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See detailLearning in transition: Erasmus+ as an opportunity for internationalization
Samuk, Sahizer UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL et al

in Cairns, David (Ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of Youth Mobility and Educational Migration (2021)

Erasmus+ has diversified its benefits for young people to learn and thrive via mobility in the last 30 years. How does Erasmus+ serve young people? We conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with young ... [more ▼]

Erasmus+ has diversified its benefits for young people to learn and thrive via mobility in the last 30 years. How does Erasmus+ serve young people? We conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with young people (aged between 18-29) in Luxembourg, Norway and Romania. Firstly, these young people feel that their identity changes as they internationalise and they travel more after the Erasmus+ experience. Hence, Erasmus+ is an eye opener. Secondly, employment, volunteering or training activities under Erasmus+ become a door-opener increasing young people’s chances of finding jobs. Thirdly, Erasmus+ does not end when the mobility ends: a new life style is adopted and nostalgia with the Erasmus+ leads to feeling at “home” in international environments. All these three aspects can be defined as Erasmus-isation encapsulated within a life-long perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationalisation (at Home) of the Non-Mobile Youth in Europe outside formal Education
Nienaber, Birte UL; Díaz-Catalán, Celia; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Mobility is often mentioned as one main aspect of “internationalisation”. However, little is known about the internationalisation at home of non-mobile young people outside formal higher education. In the ... [more ▼]

Mobility is often mentioned as one main aspect of “internationalisation”. However, little is known about the internationalisation at home of non-mobile young people outside formal higher education. In the post- COVID19- era, mobility might remain limited and immobility becomes the rule. Therefore, internationalisation at home plays an important role in times of restricted mobility. To what extent are non-mobile people internationalised? Which factors favour this internationalisation amongst the non-mobiles? We develop a comprehensive index which empirically tests whether and to what extent non-mobiles, become internationalised at home. The answers of 3431 non-mobiles respondents be-tween 18 and 29 years old from six EU countries are analysed. First, we review the concept “internationalisation at home”. We present an empirical measure of internationalisation at home consisting of three dimensions 1) foreign language skills i.e. Eng-lish; 2) multicultural way of living; 3) information about foreign countries. Linear regression models are used to empirically explain which factors influence the internationalisation at home of the non-mobiles on the individual level, using their socio-demographic and social embed-dedness, as well as controlling for the country level. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dimensions territoriales de la formation par alternance en transfrontalier
Belkacem, Rachid; Dörrenbächer, Peter; Funk, Ines et al

in Gremmo, Marie-José (Ed.) Politique et territoires en éducation et formation (2021)

This paper focuses on the construction of training systems in a cross-border context. It focuses on the Greater Saar-Lor-Lux Region at the crossroads of four countries (France, Luxembourg, Belgium and ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the construction of training systems in a cross-border context. It focuses on the Greater Saar-Lor-Lux Region at the crossroads of four countries (France, Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany) due to the strong growth of cross-border work. It shows that the construction of transferable qualifications from one territory to another is a fundamental issue for these territories, which is part of a real multi-actor and multi-level territorial construction process. This analysis shows that the development of these training programmes such as apprenticeship was made possible by a strong regional and European political will. The latter has provided a framework for numerous localized initiatives stimulated by local cross-border cooperation. The territories have thus been capable of learning and invention. [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate, timely, interoperable? Data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg
Petry, Ralph UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study of the European Migration Network is to provide objective and reliable information about the data management in the asylum procedure in Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish Asylum Law foresees a centralised and streamlined asylum system with one single national authority for registering, lodging and examining applications for international protection, namely the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, implemented by the Directorate of Immigration. The Asylum Law clearly distinguishes the phases of making, registering and lodging an application for international protection. In practice, however, the three phases generally occur on the same day or within a few working days if the claim is not directly made to the Directorate of Immigration. Furthermore, the asylum system does not differentiate between the different types of entry routes to Luxembourgish territory. As a consequence, applicants for international protection have a swift access to the asylum procedure once they express their wish to apply for international protection in Luxembourg. In addition to the tracks foreseen in the Recast Asylum Procedures Directive (2013/32/EU), Luxembourg operates a fourth track in the form of the ultra-accelerated procedure, which was introduced in 2017 as a practical acceleration of the accelerated procedure for applicants stemming from safe countries of origin from the Western Balkan countries and Georgia. The study provides an detailed overview of what data is collected from applicants of international protection, at what stage of the procedure this data is collected and by whom, as well as where and how this data is stored. Lastly, the study has shown that, despite the increase of applications since 2015 and a consistent high number of applications since then, the processing times have decreased significantly, in particular since 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailResponses to long-term irregularly staying migrants: practices and challenges in EU Member States and Norway
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

This study analyses the legal and factual situation in which long-term irregular staying migrants are in Luxembourg.

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See detailMIGRATION INTERNATIONALE AU LUXEMBOURG Système d’observation permanente des migrations (OCDE)
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif en termes d’immigration ; entre 2018 et 2019, la population du Grand-Duché a augmenté de 2 %. La part de la population luxembourgeoise représente 59,1 % de cette ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg reste un pays attractif en termes d’immigration ; entre 2018 et 2019, la population du Grand-Duché a augmenté de 2 %. La part de la population luxembourgeoise représente 59,1 % de cette croissance contre 40,9 % de nationalités étrangères. L’immigration nette reste le principal facteur expliquant l’augmentation de la population. Le solde migratoire est largement positif pour les ressortissants de nationalité étrangère (12 142) alors qu’il est négatif pour les ressortissants luxembourgeois (-1 067). Le deuxième élément explicatif réside dans le solde naturel global positif (1 947). Si ce solde est largement positif chez les ressortissants étrangers, il est négatif chez les Luxembourgeois. Le regroupement familial reste le principal motif d’immigration pour les ressortissants de pays tiers. Ce type de migration devance l’immigration pour motifs économiques et la migration basée sur la recherche d’une protection internationale. Le nombre de personnes sollicitant une protection internationale est resté à un niveau élevé en 2019 avec 2 047 demandes, même si ce nombre constitue une diminution de 7,1 % par rapport à l’année précédente. En 2019, plusieurs évolutions majeures dans le domaine de l’immigration légale sont à noter. Parmi ces évolutions figurent notamment : l’introduction d’un visa de longue durée visant à simplifier l’entrée et le séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers sans devoir solliciter l’obtention d’un titre de séjour, ainsi que l’adoption de quatre lois tendant à clarifier le statut des ressortissants britanniques résidant au Luxembourg. La loi sur l’immigration a connu d’autres modifications importantes dans le domaine de la lutte contre la migration irrégulière et la rétention et le retour des ressortissants de pays tiers sans droit de séjour. La coopération internationale s’est poursuivie en matière de réadmission, comme le montre l’entrée en vigueur du protocole entre les États du Benelux et le gouvernement de la République de Serbie sur la mise en œuvre de l’accord conclu entre l’UE et la République de Serbie concernant la réadmission des personnes en situation de séjour irrégulier. -Ainsi, l’adoption des projets de loi portant approbation des protocoles en matière de réadmission avec l’Arménie et l’Ukraine. Un changement institutionnel significatif a eu lieu en matière de protection internationale : la loi du 4 novembre 2019 portant création de l’Office national de l’accueil (ONA) a opéré le transfert des compétences relatives à l’accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale du Ministère de la Famille, de l’Intégration et à la Grande Région vers le ministère ayant l’Immigration dans ses attributions. Avec l'entrée en vigueur de la loi au 1er janvier 2020, l'ONA s'est substitué à l'Office luxembourgeois de l'accueil et de l'intégration (OLAI) et a été rattaché au Secrétariat général du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes. L’intégration demeure une compétence du ministère de la Famille, de l'Intégration et à la Grande Région. Le 1er janvier 2019, la loi sur le revenu d’inclusion sociale (REVIS) est entrée en vigueur. Une des nouvelles dispositions est que tous les bénéficiaires d’une protection internationale âgés de 25 ans ou plus, de même que les membres de leur famille, peuvent bénéficier du REVIS, sans devoir remplir la condition des 5 ans de résidence au Luxembourg au cours des 20 dernières années. L’hébergement des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) reste un défi de taille et les taux d’occupation dans les structures d’hébergement de l’ONA continuent à se situer à des niveaux très élevés. Ceci est notamment dû au fait que la crise du logement affecte particulièrement les bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) qui peinent à trouver un logement privé et à se loger en-dehors des structures d’accueil réservées en principe aux DPI. Dans ce contexte l’ONA a poursuivi ses efforts à inciter les communes à promouvoir la mise en place de structures d’hébergement pour DPI ou de possibilités d’hébergement pour BPI. Sur le plan de la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains les structures d’accueil et de consultation ont été élargies en 2019, notamment pour les hommes victimes de traite. Au niveau international, une déclaration d’intention concernant les nouvelles étapes dans leur coopération transfrontalière pour combattre la traite des êtres humains a été signé le 10 décembre 2019 par les pays du Benelux. Sur le plan des politiques d’intégration, les autorités ont continué à mettre en œuvre le Plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration à travers des appels à projets. Les actions visant à promouvoir l’intégration au niveau local ont également été renforcées, comme en témoignent la promotion du développement de plans communaux d’intégration et le soutien financier apporté aux communes par les pouvoirs publics. Le débat parlementaire sur le racisme a conduit à l’adoption d’une motion invitant le gouvernement à réaliser une étude sur le racisme et les discriminations au Luxembourg et d’une résolution dans laquelle la Chambre des Députés s'engage à renforcer les moyens du Centre d’Egalite de Traitement (CET). L’année 2020 a été marquée par la crise sanitaire liée à la Covid-19. La crise sanitaire et les mesures mises en place par les gouvernements, ont fortement impacté la mobilité et les migrations. Contrairement à la France, la Belgique et, surtout, l'Allemagne, le Luxembourg n'a jamais fermé ses frontières. Dans ce contexte le Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes a été contraint de négocier des accords avec ses homologues des pays voisins afin d’assurer la continuité du travail des frontaliers, notamment pour ceux travaillant dans le secteur de la santé. [less ▲]

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See detailTerritorial patterns and relations in Austria
Szendrei, Greta UL; Evrard, Estelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailMixed Methods to Empower Migrant Youth in Vulnerable Conditions: a place-based, migrant-centered international project
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Bissinger, Jutta UL; Albert, Isabelle UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, July 02)

In this methodological paper, we will present a newly established international and interdisciplinary research project focusing on empowering young migrants in vulnerable conditions and supporting ... [more ▼]

In this methodological paper, we will present a newly established international and interdisciplinary research project focusing on empowering young migrants in vulnerable conditions and supporting integration strategies within the EU in a unique and comprehensive mixed methods research design combining secondary analysis with qualitative empirical data. The triangulation of results from different sources and methods will help to provide a deeper insight into the integration processes from the perspectives of migrants, host nationals and experts. In the framework of MIMY, financed by H2020 and comprising 12 consortium members from 11 disciplines and 9 European countries, we will focus on various challenges of integration strategies of young migrants in vulnerable conditions, considering different sectors from the perspective of different actors, at macro-, meso- and micro-levels. This will help to explain the successes and failures of integration over migrants’ life courses as well as the long-term consequences for migrant communities and the hosting society. The research design of MIMY follows several steps: 1) desk research - literature review, content analysis, mapping exercises, 2) quantitative secondary data analysis, policy and discourse analysis, 3) qualitative empirical studies, and 4) synthesizing and synergizing all findings and drawing policy recommendations. The present paper will outline how this project integrates qualitative and quantitative methods by using an innovative, multi-method approach (e.g. policy analyses, delphi study, focus groups, in-depth qualitative interviews, participatory action research) in order to explore vulnerability and resilience of young migrants in cross-national perspectives combining policy analysis with demographic, sociological, psychological, discursive, and ethnographic analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCoronavirus pandemic in the EU – Fundamental Rights Implications in Luxembourg -July2020
Vukovich, Lilla UL; Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The state of emergency which was declared for three months in Luxembourg came to its end on 24 June 2020. After three weeks of intense legislative work, on 22 June 2020 the parliament adopted two “COVID ... [more ▼]

The state of emergency which was declared for three months in Luxembourg came to its end on 24 June 2020. After three weeks of intense legislative work, on 22 June 2020 the parliament adopted two “COVID-19 laws” to provide a continuous legislative framework addressing the COVID-19 situation after the end of the state of emergency. The first piece of legislation contains measures with respect to individuals. They revolve around the limitation of mass gatherings, the application of protective measures such as wearing face masks or social distancing, and the identification, follow-up and removal of infected and potentially infected people. The second piece of legislation targets measures relating to economic, sporting or cultural activities and welcoming the public. It reinforces the current health restrictions and rules, for example in restaurants, bars, and cafes. [less ▲]

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See detailAgency and Structure Revisited with Youth Responses to Gendered (Spatial) Mobilities in the EU
Samuk, Sahizer UL; Schlimbach, Tabea; Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL et al

in Border Crossings (2020), 10

Young people involved in geographical mobility face diverse gendered mobility settings and gender inequalities. How do the youth involved in diverse mobility types deal with adverse circumstances caused ... [more ▼]

Young people involved in geographical mobility face diverse gendered mobility settings and gender inequalities. How do the youth involved in diverse mobility types deal with adverse circumstances caused by gender beliefs and gender prejudices? To answer this question, problem-centred interviews with young people (18-29) are analysed using Grounded Theory. These young people are European citizens and they are involved in five mobility types: higher education, employment, voluntary work, vocational education & training, and entrepreneurship. We apply Emirbayer and Mische’s (1998) categories (iterational, projective and practical-evaluative) to the analysis of gendered mobility narratives as unequal gender perceptions reveal themselves in the context of different types of youth mobility. The analysis allows to see the ways young people reflect on their actions: refusal of gender beliefs, acceptance or rejection of gendered prejudices, individual vs. collective solutions, demand for equality in numbers, comparison of gendered workplaces and assumption of leadership in initiating mobility. At the same time, we observe how geographical mobilities can increase the critical sensibility of youth towards gender inequalities, contributing to new conceptualisation of agentic responses to structural constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Temporary Reintroduction of Border Controls Inside theSchengen Area: Towards a Spatial Perspective
Evrard, Estelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

in Journal of Borderlands Studies (2020), 35(3), 369-383

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris (November 2015) and Brussels(March 2016), several EU Member States have decided to re-establish border controls or to build walls inside the Schengen Area ... [more ▼]

Following the terrorist attacks in Paris (November 2015) and Brussels(March 2016), several EU Member States have decided to re-establish border controls or to build walls inside the Schengen Area. Although these decisions are temporary and legally framed by the Schengen code, their extent disrupts the free movement within the Schengen Area, in particular in border areas. While lawyers and economists have analyzed the impacts of this situation, the spatial perspective has remained rather neglected.This exploratory contribution aims to address this gap in the literature by outlining the spatial significance of reintroduced controls for border areas inside the Schengen Area. This contribution firstly undertakes a literature review of the different conceptual tools at hand. These are then compared with a set of exploratory empirical materials. The article focuses more precisely on the Greater Region where France and Germany have reintroduced border controls, thus disrupting in particular daily cross-border flows with Luxembourg and Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that the border acts as a filter, disrupting cross-border flows and cooperation. Also, it sheds some light on the important role played by the ideational perception of the border for practitioners and decision-makers. This contribution concludes by suggesting several paths for a future research agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and Protecting Seasonal Workers from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is a country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. In Luxembourg, 296.500 residents (47,4%) of a total population of 626.100 are foreigners. 247.900 are EU citizens representing 39.6% of the total population of the country and 83,6% of the foreign population of the country. The 48.600 third-country nationals represent only 7,8% of the total population and 16.4% of the foreign population. Due to its size and geographic location, Luxembourg has an access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial center was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centers and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which, up until now, the country has found within the Greater Region. With regards to the labour market: the number of salaried workers on 31 December 2019 shows that Luxembourgish residents represented only 26,5%, EU citizens (other than Luxembourgish) 23,4% and third-country national residents only 4,2%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 46% of the workforce. The Luxembourgish labour market is not a national labour market but rather a labour market of the Greater Region with a trend to become an international labour market. This situation can be explained in the context of the free movement of services and the posted workers coming from other Member States to Luxembourg. The need of workforce must be placed in this particular context, taking into account the “internal reserves”, the free movement of persons from which EU citizens, who reside in the country, benefit and the large majority of cross-border workers. To this framework one must add a range of measures that were introduced by the Luxembourgish authorities in order to regulate the labour market. Some of these measures did not have labour market needs as their only objective, but were also foreseen to manage integration processes. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to implement an economic diversification policy, focused on attracting high added value activities such as ICT, health technologies, space, logistics, industry and FinTech. In consequence and taking into consideration the specificities of Luxembourg’s labour market, third-country national seasonal workers are not a priority of the Luxembourgish government. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2019
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2020)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced by the figures on net migration, which remains the main reason for the demographic growth of the Luxembourgish resident population. Net immigration of third-country nationals remains high (7 336) and exceeds that of citizens of the European Union (EU; 4 806). The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2019 (2 047 applications) compared to the levels registered pre-‘migration crisis’ (1 091 in 2014). Family reunification remains the principal reason for third-country nationals to immigrate to Luxembourg, followed by economic reasons and international protection. Several major developments occurred in the field of legal migration. The introduction of a new long-term visa simplifies the entry and stay of third-country nationals for a period of up to one year, without having to apply for a residence permit. In order to guarantee the rights of British citizens working and residing in Luxembourg before the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU (Brexit) four laws were adopted, most of them were supposed to enter into force if there was a non-deal Brexit. Other important changes related to migration result from the adoption of the law of 4 December 2019 amending the law of 29 August 2009 on the free movement of persons and immigration (hereinafter Immigration Law). This law takes into account the expert’s comments during the evaluation in 2016 of the application of Schengen. [less ▲]

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See detailCountry study - Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak in the EU - Fundamental Rights Implications - Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Vukovich, Lilla UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning ... [more ▼]

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning pharmaceutical supplies and testing, situation of employees and families in this specific situation, as well as several other socio-political concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailL’accès à la nationalité luxembourgeoise pour ressortissants de pays tiers
Petry, Ralph UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Article for general public (2020)

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2019 par le Point de contact luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations (EMN Luxembourg) intitulée « Pathways to ... [more ▼]

La note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2019 par le Point de contact luxembourgeois du Réseau Européen des Migrations (EMN Luxembourg) intitulée « Pathways to citizenship for third-country nationals in Luxembourg » qui a été publiée en décembre 2019. Cette étude fournit un aperçu de l’accès à la nationalité luxembourgeoise des ressortissants de pays tiers par voie procédurale, et plus précisément sur l’acquisition par naturalisation. Toutefois, cette note ne serait pas complète si l’obtention automatique de la nationalité luxembourgeoise ainsi que les deux autres modes d’acquisition procédurales, à savoir l’option et le recouvrement, ne seraient pas abordées. L’annexe conférence 2020 présente une mise à jour de la note de synthèse « L’accès à la nationalité luxembourgeoise pour ressortissants de pays tiers » publiée en février 2020. Cette mise à jour tient compte d’un changement législatif, entré en vigueur le 25 juin 2020, ainsi que des statistiques des acquisitions de nationalité luxembourgeoise qui ont eu lieu en 2019. En outre, l’annexe présente des informations sur deux éléments faisant partie de l’ordre du jour de la conférence annuelle 2020, à savoir l’incidence du Brexit sur les acquisitions de nationalité luxembourgeoise depuis 2015 et le droit à la nationalité pour enfants apatrides. [less ▲]

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See detailGrenzen, Kooperation und Bildungsmobilität. Einblicke in grenzünberschreitende Zusammenarbeit
Nienaber, Birte UL

in ARL Nachrichten (2020), 2020(3), 35-38

The article analyses cross-border education on different levels.

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (2 UL)