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See detailFedFog: Network-Aware Optimization of Federated Learning over Wireless Fog-Cloud System
Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Ottersten, Björn UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (in press)

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of ... [more ▼]

Federated learning (FL) is capable of performing large distributed machine learning tasks across multiple edge users by periodically aggregating trained local parameters. To address key challenges of enabling FL over a wireless fogcloud system (e.g., non-i.i.d. data, users’ heterogeneity), we first propose an efficient FL algorithm based on Federated Averaging (called FedFog) to perform the local aggregation of gradient parameters at fog servers and global training update at the cloud. Next, we employ FedFog in wireless fog-cloud systems by investigating a novel network-aware FL optimization problem that strikes the balance between the global loss and completion time. An iterative algorithm is then developed to obtain a precise measurement of the system performance, which helps design an efficient stopping criteria to output an appropriate number of global rounds. To mitigate the straggler effect, we propose a flexible user aggregation strategy that trains fast users first to obtain a certain level of accuracy before allowing slow users to join the global training updates. Extensive numerical results using several real-world FL tasks are provided to verify the theoretical convergence of FedFog. We also show that the proposed co-design of FL and communication is essential to substantially improve resource utilization while achieving comparable accuracy of the learning model. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy Efficiency Optimization for Backscatter Enhanced NOMA Cooperative V2X Communications under Imperfect CSI
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2022)

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and ... [more ▼]

Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other devices. Recently, ambient backscatter communications (AmBC) have gained significant interest in the research community for providing battery-free communications. AmBC can modulate useful data and reflect it towards near devices using the energy and frequency of existing RF signals. However, obtaining channel state information (CSI) for AmBC systems would be very challenging due to no pilot sequences and limited power. As one of the latest members of multiple access technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising solution for connecting large-scale devices over the same spectral resources in B5G wireless networks. Under imperfect CSI, this paper provides a new optimization framework for energy-efficient transmission in AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks. We simultaneously minimize the total transmit power of the V2X network by optimizing the power allocation at BS and reflection coefficient at backscatter sensors while guaranteeing the individual quality of services. The problem of total power minimization is formulated as non-convex optimization and coupled on multiple variables, making it complex and challenging. Therefore, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and convert the nonlinear rate constraints into linear constraints. Then, we adopt the iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. For comparison, we also present a conventional NOMA cooperative V2X network without AmBC. Simulation results show the benefits of our proposed AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative V2X network in terms of total achievable energy efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailBackscatter-Aided NOMA V2X Communication under Channel Estimation Errors
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jamshed, Muhammad Ali; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 20)

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of ... [more ▼]

Backscatter communications (BC) has emerged as a promising technology for providing low-powered transmissions in nextG (i.e., beyond 5G) wireless networks. The fundamental idea of BC is the possibility of communications among wireless devices by using the existing ambient radio frequency signals. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently attracted significant attention due to its high spectral efficiency and massive connectivity. This paper proposes a new optimization framework to minimize total transmit power of BC-NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything networks (V2XneT) while ensuring the quality of services. More specifically, the base station (BS) transmits a superimposed signal to its associated roadside units (RSUs) in the first time slot. Then the RSUs transmit the superimposed signal to their serving vehicles in the second time slot exploiting decode and forward protocol. A backscatter device (BD) in the coverage area of RSU also receives the superimposed signal and reflect it towards vehicles by modulating own information. Thus, the objective is to simultaneously optimize the transmit power of BS and RSUs along with reflection coefficient of BDs under perfect and imperfect channel state information. The problem of energy efficiency is formulated as non-convex and coupled on multiple optimization variables which makes it very complex and hard to solve. Therefore, we first transform and decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and then employ iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BC-NOMA V2XneT provides high energy efficiency than the conventional NOMA V2XneT without BC. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen RIS Meets GEO Satellite Communications: A New Sustainable Optimization Framework in 6G
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Mahmood, Asad UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the ... [more ▼]

Reflecting intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a low-cost and energy-efficient solution to achieve high spectral efficiency in sixth-generation (6G) networks. The basic idea of RIS is to smartly reconfigure the signal propagation by using passive reflecting elements. On the other side, the demand of high throughput geostationary (GEO) satellite communications (SatCom) is rapidly growing to deliver broadband services in inaccessible/insufficient covered areas of terrestrial networks. This paper proposes a GEO SatCom network, where a satellite transmits the signal to a ground mobile terminal using multicarrier communications. To enhance the effective gain, the signal delivery from satellite to the ground mobile terminal is also assisted by RIS which smartly shift the phase of the signal towards ground terminal. We consider that RIS is mounted on a high building and equipped with multiple re-configurable passive elements along with smart controller. We jointly optimize the power allocation and phase shift design to maximize the channel capacity of the system. The joint optimization problem is formulated as nonconvex due to coupled variables which is hard to solve through traditional convex optimization methods. Thus, we propose a new optimal algorithm which is based on Mesh Adaptive Direct Search to obtain an efficient solution. Simulation results unveil the benefits of RIS-assisted SatCom in terms of system channel capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailArea-Power Analysis of FFT Based Digital Beamforming for GEO, MEO, and LEO Scenarios
Palisetty, Rakesh UL; Eappen, Geoffrey UL; Gonzalez Rios, Jorge Luis UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, June 19)

Satellite communication systems can provide seamless wireless coverage directly or through complementary ground terrestrial components and are projected to be incorporated into future wireless networks ... [more ▼]

Satellite communication systems can provide seamless wireless coverage directly or through complementary ground terrestrial components and are projected to be incorporated into future wireless networks, particularly 5G and beyond networks. Increased capacity and flexibility in telecom satellite payloads based on classic radio frequency technology have traditionally translated into increased power consumption and dissipation. Much of the analog hardware in a satellite communications payload can be replaced with highly integrated digital components that are often smaller, lighter, and less expensive, as well as software reprogrammable. Digital beamforming of thousands of beams simultaneously is not practical due to the limited power available onboard satellite processors. Reduced digital beamforming power consumption would enable the deployment of a full digital payload, resulting in comprehensive user applications. Beamforming can be implemented using matrix multiplication, hybrid methodology, or a discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Implementing DFT via fast Fourier transform (FFT) reduces the power consumption, process time, hardware requirements, and chip area. Therefore, in this paper, area-power efficient FFT architectures for digital beamforming are analyzed. The area in terms of look up tables (LUTs) is estimated and compared among conventional FFT, fully unrolled FFT, and a 4-bit quantized twiddle factor (TF) FFT. Further, for the typical satellite scenarios, area, and power estimation are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Optimization of Beam-Hopping Design and NOMA-Assisted Transmission for Flexible Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (2022)

Next-generation satellite systems require more flexibility in resource management such that available radio resources can be dynamically allocated to meet time-varying and non-uniform traffic demands ... [more ▼]

Next-generation satellite systems require more flexibility in resource management such that available radio resources can be dynamically allocated to meet time-varying and non-uniform traffic demands. Considering potential benefits of beam hopping (BH) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), we exploit the time-domain flexibility in multi-beam satellite systems by optimizing BH design, and enhance the power-domain flexibility via NOMA. In this paper, we investigate the synergy and mutual influence of beam hopping and NOMA. We jointly optimize power allocation, beam scheduling, and terminal-timeslot assignment to minimize the gap between requested traffic demand and offered capacity. In the solution development, we formally prove the NP-hardness of the optimization problem. Next, we develop a bounding scheme to tightly gauge the global optimum and propose a suboptimal algorithm to enable efficient resource assignment. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of combining NOMA and BH, and validate the superiority of the proposed BH-NOMA schemes over benchmarks. [less ▲]

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See detailDemand and Interference Aware Adaptive Resource Management for High Throughput GEO Satellite Systems
Abdu, Tedros Salih UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2022)

The scarce spectrum and power resources, the inter-beam interference, together with the high traffic demand, pose new major challenges for the next generation of Very High Throughput Satellite (VHTS ... [more ▼]

The scarce spectrum and power resources, the inter-beam interference, together with the high traffic demand, pose new major challenges for the next generation of Very High Throughput Satellite (VHTS) systems. Accordingly, future satellites are expected to employ advanced resource/interference management techniques to achieve high system spectrum efficiency and low power consumption while ensuring user demand satisfaction. This paper proposes a novel demand and interference aware adaptive resource management for geostationary (GEO) VHTS systems. For this, we formulate a multi-objective optimization problem to minimize the total transmit power consumption and system bandwidth usage while matching the offered capacity with the demand per beam. In this context, we consider resource management for a system with full-precoding, i.e. all beams are precoded; without precoding, i.e. no precoding is applied to any beam; and with partial precoding, i.e. only some beams are precoded. The nature of the problem is non-convex and we solve it by jointly using the Dinkelbach and Successive Convex Approximation (SCA) methods. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark schemes. Specifically, we show that the proposed method requires low resource consumption, low computational time, and simultaneously achieves a high demand satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximizing the Number of Served Users in a Smart City using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Zivuku, Progress UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Nguyen, van Dinh UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) (2022, April 10)

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See detailEnergy Harvesting from Jamming Attacks in Multi-User Massive MIMO Networks
Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Abdullah, Osamah; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2022)

5G communication systems enable new functions and major performance improvements but at the cost of tougher energy requirements on mobile devices. One of the effective ways to address this issue along ... [more ▼]

5G communication systems enable new functions and major performance improvements but at the cost of tougher energy requirements on mobile devices. One of the effective ways to address this issue along with alleviating the environmental effects associated with the inevitable large increase in energy usage is the energy-neutral systems, which operate with the energy harvested from radio-frequency (RF) transmissions. In this direction, this paper investigates the notion of harvesting the ambient RF signals from an unusual source. Specifically, the performance of an RF energy harvesting scheme for multi-user massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is investigated in the presence of multiple active jammers. The key idea is to exploit the jamming transmissions as an energy source to be harvested at the legitimate users. To this end, the achievable uplink sum rate expressions are derived in closed-form for two different antenna configurations. Two optimal time-switching schemes are also proposed based on maximum sum rate and user-fairness criteria. Besides, the essential trade-off between the harvested energy and achievable sum rate are quantified in closed-form. Our analysis reveals that the massive MIMO systems can exploit the surrounding RF signals of the jamming attacks for boosting the amount of harvested energy at the served users. Finally, numerical results illustrate the effectiveness of the derived closed-form expressions through simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-DNN Assisted Optimization for Efficient Resource Scheduling in NOMA-Enabled Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, December 08)

In this paper, we apply non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in satellite systems to assist data transmission for services with latency constraints. We investigate a problem to minimize the transmission ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we apply non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in satellite systems to assist data transmission for services with latency constraints. We investigate a problem to minimize the transmission time by jointly optimizing power allocation and terminal-timeslot assignment for accomplishing a transmission task in NOMA-enabled satellite systems. The problem appears non-linear/non-convex with integer variables and can be equivalently reformulated in the format of mixed-integer convex programming (MICP). Conventional iterative methods may apply but at the expenses of high computational complexity in approaching the optimum or near-optimum. We propose a combined learning and optimization scheme to tackle the problem, where the primal MICP is decomposed into two learning-suited classification tasks and a power allocation problem. In the proposed scheme, the first learning task is to predict the integer variables while the second task is to guarantee the feasibility of the solutions. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms benchmarks in terms of average computational time, transmission time performance, and feasibility guarantee. [less ▲]

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See detailA family of deep learning architectures for channel estimation and hybrid beamforming in multi-carrier mm-wave massive MIMO.
Elbir, Ahmet M.; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking (2021)

Hybrid analog and digital beamforming transceivers are instrumental in addressing the challenge of expensive hardware and high training overheads in the next generation millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) massive ... [more ▼]

Hybrid analog and digital beamforming transceivers are instrumental in addressing the challenge of expensive hardware and high training overheads in the next generation millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems. However, lack of fully digital beamforming in hybrid architectures and short coherence times at mm-Wave impose additional constraints on the channel estimation. Prior works on addressing these challenges have focused largely on narrowband channels wherein optimization-based or greedy algorithms were employed to derive hybrid beamformers. In this paper, we introduce a deep learning (DL) approach for channel estimation and hybrid beamforming for frequency-selective, wideband mm-Wave systems. In particular, we consider a massive MIMO Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system and propose three different DL frameworks comprising convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which accept the raw data of received signal as input and yield channel estimates and the hybrid beamformers at the output. We also introduce both offline and online prediction schemes. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, compared to the current state-of-the-art optimization and DL methods, our approach provides higher spectral efficiency, lesser computational cost and fewer number of pilot signals, and higher tolerance against the deviations in the received pilot data, corrupted channel matrix, and propagation environment. [less ▲]

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See detailAn overview of generic tools for information-theoretic secrecy performance analysis over wiretap fading channels
Kong, Long UL; Ai, Yun; Lei, Lei UL et al

in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking volume (2021), (1), 194

Physical layer security (PLS) has been proposed to afford an extra layer of security on top of the conventional cryptographic techniques. Unlike the conventional complexity-based cryptographic techniques ... [more ▼]

Physical layer security (PLS) has been proposed to afford an extra layer of security on top of the conventional cryptographic techniques. Unlike the conventional complexity-based cryptographic techniques at the upper layers, physical layer security exploits the characteristics of wireless channels, e.g., fading, noise, interference, etc., to enhance wireless security. It is proved that secure transmission can benefit from fading channels. Accordingly, numerous researchers have explored what fading can offer for physical layer security, especially the investigation of physical layer security over wiretap fading channels. Therefore, this paper aims at reviewing the existing and ongoing research works on this topic. More specifically, we present a classification of research works in terms of the four categories of fading models: (i) small-scale, (ii) large-scale, (iii) composite, and (iv) cascaded. To elaborate these fading models with a generic and flexible tool, three promising candidates, including the mixture gamma (MG), mixture of Gaussian (MoG), and Fox’s H-function distributions, are comprehensively examined and compared. Their advantages and limitations are further demonstrated via security performance metrics, which are designed as vivid indicators to measure how perfect secrecy is ensured. Two clusters of secrecy metrics, namely (i) secrecy outage probability (SOP), and the lower bound of SOP; and (ii) the probability of nonzero secrecy capacity (PNZ), the intercept probability, average secrecy capacity (ASC), and ergodic secrecy capacity, are displayed and, respectively, deployed in passive and active eavesdropping scenarios. Apart from those, revisiting the secrecy enhancement techniques based on Wyner’s wiretap model, the on-off transmission scheme, jamming approach, antenna selection, and security region are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Optimality of the Stationary Solution of Secrecy Rate Maximization for MIMO Wiretap Channel
Mukherjee, Anshu; Kumar, Vaibhav; Jorswieck, Eduard et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021)

To achieve perfect secrecy in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wiretap channel (WTC), we need to find its secrecy capacity and optimal signaling, which involves solving a difference of ... [more ▼]

To achieve perfect secrecy in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wiretap channel (WTC), we need to find its secrecy capacity and optimal signaling, which involves solving a difference of convex functions program known to be non-convex for the non-degraded case. To deal with this, a class of existing solutions have been developed but only local optimality is guaranteed by standard convergence analysis. Interestingly, our extensive numerical experiments have shown that these local optimization methods indeed achieve global optimality. In this paper, we provide an analytical proof for this observation. To achieve this, we show that the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions of the secrecy rate maximization problem admit a unique solution for both degraded and non-degraded cases. Motivated by this, we also propose a low-complexity algorithm to find a stationary point. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneously-Distributed Joint Radar Communications: Bayesian Resource Allocation
Wu, Linlong; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in 2021 IEEE 22nd International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC) (2021, November 15)

Due to spectrum scarcity, the coexistence of radar and wireless communication has gained substantial research interest recently. Among many scenarios, the heterogeneously-distributed joint radar ... [more ▼]

Due to spectrum scarcity, the coexistence of radar and wireless communication has gained substantial research interest recently. Among many scenarios, the heterogeneously-distributed joint radar-communication system is promising due to its flexibility and compatibility of existing architectures. In this paper, we focus on a heterogeneous radar and communication network (HRCN), which consists of various generic radars for multiple target tracking (MTT) and wireless communications for multiple users. We aim to improve the MTT performance and maintain good throughput levels for communication users by a well-designed resource allocation. The problem is formulated as a Bayesian Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) based minimization subjecting to resource budgets and throughput constraints. The formulated nonconvex problem is solved based on an alternating descent-ascent approach. Numerical results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed allocation scheme for this heterogeneous network. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 12th European CubeSatSymposium
Thoemel, Jan UL; Querol, Jorge UL; Bokal, Zhanna UL et al

in Proceedings of the 12th European CubeSatSymposium (2021, November 15)

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See detailDownlink Transmit Design in Massive MIMO LEO Satellite Communications
Li, Ke-Xin; You, Li; Want, Jiaheng et al

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2021)

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication systems have attracted extensive attention due to their smaller pathloss, shorter round-trip delay and lower launch cost compared with geostationary ... [more ▼]

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication systems have attracted extensive attention due to their smaller pathloss, shorter round-trip delay and lower launch cost compared with geostationary counterparts. In this paper, the downlink transmit design for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) LEO satellite communications is investigated. First, we establish the massive MIMO LEO satellite channel model where the satellite and user terminals (UTs) are both equipped with the uniform planar arrays. Then, the rank of transmit covariance matrix of each UT is shown to be no larger than one to maximize ergodic sum rate, which reveals the optimality of single-stream precoding for each UT. The minorization-maximization algorithm is used to compute the precoding vectors. To reduce the computation complexity, an upper bound of ergodic sum rate is resorted to produce a simplified transmit design, where the rank of optimal transmit covariance matrix of each UT is also shown to not exceed one. To tackle the simplified precoder design, we derive the structure of precoding vectors, and formulate a Lagrange multiplier optimization (LMO) problem building on the structure. Then, a low-complexity algorithm is devised to solve the LMO, which takes much less computation effort. Simulation results verify the performance of proposed approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailThroughput Enhancement in FD- and SWIPT-enabled IoT Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channel
Nguyen, Nhat Tan; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021)

Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and full-duplex (FD) communications have emerged as prominent technologies in overcoming the limited energy resources in Internet-of-Things ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and full-duplex (FD) communications have emerged as prominent technologies in overcoming the limited energy resources in Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks and improving their spectral efficiency (SE). The article investigates the outage and throughput performance for a decode-and-forward (DF) relay SWIPT system, which consists of one source, multiple relays, and one destination. The relay nodes in this system can harvest energy from the source’s signal and operate in FD mode. A suboptimal, low-complexity, yet efficient relay selection scheme is also proposed. Specifically, a single relay is selected to convey information from a source to a destination so that it achieves the best channel from the source to the relays. An analysis of outage probability (OP) and throughput performed on two relaying strategies, termed static power splitting-based relaying (SPSR) and optimal dynamic power splitting-based relaying (ODPSR), is presented. Notably, we considered independent and non-identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels, which pose new challenges in obtaining analytical expressions. In this context, we derived exact closed-form expressions of the OP and throughput of both SPSR and ODPSR schemes. We also obtained the optimal power splitting ratio of ODPSR for maximizing the achievable capacity at the destination. Finally, we present extensive numerical and simulation results to confirm our analytical findings. Both simulation and analytical results show the superiority of ODPSR over SPSR. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Comparison of RF Waveform Designs for Wireless Power Transmission
Gautam, Sumit; Kumar, Sumit UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Experimental Comparison of RF Waveform Designs for Wireless Power Transmission (2021, October)

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest ... [more ▼]

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest in the field of wireless power transfer (WPT) using the RF range of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the aspect of real-time energy harvesting (EH) via different types of waveform designs such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), square, triangular, sinusoidal, and sawtooth. We make use of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) and a Powercast P21XXCSR-EVB EH module to carry out the experiments on the practical device to assess performance. Specifically, we are interested in obtaining insights based on the comparison between the aforementioned waveform designs from the perspectives of the separation distance between the USRP and P21XXCSR-EVB EH module, and power emission via USRP. In this vein, some additional experiments are subsequently performed after a suitable candidate waveform has been reported. The demonstration of the EH is provided in terms of the abovementioned investigation metrics while seeking the best waveform to support WPT. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental evaluation of RF waveform designs for Wireless Power Transfer using Software Defined Radio
Gautam, Sumit UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest ... [more ▼]

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest in the field of wireless power transfer (WPT) using the RF range of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the aspect of real-time energy harvesting (EH) via different types of waveform designs such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), square, triangular, sinusoidal, and sawtooth. We make use of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) and a Powercast P21XXCSR-EVB EH module to carry out the experiments on a practical device to assess performance. Specifically, we are interested in obtaining some insights based on the comparison between the aforementioned waveform designs from the perspectives of the separation distance between the USRP and P21XXCSR-EVB EH module, and power emission via USRP. In this vein, we perform additional subsequent experiments after reporting the practical effectiveness of the OFDM waveform, which also follows our intuitive analysis. Correspondingly, we study the effect on WPT with variable USRP transmit power, the separation distance between the USRP and EH antennas, number of OFDM sub-carriers, and multipath setting. As an application of OFDM, the effectiveness of fifth generation-new radio (5G-NR) and long-term evolution (LTE) waveforms are also tested for the WPT mechanism. The demonstration of the EH is provided in terms of the above-mentioned investigation metrics while seeking the best waveform to support WPT. [less ▲]

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