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See detailDeprivation and Social Exclusion in Europe
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bellani, Luna

in Michalos, A.C (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (2014)

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See detailProximity-sensitive individual deprivation measures
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter

in Economics Letters (2014), 122

We propose and characterize a generalization of the classical linear index of individual deprivation based on income shortfalls. Unlike the original measure, our class allows for increases in the income ... [more ▼]

We propose and characterize a generalization of the classical linear index of individual deprivation based on income shortfalls. Unlike the original measure, our class allows for increases in the income of a higher-income individual to have a stronger impact on a person’s deprivation the closer they occur to the income of the individual whose deprivation is being assessed. The subclass of our measures with this property is axiomatized in our second result. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Distribution of Economic Insecurity: Italy and the USA over the Great Recession
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas

in Review of Income and Wealth (2014), 60(S1), 33-52

We estimate the distribution of economic insecurity in Italy and the USA using data from 1994 to 2010. Economic insecurity for each individual is assumed to depend on both current wealth and the changes ... [more ▼]

We estimate the distribution of economic insecurity in Italy and the USA using data from 1994 to 2010. Economic insecurity for each individual is assumed to depend on both current wealth and the changes in wealth that have been experienced in the past. The first element plays the role of the buffer stock that can be relied on in the case of an adverse future event. The second element reflects the individual's confidence in his ability to overcome any losses in the future. With respect to this second element, experiences in the recent past are given greater weight than experiences that occurred in the more distant past. The results confirm that the great recession has had a dramatic effect on the distribution of economic insecurity in both countries with the effect being much stronger in the USA. [less ▲]

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See detailRichness Orderings
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bose, Arup; Chakravarty, Satya

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2014), 12

An index of richness in a society is a measure of the extent of its affluence. This paper presents an analytical discussion on several indices of richness and their properties. It also develops criteria ... [more ▼]

An index of richness in a society is a measure of the extent of its affluence. This paper presents an analytical discussion on several indices of richness and their properties. It also develops criteria for ordering alternative distributions of income in terms of their richness. Given a line of richness, an income level above which a person is regarded as rich, and depending on the redistributive principle, it is shown that the ranking relation can be implemented by seeking dominance with respect to the generalized Lorenz curve of the rich or the affluence pro file of the society. When the line of richness is assumed to be variable, we need to employ the stochastic dominance conditions for ordering the income distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailIntertemporal Material Deprivation
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Ceriani, Lidia et al

in Betti, Gianni; Lemmi, Achille (Eds.) Poverty and Social Exclusion (2014)

Individual well-being is multidimensional and various aspects of the quality of life need to be jointly considered in its measurement. The literature on the subject has proposed many indices of ... [more ▼]

Individual well-being is multidimensional and various aspects of the quality of life need to be jointly considered in its measurement. The literature on the subject has proposed many indices of multidimensional poverty and deprivation and explored the properties that are at the basis of these measures. The purpose of this chapter is to add intertemporal considerations to the analysis of material deprivation. We employ the EU-SILC panel data set, which includes information on different aspects of well-being over time. EU countries are compared based on measures that take this additional intertemporal information into consideration. If we follow the path of material deprivation experienced by each individual over time we obtain a picture which differs from the annual results. Since the measurement of material deprivation is used by the EU member states and the European Commission to monitor national and EU progress in the fight against poverty and social exclusion, our results suggest that time cannot be neglected. Countries should not only be compared based on their year by year results but additional information is gained by following individuals over time and producing an aggregate measure once time is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailA Family of Unit Consistent Multidimensional Poverty Indices
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya

in Bresson, Florent; Berenger, Valerie (Eds.) Poverty and Social Exclusion Around the Mediterranean Sea (2013)

This paper characterizes a family of subgroup decomposable unit consistent multidimensional poverty indices. Unit consistency requires that poverty rankings should remain unaltered when dimensions are ... [more ▼]

This paper characterizes a family of subgroup decomposable unit consistent multidimensional poverty indices. Unit consistency requires that poverty rankings should remain unaltered when dimensions are expressed in different measurement units. The characterized family is a simple generalization of a family of unit consistent income poverty index suggested by Zheng (2007a). [less ▲]

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See detailAn Axiomatic Approach to the Measurementof Poverty Reduction Failure
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya

in Economic Modelling (2013), 35

A poverty reduction failure index is a measure of the extent of inability of a society to reduce its poverty level. This paper develops an ordering for ranking alternative income distributions in terms of ... [more ▼]

A poverty reduction failure index is a measure of the extent of inability of a society to reduce its poverty level. This paper develops an ordering for ranking alternative income distributions in terms of poverty reduction failures. The ordering can be easily implemented using the generalized Lorenz or the Three I’s of poverty (TIP) curve dominance criterion. We also characterize an existing index of poverty reduction failure using an axiomatic structure. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Economic Insecurity
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter

in International Economic Review (2013), 54

We provide an axiomatic treatment of the measurement of economic insecurity, assuming that individual insecurity depends on the current wealth level and its variations experienced in the past. The first ... [more ▼]

We provide an axiomatic treatment of the measurement of economic insecurity, assuming that individual insecurity depends on the current wealth level and its variations experienced in the past. The first component plays the role of a buffer stock to rely on in case of an adverse future event. The second component determines the confidence an individual has on her ability to overcome a loss in the future. Two classes of linear measures are characterized with sets of plausible and intuitive axioms and, for each of these classes, an important subclass is identified. [less ▲]

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See detailRegion of Residence and Equality of Opportunity in Health: a Note on the Italian Case
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Gigliarano, Chiara

in Rivista Italiana degli Economisti (2013), 18

The Italian health care system is managed mainly at the regional level. For this reason health care may diff er depending on region of residence. The aim of this note is to take a rigorous ex-ante ... [more ▼]

The Italian health care system is managed mainly at the regional level. For this reason health care may diff er depending on region of residence. The aim of this note is to take a rigorous ex-ante approach and test for equality of health opportunities as opposed to health outcomes, which are the ex-post results. We perform non-parametric tests to evaluate if the probability of reaching the same health status di ffers by region of residence, after controlling for other influential factors such as age, gender and income. The results underline that the geographical distribution of opportunities in health is unequal, and therefore, that regional differences in outcomes are more likely to be expected. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional Poverty and Material Deprivation with Discrete Data
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Chakravarty, Satya

in Review of Income and Wealth (2013), 59

We propose a characterization of a popular index of multidimensional poverty which, as a special case, generates a measure of material deprivation. This index is the weighted sum of the functioning ... [more ▼]

We propose a characterization of a popular index of multidimensional poverty which, as a special case, generates a measure of material deprivation. This index is the weighted sum of the functioning failures. The important feature of the variables that may be relevant for poverty assessments is that they are discrete in nature. Thus, poverty measures based on continuous variables are not suitable in this setting and the assumption of a discrete domain is mandatory. We apply the measure to European Union member states where the concept of material deprivation was initiated and illustrate how its recommendations differ from those obtained from poverty measures based exclusively on income considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic Insecurity and Individual Well-Being
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Keio Economic Studies (2012), 48

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See detailIndividual Well-Being in a Dynamic Perspective
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Frick, Joachim

in Economica (2012), 79

We explore the determinants of individual wellbeing as measured by self-reported levels of satisfaction with income and life. Making use of the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence ... [more ▼]

We explore the determinants of individual wellbeing as measured by self-reported levels of satisfaction with income and life. Making use of the German Socio-Economic Panel, we provide empirical evidence for wellbeing depending on absolute and relative income levels in a dynamic framework where status and signal effects play a role. This finding holds after controlling for other factors in a multivariate setting. The main novelty is the consideration of dynamic aspects: the individual’s own history and the relative income performance with respect to other society members play major roles in the assessment of individual wellbeing. [less ▲]

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See detailPoverty and Time
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; Chakravarty, Satya

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2012), 10

We examine the measurement of individual poverty in an intertemporal context. Our aim is to capture the importance of persistence in a state of poverty and we characterize a corresponding individual ... [more ▼]

We examine the measurement of individual poverty in an intertemporal context. Our aim is to capture the importance of persistence in a state of poverty and we characterize a corresponding individual intertemporal poverty measure. Our first axiom requires that intertemporal poverty is identical to static poverty in the degenerate single-period case. The remaining two properties express decomposability requirements within poverty spells and across spells in order to reflect the persistence issue. In addition, we axiomatize an aggregation procedure to obtain an intertemporal poverty measure for societies and we illustrate our new index with an application to EU countries. [less ▲]

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See detailDeprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bellani, Luna

in Social Indicators Research (2011), 104

This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual’s well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual’s well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation and exclusion after controlling for individual’s income, relative income and other influential factors in a multivariate setting. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Distribution of Wealth in the United States from 1983 to 2004: Inequality and Polarization
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Fiaschi, Davide; Wolff, Edward

in Gonzales, Jason (Ed.) Economics of Wealth in the 21st Century (2011)

Recent work has documented a rising degree of wealth inequality in the United States between 1983 and 2004. In this paper, we compare the increase in the spread of the distribution with another dimension ... [more ▼]

Recent work has documented a rising degree of wealth inequality in the United States between 1983 and 2004. In this paper, we compare the increase in the spread of the distribution with another dimension, polarization. Using alternative approaches proposed in the literature, we examine whether a similar pattern exists with regard to trends in wealth polarization over this period. Perhaps, our most notable finding is the huge increase in wealth polarization that occurred in the U.S. from 1983 to 2004, particularly from 1998 to 2004. In contrast, the Gini coefficient shows an increase in wealth inequality from 1983 to 1989 and little change thereafter. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional Approaches to Poverty Measurement: An Empirical Analysis of Poverty in Belgium, France , Germany,Italy and Spain, based on the European Pane
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Deutsch, Joseph; Silber, Jacques

in Applied Economics (2011), 43

This article has three goals. First, we wish to compare three multidimensional approaches to poverty and check to what extent they identify the same households as poor. Second, we aim at better ... [more ▼]

This article has three goals. First, we wish to compare three multidimensional approaches to poverty and check to what extent they identify the same households as poor. Second, we aim at better understanding the determinants of poverty by estimating logit regressions with five categories of explanatory variables: size of the household, age of the head of the household, her gender, marital status and status at work. Third, we introduce a decomposition procedure proposed recently in the literature, the so-called Shapley decomposition, in order to determine the exact marginal impact of each of the categories of explanatory variables. Our empirical analysis is based on data made available by the European Community Household Panel (ECPH). We used its third wave and selected five countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailA Generalized Index of Fractionalization
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Bossert, Walter; La Ferrara, Eliana

in Economica (2011), 78

This paper characterizes an index that is informationally richer than the commonly used ethno-linguistic fractionalization (ELF) index. Our measure of fractionalization takes as a primitive the ... [more ▼]

This paper characterizes an index that is informationally richer than the commonly used ethno-linguistic fractionalization (ELF) index. Our measure of fractionalization takes as a primitive the individuals, as opposed to ethnic groups, and uses information on the similarities among them. Compared to existing indices, our measure does not require that individuals are pre-assigned to exogenously determined categories or groups. We provided an empirical illustration of how our index can be operationalized and what difference it makes as compared to the standard ELF index. This application pertains to the pattern of fractionalization in the USA. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey on Income Deprivation
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Silber, Jacques (Ed.) The Measurement of Individual Well-Being and Group Inequalities: Essays in Memory of Z.M. Berrebi (2010)

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See detailPolarization Orderings of Income Distributions
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Chakravarty, Satya

in Review of Income and Wealth (2010), 56(1), 47-64

This paper considers an intermediate notion of polarization which is defined as a convex mix of relative and absolute concepts of polarization. While absolute polarization indices remain unchanged under ... [more ▼]

This paper considers an intermediate notion of polarization which is defined as a convex mix of relative and absolute concepts of polarization. While absolute polarization indices remain unchanged under equal absolute augmentation in all incomes, relative indices do not change under equiproportionate variations in all incomes. We then identify the class of intermediate polarization indices whose orderings of alternative income distributions agree with the rankings generated by intermediate polarization curves. The ranking relation developed is implemented by a simple graphical device. Finally, a numerical illustration of the results developed in the paper is provided using data from Southern European countries. [less ▲]

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