Results 41-60 of 61.
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDe novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in KCNA2 cause epileptic encephalopathy
Syrbe, Steffen; Hedrich, Ulrike B.S.; Riesch, Erik et al

in Nature Genetics (2015), 47(4), 393-9

Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features1–6. Using next ... [more ▼]

Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features1–6. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified four different de novo mutations in KCNA2, encoding the potassium channel KV1.2, in six patients with epileptic encephalopathy (one mutation recurred three times independently). Four individuals presented with febrile and multiple afebrile, often focal seizure types, multifocal epileptiform discharges strongly activated by sleep, mild to moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech development and sometimes ataxia. Functional studies of the two mutations associated with this phenotype showed almost complete loss of function with a dominant-negative effect. Two further individuals presented with a different and more severe epileptic encephalopathy phenotype. They carried mutations inducing a drastic gain-of-function effect leading to permanently open channels. These results establish KCNA2 as a new gene involved in human neurodevelopmental disorders through two different mechanisms, predicting either hyperexcitability or electrical silencing of KV1.2-expressing neurons. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 250 (17 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCHD2 myoclonic encephalopathy is frequently associated with self-induced seizures
Thomas, Rhys H.; Zhang, Lin Mei; Carvill, Gemma L. et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(9), 951-958

Objective: To delineate the phenotype of early childhood epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo mutations of CHD2, which encodes the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. Methods: We analyzed the ... [more ▼]

Objective: To delineate the phenotype of early childhood epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo mutations of CHD2, which encodes the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. Methods: We analyzed the medical history, MRI, and video-EEG recordings of 9 individuals with de novo CHD2 mutations and one with a de novo 15q26 deletion encompassing CHD2. Results: Seizures began at a mean of 26 months (12–42) with myoclonic seizures in all 10 cases. Seven exhibited exquisite clinical photosensitivity; 6 self-induced with the television. Absence seizures occurred in 9 patients including typical (4), atypical (2), and absence seizures with eyelid myoclonias (4). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 9 of 10 cases with a mean onset of 5.8 years. Convulsive and nonconvulsive status epilepticus were later features (6/10, mean onset 9 years). Tonic (40%) and atonic (30%) seizures also occurred. In 3 cases, an unusual seizure type, the atonic-myoclonic-absence was captured on video. A phenotypic spectrum was identified with 7 cases having moderate to severe intellectual disability and refractory seizures including tonic attacks. Their mean age at onset was 23 months. Three cases had a later age at onset (34 months) with relative preservation of intellect and an initial response to antiepileptic medication. Conclusion: The phenotypic spectrum of CHD2 encephalopathy has distinctive features of myoclonic epilepsy, marked clinical photosensitivity, atonic-myoclonic-absence, and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Recognition of this genetic entity will permit earlier diagnosis and enable the development of targeted therapies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 166 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe phenotypic spectrum of SCN8A encephalopathy
Larsen, Jan; Carvill, Gemma L.; Gardella, Elena et al

in Neurology (2015), 84(5), 480-489

Objective: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the ... [more ▼]

Objective: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations. Methods: We used high-throughput sequence analysis of the SCN8A gene in 683 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies. In addition, we ascertained cases with SCN8A mutations from other centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained together with a review of EEG and imaging data. Results: Seventeen patients with de novo heterozygous mutations of SCN8A were studied. Seizure onset occurred at a mean age of 5 months (range: 1 day to 18 months); in general, seizures were not triggered by fever. Fifteen of 17 patients had multiple seizure types including focal, tonic, clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures, and epileptic spasms; seizures were refractory to antiepileptic therapy. Development was normal in 12 patients and slowed after seizure onset, often with regression; 5 patients had delayed development from birth. All patients developed intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. Motor manifestations were prominent including hypotonia, dystonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia. EEG findings comprised moderate to severe background slowing with focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges. Conclusion: SCN8A encephalopathy presents in infancy with multiple seizure types including focal seizures and spasms in some cases. Outcome is often poor and includes hypotonia and movement disorders. The majority of mutations arise de novo, although we observed a single case of somatic mosaicism in an unaffected parent. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 199 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBiomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction
Androsova, Ganna UL; Krause, Roland UL; Winterer, Georg et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2015), 7(112),

Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD) and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Clinical features include deterioration in ... [more ▼]

Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD) and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 276 (18 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInvestigation of GRIN2A in common epilepsy phenotypes.
Lal, Dennis; Steinbrucker, Sandra; Schubert, Julian et al

in Epilepsy research (2015), 115

Recently, mutations and deletions in the GRIN2A gene have been identified to predispose to benign and severe idiopathic focal epilepsies (IFE), revealing a higher incidence of GRIN2A alterations among the ... [more ▼]

Recently, mutations and deletions in the GRIN2A gene have been identified to predispose to benign and severe idiopathic focal epilepsies (IFE), revealing a higher incidence of GRIN2A alterations among the more severe phenotypes. This study aimed to explore the phenotypic boundaries of GRIN2A mutations by investigating patients with the two most common epilepsy syndromes: (i) idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and (ii) temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Whole exome sequencing data of 238 patients with IGE as well as Sanger sequencing of 84 patients with TLE were evaluated for GRIN2A sequence alterations. Two additional independent cohorts comprising 1469 IGE and 330 TLE patients were screened for structural deletions (>40kb) involving GRIN2A. Apart from a presumably benign, non-segregating variant in a patient with juvenile absence epilepsy, neither mutations nor deletions were detected in either cohort. These findings suggest that mutations in GRIN2A preferentially are involved in genetic variance of pediatric IFE and do not contribute significantly to either adult focal epilepsies as TLE or generalized epilepsies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 160 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCHD2 variants are a risk factor for photosensitivity in epilepsy
Galizia, Elizabeth C.; Myers, Candace T.; Leu, Costin et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 231 (18 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes
Schubert, Julian; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Langlois, Melanie UL et al

in Nature Genetics (2014), 46(12), 1327-32

Febrile seizures affect 2–4% of all children1 and have a strong genetic component2. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)3, 4, 5 have been identified that cause febrile ... [more ▼]

Febrile seizures affect 2–4% of all children1 and have a strong genetic component2. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)3, 4, 5 have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding syntaxin-1B6, that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees7, 8 identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature. Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 421 (105 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDe Novo Mutations in Synaptic Transmission Genes Including DNM1 Cause Epileptic Encephalopathies
Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi UL; Barisic, Nina et al

in American Journal of Human Genetics (2014), 4

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic ... [more ▼]

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the “classical” epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10−4), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 244 (19 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDe novo mutations in HCN1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
Nava, Caroline; Dalle, Carine; Rastetter, Agnès et al

in Nature Genetics (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 239 (16 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExploring biological interaction networks with tailored weighted quasi-bicliques.
Chang, Wen-Chieh; Vakati, Sudheer; Krause, Roland UL et al

in BMC Bioinformatics (2012), 13 Suppl 10

BACKGROUND: Biological networks provide fundamental insights into the functional characterization of genes and their products, the characterization of DNA-protein interactions, the identification of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Biological networks provide fundamental insights into the functional characterization of genes and their products, the characterization of DNA-protein interactions, the identification of regulatory mechanisms, and other biological tasks. Due to the experimental and biological complexity, their computational exploitation faces many algorithmic challenges. RESULTS: We introduce novel weighted quasi-biclique problems to identify functional modules in biological networks when represented by bipartite graphs. In difference to previous quasi-biclique problems, we include biological interaction levels by using edge-weighted quasi-bicliques. While we prove that our problems are NP-hard, we also describe IP formulations to compute exact solutions for moderately sized networks. CONCLUSIONS: We verify the effectiveness of our IP solutions using both simulation and empirical data. The simulation shows high quasi-biclique recall rates, and the empirical data corroborate the abilities of our weighted quasi-bicliques in extracting features and recovering missing interactions from biological networks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 173 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe plexus model for the inference of ancestral multidomain proteins.
Wiedenhoeft, John; Krause, Roland UL; Eulenstein, Oliver

in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (2011), 8(4), 890-901

Interactions of protein domains control essential cellular processes. Thus, inferring the evolutionary histories of multidomain proteins in the context of their families can provide rewarding insights ... [more ▼]

Interactions of protein domains control essential cellular processes. Thus, inferring the evolutionary histories of multidomain proteins in the context of their families can provide rewarding insights into protein function. However, methods to infer these histories are challenged by the complexity of macroevolutionary events. Here, we address this challenge by describing an algorithm that computes a novel network-like structure, called plexus, which represents the evolution of domains and their combinations. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this algorithm with empirical data sets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSelecting oligonucleotide probes for whole-genome tiling arrays with a cross-hybridization potential.
Hafemeister, Christoph; Krause, Roland UL; Schliep, Alexander

in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (2011), 8(6), 1642-52

For designing oligonucleotide tiling arrays popular, current methods still rely on simple criteria like Hamming distance or longest common factors, neglecting base stacking effects which strongly ... [more ▼]

For designing oligonucleotide tiling arrays popular, current methods still rely on simple criteria like Hamming distance or longest common factors, neglecting base stacking effects which strongly contribute to binding energies. Consequently, probes are often prone to cross-hybridization which reduces the signal-to-noise ratio and complicates downstream analysis. We propose the first computationally efficient method using hybridization energy to identify specific oligonucleotide probes. Our Cross-Hybridization Potential (CHP) is computed with a Nearest Neighbor Alignment, which efficiently estimates a lower bound for the Gibbs free energy of the duplex formed by two DNA sequences of bounded length. It is derived from our simplified reformulation of t-gap insertion-deletion-like metrics. The computations are accelerated by a filter using weighted ungapped q-grams to arrive at seeds. The computation of the CHP is implemented in our software OSProbes, available under the GPL, which computes sets of viable probe candidates. The user can choose a trade-off between running time and quality of probes selected. We obtain very favorable results in comparison with prior approaches with respect to specificity and sensitivity for cross-hybridization and genome coverage with high-specificity probes. The combination of OSProbes and our Tileomatic method, which computes optimal tiling paths from candidate sets, yields globally optimal tiling arrays, balancing probe distance, hybridization conditions, and uniqueness of hybridization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCocos: Constructing multi-domain protein phylogenies.
Homilius, Max; Wiedenhoeft, John; Thieme, Sebastian et al

in PLoS Currents (2011), 3

Phylogenies of multi-domain proteins have to incorporate macro-evolutionary events, which dramatically increases the complexity of their construction.We present an application to infer ancestral multi ... [more ▼]

Phylogenies of multi-domain proteins have to incorporate macro-evolutionary events, which dramatically increases the complexity of their construction.We present an application to infer ancestral multi-domain proteins given a species tree and domain phylogenies. As the individual domain phylogenies are often incongruent, we provide diagnostics for the identification and reconciliation of implausible topologies. We implement and extend a suggested algorithmic approach by Behzadi and Vingron (2006). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLive Coverage of Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology
Lister, Allyson L.; Datta, Ruchira S.; Hofmann, Oliver et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2010), 6

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLive Coverage of Scientific Conferences Using Web Technologies
Lister, Allyson L.; Datta, Ruchira S.; Hofmann, Oliver et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2010), 6(1), 1-2

Detailed reference viewed: 259 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMutation in the transcriptional regulator PhoP contributes to avirulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra strain.
Lee, Jong Seok; Krause, Roland UL; Schreiber, Jorg et al

in Cell Host and Microbe (2008), 3(2), 97-103

Attenuated strains of mycobacteria can be exploited to determine genes essential for their pathogenesis and persistence. To this goal, we sequenced the genome of H37Ra, an attenuated variant of ... [more ▼]

Attenuated strains of mycobacteria can be exploited to determine genes essential for their pathogenesis and persistence. To this goal, we sequenced the genome of H37Ra, an attenuated variant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Comparison with H37Rv revealed three unique coding region polymorphisms. One polymorphism was located in the DNA-binding domain of the transcriptional regulator PhoP, causing the protein's diminished DNA-binding capacity. Temporal gene expression profiles showed that several genes with reduced expression in H37Ra were also repressed in an H37Rv phoP knockout strain. At later time points, genes of the dormancy regulon, typically expressed in a state of nonreplicating persistence, were upregulated in H37Ra. Complementation of H37Ra with H37Rv phoP partially restored its persistence in a murine macrophage infection model. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of identifying minute but distinct differences between isogenic strains and illustrates the consequences of single point mutations on the survival stratagem of M. tuberculosis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 123 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentifying protein complexes directly from high-throughput TAP data with Markov random fields.
Rungsarityotin, Wasinee; Krause, Roland UL; Schodl, Arno et al

in BMC Bioinformatics (2007), 8

BACKGROUND: Predicting protein complexes from experimental data remains a challenge due to limited resolution and stochastic errors of high-throughput methods. Current algorithms to reconstruct the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Predicting protein complexes from experimental data remains a challenge due to limited resolution and stochastic errors of high-throughput methods. Current algorithms to reconstruct the complexes typically rely on a two-step process. First, they construct an interaction graph from the data, predominantly using heuristics, and subsequently cluster its vertices to identify protein complexes. RESULTS: We propose a model-based identification of protein complexes directly from the experimental observations. Our model of protein complexes based on Markov random fields explicitly incorporates false negative and false positive errors and exhibits a high robustness to noise. A model-based quality score for the resulting clusters allows us to identify reliable predictions in the complete data set. Comparisons with prior work on reference data sets shows favorable results, particularly for larger unfiltered data sets. Additional information on predictions, including the source code under the GNU Public License can be found at http://algorithmics.molgen.mpg.de/Static/Supplements/ProteinComplexes. CONCLUSION: We can identify complexes in the data obtained from high-throughput experiments without prior elimination of proteins or weak interactions. The few parameters of our model, which does not rely on heuristics, can be estimated using maximum likelihood without a reference data set. This is particularly important for protein complex studies in organisms that do not have an established reference frame of known protein complexes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentifying protein complexes in high-throughput protein interaction screens using an infinite latent feature model.
Chu, Wei; Ghahramani, Zoubin; Krause, Roland UL et al

in Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (2006)

We propose a Bayesian approach to identify protein complexes and their constituents from high-throughput protein-protein interaction screens. An infinite latent feature model that allows for multi-complex ... [more ▼]

We propose a Bayesian approach to identify protein complexes and their constituents from high-throughput protein-protein interaction screens. An infinite latent feature model that allows for multi-complex membership by individual proteins is coupled with a graph diffusion kernel that evaluates the likelihood of two proteins belonging to the same complex. Gibbs sampling is then used to infer a catalog of protein complexes from the interaction screen data. An advantage of this model is that it places no prior constraints on the number of complexes and automatically infers the number of significant complexes from the data. Validation results using affinity purification/mass spectrometry experimental data from yeast RNA-processing complexes indicate that our method is capable of partitioning the data in a biologically meaningful way. A supplementary web site containing larger versions of the figures is available at http://public.kgi.edu/wild/PSBO6/index.html. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailShared components of protein complexes--versatile building blocks or biochemical artefacts?
von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer; Dandekar, Thomas et al

in BioEssays (2004), 26(12), 1333-43

Protein complexes perform many important functions in the cell. Large-scale studies of protein-protein interactions have not only revealed new complexes but have also placed many proteins into multiple ... [more ▼]

Protein complexes perform many important functions in the cell. Large-scale studies of protein-protein interactions have not only revealed new complexes but have also placed many proteins into multiple complexes. Whilst the advocates of hypothesis-free research touted the discovery of these shared components as new links between diverse cellular processes, critical commentators denounced many of the findings as artefacts, thus questioning the usefulness of large-scale approaches. Here, we survey proteins known to be shared between complexes, as established in the literature, and compare them to shared components found in high-throughput screens. We discuss the various challenges to the identification and functional interpretation of bona fide shared components, namely contaminants, variant and megacomplexes, and transient interactions, and suggest that many of the novel shared components found in high-throughput screens are neither the results of contamination nor central components, but appear to be primarily regulatory links in cellular processes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 116 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA comprehensive set of protein complexes in yeast: mining large scale protein-protein interaction screens.
Krause, Roland UL; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

in Bioinformatics (2003), 19(15), 1901-8

MOTIVATION: The analysis of protein-protein interactions allows for detailed exploration of the cellular machinery. The biochemical purification of protein complexes followed by identification of ... [more ▼]

MOTIVATION: The analysis of protein-protein interactions allows for detailed exploration of the cellular machinery. The biochemical purification of protein complexes followed by identification of components by mass spectrometry is currently the method, which delivers the most reliable information--albeit that the data sets are still difficult to interpret. Consolidating individual experiments into protein complexes, especially for high-throughput screens, is complicated by many contaminants, the occurrence of proteins in otherwise dissimilar purifications due to functional re-use and technical limitations in the detection. A non-redundant collection of protein complexes from experimental data would be useful for biological interpretation, but manual assembly is tedious and often inconsistent. RESULTS: Here, we introduce a measure to define similarity within collections of purifications and generate a set of minimally redundant, comprehensive complexes using unsupervised clustering. AVAILABILITY: Programs and results are freely available from http://www.bork.embl-heidelberg.de/Docu/purclust/ [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 114 (4 UL)