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See detailSpatial Analysis of internal migration in Luxembourg
Kalogirou, Stamatis; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Presentation (2014, September 08)

The aims of this paper are to look at the spatial patterns and to model internal migration in Luxembourg. Between 2010 and 2011, 17344 people or 3.7% of the total population moved from one municipality ... [more ▼]

The aims of this paper are to look at the spatial patterns and to model internal migration in Luxembourg. Between 2010 and 2011, 17344 people or 3.7% of the total population moved from one municipality (commune) to another within Luxembourg, showing a very dynamic migratory system. Luxembourg City is a net migration looser in terms of internal migration: 3128 people moved out of Luxembourg and 1428 people moved in to the capital in the same period. This paper presents an innovative migration flow map while attempting to explain, for the first time in Luxembourg, the driving forces of migratory moves at a fine geographical scale, most of the literature being focussed on the strong international migration, thus hiding local residential processes. The data analysed refer to the migration flows between the 116 local authorities (communes) in Luxembourg and the 12-months migration question. We present models for out-migration, in-migration and migration flows. For the latter, we fit unconstrained gravity models using Poisson, and Negative Binomial (NB) regressions, and their Zero Inflated variants in order to account for overdispersion and the large number of zero flows. The empirical results are very interesting and show processes that differ from other countries. It appears that cultural and urban planning factors rather than labour force factors affect the decision to migrate within Luxembourg, which is plausible given the location, the size and the ethnic background of the population residing in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSpatial patterns of land-use and neighbourhood diversity: a multilevel analysis of residential land prices in Luxembourg
Glaesener, Marie-Line UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2014, August 28)

There is increasing interest in understanding how the spatial organisation of land uses within a neighbourhood impact on the perceived quality of a residential place. Not only this diversity may lead to ... [more ▼]

There is increasing interest in understanding how the spatial organisation of land uses within a neighbourhood impact on the perceived quality of a residential place. Not only this diversity may lead to higher attractiveness but also is usually seen as a key aspect of sustainable urban growth (mixed use development). Geoghegan et al. (1997) assume that increasing land use diversity might affect property values in two ways: negatively as they introduce higher chances of negative visual and noise externalities, but in the meantime positively as diversity may implicitly mean the proximity to important local urban amenities. Our paper aims at revealing the role of land-use diversity in determining the price of residential land, hence the attractiveness of a location beyond the structural qualities of houses. We conduct a hedonic price analysis of all residential land transactions across the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg between 2007 and 2011. Land-use diversity is measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition to these unconventional geographical measures, we rely also on a multilevel modelling approach, which is still quite rare in land and housing hedonic literature (notable exceptions are Orford (2000), and Chasco and Le Gallo (2012)). We believe the multi-level approach is needed here to account for the nested nature of the data and to relax the assumption of a unitary equilibrium land market. As an alternative to the single-level model, the multilevel model accounts for the hierarchical structure of the spatial units, by modelling the variability at each of the considered levels and allowing individual observations within a particular spatial unit to be more similar than a random sample (Jones, 1991). Orford (2000) in particular emphasises the capacity of multi-level models to deal with spatial segmentations of the market and spatial dependence effects. In our paper we first identify the variability of transaction price at the different levels compared to the overall mean. Second, we check for spatial variations in the valuation of land-use diversity and parcel size in the residential land market. Third we test for remaining spatial effects via a cross-regressive multilevel model, as suggested by Chasco and Le Gallo (2012). Our results confirm the usefulness of the multilevel model approach and a negative valuation of close land-use diversity, whereas it is considered a positive externality in walking distance. Further, random coefficients for the Shannon indices confirm spatial variations in the valuation of land-use diversity. Via the cross-regressive multilevel model we test for remaining spatial effects and conclude that our model cleared up the entire spatial dependence in the land price data, conversely to the case in Chasco and Le Gallo (2012) and thus rather supporting suggestions from Orford (2000). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 161 (2 UL)
See detailSpatial implications of endogenous pollution externalities in a residential location model
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2014, August)

Exposure to traffic-induced air pollution is acknowledged to cause harmful effects on the environment and human health. Citizens are increasingly concerned as reflected in the willingness of citizens to ... [more ▼]

Exposure to traffic-induced air pollution is acknowledged to cause harmful effects on the environment and human health. Citizens are increasingly concerned as reflected in the willingness of citizens to pay for living in less polluted urban environments. Air quality is an amenity progressively considered in location choice . While residents might seek to remove oneself from traffic as source of emissions and favour low density environments, urban planners often argue towards urban densification in order to limit the generation of emissions by reducing distances between activities and, thus, distances travelled . The potential ease of citizens’ satisfaction in such densified areas with reduced green space amenities and concentration of development and traffic is, however, often omitted . This contradiction triggers the debate about the role of urban structure and, in particular, residential preferences on mitigating not only environmental, but also health and social impacts caused by urban air pollution. To shed further light on this debate, we contribute a spatial economics model focussing on residential choice and explicitly including traffic-induced exposure to air pollution as residential disamenity. Economic literature introducing air pollution on an urban scale into economic models to assess its impact on urban structure comprises equilibrium models with aggregate pollution from industrial sources ; however, only few with (disaggregate) pollution from transport and an explicit treatment of space . A general link between environmental and traffic congestion externalities has been mathematically formalized but not yet explicitly so in the context of residential exposure. This research builds on the standard urban economics model and explicitly formulates exposure disamenities in residents’ utility perception. The paper focuses on deriving analytical properties from the model with pollution exposure from traffic, while the literature is predominantly numerical so far. Analytical comparative statics grant insights into spatial implications, residents’ utility and health impacts. Thereby, also the impact of, for instance, environmental awareness, technological improvements and the severity of health damage are analysed. Despite vast critiques on sprawl, with regard to air pollution dispersed urban structures resulting from exposure aversion might yet reflect beneficial trade-offs between commuting distance and prevention of exposure; thus, between environmental and social concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban compactness and the trade-off between air pollution emission and exposure: Lessons from a spatially explicit theoretical model
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (2014), 45

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. The interplay between urban structure and air pollution from an environmental, health and social perspective is the focus of our work: we model ... [more ▼]

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. The interplay between urban structure and air pollution from an environmental, health and social perspective is the focus of our work: we model how urban structure impacts traffic-induced pollutant emissions and the exposure of residents to those pollutants. We present a chain of models applied to theoretical monocentric space: a residential choice model with endogenous open-space and road network, a commuting traffic generation and road assignment model and a pollutant emissions, dispersion and exposure model. The theoretical study approach decouples results from location specific characteristics and enables us to analyse how the preference of households for green amenities, a transport tax, the provision of public transport alternatives and local neighbourhood design impact the environment (total emissions) as well as residents’ health (population exposure) and utility. We emphasise that environmental strategies in the form of urban compaction have a strong impact on the exposure of households to pollutants, especially close to the centre, in addition to their reduction of welfare. Our results suggest that more beneficial policy outcomes can be obtained from strategies which preserve green spaces close to the centre or which intend a greater shift from car to public transport. Further, we find indication that different local designs of neighbourhoods have much stronger impacts on the exposure–emission tension than city-wide land use or transport options. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 247 (20 UL)
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See detailTravailleurs frontaliers dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux (1998-2008)
Wille, Christian UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Helfer, Malte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

With 201,785 cross-border employees, the Grande Région has a quarter of the cross-border workers in the 27 EU countries. 73% of cross-border commuters in the Grande Région work in Luxembourg, where they ... [more ▼]

With 201,785 cross-border employees, the Grande Région has a quarter of the cross-border workers in the 27 EU countries. 73% of cross-border commuters in the Grande Région work in Luxembourg, where they account for 44% of the local workforce - a trend that is still rising. Half of them come from France and about a quarter from Belgium or Germany. 14% of cross-border commuters in the Greater Region work in Wallonia, almost all of them from France. Finally, Saarland is the third largest employer of cross-border workers, with almost 10% of border workers in the Greater Region. Among the "French" workers coming to work in Saarland, however, there is a third of atypical cross-border workers, i.e. Germans who live in Lorraine and work in Saarland. [less ▲]

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See detailLes modifications territoriales dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux du Congrès de Vienne à aujourd hui
Back, Claude; Helfer, Malte UL; Pauly, Michel UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

The territorial changes of the Greater Region since 1815 are presented in ten maps. The timeline map shows the territorial situation in a defined year from 1815 onwards (if the map does not appear after a ... [more ▼]

The territorial changes of the Greater Region since 1815 are presented in ten maps. The timeline map shows the territorial situation in a defined year from 1815 onwards (if the map does not appear after a few seconds, it might be necessary to reload the page). After activating the timeline you can choose a year (set both controllers to the same year). In addition it is possible to let the map run through the time like a video. The map can be zoomed in and out, and you can access relevant information by clicking on a territory. [less ▲]

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See detailLe tourisme dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Wöltering, Florian; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Helfer, Malte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

The tourism structure of the Greater Region is very heterogeneous and cannot be referred to a single common destination. Rather, it consists of different destinations, which are presented in this article ... [more ▼]

The tourism structure of the Greater Region is very heterogeneous and cannot be referred to a single common destination. Rather, it consists of different destinations, which are presented in this article, regardless of borders and oriented exclusively according to geographical data. The map shows the number of tourist nights in the tourism regions according to the different types of accommodation in 2007. The presentation of the tourism intensity (overnight stays per 1,000 inhabitants) explains the relative weight of tourism in the different regions. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Bevölkerung der Großregion SaarLorLux
Interregionale Arbeitsmarktbeobachtungsstelle, IBA; Pauly, Michel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

This contribution is an excerpt from the report on the economic and social situation of the Greater Region 2013/2014 for the Economic and Social Committee of the Greater Region (IBA/OIE, 2014, pp. 3-10 ... [more ▼]

This contribution is an excerpt from the report on the economic and social situation of the Greater Region 2013/2014 for the Economic and Social Committee of the Greater Region (IBA/OIE, 2014, pp. 3-10). The maps show the population density in the Greater Region as of 1 January 2013, the working-age population as of 1 January 2012 and the population development from 2000 to 2013 (Lorraine: zones d'emploi 1999-2011), calculated by the Interregional Labour Market Observatory IBA. The population density of the Greater Region in 2013 was almost 175 inhabitants per square kilometre, although the distribution varies widely from regionally: from more than 2,000 inhabitants per square kilometre in Mainz and Ludwigshafen to the sparsely populated areas of Verdun and Commercy with less than 30 inhabitants per square kilometre. This is where important economic priorities lie and influences from the large conurbations of neighboring federal states have an impact. Densely populated areas are also located in the northern part of Wallonia, particularly in the economic centres of Charleroi and Liège. In addition, the population of the Greater Region concentrates primarily on a transnational core area, which encompasses all sub-regions and important economic priorities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 127 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow green neighbourhoods make cities more compact? A 2D microeconomic perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhes, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

Scientific Conference (2014)

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model with no symmetry assumption where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model with no symmetry assumption where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and view to amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog agricultural land or not, hence impact on the emergence of sprawl patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and activities within neighbourhoods may constitute an effective policy lever in some urban contexts and a positive incentive to a more compact development. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphogenèse et maîtrise de l'étalement urbain: des noyaux d'habitat pour accompagner le choix résidentiel?
Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Réussir une politique de maîtrise de l'étalement urbain qui, en apparence au moins, contrecarre les désirs des ménages est assurément une gageure sur laquelle plus d'une ville s'est cassé les dents ... [more ▼]

Réussir une politique de maîtrise de l'étalement urbain qui, en apparence au moins, contrecarre les désirs des ménages est assurément une gageure sur laquelle plus d'une ville s'est cassé les dents. Le concept de noyaux d'habitat enrichit la perspective normative en apportant une dimension locale trop absente du discours sur la ville compacte et la densification des villes. A la lumière de travaux théoriques et empiriques reliant l'émergence de formes urbaines aux contraintes de mobilité des ménages et à leur goût pour des biens publics locaux, il apparaît que c'est peut-être moins la localisa;on intrinsèque des noyaux d'habitat que la qualité de leur aménagement et leur connexion aux espaces verts et biens publics qui permettra de réconcilier les enjeux communs d'une urbanisa;on durable et les choix individuels. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 137 (6 UL)
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See detailOn the impacts of transport policies and urban form on traffic-induced air pollution (extended abstract)
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Hesse, Markus; Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013 (2013)

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. It is not only a hazard to the environment but also on human health. Many argue that a compact city is the desirable urban form in the context of ... [more ▼]

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. It is not only a hazard to the environment but also on human health. Many argue that a compact city is the desirable urban form in the context of sustainability due to shorter travelling distances and reduced conversion of land. If considering not only the environmental pillar of sustainability in terms of total emissions but also the social one comprising human exposure and social well-being, the argumentation might change. The question we ask is whether selected common transport policies are efficient solutions to overcome the environmental and social challenge? In order to investigate this question, we developed a modelling system in order to test the impacts of different transport policies, either on the urban structure itself or on traffic flows and respectively on air quality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (15 UL)
See detailProceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013
Hesse, Markus UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Gerber, Philippe et al

Book published by University Press (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 448 (19 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn MAUP, neighbourhood definitions and the measure of urban sprawl
Schiel, Kerry UL; Schindler, Mirjam UL; Jaeger, Sofie et al

Scientific Conference (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 145 (23 UL)
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See detailLa perception de la Grande Région SaarLorLux par les médias
Wiermer, Patrick; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Helfer, Malte UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

How do the media perceive the Greater Region on both sides of the borders? An analysis of the main regional daily newspapers was carried out in order to determine the media's informational centres and ... [more ▼]

How do the media perceive the Greater Region on both sides of the borders? An analysis of the main regional daily newspapers was carried out in order to determine the media's informational centres and peripheries, and to identify the predominant thematic axes. The map is based on the results of a dissertation written in 2008 by a student of the cultural geography department at Saarland University. [less ▲]

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See detailVilles du Moyen Âge tardif (1180-1500) dans la Grande Région SaarLorLux
Penny, Alain; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Pauly, Michel UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Due to different natural, political and economic conditions, there are clear differences in the territorial distribution and temporal development of late medieval towns in the Greater Region. The map ... [more ▼]

Due to different natural, political and economic conditions, there are clear differences in the territorial distribution and temporal development of late medieval towns in the Greater Region. The map 'Cities of the Late Middle Ages' shows the cities which could be designated as cities in the Late Middle Ages, i.e. between the beginning of the 13th century and the year 1500. It is important that the definition of a late medieval town meets several criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between residential and daily mobility: Luxembourg case study in the MOEBIUS project (extended abstract)
Gerber, Philippe; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cornélis, Eric et al

in Hesse, Markus; Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013 (2013)

We present the modelling strategy of the research project MOEBIUS, which aims at simulating future urbanisation and commuting mobility, including modal split, under various planning conditions. MOEBIUS is ... [more ▼]

We present the modelling strategy of the research project MOEBIUS, which aims at simulating future urbanisation and commuting mobility, including modal split, under various planning conditions. MOEBIUS is similar in its objectives to a Land Use and Transport Interaction (LUTI) model, although very modular in its implementation and with ability to deal with very fine spatial resolution inputs and outputs. We simulate (i) the future potential urbanisation in Luxembourg, (ii) the population and its spatial distribution, and (iii) the daily mobility (commuting pattern and travel mode choice) at a disaggregated level. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 162 (5 UL)
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See detailDas Brauwesen in der Großregion SaarLorLux
Wöltering, Florian; de Assis Mendonça, Juliano; Pauly, Michel UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2013)

The beginnings of beer go back to the time of Roman rule. However, beer only gained in importance through the medieval monasteries of the Greater Region, but was exposed to strong competition from wine ... [more ▼]

The beginnings of beer go back to the time of Roman rule. However, beer only gained in importance through the medieval monasteries of the Greater Region, but was exposed to strong competition from wine. It was not until the political and economic upheaval following the French Revolution that the brewery industry spread. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 117 (3 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEmergence of scattered and leapfrog urban development from analytical results to complex simulation outputs with realistic calibration
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Frankhauser, Pierre et al

Scientific Conference (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEmergence of scattered and leapfrog urban development from analytical results to complex simulation outputs with realistic calibration
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Frankhauser, Pierre et al

Scientific Conference (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 UL)