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See detailLe développement du trafic ferroviaire dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Helfer, Malte UL; Pauly, Michel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The first railways are mentioned in connection with the mining of Agricola in 1556. From the end of the 18th century onwards, the first long-distance horse-drawn railways were built, some of which created ... [more ▼]

The first railways are mentioned in connection with the mining of Agricola in 1556. From the end of the 18th century onwards, the first long-distance horse-drawn railways were built, some of which created real networks. The first railway line to use steam locomotives was the Stockton and Darlington Railway, 40 kilometres long, commissioned in 1825 in England. On the continent, the first steam railway line was opened on 5 May 1835 in Belgium, between Brussels and Mechelen, while the line opened in 1831 in France, from Saint-Etienne to Lyon, as well as the one in December 1835 in Germany, between Nürnberg and Fürth, were only rarely used by locomotives, but rather by horse-drawn vehicles. This article deals with the first railway connections in the various regions of the Greater Region SaarLorLux. [less ▲]

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See detailL’industrie textile dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Edelblutte, Simon; Helfer, Malte UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The textile industry has had a long time to transform the industrial landscape of the Greater Region SaarLorLux, as it is one of the earliest industrialised economic activities. Often born on a proto ... [more ▼]

The textile industry has had a long time to transform the industrial landscape of the Greater Region SaarLorLux, as it is one of the earliest industrialised economic activities. Often born on a proto-industrial basis, it was mechanised very early on in most of its branches (from spinning to weaving, dyeing, bleaching and printing to clothing) and thus formed, sometimes, vast industrial concentrations, which imposed themselves alongside more modest establishments. However, this pioneering industry is now often presented in Europe as an activity of the past, the bulk of which has been relocated to low labour cost countries in the South. [less ▲]

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See detailLa production en céramique dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Decker, Emile; Helfer, Malte UL; Pauly, Michel UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

Consisting of four entities, regions or states, located in the heart of Europe, the Greater Region SaarLorLux has long been considered a territory with a rich industrial past of great dynamism. Among the ... [more ▼]

Consisting of four entities, regions or states, located in the heart of Europe, the Greater Region SaarLorLux has long been considered a territory with a rich industrial past of great dynamism. Among the many branches of activity, there is one that has long been a flagship of its skills: ceramics. The term "ceramics" covers a certain number of very different products in terms of their appearance and properties, all made from fired clay. Over time, manufacturing techniques have evolved to produce less and less porous and finer designs. The applications of this material have thus expanded considerably. Working with clay is a long-standing tradition in this region, as the first ceramics discovered at archaeological sites are 7 000 years old. So, for thousands of years, potters made objects out of fired clay. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale fine-grained LUTI model to simulate land-use scenarios in Luxembourg
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Journal of Transport and Land Use (2018), 11(1), 255272

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and ... [more ▼]

The increasing attractiveness of Luxembourg as a place to work and live puts its land use and transport systems under high pressure. Understanding how the country can accommodate residential growth and additional traffic in a sustainable manner is a key and difficult challenge that requires a policy relevant, flexible and responsive modelling framework. We describe the first fully fledged land-use and transport interaction framework (MOEBIUS) applied to the whole of Luxembourg. We stress its multi-scalar nature and detail the articulation of two of its main components: a dynamic demographic microsimulation at the scale of individuals and a micro-spatial scale simulation of residential choice. Conversely to traditional zone-based approaches, the framework keeps full details of households and individuals for residential and travel mode choice, making the model highly consistent with theory. In addition, results and policy constraints are implemented at a very fine resolution (20m) and can thus incorporate local effects (residential externalities, local urban design). Conversely to fully disaggregated approaches, a linkage is organized at an intermediate scale, which allows one (1) to simplify the generation and spatial distribution of trips, (2) to parallelize parts of the residential choice simulation, and (3) to ensure a good calibration of the population and real estate market estimates. We show model outputs for different scenarios at the horizon 2030 and compare them along sustainability criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial sorting, attitudes and the use of green space in Brussels
Schindler, Mirjam; Le Texier, Marion; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2018), 31

Extensive evidence exists on the benefits provided by urban green space (UGS) but evidence is lacking about whether and how socio-economic benefits accrue to all residents or disproportionally depending ... [more ▼]

Extensive evidence exists on the benefits provided by urban green space (UGS) but evidence is lacking about whether and how socio-economic benefits accrue to all residents or disproportionally depending on their socio-economic status or residential location. We model joint effects of socio-economic and locational attributes on attitudes and use of UGS in Brussels (BE). The analysis is based on a survey conducted along an urban-suburban continuum with respondents sampled across non-park public space. Patterns of use are depicted by the frequency and the distance travelled to the most used UGS. Attitudes are analysed along three dimensions: willingness to (i) pay for UGS, (ii) trade-off housing for green space and (iii) substitute private for public green. Our results stress the importance of separating effects of attitudes from socio-economic and locational effects to quantify UGS use, and suggest endogenous effects of green space with residential sorting. [less ▲]

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See detailDéterminants individuels et territoriaux des navettes internes ou transfrontalières des actifs résidant en France
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Le Texier, Marion; Belkacem, Rachid et al

in Espace, Populations, Sociétés (2018), 2017(3), 1-30

This article focuses on the individual and territorial determinants of cross-border commuting from France to its neighbouring countries. We seek to identify whether cross-border commuting is a distinct ... [more ▼]

This article focuses on the individual and territorial determinants of cross-border commuting from France to its neighbouring countries. We seek to identify whether cross-border commuting is a distinct form of commuting, especially whether it differs for an active resident from commuting outside his/her reference functional urban area. We use individual data from the 2013 census and characterize the territory at the municipal scale in order to capture the relative polarisation of residential places within the national urban system. From our multinomial logistic models applied to the whole France or the border fringe, we find that gender, age, education, type and sector of activity, as well as the location of the commune with respect to employment poles in France, explain similarly the commute of active individuals towards another urban area in France and across the border. However, the effect is more intensive for cross-border commuting. After controlling the impact of the different neighbouring countries, we still clearly identify a different behaviour from elastic migrants in border areas and an effect of the distance to the border and of the job density on the cross-border commutes. [less ▲]

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See detailCity delineation in European applications of LUTI models: review and tests
Thomas, Isabelle; Jones, Jonathan; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

in Transport Reviews (2018), 38(1), 6-32

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the ... [more ▼]

This paper stresses the lack of attention paid to the geographical definitions of cities in LUTI models as one key detrimental aspect to transferring and generalising LUTI results. First, the argumentation develops from a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications about LUTI applications in European cities. We show that most authors do not assess findings against potential geographical biases. Second, theoretical simulations are conducted with UrbanSim applied to a synthetic urban area. By varying the geographical limits of the system and population endowments, our simulations confirm that the absence of control on city delineation weakens the results. Finally, the paper suggests methodological guidelines to improve the comparability of LUTI applications and push forward their theoretical agenda. [less ▲]

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See detailMigrants internationaux et migration dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Nienaber, Birte UL; Roos, Ursula; Helfer, Malte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

With regard to demographic change and the decline in birth rates in some parts of the Greater Region SaarLorLux, migration has become increasingly significant in recent years. The population growth ... [more ▼]

With regard to demographic change and the decline in birth rates in some parts of the Greater Region SaarLorLux, migration has become increasingly significant in recent years. The population growth currently observed in the Greater Region is also primarily due to significant gains in migration. Between 1990 and 2006, net immigration to the Greater Region amounted to 558,500 persons, although migration influenced population development to varying degrees in the individual sub-regions. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying the shoreline connection of the Stone Age settlements in Southern Karelia (Finland)
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Nordqvist, Kerkko et al

Scientific Conference (2018)

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin ... [more ▼]

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin Grewingk stated already in 1865 that in the Eastern Baltic region “Stone Age people lived by the sea and rivers”. Although there was no empirical data at that time, the following discoveries confirmed this claim. The connection is so obvious that archaeological sites are effectively used as a proxy data for reconstructing past shorelines that have been changing due to isostatic land uplift and changing hydrological conditions. The goal of current paper is to give a statistical description of the settlements’ position relative to the shoreline. The case study is based on the Stone Age settlement site locations in Southern Karelia, Finland. The region is characterized by several water bodies, including lake Saimaa, as well as several smaller lakes and rivers. A small amount of settlements in the south-eastern part of the study area is also located on the paleoshorelines of the Baltic Sea. The following questions are asked: how many and what kind of Stone Age sites are shoreline-connected? How to statistically describe the distribution of distances from the settlements to the closest shoreline? Because of the abundance of lake shores in the region, it also has to be judged if the settlement pattern was formed by the economical/cultural lifeways of past inhabitants or was it just enforced by the landscape. To answer this question, it is analysed if the distribution of distances to shoreline of Stone Age sites significantly differs from the ones of later periods? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe homothetic scaling of urban land and density profiles: evidence from Europe
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (5 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHomothetic Scaling of Urban Land Use and Population Density Gradients in Monocentric Models
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, November)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvidence for the homothetic scaling of urban forms
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 142 (4 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHomothetic Scaling of Urban Land Use and Population Density Gradients in Monocentric Models
Delloye, Justin; Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (4 UL)
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See detailMeasuring urban forms from inter-building distances: Combining MST graphs with a Local Index of Spatial Association
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Hilal, Mohamed; Thomas, Isabelle

in Landscape and Urban Planning (2017), 163

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and ... [more ▼]

A new method is proposed for characterising local urban patterns at the scale of a large urban region. The approach overcomes the difficulties of surface-based representations of built-up morphologies and provides an efficient way to account for the proximity of built and non-built land. The strength of the approach resides in the direct use of the coordinates of each building, a very parsimonious input of external parameters, and a local spatial statistical perspective. The method consists in, first, constructing and clumping the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) that links each building to its neighbours in order to obtain connected urban and suburban graph subsets, and second, measuring a Local Index of Spatial Association (LISA) on inter-building distances in order to characterise patterns. The method differentiates heterogeneous settlements from statistically significant homogeneous clusters with either long or short connections between buildings. The method is applied to the Southern periphery of Brussels (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2017, June 19)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation résidentielle de la population étrangère selon la nationalité et la structure urbaine au Luxembourg
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the ... [more ▼]

The number of foreigners living in Luxembourg is still rising and represents today about 48% of the inhabitants. This study focuses on the description and mapping of the place of residence for the different nationalities living in Luxembourg. It seeks to underline differences through indicators built from the 2011 census data. We focus on the territorial distribution of the different nationalities by taking into account the urban structure and distance to jobs. If differences according to nationalities in the residential behavior of households can be empirically identified they may raise issues of spatial equity and (un)equal accessibility to job market. We analyse whether the geographic location of different nationalities in Luxembourg is linked to urbanisation level, the distance to the “poles d´emploi” or general accessibility to jobs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 226 (9 UL)
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See detailDes espaces verts pour une ville durable: quelle demande? Les cas de Bruxelles et Luxembourg
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFraming and reviewing a green mismatch hypothesis
Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, April 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (3 UL)
See detailLocational and socio-economic sorting in the use of green space: Evidence from Brussels
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Le Texier, Marion UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2017, April 08)

Urban green space is important for making cities sustainable. It provides environmental benefits and makes cities attractive to people. Extensive evidence exists on their benefits but is lacking in ... [more ▼]

Urban green space is important for making cities sustainable. It provides environmental benefits and makes cities attractive to people. Extensive evidence exists on their benefits but is lacking in quantifying how and whether socio-economic benefits of green space accrue to all households or only a portion depending on their socio-economic status and residential location. From urban economic theory we know that residential markets sort households by income along an urban–suburban continuum and the housing-transport-costs trade-off. This trade-off can however be dominated in the presence of exogenous central amenities (parks) or endogenous effects (high income attracting high income) and pull better-off households toward the center, adding discrepancies in accessibility to green amenities by different socio-economic groups. Tiebout's hypothesis implied that marginal benefits from localised amenities are the same for all households in a given location but empirics point to non-efficient sorting and endogenous effects (socio-economic sorting) in the demand for localised amenities in general. We address these questions based on results of a survey conducted along an urban-suburban continuum in Brussels (Belgium) in May 2016. The survey includes around 500 respondents sampled across (non-park) public space and malls to reach both users and non-users of green space and cover the variety of residential locations (good or bad provision of green / distant or far from the CBD). We analyse the role of proximity, size and quality of public green space on its use across different socio-economic attributes and residential/job places and stated willingness-to-pay and substitution possibilities with private green space. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling evidence of the homothetic nature of cities
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and soil-sealing profiles for a large set of cities, we demonstrate a remarkable constancy of the profiles across city size. Our analysis combines the GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2006 land use database at 5m resolu- tion for 300 European cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants and the Geostat population grid at 1km resolution. Population is allocated proportionally to surface and weighted by soil sealing and density classes of the Urban Atlas. We analyse the profile of each artificial land use and population with distance to the town hall. In line with earlier literature, we confirm the strong monocentricity of the European city and the negative exponential curve for population density. Moreover, we find that land use curves, in particular the share of housing and roads, scale along the two horizontal dimensions with the square root of city population, while population curves scale in three dimensions with the cubic root of city population. In short, European cities of different sizes are homothetic in terms of land use and population density. While earlier literature documented the scaling of average densities (total surface and population) with city size, we document the scaling of the whole radial distance profile with city size, thus liaising intra-urban radial analysis and systems of cities. In addition to providing a new empirical view of the European city, our scaling offers a set of practical and coherent definitions of a city, independent of its population, from which we can re-question urban scaling laws and Zipf’s law for cities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 119 (7 UL)