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See detailFedFog: Network-Aware Optimization of Federated Learning over Wireless Fog-Cloud System
Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (in press)

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of ... [more ▼]

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of enabling FL over a wireless fogcloud system (e.g., non-i.i.d. data, users’ heterogeneity), we first propose an efficient FL algorithm based on Federated Averaging (called FedFog) to perform the local aggregation of gradient parameters at fog servers and global training update at the cloud. Next, we employ FedFog in wireless fog-cloud systems by investigating a novel network-aware FL optimization problem that strikes the balance between the global loss and completion time. An iterative algorithm is then developed to obtain a precise measurement of the system performance, which helps design an efficient stopping criteria to output an appropriate number of global rounds. To mitigate the straggler effect, we propose a flexible user aggregation strategy that trains fast users first to obtain a certain level of accuracy before allowing slow users to join the global training updates. Extensive numerical results using several real-world FL tasks are provided to verify the theoretical convergence of FedFog. We also show that the proposed co-design of FL and communication is essential to substantially improve resource utilization while achieving comparable accuracy of the learning model. [less ▲]

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See detailPower Allocation for Space-Terrestrial Cooperation Systems with Statistical CSI
Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL; Hoang, Tiep M. et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailOn the Performance of Cache-Free/Cache-Aided STBC-NOMA in Cognitive Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
Singh, Vibhum UL; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Eappen, Geoffrey UL et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2022), (Early Access), 1-1

Future wireless networks pose several challenges such as high spectral efficiency, wide coverage massive connectivity, low receiver complexity, etc. To this end, this letter investigates an overlay based ... [more ▼]

Future wireless networks pose several challenges such as high spectral efficiency, wide coverage massive connectivity, low receiver complexity, etc. To this end, this letter investigates an overlay based cognitive hybrid satellite-terrestrial network (CHSTN) combining non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and conventional Alamouti space-time block coding (STBC) techniques. Herein, a decode-and-forward based secondary terrestrial network cooperates with a primary satellite network for dynamic spectrum access. Further, for reliable content delivery and low latency requirements, wireless caching is employed, whereby the secondary network can store the most popular contents of the primary network. Considering the relevant heterogeneous fading channel models and the NOMA-based imperfect successive interference cancellation, we examine the performance of CHSTN for the cache-free (CF) STBC-NOMA and the cache-aided (CA) STBC-NOMA schemes. We assess the outage probability expressions for primary and secondary networks and further, highlight the corresponding achievable diversity orders. Indicatively, the proposed CF/CA STBC-NOMA schemes for CHSTN perform significantly better than the benchmark standalone NOMA and OMA schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailTask-Oriented Data Compression for Multi-Agent Communications Over Bit-Budgeted Channels
Mostaani, Arsham UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2022)

Various applications for inter-machine communications are on the rise. Whether it is for autonomous driving vehicles or the internet of everything, machines are more connected than ever to improve their ... [more ▼]

Various applications for inter-machine communications are on the rise. Whether it is for autonomous driving vehicles or the internet of everything, machines are more connected than ever to improve their performance in fulfilling a given task. While in traditional communications the goal has often been to reconstruct the underlying message, under the emerging task-oriented paradigm, the goal of communication is to enable the receiving end to make more informed decisions or more precise estimates/computations. Motivated by these recent developments, in this paper, we perform an indirect design of the communications in a multi-agent system (MAS) in which agents cooperate to maximize the averaged sum of discounted one-stage rewards of a collaborative task. Due to the bit-budgeted communications between the agents, each agent should efficiently represent its local observation and communicate an abstracted version of the observations to improve the collaborative task performance. We first show that this problem can be approximated as a form of data-quantization problem which we call task-oriented data compression (TODC). We then introduce the state-aggregation for information compression algorithm (SAIC) to solve the formulated TODC problem. It is shown that SAIC is able to achieve near-optimal performance in terms of the achieved sum of discounted rewards. The proposed algorithm is applied to a geometric consensus problem and its performance is compared with several benchmarks. Numerical experiments confirm the promise of this indirect design approach for task-oriented multi-agent communications. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency-Packed Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling via Symbol-Level Precoding for Multiuser MISO Redundant Transmissions
Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022), 21(10), 8660-8674

This work addresses the issue of interference generated by co-channel users in downlink multi-antenna multicarrier systems with frequency-packed faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling. The resulting ... [more ▼]

This work addresses the issue of interference generated by co-channel users in downlink multi-antenna multicarrier systems with frequency-packed faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling. The resulting interference stems from an aggressive strategy for enhancing the throughput via frequency reuse across different users and the squeezing of signals in the time-frequency plane beyond the Nyquist limit. The spectral efficiency is proved to be increasing with the frequency packing and FTN acceleration factors. The lower bound for the FTN sampling period that guarantees information losslesness is derived as a function of the transmitting-filter roll-off factor, the frequency-packing factor, and the number of subcarriers. Space-time-frequency symbol-level precoders (SLPs) that trade off constructive and destructive interblock interference (IBI) at the single-antenna user terminals are proposed. Redundant elements are added as guard interval to cope with vestigial destructive IBI effects. The proposals can handle channels with delay spread longer than the multicarrier-symbol duration. The receiver architecture is simple, for it does not require digital multicarrier demodulation. Simulations indicate that the proposed SLP outperforms zero-forcing precoding and achieves a target balance between spectral and energy efficiencies by controlling the amount of added redundancy from zero (full IBI) to half (destructive IBI-free) the group delay of the equivalent channel. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to Optimize: Balancing Two Conflict Metrics in MB-HTS Networks
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Advanced Satellite Multimedia Conference / Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop (ASMS), Gratz, Viena, Sept. 2022 (2022, September)

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See detailJoint Beam Placement and Load Balancing Optimization for Non-Geostationary Satellite Systems
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Mediterranean Conference on Communications and Networking (IEEE MediCom), Athens, Greece, Sept. 2022 (2022, September)

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See detailRobust Congestion Control for Demand-Based Optimization in Precoded Multi-Beam High Throughput Satellite Communications
Bui, Van-Phuc; Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2022)

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See detailBoosting Quantum Battery-Based IoT Gadgets via RF-Enabled Energy Harvesting
Gautam, Sumit; Solanki, Sourabh UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna et al

in Sensors (2022), 22(14), 1-19

The search for a highly portable and efficient supply of energy to run small-scale wireless gadgets has captivated the human race for the past few years. As a part of this quest, the idea of realizing a ... [more ▼]

The search for a highly portable and efficient supply of energy to run small-scale wireless gadgets has captivated the human race for the past few years. As a part of this quest, the idea of realizing a Quantum battery (QB) seems promising. Like any other practically tractable system, the design of QBs also involve several critical challenges. The main problem in this context is to ensure a lossless environment pertaining to the closed-system design of the QB, which is extremely difficult to realize in practice. Herein, we model and optimize various aspects of a Radio-Frequency (RF) Energy Harvesting (EH)-assisted, QB-enabled Internet-of-Things (IoT) system. Several RF-EH modules (in the form of micro- or nano-meter-sized integrated circuits (ICs)) are placed in parallel at the IoT receiver device, and the overall correspondingly harvested energy helps the involved Quantum sources achieve the so-called quasi-stable state. Concretely, the Quantum sources absorb the energy of photons that are emitted by a photon-emitting device controlled by a micro-controller, which also manages the overall harvested energy from the RF-EH ICs. To investigate the considered framework, we first minimize the total transmit power under the constraints on overall harvested energy and the number of RF-EH ICs at the QB-enabled wireless IoT device. Next, we optimize the number of RF-EH ICs, subject to the constraints on total transmit power and overall harvested energy. Correspondingly, we obtain suitable analytical solutions to the above-mentioned problems, respectively, and also cross-validate them using a non-linear program solver. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is reported in the form of numerical results, which are both theoretical and simulations based, by taking a range of operating system parameters into account. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency Optimization for Backscatter Enhanced NOMA Cooperative V2X Communications under Imperfect CSI
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and ... [more ▼]

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other devices. Recently, ambient backscatter communications (AmBC) have gained significant interest in the research community for providing battery-free communications. AmBC can modulate useful data and reflect it towards near devices using the energy and frequency of existing RF signals. However, obtaining channel state information (CSI) for AmBC systems would be very challenging due to no pilot sequences and limited power. As one of the latest members of multiple access technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising solution for connecting large-scale devices over the same spectral resources in B5G wireless networks. Under imperfect CSI, this paper provides a new optimization framework for energy-efficient transmission in AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks. We simultaneously minimize the total transmit power of the V2X network by optimizing the power allocation at BS and reflection coefficient at backscatter sensors while guaranteeing the individual quality of services. The problem of total power minimization is formulated as non-convex optimization and coupled on multiple variables, making it complex and challenging. Therefore, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and convert the nonlinear rate constraints into linear constraints. Then, we adopt the iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. For comparison, we also present a conventional NOMA cooperative V2X network without AmBC. Simulation results show the benefits of our proposed AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative V2X network in terms of total achievable energy efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of phase-noise and spatial correlation on double-RIS-assisted multiuser MISO networks
Abdullah, Zaid UL; Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Kisseleff, Steven UL et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2022), 11(7), 1473-1477

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See detailBackscatter-Aided NOMA V2X Communication under Channel Estimation Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 20)

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of ... [more ▼]

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of communications among wireless devices by using the existing ambient radio frequency signals. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently attracted significant attention due to its high spectral efficiency and massive connectivity. This paper proposes a new optimization framework to minimize total transmit power of BC-NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything networks (V2XneT) while ensuring the quality of services. More specifically, the base station (BS) transmits a superimposed signal to its associated roadside units (RSUs) in the first time slot. Then the RSUs transmit the superimposed signal to their serving vehicles in the second time slot exploiting decode and forward protocol. A backscatter device (BD) in the coverage area of RSU also receives the superimposed signal and reflect it towards vehicles by modulating own information. Thus, the objective is to simultaneously optimize the transmit power of BS and RSUs along with reflection coefficient of BDs under perfect and imperfect channel state information. The problem of energy efficiency is formulated as non-convex and coupled on multiple optimization variables which makes it very complex and hard to solve. Therefore, we first transform and decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and then employ iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BC-NOMA V2XneT provides high energy efficiency than the conventional NOMA V2XneT without BC. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen RIS Meets GEO Satellite Communications: A New Sustainable Optimization Framework in 6G
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the signal propagation by using passive reflecting elements. On the other side, the demand of high throughput geostationary (GEO) satellite communications (SatCom) is rapidly growing to deliver broadband services in inaccessible/insufficient covered areas of terrestrial networks. This paper proposes a GEO SatCom network, where a satellite transmits the signal to a ground mobile terminal using multicarrier communications. To enhance the effective gain, the signal delivery from satellite to the ground mobile terminal is also assisted by RIS which smartly shift the phase of the signal towards ground terminal. We consider that RIS is mounted on a high building and equipped with multiple re-configurable passive elements along with smart controller. We jointly optimize the power allocation and phase shift design to maximize the channel capacity of the system. The joint optimization problem is formulated as nonconvex due to coupled variables which is hard to solve through traditional convex optimization methods. Thus, we propose a new optimal algorithm which is based on Mesh Adaptive Direct Search to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results unveil the benefits of RIS-assisted SatCom in terms of system channel capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailArea-Power Analysis of FFT Based Digital Beamforming for GEO, MEO, and LEO Scenarios
Palisetty, Rakesh UL; Eappen, Geoffrey UL; Gonzalez Rios, Jorge Luis UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Satellite communication systems can provide seamless wireless coverage directly or through complementary ground terrestrial components and are projected to be incorporated into future wireless networks ... [more ▼]

Satellite communication systems can provide seamless wireless coverage directly or through complementary ground terrestrial components and are projected to be incorporated into future wireless networks, particularly 5G and beyond networks. Increased capacity and flexibility in telecom satellite payloads based on classic radio frequency technology have traditionally translated into increased power consumption and dissipation. Much of the analog hardware in a satellite communications payload can be replaced with highly integrated digital components that are often smaller, lighter, and less expensive, as well as software reprogrammable. Digital beamforming of thousands of beams simultaneously is not practical due to the limited power available onboard satellite processors. Reduced digital beamforming power consumption would enable the deployment of a full digital payload, resulting in comprehensive user applications. Beamforming can be implemented using matrix multiplication, hybrid methodology, or a discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Implementing DFT via fast Fourier transform (FFT) reduces the power consumption, process time, hardware requirements, and chip area. Therefore, in this paper, area-power efficient FFT architectures for digital beamforming are analyzed. The area in terms of look up tables (LUTs) is estimated and compared among conventional FFT, fully unrolled FFT, and a 4-bit quantized twiddle factor (TF) FFT. Further, for the typical satellite scenarios, area, and power estimation are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Optimization of Beam-Hopping Design and NOMA-Assisted Transmission for Flexible Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022)

Next-generation satellite systems require more flexibility in resource management such that available radio resources can be dynamically allocated to meet time-varying and non-uniform traffic demands ... [more ▼]

Next-generation satellite systems require more flexibility in resource management such that available radio resources can be dynamically allocated to meet time-varying and non-uniform traffic demands. Considering potential benefits of beam hopping (BH) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), we exploit the time-domain flexibility in multi-beam satellite systems by optimizing BH design, and enhance the power-domain flexibility via NOMA. In this paper, we investigate the synergy and mutual influence of beam hopping and NOMA. We jointly optimize power allocation, beam scheduling, and terminal-timeslot assignment to minimize the gap between requested traffic demand and offered capacity. In the solution development, we formally prove the NP-hardness of the optimization problem. Next, we develop a bounding scheme to tightly gauge the global optimum and propose a suboptimal algorithm to enable efficient resource assignment. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of combining NOMA and BH, and validate the superiority of the proposed BH-NOMA schemes over benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Bandwidth Allocation and Edge Caching Optimization for Nonlinear Content Delivery through Flexible Multibeam Satellites
Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Maturo, Nicola; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Proceeding of IEEE ICC 2022 (2022, May)

The next generation multibeam satellites open up a new way to design satellite communication channels with the full flexibility in bandwidth, transmit power and beam coverage management. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

The next generation multibeam satellites open up a new way to design satellite communication channels with the full flexibility in bandwidth, transmit power and beam coverage management. In this paper, we exploit the flexible multibeam satellite capabilities and the geographical distribution of users to improve the performance of satellite-assisted edge caching systems. Our aim is to jointly optimize the bandwidth allocation in multibeam and caching decisions at the edge nodes to address two important problems: i) cache feeding time minimization and ii) cache hits maximization. To tackle the non-convexity of the joint optimization problem, we transform the original problem into a difference-of-convex (DC) form, which is then solved by the proposed iterative algorithm whose convergence to at least a local optimum is theoretically guaranteed. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed design is evaluated under the realistic beams coverage of the satellite SES-14 and Movielens data set. Numerical results show that our proposed joint design can reduce the caching feeding time by 50% and increase the cache hit ratio (CHR) by 10% to 20% compared to existing solutions. Furthermore, we examine the impact of multispot beams and multicarrier wide-beam on the joint design and discuss potential research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailDemand and Interference Aware Adaptive Resource Management for High Throughput GEO Satellite Systems
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2022)

The scarce spectrum and power resources, the inter-beam interference, together with the high traffic demand, pose new major challenges for the next generation of Very High Throughput Satellite (VHTS ... [more ▼]

The scarce spectrum and power resources, the inter-beam interference, together with the high traffic demand, pose new major challenges for the next generation of Very High Throughput Satellite (VHTS) systems. Accordingly, future satellites are expected to employ advanced resource/interference management techniques to achieve high system spectrum efficiency and low power consumption while ensuring user demand satisfaction. This paper proposes a novel demand and interference aware adaptive resource management for geostationary (GEO) VHTS systems. For this, we formulate a multi-objective optimization problem to minimize the total transmit power consumption and system bandwidth usage while matching the offered capacity with the demand per beam. In this context, we consider resource management for a system with full-precoding, i.e. all beams are precoded; without precoding, i.e. no precoding is applied to any beam; and with partial precoding, i.e. only some beams are precoded. The nature of the problem is non-convex and we solve it by jointly using the Dinkelbach and Successive Convex Approximation (SCA) methods. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark schemes. Specifically, we show that the proposed method requires low resource consumption, low computational time, and simultaneously achieves a high demand satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximizing the Number of Served Users in a Smart City using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Zivuku, Progress UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Nguyen, van Dinh UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (2022, April 10)

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See detailDynamic Bandwidth Allocation and Precoding Design for Highly-Loaded Multiuser MISO in Beyond 5G Networks
Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022), 21(3), 1794-1805

Multiuser techniques play a central role in the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond 5G (B5G) wireless networks that exploit spatial diversity to serve multiple users simultaneously in the same frequency ... [more ▼]

Multiuser techniques play a central role in the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond 5G (B5G) wireless networks that exploit spatial diversity to serve multiple users simultaneously in the same frequency resource. It is well known that a multi-antenna base station (BS) can efficiently serve a number of users not exceeding the number of antennas at the BS via precoding design. However, when there are more users than the number of antennas at the BS, conventional precoding design methods perform poorly because inter-user interference cannot be efficiently eliminated. In this paper, we investigate the performance of a highly-loaded multiuser system in which a BS simultaneously serves a number of users that is larger than the number of antennas. We propose a dynamic bandwidth allocation and precoding design framework and apply it to two important problems in multiuser systems: i) User fairness maximization and ii) Transmit power minimization, both subject to predefined quality of service (QoS) requirements. The premise of the proposed framework is to dynamically assign orthogonal frequency channels to different user groups and carefully design the precoding vectors within every user group. Since the formulated problems are non-convex, we propose two iterative algorithms based on successive convex approximations (SCA), whose convergence is theoretically guaranteed. Furthermore, we propose a low-complexity user grouping policy based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) to further improve the system performance. Finally, we demonstrate via numerical results that the proposed framework significantly outperforms existing designs in the literature. [less ▲]

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