et al

in Journal of Neurochemistry (2011), 117(1), 29-37

The establishment of a polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites is an essential step during neuronal differentiation. This cellular polarization is largely depending on changes in ... [more ▼]

The establishment of a polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites is an essential step during neuronal differentiation. This cellular polarization is largely depending on changes in the dynamics of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Here, we show that the tripartite motif (TRIM)-NHL protein TRIM2 is regulating axon specification in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, where one of several initially indistinguishable neurites is selected to become the axon. Suppression of TRIM2 by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity while over-expression of TRIM2 induces the specification of multiple axons. TRIM2 conducts its function during neuronal polarization by ubiquitination of the neurofilament light chain. Together, our results imply an important function of TRIM2 for axon outgrowth during development. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain tumor stem cells.
Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL

in Biological Chemistry (2010), 391(6), 607-17

Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural ... [more ▼]

Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailJAM-A is a novel surface marker for NG2-Glia in the adult mouse brain.
Stelzer, Sandra; Ebnet, Klaus; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL

in BMC Neuroscience (2010), 11

BACKGROUND: Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adhesive protein expressed in various cell types. JAM-A localizes to the tight junctions between contacting endothelial and epithelial cells, where ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adhesive protein expressed in various cell types. JAM-A localizes to the tight junctions between contacting endothelial and epithelial cells, where it contributes to cell-cell adhesion and to the control of paracellular permeability. RESULTS: So far, the expression pattern of JAM-A has not been described in detail for the different cell types of the adult brain. Here we show that a subset of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain express JAM-A. We further clarify that these cells belong to the lineage of NG2-glia cells. Although these mitotic NG2-glia cells express JAM-A, the protein never shows a polarized subcellular distribution. Also non-mitotic NG2-glia cells express JAM-A in a non-polarized pattern on their surface. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that JAM-A is a novel surface marker for NG2-glia cells of the adult brain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 activates microRNAs and prevents self-renewal in mouse neural progenitors.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Berezikov, Eugene; Knoblich, Juergen A.

in Cell (2009), 136(5), 913-25

In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate both differentiating neurons and daughter cells that maintain progenitor fate. Here, we show that the TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 regulates protein ... [more ▼]

In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate both differentiating neurons and daughter cells that maintain progenitor fate. Here, we show that the TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 regulates protein degradation and microRNA activity to control the balance between those two daughter cell types. In both horizontally and vertically dividing progenitors, TRIM32 becomes polarized in mitosis and is concentrated in one of the two daughter cells. TRIM32 overexpression induces neuronal differentiation while inhibition of TRIM32 causes both daughter cells to retain progenitor cell fate. TRIM32 ubiquitinates and degrades the transcription factor c-Myc but also binds Argonaute-1 and thereby increases the activity of specific microRNAs. We show that Let-7 is one of the TRIM32 targets and is required and sufficient for neuronal differentiation. TRIM32 is the mouse ortholog of Drosophila Brat and Mei-P26 and might be part of a protein family that regulates the balance between differentiation and proliferation in stem cell lineages. [less ▲]

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See detailThe stimulation of dendrite growth by Sema3A requires integrin engagement and focal adhesion kinase.
Schlomann, Uwe; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Muller, Myriam et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2009), 122(Pt 12), 2034-42

The rate and direction of axon and dendrite growth depend on multiple guidance signals and growth factors. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) acts as a repellent for axons and attractant for dendrites. Here, we show ... [more ▼]

The rate and direction of axon and dendrite growth depend on multiple guidance signals and growth factors. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) acts as a repellent for axons and attractant for dendrites. Here, we show that the requirement for integrin engagement distinguishes the response of axons and dendrites to Sema3A in hippocampal neurons. Sema3A promotes the extension of hippocampal dendrites by a pathway that requires focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The stimulation of dendrite growth and FAK phosphorylation by Sema3A depend on integrin engagement. Unlike their function as a target of Sema3A during the collapse of axonal growth cones, integrins facilitate the stimulation of dendrite extension. Conditional inactivation of the genes encoding beta1 integrin or FAK blocks the growth-promoting effect of Sema3A but not the collapse of axonal growth cones. Our results demonstrate that different pathways mediate the stimulation of dendrite growth and the collapse of axonal growth cones by Sema3A. [less ▲]

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See detailLIS1 and spindle orientation in neuroepithelial cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Knoblich, Juergen A.

in Cell Stem Cell (2008), 2(3), 193-4

Asymmetric stem cell division is thought to require precise orientation of the mitotic spindle. However, a recent study in Cell (Yingling et al., 2008) analyzes the role of LIS1 in the developing mouse ... [more ▼]

Asymmetric stem cell division is thought to require precise orientation of the mitotic spindle. However, a recent study in Cell (Yingling et al., 2008) analyzes the role of LIS1 in the developing mouse brain and shows that spindle orientation is more important during early, symmetric progenitor cell divisions than for later asymmetric divisions. [less ▲]

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See detailElongation of axons during regeneration involves retinal crystallin beta b2 (crybb2).
Liedtke, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Schroer, Uwe et al

in Molecular and Cellular Proteomics (2007), 6(5), 895-907

Adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regenerate their axons in vitro. Using proteomics, we discovered that the supernatants of cultured retinas contain isoforms of crystallins with crystallin beta b2 ... [more ▼]

Adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regenerate their axons in vitro. Using proteomics, we discovered that the supernatants of cultured retinas contain isoforms of crystallins with crystallin beta b2 (crybb2) being clearly up-regulated in the regenerating retina. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of crybb within the retina, including in filopodial protrusions and axons of RGCs. Cloning and overexpression of crybb2 in RGCs and hippocampal neurons increased axonogenesis, which in turn could be blocked with antibodies against beta-crystallin. Conditioned medium from crybb2-transfected cell cultures also supported the growth of axons. Finally real time imaging of the uptake of green fluorescent protein-tagged crybb2 fusion protein showed that this protein becomes internalized. These data are the first to show that axonal regeneration is related to crybb2 movement. The results suggest that neuronal crystallins constitute a novel class of neurite-promoting factors that likely operate through an autocrine mechanism and that they could be used in neurodegenerative diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailGTPases and the control of neuronal polarity.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Li, Yinghua; Puschel, Andreas W.

in Methods in Enzymology (2006), 406

Neurons are probably the most highly polarized cell type and typically develop a single axon and several dendrites. The establishment of a polarized morphology and the functional specialization of axonal ... [more ▼]

Neurons are probably the most highly polarized cell type and typically develop a single axon and several dendrites. The establishment of a polarized morphology and the functional specialization of axonal and dendritic compartments are essential steps in the differentiation of neurons. Primary cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons are a widely used system to study the development of neuronal differentiation. In this article, we will describe gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches that allow us to analyze the role of GTPases in neuronal differentiation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe sequential activity of the GTPases Rap1B and Cdc42 determines neuronal polarity.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Puschel, Andreas W.

in Nature Neuroscience (2004), 7(9), 923-9

The establishment of a polarized morphology is an essential step in the differentiation of neurons with a single axon and multiple dendrites. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, one of several initially ... [more ▼]

The establishment of a polarized morphology is an essential step in the differentiation of neurons with a single axon and multiple dendrites. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, one of several initially indistinguishable neurites is selected to become the axon. Both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and the evolutionarily conserved Par complex (comprising Par3, Par6 and an atypical PKC (aPKC) such as PKClambda or PKCzeta) are involved in axon specification. However, the initial signals that establish cellular asymmetry and the pathways that subsequently translate it into structural changes remain to be elucidated. Here we show that localization of the GTPase Rap1B to the tip of a single neurite is a decisive step in determining which neurite becomes the axon. Using GTPase mutants and RNA interference, we found that Rap1B is necessary and sufficient to initiate the development of axons upstream of Cdc42 and the Par complex. [less ▲]

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See detailSemaphorin 3A stimulates neurite extension and regulates gene expression in PC12 cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Fiore, Roberto; Bagnard, Dominique et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(30), 30923-6

The secreted semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a member of a large family of proteins that act as guidance signals for axons and dendrites. While the receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the repulsive ... [more ▼]

The secreted semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a member of a large family of proteins that act as guidance signals for axons and dendrites. While the receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the repulsive effects of semaphorins are beginning to be understood in some detail, the mechanisms that are responsible for the ability of Sema3A to stimulate the extension of dendrites remain to be elucidated. Here we show that PC12 cells, a model widely used to study neuronal differentiation, can be used to dissect this pathway. Sema3A is as effective as nerve growth factor in stimulating the extension of neurites from PC12 cells. We show that Sema3A is able to regulate gene expression and identify mitochondria as a novel target of Sema3A signaling. Pharmacological block of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production abolishes the extension of neurites in response to Sema3A. These results show that the characterization of transcripts that are regulated by axon guidance signals may help to identify novel components of their signaling pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroarray analysis of tumor necrosis factor alpha induced gene expression in U373 human glioblastoma cells.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Lindecke, Antje; Elvers, Margitta et al

in BMC Genomics (2003), 4(1), 46

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is able to induce a variety of biological responses in the nervous system including inflammation and neuroprotection. Human astrocytoma cells U373 have been widely used as a model for inflammatory cytokine actions in the nervous system. Here we used cDNA microarrays to analyze the time course of the transcriptional response from 1 h up to 12 h post TNF treatment in comparison to untreated U373 cells. TNF activated strongly the NF-kappaB transcriptional pathway and is linked to other pathways via the NF-kappaB target genes JUNB and IRF-1. Part of the TNF-induced gene expression could be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB with pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (PDTC). NF-kappaB comprises a family of transcription factors which are involved in the inducible expression of genes regulating neuronal survival, inflammatory response, cancer and innate immunity. RESULTS: In this study we show that numerous genes responded to TNF (> 880 from 7500 tested) with a more than two-fold induction rate. Several novel TNF-responsive genes (about 60% of the genes regulated by a factor > or = 3) were detected. A comparison of our TNF-induced gene expression profiles of U373, with profiles from 3T3 and Hela cells revealed a striking cell-type specificity. SCYA2 (MCP-1, CCL2, MCAF) was induced in U373 cells in a sustained manner and at the highest level of all analyzed genes. MCP-1 protein expression, as monitored with immunofluorescence and ELISA, correlated exactly with microarray data. Based on these data and on evidence from literature we suggest a model for the potential neurodegenerative effect of NF-kappaB in astroglia: Activation of NF-kappaB via TNF results in a strongly increased production of MCP-1. This leads to a exacerbation of neurodegeneration in stoke or Multiple Sclerosis, presumably via infiltration of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of genes regulated more than 3-fold were previously not linked to tumor necrosis factor alpha as a search in published literature revealed. Striking co-regulation for several functional groups such as proteasome and ribosomal proteins were detected. [less ▲]

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