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See detailSimulation-Based Secure Functional Encryption in the Random Oracle Model
Iovino, Vincenzo UL; Żebrowski, Karol

in Progress in Cryptology -- LATINCRYPT 2015 (2015)

One of the main lines of research in functional encryption (FE) has consisted in studying the security notions for FE and their achievability. This study was initiated by [Boneh et al. – TCC’11, O’Neill – ... [more ▼]

One of the main lines of research in functional encryption (FE) has consisted in studying the security notions for FE and their achievability. This study was initiated by [Boneh et al. – TCC’11, O’Neill – ePrint’10] where it was first shown that for FE the indistinguishability-based (IND) security notion is not sufficient in the sense that there are FE schemes that are provably IND-Secure but concretely insecure. For this reason, researchers investigated the achievability of Simulation-based (SIM) security, a stronger notion of security. Unfortunately, the above-mentioned works and others [e.g., Agrawal et al. – CRYPTO’13] have shown strong impossibility results for SIM-Security. One way to overcome these impossibility results was first suggested in the work of Boneh et al. where it was shown how to construct, in the Random Oracle (RO) model, SIM-Secure FE for restricted functionalities and was asked the generalization to more complex functionalities as a challenging problem in the area. Subsequently, [De Caro et al. – CRYPTO’13] proposed a candidate construction of SIM-Secure FE for all circuits in the RO model assuming the existence of an IND-Secure FE scheme for circuits with RO gates. To our knowledge there are no proposed candidate IND-Secure FE schemes for circuits with RO gates and they seem unlikely to exist. We propose the first constructions of SIM-Secure FE schemes in the RO model that overcome the current impossibility results in different settings. We can do that because we resort to the two following models: In the public-key setting we assume a bound on the number of queries but this bound only affects the running-times of our encryption and decryption procedures. We stress that our FE schemes in this model are SIM-Secure and have ciphertexts and tokens of constant-size, whereas in the standard model, the current SIM-Secure FE schemes for general functionalities [De Caro et al., Gorbunov et al. – CRYPTO’12] have ciphertexts and tokens of size growing as the number of queries. In the symmetric-key setting we assume a timestamp on both ciphertexts and tokens. In this model, we provide FE schemes with short ciphertexts and tokens that are SIM-Secure against adversaries asking an unbounded number of queries. Both results also assume the RO model, but not functionalities with RO gates and rely on extractability obfuscation [Boyle et al. – TCC’14] (and other standard primitives) secure only in the standard model. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Achievability of Simulation-Based Security for Functional Encryption
De caro, Angelo; Iovino, Vincenzo UL; Jain, Abhishek et al

in Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2013 - 33rd Annual Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 18-22, 2013. Proceedings, Part II (2013)

This work attempts to clarify to what extent simulation-based security (SIM-security) is achievable for functional encryption (FE) and its relation to the weaker indistinguishability-based security (IND ... [more ▼]

This work attempts to clarify to what extent simulation-based security (SIM-security) is achievable for functional encryption (FE) and its relation to the weaker indistinguishability-based security (IND-security). Our main result is a compiler that transforms any FE scheme for the general circuit functionality (which we denote by Circuit-FE) meeting indistinguishability-based security (IND-security) to a Circuit-FE scheme meeting SIM-security, where: In the random oracle model, the resulting scheme is secure for an unbounded number of encryption and key queries, which is the strongest security level one can ask for. In the standard model, the resulting scheme is secure for a bounded number of encryption and non-adaptive key queries, but an unbounded number of adaptive key queries. This matches known impossibility results and improves upon Gorbunov et al. [CRYPTO’12] (which is only secure for non-adaptive key queries). Our compiler is inspired by the celebrated Fiat-Lapidot-Shamir paradigm [FOCS’90] for obtaining zero-knowledge proof systems from witness-indistinguishable proof systems. As it is currently unknown whether Circuit-FE meeting IND-security exists, the purpose of this result is to establish that it remains a good target for future research despite known deficiencies of IND-security [Boneh et al. – TCC’11, O’Neill – ePrint ’10]. We also give a tailored construction of SIM-secure hidden vector encryption (HVE) in composite-order bilinear groups. Finally, we revisit the known negative results for SIM-secure FE, extending them to natural weakenings of the security definition and thus providing essentially a full picture of the (in)achievability of SIM-secure FE. [less ▲]

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