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See detailOn the performance of strain smoothing for quadratic and enriched finite element approximations (XFEM/GFEM/PUFEM)
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Natarajan, S.; Kerfriden, P. et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2011), 86(4-5), 637-666

By using the strain smoothing technique proposed by Chen et al. (Comput. Mech. 2000; 25:137-156) for meshless methods in the context of the finite element method (FEM), Liu et al. (Comput. Mech. 2007; 39 ... [more ▼]

By using the strain smoothing technique proposed by Chen et al. (Comput. Mech. 2000; 25:137-156) for meshless methods in the context of the finite element method (FEM), Liu et al. (Comput. Mech. 2007; 39(6):859-877) developed the Smoothed FEM (SFEM). Although the SFEM is not yet well understood mathematically, numerical experiments point to potentially useful features of this particularly simple modification of the FEM. To date, the SFEM has only been investigated for bilinear and Wachspress approximations and is limited to linear reproducing conditions. The goal of this paper is to extend the strain smoothing to higher order elements and to investigate numerically in which condition strain smoothing is beneficial to accuracy and convergence of enriched finite element approximations. We focus on three widely used enrichment schemes, namely: (a) weak discontinuities; (b) strong discontinuities; (c) near-tip linear elastic fracture mechanics functions. The main conclusion is that strain smoothing in enriched approximation is only beneficial when the enrichment functions are polynomial (cases (a) and (b)), but that non-polynomial enrichment of type (c) lead to inferior methods compared to the standard enriched FEM (e.g. XFEM). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Algorithm to compute damage from load in composites
Dunant, Cyrille F.; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

in Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China (2011), 5(2), 180-193

We present a new method to model fracture of concrete based on energy minimisation. The concrete is considered on the mesoscale as composite consisting of cement paste, aggregates and micro pores. In this ... [more ▼]

We present a new method to model fracture of concrete based on energy minimisation. The concrete is considered on the mesoscale as composite consisting of cement paste, aggregates and micro pores. In this first step, the alkali-silica reaction is taken into account through damage mechanics though the process is more complex involving thermo-hygro-chemo-mechanical reaction. We use a non-local damage model that ensures the well-posedness of the boundary value problem (BVP). In contrast to existing methods, the interactions between degrees of freedom evolve with the damage evolutions. Numerical results are compared to analytical and experimental results and show good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite element analysis on implicitly defined domains: An accurate representation based on arbitrary parametric surfaces
Moumnassi, M.; Belouettar, S.; Béchet, T. et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2011), 200(5-8), 774-796

In this paper, we present some novel results and ideas for robust and accurate implicit representation of geometric surfaces in finite element analysis. The novel contributions of this paper are threefold ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present some novel results and ideas for robust and accurate implicit representation of geometric surfaces in finite element analysis. The novel contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) describe and validate a method to represent arbitrary parametric surfaces implicitly; (2) represent arbitrary solids implicitly, including sharp features using level sets and boolean operations; (3) impose arbitrary Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the resulting implicitly defined boundaries. The methods proposed do not require local refinement of the finite element mesh in regions of high curvature, ensure the independence of the domain's volume on the mesh, do not rely on boundary regularization, and are well suited to methods based on fixed grids such as the extended finite element method (XFEM). Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach and show that it is possible to achieve optimal convergence rates using a fully implicit representation of object boundaries. This approach is one step in the desired direction of tying numerical simulations to computer aided design (CAD), similarly to the isogeometric analysis paradigm. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailA cell - based smoothed finite element method for free vibration and buckling analysis of shells
Thai-Hoang, Chien; Nguyen-Thanh, Nhon; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung et al

in KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2011), 15(2), 347-361

This paper further extends a cell-based smoothed finite element method for free vibration and buckling analysis of shells. A four-node quadrilateral Mindlin-Reissner shell element with a gradient ... [more ▼]

This paper further extends a cell-based smoothed finite element method for free vibration and buckling analysis of shells. A four-node quadrilateral Mindlin-Reissner shell element with a gradient smoothing operator is adopted. The membrane-bending and geometrical stiffness matrices are computed along the boundaries of the smoothing cells while the shear stiffness matrix is calculated by an independent interpolation in the natural coordinates as in the MITC4 (the Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Components) element. Various numerical results are compared with existing exact and numerical solutions and they are in good agreement. The advantage of the present formulation is that it retains higher accurate than the MITC4 element even for heavily distorted meshes without increasing the computational cost. © 2011 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. [less ▲]

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See detailAccurate evaluation of stress intensity factors using error estimation in quantities of interest based on equilibrated recovery
González-Estrada, O. A.; Ródenas, J. J.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Oliver, J; Jirasek, M; Allix, O (Eds.) et al Computational Modeling of Fracture and Failure of Materials and Structures. Proceedings of CFRAC 2011 (2011)

During the last years the use of error estimators which measure the error in a quantity of interest defined by the analyst, instead of the energy norm, have become increasingly popular as they provide an ... [more ▼]

During the last years the use of error estimators which measure the error in a quantity of interest defined by the analyst, instead of the energy norm, have become increasingly popular as they provide an error indicator for goal oriented adaptivity procedures. In this paper we propose an a posteriori recovery-based error estimation procedure which considers the stress intensity factor K typical of singular problems as the quantity of interest in finite element (FE) approximations. In general, error estimators in quantities of interest have been based on residual techniques and, although recovery techniques have been often preferred when considering the error in energy norm due to their robustness and simplicity, so far, there is no available procedure which considers an equilibrated recovery technique that can be used in standard FE frameworks. In [1] a standard SPR recovery technique is used to obtain an error measure of the J-integral, which is closely related to the value of the SIF. However, it does not consider any equilibrium constraints or the singularity near the crack tip, thus the obtained recovered stress field is not well suited for this kind of problems. The technique proposed herein relies on the enhanced superconvergent patch recovery technique presented in [2] to evaluate highly accurate recovered stress fields of the primal and dual problems, which are then used to obtain a sharp error estimate. The primal problem is simply the problem under analysis. To formulate the dual problem we consider the linear interaction integral representing K to obtain the applied loads of the dual FE approximation to solve. The high accuracy of the recovered stress fields for both the primal and dual solutions is obtained by decomposing the raw stress field obtained from the finite element approximations into singular and smooth parts, and enforcing the fulfilment of boundary and internal equilibrium equations. The results indicate an accurate estimation of the error in K for benchmark problems with exact solution. [less ▲]

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See detailEquilibrated patch recovery for accurate evaluation of upper error bounds in quantities of interest
González-Estrada, Octavio Andrés; Ródenas, J J; Nadal, Enrique et al

in Audry, D; Díez, P; Tie, B (Eds.) et al Adaptive Modeling and Simulation. Proceedings of V ADMOS 2011 (2011)

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See detailEstimación precisa del error en magnitudes de interés mediante técnicas de recovery con equilibrio local
Nadal, E.; Ródenas, J. J.; González-Estrada, O. A. et al

in Congress on Numerical Methods in Engineering (2011)

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See detailOn the use of recovery techniques for accurate error estimation and error bounding in XFEM
Ródenas, J. J.; González-Estrada, O. A.; Fuenmayor, F. J. et al

in Bordas, Stéphane; Kerfriden, Pierre (Eds.) 2nd International Conference on the Extended Finite Element Method (2011)

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See detailAccurate evaluation of K in XFEM using error estimation in quantities of interest based on equilibrated recovery
González-Estrada, O. A.; Ródenas, J. J.; Nadal, E. et al

in Bordas, Stéphane; Kerfriden, P (Eds.) 2nd International Conference on the Extended Finite Element Method (2011)

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See detailA node-based smoothed extended finite element method (NS-XFEM) for fracture analysis
Vu-Bac, N.; Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Chen, L. et al

in Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences (2011), 73(4), 331-355

This paper aims to incorporate the node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM) into the extended finite element method (XFEM) to form a novel numerical method (NS-XFEM) for analyzing fracture ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to incorporate the node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM) into the extended finite element method (XFEM) to form a novel numerical method (NS-XFEM) for analyzing fracture problems of 2D elasticity. NS-FEM uses the strain smoothing technique over the smoothing domains associated with nodes to compute the system stiffness matrix, which leads to the line integrations using directly the shape function values along the boundaries of the smoothing domains. As a result, we avoid integration of the stress singularity at the crack tip. It is not necessary to divide elements cut by cracks when we replace interior integration by boundary integration, simplifying integration of the discontinuous approximation. The key advantage of the NS-XFEM is that it provides more accurate solutions compared to the XFEM-T3 element. We will show for two numerical examples that the NS-XFEM significantly improves the results in the energy norm and the stress intensity factors. For the examples studied, we obtain super-convergent results. [less ▲]

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See detailAlleviating the Mesh Burden in Computational Solid Mechanics
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Rabczuk, Timon; Ródenas, Juan-Jo et al

in Proceedings of ECT2010 (2010, December 12)

The goal of this chapter is to review recent avenues of investigation to alleviate meshing difficulties in computational mechanics and give a few exemplar applications. Keywords: meshing; enrichment ... [more ▼]

The goal of this chapter is to review recent avenues of investigation to alleviate meshing difficulties in computational mechanics and give a few exemplar applications. Keywords: meshing; enrichment; meshfree methods; extended finite element methods; isogeometric analysis; advanced remeshing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF CRACKED ISOTROPIC PLATES USING THE EXTENDED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Baiz, PM; Natarajan, Stéphane; Kerfriden, P. et al

Scientific Conference (2010, March)

The behaviour of plate structures under compressive loads has been of great concern for engineering applications, especially in aeronautical and aerospace structures in which the demanding design of ... [more ▼]

The behaviour of plate structures under compressive loads has been of great concern for engineering applications, especially in aeronautical and aerospace structures in which the demanding design of weight critical applications usually leads to stability problems. In this paper, the linear buckling problem of cracked isotropic plates is studied using the extended finite element method (XFEM). The mixed interpolation technique of the well-established MITC4 quadrilateral finite element with 12 standard degrees of freedom per element is used. The critical buckling load and mode shapes of simply supported square plates are computed as a function of crack length. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerically determined enrichment functions for the extended finite element method and applications to bi-material anisotropic fracture and polycrystals
Menk, Alexander; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2010), 83(7), 805-828

Strain singularities appear in many linear elasticity problems. A very fine mesh has to be used in the vicinity of the singularity in order to obtain acceptable numerical solutions with the finite element ... [more ▼]

Strain singularities appear in many linear elasticity problems. A very fine mesh has to be used in the vicinity of the singularity in order to obtain acceptable numerical solutions with the finite element method (FEM). Special enrichment functions describing this singular behavior can be used in the extended finite element method (X-FEM) to circumvent this problem. These functions have to be known in advance, but their analytical form is unknown in many cases. Li et al. described a method to calculate singular strain fields at the tip of a notch numerically. A slight modification of this approach makes it possible to calculate singular fields also in the interior of the structural domain. We will show in numerical experiments that convergence rates can be significantly enhanced by using these approximations in the X-FEM. The convergence rates have been compared with the ones obtained by the FEM. This was done for a series of problems including a polycrystalline structure. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the approximation in the smoothed finite element method (SFEM)
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Natarajan, S.

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2010), 81(5), 660-670

This letter aims at resolving the issues raised in the recent short communication (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2008; 76(8):1285-1295. DOI: 10.1002/nme.2460) and answered by (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2009 ... [more ▼]

This letter aims at resolving the issues raised in the recent short communication (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2008; 76(8):1285-1295. DOI: 10.1002/nme.2460) and answered by (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2009; DOI: 10.1002/nme.2587) by proposing a systematic approximation scheme based on non-mapped shape functions, which both allows to fully exploit the unique advantages of the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) (Comput. Mech. 2007; 39(6):859-877. DOI: 10.1007/s00466-006-0075-4; Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2009; 25(1):19-34. DOI: 10.1002/cnm.1098; Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2007; 71(8):902-930; Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng 2008; 198(2):165-177. DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2008.05.029; Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng 2007; submitted; Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2008; 74(2):175-208. DOI: 10.1002/nme.2146; Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng 2008; 197 (13-16):1184-1203. DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2007.10.008) and resolve the existence, linearity and positivity deficiencies pointed out in (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2008; 76(8):1285-1295). We show that Wachspress interpolants (A Rational Basis for Function Approximation. Academic Press, Inc.: New York, 1975) computed in the physical coordinate system are very well suited to the SFEM, especially when elements are heavily distorted (obtuse interior angles). The proposed approximation leads to results that are almost identical to those of the SFEM initially proposed in (Comput. Mech. 2007; 39(6):859-877. DOI: 10.1007/s00466-006-0075-4). These results suggest that the proposed approximation scheme forms a strong and rigorous basis for the construction of SFEMs. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailOn three-dimensional modelling of crack growth using partition of unity methods
Rabczuk, Timon; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Zi, Goangseup

in Computers & Structures (2010), 88(23-24), 1391-1411

This paper reviews different crack tracking techniques in three-dimensions applicable in the context of partition of unity methods, especially meshfree methods. Issues such as describing and tracking the ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews different crack tracking techniques in three-dimensions applicable in the context of partition of unity methods, especially meshfree methods. Issues such as describing and tracking the crack surface are addressed. A crack tracking procedure is proposed in detail and implemented in the context of the extended element-free Galerkin method (XEFG). Several three-dimensional cracking examples are compared to other results from the literature or the experimental data and show good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailOn numerical integration of discontinuous approximations in partition of unity finite elements
Natarajan, S.; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Mahapatra, D. R.

in IUTAM Bookseries (2010), 19

This contribution presents two advances in the formulation of discontinuous approximations in finite elements. The first method relies on Schwarz-Christoffel mapping for integration on arbitrary polygonal ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents two advances in the formulation of discontinuous approximations in finite elements. The first method relies on Schwarz-Christoffel mapping for integration on arbitrary polygonal domains [1]. When an element is split into two subdomains by a piecewise continuous discontinuity, each of these polygonal domains is mapped onto a unit disk on which cubature rules are utilized. This suppresses the need for the usual two-level isoparametric mapping. The second method relies on strain smoothing applied to discontinuous finite element approximations. By writing the strain field as a non-local weighted average of the compatible strain field, integration on the surface of the finite elements is transformed into boundary integration, so that the usual subdivision into integration cells is not required, an isoparametric mapping is not needed and the derivatives of the shape (enrichment) functions do not need to be computed. Results in fracture mechanics and composite materials are presented and both methods are compared in terms of accuracy and simplicity. The interested reader is referred to [1,6,13] for more details and should contact the authors to receive a version of the MATLAB codes used to obtain the results herein. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the structure of a new superhard hexagonal carbon phase
Zhang, Bin; Liang, Yongcheng; Guo, Zaoyang et al

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2010), 1233(PART 1), 489-493

Molecular dynamics simulations show that graphite will transform into a superhard phase under cold compression. Recent experiments show that there is a sp 3-rich hexagonal carbon polymorph (a 0=2.496 Å, c ... [more ▼]

Molecular dynamics simulations show that graphite will transform into a superhard phase under cold compression. Recent experiments show that there is a sp 3-rich hexagonal carbon polymorph (a 0=2.496 Å, c 0=4.123Å) with a bulk modulus of 447 GPa and average density about 3.6g/cm 3, restricted to the space group of P-62c (No. 190), but the detailed atomic structure was not obtained [Wang et al., P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101(38), 13699]. Here we set carbon atoms occupying P-62c 4f Wyckoff positions of P-62c, and calculate the total energy of the different structures changing the internal parameter z by first-principles calculations using geometry optimisation algorithm in CASTEP code, which shows that the stable structures in energy (at local minimum points) are hexagonal carbon (z=1/4) and hexagonal diamond (z=1/16). The calculated mechanical properties and lattice parameters of the structure P-62c 4f (z=1/4) are in good agreement with those of the new hexagonal carbon proposed by Wang et al., which indicates that the atomic structure is a possible candidate. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating strong and weak discontinuities without integration subcells and example applications in an XFEM/GFEM framework
Natarajan, S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2010), 83(3), 269-294

Partition of unity methods, such as the extended finite element method, allows discontinuities to be simulated independently of the mesh (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 1999; 45:601-620). This eliminates the ... [more ▼]

Partition of unity methods, such as the extended finite element method, allows discontinuities to be simulated independently of the mesh (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 1999; 45:601-620). This eliminates the need for the mesh to be aligned with the discontinuity or cumbersome re-meshing, as the discontinuity evolves. However, to compute the stiffness matrix of the elements intersected by the discontinuity, a subdivision of the elements into quadrature subcells aligned with the discontinuity is commonly adopted. In this paper, we use a simple integration technique, proposed for polygonal domains (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2009; 80(1):103-134. DOI: 10.1002/nme.2589) to suppress the need for element subdivision. Numerical results presented for a few benchmark problems in the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics and a multi-material problem show that the proposed method yields accurate results. Owing to its simplicity, the proposed integration technique can be easily integrated in any existing code. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of thermoelastic waves in a two-dimensional functionally graded materials domain by the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method
Akbari R., Ahmad; Bagri, A.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences (2010), 65(1), 27-74

This contribution focuses on the simulation of two-dimensional elastic wave propagation in functionally graded solids and structures. Gradient volume fractions of the constituent materials are assumed to ... [more ▼]

This contribution focuses on the simulation of two-dimensional elastic wave propagation in functionally graded solids and structures. Gradient volume fractions of the constituent materials are assumed to obey the power law function of position in only one direction and the effective mechanical properties of the material are determined by the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The investigations are carried out by extending a meshless method known as the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method which is a truly meshless approach to thermo-elastic wave propagation. Simulations are carried out for rectangular domains under transient thermal loading. To investigate the effect of material composition on the dynamic response of functionally graded materials, a metal/ceramic (Aluminum (Al) and Alumina (Al 2O 3) are considered as ceramic and metal constituents) composite is considered for which the transient thermal field, dynamic displacement and stress fields are reported for different material distributions. Copyright © 2010 Tech Science Press. [less ▲]

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