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See detailInter-individual differences in cardiovascular reactivity and the perception of the thermal grill illusion of pain
Scheuren, Raymonde UL; Duschek, Stefan; Schulz, André UL et al

Speeches/Talks (2015)

Background: Evidence has been given that there exists a functional relationship between the cardiovascular and the pain regulatory system. Alterations in blood pressure and concomitant changes in ... [more ▼]

Background: Evidence has been given that there exists a functional relationship between the cardiovascular and the pain regulatory system. Alterations in blood pressure and concomitant changes in baroreceptor activation contribute to the modulation of pain sensitivity It could be shown that blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, and cardiac vagal tone (indexed by heart rate variability, HRV) are inversely associated to pain sensitivity. We aimed assessing the same cardiovascular parameters in a thermal grill paradigm to test the assumption of a relationship between inter-individual differences in autonomic cardiac control and the perception of the thermal grill illusion of pain (TGI). Methods: All participants (N = 52) were stimulated three times during one minute with the temperatures of 15°C and 41°C set at the interlaced cold and warm bars of the water-bath driven thermal grill. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded concomitantly. Numerical rating scales (NRS; 0–100) were used to quantify subjective paradoxical pain intensity and pain unpleasantness perceptions. Results: A positive association between cardiac vagal tone and paradoxical pain sensitivity could be revealed. Higher resting HRV, as expressed by higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), made it overall more likely to perceive the TGI. In contrast, blood pressure and the susceptibility to the TGI were inversely related. Volunteers displaying higher spontaneous blood pressure values in the first thermal grill stimulation phase did not feel the illusive pain as compared to those who presented significantly lower sympathetic arousal and perceived the TGI. Conclusion: The present physiological findings complement previous evidence of an impact of psychological characteristics on the individual disposition to paradoxical pain perceptions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between cardiovascular reactivity and the perception of the thermal grill illusion of pain
Scheuren, Raymonde UL; Duschek, Stefan; Schulz, André UL et al

Poster (2015, September 03)

Alterations in blood pressure (BP) and concomitant changes in baroreceptor activation contribute to the modulation of pain sensitivity to warrant homeostatic regulation processes [1][2]. Numerous pain ... [more ▼]

Alterations in blood pressure (BP) and concomitant changes in baroreceptor activation contribute to the modulation of pain sensitivity to warrant homeostatic regulation processes [1][2]. Numerous pain studies have described an inverse relationship between BP and nociceptive sensitivity [3][4][5]. It is not known whether a similar relationship plays a role in the framework of the induction of pain in the absence of noxious stimulation. The thermal grill (TG) paradigm is commonly used to trigger this type of paradoxical pain also termed thermal grill illusion of pain (TGI). The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between cardiovascular activity/reactivity and paradoxical pain sensitivity to get additional insight in the variability of responsiveness (responders and non-responders) to TG stimulation described in the literature [6][7]. We hypothesized that higher BP would be associated with stronger pain inhibitory effects in participants not perceiving the thermal grill illusion of pain (TGI). We moreover expected that the perception of paradoxical pain in the responder group would be paired with lower BP. We tested this hypothesis by comparing both groups with respect to their spontaneous cardiovascular activity (recorded in resting conditions) and their cardiovascular responses to TG stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailInteroception and Stress
Schulz, André UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(1), 993

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See detailZentralnervöse Verarbeitung von Körpersignalen bei Anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, Ulrich et al

Scientific Conference (2015, April)

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See detailInteroception
Schulz, André UL

in Wright, J. D. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2015)

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See detailGastrische Modulation der Schreckreaktion: eine prä-attentive Methode zur Abbildung afferenter Signale aus dem gastrointestinalen System
Schulz, André UL; Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailInterozeptive Sensitivität bei Bulimia Nervosa und Binge-Eating-Störung
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Blechert, J. et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailEmotions matter: Affektive und kardiale Modulation der Schreckreaktion
Schaan, Violetta UL; Schächinger, H.; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailWahrnehmung körperinterner Signale bei Bulimia Nervosa und Binge-Eating-Störung
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Blechert, J. et al

in Wittchen, H.-U.; Härtling, S.; Hoyer, J. (Eds.) Abstractband - Wieviel Psychologie steckt in der Psychotherapie? (2015)

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See detailZentralnervöse Verarbeitung von Körpersignalen bei Anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, U. et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailInteroception in anorexia nervosa: evidence at cortical and self-report levels
Lutz, Annika UL; Schulz, André UL; Voderholzer, Ulrich et al

in 45th Annual Congress of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (EABCT) (2015)

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See detailGastrisch-evozierte Potenziale: ein neurophysiologischer Indikator für die kortikale Repräsentation afferenter Signale aus dem gastrointestinalen System
Schaan, L.; Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Lutz, Annika UL et al

in Kaiser, J.; Fiebach, C. (Eds.) 41. Tagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstracts der Beiträge (2015)

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See detailAffektive Bewertung von Körperbildern bei Anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Herbert, C.; Schulz, André UL et al

in Wittchen, H.-U.; Härtling, S.; Hoyer, J. (Eds.) Abstractband - Wieviel Psychologie steckt in der Psychotherapie? (2015)

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See detailBody or cup? Alterations in featural and configural body image processing in anorexia nervosa
Lutz, Annika UL; Herbert, Cornelia; Schulz, André UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2015), 52(supplement 1), 123

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See detailAltered patterns of heartbeat-evoked potentials in depersonalization/derealization disorder: neurophysiological evidence for impaired cortical representation of bodily signals
Schulz, André UL; Köster, S.; Beutel, M. E. et al

in Psychosomatic Medicine (2015), 77(5), 506-516

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Core features of depersonalization-/derealization disorder (DPD) are emotional numbing and feelings of disembodiment. While there are several neurophysiological findings supporting subjective emotional numbing, the psychobiology of disembodiment remains unclear. METHODS: Heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), which are considered psychophysiological indicators for the cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system, were assessed in 23 patients with DPD and 24 healthy control individuals during rest and while performing a heartbeat perception task. RESULTS: Absolute HEP amplitudes did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, healthy individuals showed higher HEPs during the heartbeat perception task than during rest, while no such effect was found in DPD patients (p = .031). DPD patients had higher total levels of salivary alpha-amylase than healthy individuals (9626.6±8200.0 vs. 5344.3±3745.8 kUmin/l; p = .029), but there were no group differences in cardiovascular measures (heart rate: 76.2±10.1 vs. 74.3 ±7.5 bpm, p = .60; nLF HRV: .63±.15 vs. .56 ±.15 n.u., p = .099; LF/HF ratio: 249.3±242.7 vs. 164.8 ±108.8, p = .10), salivary cortisol (57.5±46.7 vs. 55.1±43.6 nmolmin/l, p = .86) or cortisone levels (593.2±260.3 vs. 543.8±257.1 nmolmin/l, p = .52). CONCLUSION: These results suggest altered cortical representation of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system in DPD patients, which may be associated with higher sympathetic tone. These findings may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to attend to their actual bodily experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo separable mechanisms are responsible for mental stress effects on high frequency heart rate variability: an intra-individual approach in a healthy and a diabetic sample
Kuehl, L. K.; Deuter, C. E.; Richter, S. et al

in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2015), 95(3), 299-303

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See detailInterozeption bei Depersonalisations-/Derealisationsstörung: veränderte kortikale Repräsentation afferenter Körpersignale bei intakter Repräsentation auf Hirnstammebene
Schulz, André UL; Matthey, J. H.; Köster, S. et al

in Wittchen, H.-U.; Härtling, S.; Hoyer, J. (Eds.) Abstractband - Wieviel Psychologie steckt in der Psychotherapie? (2015)

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See detailCortical representation of afferent bodily signals in borderline personality disorder: neural correlates and raltionship to emotional dysregulation
Müller, L. E.; Schulz, André UL; Andermann, M. et al

in JAMA Psychiatry (2015), 72(11), 1077-1086

The ability to perceive and regulate one's own emotions has been tightly linked to the processing of afferent bodily signals (interoception). Thus, disturbed interoception might contribute to the core ... [more ▼]

The ability to perceive and regulate one's own emotions has been tightly linked to the processing of afferent bodily signals (interoception). Thus, disturbed interoception might contribute to the core feature of emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD), as increased levels of depersonalization, body image disturbances, and reduced sensitivity to physical pain suggest poor body awareness in BPD. OBJECTIVE: To determine neural correlates of disturbed body awareness in BPD and its associations with emotional dysregulation and to explore improvements in body awareness with BPD symptom remission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study performed at Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. Heartbeat evoked potentials (HEPs), an indicator of the cortical representation of afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, were investigated in 34 medication-free patients with BPD, 31 healthy volunteers, and 17 medication-free patients with BPD in remission. The HEPs were assessed using 5-minute resting-state electroencephalograms and parallel electrocardiograms. Core BPD symptoms, history of childhood traumatization, and psychiatric disorders were assessed by means of self-reports and structured interviews. To measure neural correlates of disturbed body awareness, high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and region-of-interest-based approaches. The study was performed between 2012 and 2014, and data analysis was performed in 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Mean HEP amplitudes in resting-state electroencephalograms and their correlation with self-reported emotional dysregulation, as well as with gray matter volume. RESULTS: Patients with BPD had significantly reduced mean HEP amplitudes compared with healthy volunteers (F1,61 = 11.32, P = .001), whereas the mean HEP amplitudes of patients with BDP in remission lie somewhere in between these 2 groups of participants (P > .05). The HEP amplitudes were negatively correlated with emotional dysregulation (R = -0.30, P = .01) and positively associated with gray matter volume in the left anterior insula (R = 0.53, P < .05) and the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (R = 0.47, P < .05), 2 structures that have been identified as core regions for interoception. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results indicate state-dependent deficits in the cortical processing of bodily signals in patients with BPD, which appear to be associated with core features of BPD. The analysis of patients with BPD in remission suggests an improvement in cortical representation of bodily signals with symptom remission. Results recommend the integration of techniques to strengthen bodily awareness in psychotherapeutic interventions of BPD. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term food deprivation increases amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked potentials
Schulz, André UL; Ferreira de Sá, D. S.; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2015), 52(5), 695-703

Nutritional state, i.e. fasting or non-fasting, may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate ... [more ▼]

Nutritional state, i.e. fasting or non-fasting, may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate days: when satiated (standardized food intake) and after an 18 h food deprivation period. On both days, heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) and cardiac and ANS activation indices (heart rate, nLF HRV) were assessed. The HEP is an EEG pattern that is considered an index of cortical representation of afferent cardiovascular signals. Average HEP activity (R-wave +455-595 ms) was enhanced during food deprivation compared to normal food intake. Cardiac activation did not differ between nutritional conditions. Our results indicate that short-term food deprivation amplifies an electrophysiological correlate of the cortical representation of visceral-afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. This effect could not be attributed to increased cardiac activation, as estimated by heart rate and nLF HRV, after food deprivation. [less ▲]

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See detailZusammenhänge zwischen Essverhalten und Interozeption: Der Einfluss von kurzzeitiger Nahrungsdeprivation auf die Herzschlagdetektion
Van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verleger, R.; Krämer, U.; Beyer, F. (Eds.) et al Abstractband 40. Tagung "Psychologie und Gehirn" (2014)

Einleitung: Eine reduzierte interozeptive Wahrnehmung ist ein wichtiges Kernmerkmal von Essverhalten, das mit einem erhöhten Risiko für die Entwicklung von Essstörungen und Adipositas einhergeht. Die ... [more ▼]

Einleitung: Eine reduzierte interozeptive Wahrnehmung ist ein wichtiges Kernmerkmal von Essverhalten, das mit einem erhöhten Risiko für die Entwicklung von Essstörungen und Adipositas einhergeht. Die Wahrnehmung körperinterner Signale von Hunger und Sättigung ist beeinträchtigt und das Essverhalten ist von kognitiver Kontrolle, äußeren Reizen oder auch Affektzuständen gesteuert. Auf der anderen Seite wurde gezeigt, dass die experimentelle Manipulation von Essverhalten durch kurzzeitiges Fasten, die Genauigkeit der Wahrnehmung interozeptiver Signale erhöht. Ziel: Die vorliegende Studie hatte zum Ziel, den Ein-fluss von Nahrungsentzug auf die verschiedenen Dimen-sionen der Interozeption bei Individuen mit angemesse-nem und unangemessenem Essverhalten zu untersuchen. Methode: Insgesamt nahmen 46 gesunde Frauen an zwei unterschiedlichen Tagen an der Studie teil. In randomisierter Reihenfolge wurden sie nach 16-stündigem Fasten und nach einem standardisierten Frühstück getestet. Die Genauigkeit der Wahrnehmung interozeptiver Signale wurde mit Hilfe eines Herzschlagdetektionstests (Schandry) erfasst. Zusätzlich wurde die subjektive Einschätzung der interozeptiven Wahrnehmungsgenauigkeit, sowie intuitives und unangemessenes Essverhalten per Fragebogen erfasst. Ergebnisse: Die Genauigkeit im Herzschlagdetektions-test war nach kurzzeitigem Fasten erhöht. Außerdem konnte eine verringerte Herzfrequenz festgestellt werden. Emotionale Esser zeigten eine verringerte Herz-schlagdetekionsgenauigkeit und intuitives Essverhalten korrelierte positiv mit interozeptiver Genauigkeit. Es ließ sich kein Zusammenhang zwischen selbstberichteter interozeptiver Wahrnehmung und kardialer interozepti-ver Genauigkeit aufzeigen.Diskussion: Unsere Ergebnisse stehen im Einklang mit vorhergehenden Studien die zeigten, dass kurzzeitiges Fasten die Genauigkeit in Herzwahrnehmungsaufgaben erhöht. Allerdings scheint dieser Anstieg unabhängig zu sein von sympathischer Aktivierung. Unsere Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass durch Essverhalten die Wahrnehmung von Körpersignalen verändert werden kann. Dies impliziert weitere Untersuchungen dieses Zusammen-hangs bei Essstörungen. [less ▲]

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