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See detailModelling interfacial cracking with non-matching cohesive interface elements
Nguyen, Viet Ha UL; Nguyen, Chi Thanh; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Computational Mechanics (2016), 58(5), 731-746

Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these ... [more ▼]

Interfacial cracking occurs in many engineering problems such as delamination in composite laminates, matrix/interface debonding in fibre reinforced composites etc. Computational modelling of these interfacial cracks usually employs compatible or matching cohesive interface elements. In this paper, incompatible or non-matching cohesive interface elements are proposed for interfacial fracture mechanics problems. They allow non-matching finite element discretisations of the opposite crack faces thus lifting the constraint on the compatible discretisation of the domains sharing the interface. The formulation is based on a discontinuous Galerkin method and works with both initially elastic and rigid cohesive laws. The proposed formulation has the following advantages compared to classical interface elements: (i) non-matching discretisations of the domains and (ii) no high dummy stiffness. Two and three dimensional quasi-static fracture simulations are conducted to demonstrate the method. Our method not only simplifies the meshing process but also it requires less computational demands, compared with standard interface elements, for problems that involve materials/solids having a large mismatch in stiffnesses. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of nocturnal hypoglycemia by an aggregation of previously known prediction approaches: proof of concept for clinical application
Tkachenko, Pavlo; Kriukova, Galyna; Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL et al

in Computer Methods & Programs in Biomedicine (2016), 134

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See detailXDEM for Tuning Lumped Models of Thermochemical Processes Involving Materials in the Powder State
Copertaro, Edoardo UL; Chiariotti, Paolo; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio UL et al

in Engineering Journal (2016), 20(5), 187-201

Processes involving materials in gaseous and powder states cannot be modelled without coupling interactions between the two states. XDEM (Extended Discrete Element Method) is a valid tool for tackling ... [more ▼]

Processes involving materials in gaseous and powder states cannot be modelled without coupling interactions between the two states. XDEM (Extended Discrete Element Method) is a valid tool for tackling this issue, since it allows a coupled CFD- DEM simulation to be run. Such strength, however, mainly finds in long computational times its main drawback. This aspect is indeed critical in several applications, since a long computational time is in contrast with the increasing demand for predictive tools that can provide fast and accurate results in order to be used in new monitoring and control strategies. This paper focuses on the use of the XDEM framework as a tool for fine tuning a lumped representation of the non-isothermal decarbonation of a CaCO3 sample in powder state. The tuning of the lumped model is performed exploiting the multi-objective optimization capability of genetic algorithms. Results demonstrate that such approach makes it possible to estimate fast and accurate models to be used, for instance, in the fields of virtual sensing and predictive control. [less ▲]

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See detailAn iterative learning approach for anticipatory traffic signal control on urban networks
Huang, Wei; Viti, Francesco UL; Tampere, Chris

in Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics (2016)

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See detailOvercoming Design Fixation: Design-by-Analogy Studies and Non-Intuitive Findings
Moreno Grandas, Diana Paola UL; Blessing, Lucienne; Yang, Maria et al

in Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing – AIEDAM (2016), 20(2), 185-199

Design fixation is a phenomenon with important significance to many fields of design due to the potential negative impacts it may have in design outcomes, especially during the ideation stage of the ... [more ▼]

Design fixation is a phenomenon with important significance to many fields of design due to the potential negative impacts it may have in design outcomes, especially during the ideation stage of the design process. The present study aims to provide a framework for understanding, or at least probing, design fixation by presenting a review of existing defixation approaches, as well as metrics that have been employed to understand and account for design fixation. This study also describes the results of two design by analogy (DbA) methods, WordTree and SCAMPER, to overcome design fixation in an experiment that involved 97 knowledge-domain experts. The study outcomes are at least twofold: a common framework of metrics and approaches to overcome design fixation in a wide range of design problems and nonintuitive results for DbA approaches in design fixation and other related creativity metrics. The application of WordTree and SCAMPER shows that both methods yield increased novelty compared to a control, where the SCAMPER results are significantly higher than WordTree. It is also found that WordTree mitigates design fixation whereas SCAMPER appears to be ineffective for this purpose but effective to generate an increased quantity of novel ideas. These results demonstrate that both DbA methods provide defixation capabilities and enhance designers’ creativity during idea generation. [less ▲]

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See detailStrongly-coupled modelling and analysis of energy harvesting devices
Zilian, Andreas UL; Ravi, Srivathsan UL

in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (2016), 16

A monolithic approach is proposed that provides simultaneous modelling and analysis of the harvester, which involves surface- coupled fluid-structure interaction, volume-coupled electro- mechanics and a ... [more ▼]

A monolithic approach is proposed that provides simultaneous modelling and analysis of the harvester, which involves surface- coupled fluid-structure interaction, volume-coupled electro- mechanics and a controlling energy harvesting circuit for applica- tions in energy harvesting. A space-time finite element approximation is used for numerical solution of the weighted residual form of the governing equations of the flow-driven piezoelectric energy harvesting device. This method enables time-domain investigation of different types of structures (plate, shells) subject to exterior/interior flow with varying cross sections, material compositions, and attached electrical circuits with respect to the electrical power output generated. [less ▲]

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See detailStable 3D extended finite elements with higher order enrichment for accurate non planar fracture
Agathos, Konstantinos UL; Chatzi, Eleni; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2016), 306

An extended finite element method (XFEM) for three dimensional (3D) non-planar linear elastic fracture is introduced, which provides optimal convergence through the use of enrichment in a fixed area ... [more ▼]

An extended finite element method (XFEM) for three dimensional (3D) non-planar linear elastic fracture is introduced, which provides optimal convergence through the use of enrichment in a fixed area around the crack front, while also improving the conditioning of the resulting system matrices. This is achieved by fusing a novel form of enrichment with existing blending techniques. Further, the adoption of higher order terms of theWilliams expansion is also considered and the effects in the accuracy and conditioning of the method are studied. Moreover, some problems regarding the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs) and element partitioning are dealt with. The accuracy and convergence properties of the method as well as the conditioning of the resulting stiffness matrices are investigated through the use of appropriate benchmark problems. It is shown that the proposed approach provides increased accuracy while requiring, for all cases considered, a reduced number of iterations for the solution of the resulting systems of equations. The positive impact of geometrical enrichment is further demonstrated in the accuracy of the computed SIFs where, for the examined cases, an improvement of up to 40% is achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailA sensitivity-based approach for adaptive decomposition of anticipatory network traffic control
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Himpe, W.; Tampère, C. M. J.

in Transportation Research. Part C : Emerging Technologies (2016), 66

Anticipatory optimal network control is defined as the problem of determining the set of control actions that minimizes a network-wide objective function. This not only takes into account local ... [more ▼]

Anticipatory optimal network control is defined as the problem of determining the set of control actions that minimizes a network-wide objective function. This not only takes into account local consequences on the propagation of flows, but also the global network-wide routing behavior of the users. Such an objective function is, in general, defined in a centralized setting, as knowledge regarding the whole network is needed to correctly compute it. Reaching a level of centralization sufficient to attain network-wide control objectives is however rarely realistic in practice. Multiple authorities are influencing different portions the network, separated either hierarchically or geographically. The distributed nature of networks and traffic directly influences the complexity of the anticipatory control problem. This is our motivation for this work, in which we introduce a decomposition mechanism for the global anticipatory network traffic control problem, based on dynamic clustering of traffic controllers. Rather than solving the full centralized problem, or blindly performing a full controller-wise decomposition, this technique allows recognizing when and which controllers should be grouped in clusters, and when, instead, these can be optimized separately. The practical relevance with respect to our motivation is that our approach allows identification of those network traffic conditions in which multiple actors need to actively coordinate their actions, or when unilateral action suffices for still approximating global optimality. This clustering procedure is based on well-known algebraic and statistical tools that exploit the network's sensitivity to control and its structure to deduce coupling behavior. We devise several case studies in order to assess our newly introduced procedure's performances, in comparison with fully decomposed and fully centralized anticipatory optimal network control, and show that our approach is able to outperform both centralized and decomposed procedures. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailNew services, new travelers, old models? Directions to pioneer public transport models in the era of big data
Fonzone, Achille; Schmocker, Jan-Dirk; Viti, Francesco UL

in Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems (2016)

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See detailOn the convergence of stresses in fretting fatigue
Pereira, Kyvia; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Tomar, Satyendra UL et al

in Materials (2016), 9(8),

Fretting is a phenomenon that occurs at the contacts of surfaces that are subjected to oscillatory relative movement of small amplitudes. Depending on service conditions, fretting may significantly reduce ... [more ▼]

Fretting is a phenomenon that occurs at the contacts of surfaces that are subjected to oscillatory relative movement of small amplitudes. Depending on service conditions, fretting may significantly reduce the service life of a component due to fretting fatigue. In this regard, the analysis of stresses at contact is of great importance for predicting the lifetime of components. However, due to the complexity of the fretting phenomenon, analytical solutions are available for very selective situations and finite element (FE) analysis has become an attractive tool to evaluate stresses and to study fretting problems. Recent laboratory studies in fretting fatigue suggested the presence of stress singularities in the stick-slip zone. In this paper, we constructed finite element models, with different element sizes, in order to verify the existence of stress singularity under fretting conditions. Based on our results, we did not find any singularity for the considered loading conditions and coefficients of friction. Since no singularity was found, the present paper also provides some comments regarding the convergence rate. Our analyses showed that the convergence rate in stress components depends on coefficient of friction, implying that this rate also depends on the loading condition. It was also observed that errors can be relatively high for cases with a high coefficient of friction, suggesting the importance of mesh refinement in these situations. Although the accuracy of the FE analysis is very important for satisfactory predictions, most of the studies in the literature rarely provide information regarding the level of error in simulations. Thus, some recommendations of mesh sizes for those who wish to perform FE analysis of fretting problems are provided for different levels of accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailA fast, certified and "tuning free" two-field reduced basis method for the metamodelling of affinely-parametrised elasticity problems
Hoang, K. C.; Kerfriden, P.; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2016), 298

This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate reduced order models for the primal variable (displacement) and flux (stress) fields. A two field greedy sampling strategy is proposed to construct these two fields simultaneously and in an efficient manner: at each iteration, one of the two fields is enriched by increasing the dimension of its reduced space in such a way that the CRE is minimised. This sampling strategy is then used as a basis to construct goal-oriented reduced order modelling. The resulting algorithm is certified and “tuning free”: the only requirement from the engineer is the level of accuracy that is desired for each of the outputs of the surrogate. It is also shown to be significantly more efficient in terms of computational expense than competing methodologies. [less ▲]

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See detailA dual control approach for repeated anticipatory traffic control with estimation of network flow sensitivity
Huang, Wei; Viti, Francesco UL; Tampere, Chris

in Journal of Advanced Transportation (2016)

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See detailStructural health monitoring based on static measurements with temperature compensation
Nguyen, Viet Ha UL; Schommer, Sebastian UL; Zürbes, Arno et al

in QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROADWAY BRIDGES, STANDARDIZATION AT A EUROPEAN LEVEL (2016)

The paper presents the main results from static tests in a prestressed concrete beam taken out from a real bridge. The tests were achieved during about one month with several scenarios of damage that ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the main results from static tests in a prestressed concrete beam taken out from a real bridge. The tests were achieved during about one month with several scenarios of damage that loaded and unloaded states were monitored for each scenario. Damages in 4 levels were simulated by cutting prestressed tendons. There were 8 transducers distributed along the length’s beam to measure displacements. Deflection lines resulted from the static measurements from every state allow discovering the location of damages. Moreover, the calculation of slope and curvature lines leads also to very interesting issues for damage localization. [less ▲]

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See detailRepeated anticipatory network traffic control using iterative optimization accounting for model bias correction
Huang, Wei; Viti, Francesco UL; Tampere, Chris

in Transportation Research. Part C : Emerging Technologies (2016)

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See detailDeveloping composite nanofibre fabrics using electrospinning, ultrasonic sewing, and laser cutting technologies
Trejo, Nidia; Reyes, Catherine UL; Sanchez, Vanessa et al

in International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education (2016), 9(3), 192-200

In this study, we combine Nylon 6 nanomembranes with tulle and organza fashion fabrics to construct a full-scale, flying kite. For the first time, this work demonstrates the processing of electrospun ... [more ▼]

In this study, we combine Nylon 6 nanomembranes with tulle and organza fashion fabrics to construct a full-scale, flying kite. For the first time, this work demonstrates the processing of electrospun nanofabrics using laser cut and ultrasonic technologies. The composite fabrics were analysed for their morphological and mechanical properties. The fracture strain of the nanomembrane–tulle composites increased 58–171% compared to the control samples due to nanofibre entanglements on the open weave structure of tulle. The ultrasonic sewn fabric regions endured 169% greater applied stress with the addition of the organza fabric and the seaming process compared to the nanomembrane–tulle composite. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic analysis of global and local control policies
Cantelmo, Guido UL; Viti, Francesco UL; Rinaldi, Marco et al

in Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering (2015)

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See detailImplementation of regularized isogeometric boundary element methods for gradient-based shape optimization in two-dimensional linear elasticity
Haojie, Lian; Pierre, Kerfriden; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2015)

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See detailA Markov chain dynamic model for trip generation and distribution based on CDR
Viti, Francesco UL; Cantelmo, Guido UL

in Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering (2015)

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See detailGreener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (2015), 54

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher-order quasicontinuum methods for elastic and dissipative lattice models: uniaxial deformation and pure bending
Beex, Lars UL; Rokos, Ondrej; Zeman, Jan et al

in GAMM Mitteilungen (2015), 38(2), 344-368

The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been ... [more ▼]

The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been applied to (conservative) atomistic lattices in the past, but using a virtual-power-statement it was recently shown that QC approaches can also be used for spring and beam lattice models that include dissipation. Recent results have shown that QC approaches for planar beam lattices experiencing in-plane and out-of-plane deformation require higher-order interpolation. Higher-order QC frameworks are scarce nevertheless. In this contribution, the possibilities of a second-order and third-order QC framework are investigated for an elastoplastic spring lattice. The higher-order QC frameworks are compared to the results of the direct lattice computations and to those of a linear QC scheme. Examples are chosen so that both a macroscale and a microscale quantity influences the results. The two multiscale examples focused on are (i) macroscopically prescribed uniaxial deformation and (ii) macroscopically prescribed pure bending. Furthermore, the examples include an individual inclusion in a large lattice and hence, are concurrent in nature. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen-Cell Aluminium Foams with Graded Coatings as Passively Controllable Energy Absorbers
Jung, Anne; Beex, Lars UL; Diebels, Stefan et al

in Materials and Design (2015), 87

Compared to most bulk materials, open-cell aluminium (Al) foams (OCAFs) are light-weight and can absorb a significant amount of energy in compression, e.g. during impact.When coatedwith nickel (Ni), OCAFs ... [more ▼]

Compared to most bulk materials, open-cell aluminium (Al) foams (OCAFs) are light-weight and can absorb a significant amount of energy in compression, e.g. during impact.When coatedwith nickel (Ni), OCAFs can absorb even more energy, making them more appropriate for impacts at higher velocities than uncoated OCAFs. When Ni-coated OCAFs experience low-velocity impact however, the stopping distance during the impact is small compared to that of uncoated OCAFs and hence, deceleration occurs fast. This exposes devices (and possibly human beings) protected by OCAFs to large internal forces leading to internal damage. An OCAF that combines the properties of uncoated and coated OCAFs can absorb energy during both low-velocity and high-velocity impact scenarios. This contribution introduces two of such OCAFs which are created by partially and gradually coating OCAFs. The general mechanics of the two OCAFs are revealed using experimental and numerical observation methods. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating bike-share trips using station level data
Medard de Chardon, Cyrille UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Tranportation Research Part B: Methodological (2015), 78

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) have increased in number rapidly since 2007. The potential benefits of BSS, mainly sustainability, health and equity, have encouraged their adoption through support and ... [more ▼]

Bicycle sharing systems (BSS) have increased in number rapidly since 2007. The potential benefits of BSS, mainly sustainability, health and equity, have encouraged their adoption through support and promotion by mayors in Europe and North America alike. In most cases municipal governments desire their BSS to be successful and, with few exceptions, state them as being so. New technological improvements have dramatically simplified the use and enforcement of bicycle return, resulting in the widespread adoption of BSS. Unfortunately little evaluation of the effectiveness of differently distributed and managed BSS has taken place. Comparing BSS systems quantitatively is challenging due to the limited data made available. The metrics of success presented by municipalities are often too general or incomparable to others making relative evaluations of BSS success arduous. This paper presents multiple methodologies allowing the estimation of the number of daily trips, the most significant measure of BSS usage, based on data that is commonly available, the number of bicycles available at a station over time. Results provide model coefficients as well as trip count estimates for select cities. Of four spatial and temporal aggregate models the day level aggregation is found to be most effective for estimation. In addition to trip estimation this work provides a rigorous formalization of station level data and the ability to distinguish spatio-temporal rebalancing quantities as well as new characteristics of BSS station use. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effect of route information on network observability applied to sensor location problems
Rinaldi, Marco; Corman, Francesco; Viti, Francesco UL

in Transportation Research Procedia (2015), 10

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See detailBiomechanical properties of five different currently used implants for open-wedge high tibial osteotomy
Diffo Kaze, Arnaud UL; Maas, Stefan UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2015), 2(14),

Background: As several new tibial osteotomy plates recently appeared on the market, the aim of the present study was to compare mechanical static and fatigue strength of three newly designed plates with ... [more ▼]

Background: As several new tibial osteotomy plates recently appeared on the market, the aim of the present study was to compare mechanical static and fatigue strength of three newly designed plates with gold standard plates for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis. Methods: Sixteen fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomyn(HTO) according to standard techniques, using five TomoFix standard plates, five PEEKPower plates and six iBalance implants. Static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclic fatigue failure tests were performed. Forces, horizontal and vertical displacements were measured; rotational permanent plastic deformations, maximal displacement ranges in the hysteresis loops of the cyclic loading responses and dynamic stiffness were determined. Results: Static compression load to failure tests revealed that all plates showed sufficient stability up to 2400 N without any signs of opposite cortex fracture, which occurred above this load in all constructs at different load levels. During the fatigue failure tests, screw breakage in the iBalance group and opposite cortex fractures in all constructs occurred only under physiological loading conditions (<2400 N). The highest fatigue strength in terms of maximal load and number of cycles performed prior to failure was observed for the ContourLock group followed by the iBalance implants, the TomoFix standard (std) and small stature (sm) plates. The PEEKPower group showed the lowest fatigue strength. Conclusions: All plates showed sufficient stability under static loading. Compared to the TomoFix and the PEEKPower plates, the ContourLock plate and iBalance implant showed a higher mechanical fatigue strength during cyclic fatigue testing. These data suggest that both mechanical static and fatigue strength increase with a wider proximal T-shaped plate design together with diverging proximal screws as used in the ContourLock plate or a closed-wedge construction as in the iBalance design. Mechanical strength of the bone-implant constructs decreases with a narrow T-shaped proximal end design and converging proximal screws (TomoFix) or a short vertical plate design (PEEKPower Plate). Whenever high mechanical strength is required, a ContourLock or iBalance plate should be selected. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy harvesting
Zilian, Andreas UL

in Science and Technology (2015), 15

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See detailIsogeometric analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates using higher-order shear deformation theory
P., Phung-Van; M., Abdel-Wahab; K.M., Liew et al

in Composite Structures (2015), 123

This paper presents a simple and effective formulation based on isogeometric Analysis (IGA) and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) to investigate the static and dynamic vibration behaviour of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a simple and effective formulation based on isogeometric Analysis (IGA) and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) to investigate the static and dynamic vibration behaviour of functionally graded carbon nano-reinforced composite plates. The material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are assumed to be graded through the thickness direction according to several linear distributions of the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The governing equation is approximated according to the HSDT model using isogeometric elements based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) basis functions. This achieves naturally any desired degree of continuity through the choice of the interpolation order, so that the method easily fulfils the C1-continuity requirement of the HSDT model. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed method is verified by comparing its numerical predictions with those of other available numerical approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailOn minimal realisations of dynamical structure functions
Yuan, Ye; Glover, Keith; Goncalves, Jorge UL

in Automatica (2015), 55

Motivated by the fact that transfer functions do not contain structural information about networks, dynamical structure functions were introduced to capture causal relationships between measured nodes in ... [more ▼]

Motivated by the fact that transfer functions do not contain structural information about networks, dynamical structure functions were introduced to capture causal relationships between measured nodes in networks. From the dynamical structure functions, a) we show that the actual number of hidden states can be larger than the number of hidden states estimated from the corresponding transfer function; b) we can obtain partial information about the true state-space equation, which cannot in general be obtained from the transfer function. Based on these properties, this paper proposes algorithms to find minimal realisations for a given dynamical structure function. This helps to estimate the minimal number of hidden states, to better understand the complexity of the network, and to identify potential targets for new measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline Fault Diagnosis for Nonlinear Power Systems
Pan, Wei UL; Yuan, Ye; Sandberg, Henrik et al

in Automatica (2015), 55

In this paper, automatic fault diagnosis in large scale power networks described by second-order nonlinear swing equations is studied. This work focuses on a class of faults that occur in the transmission ... [more ▼]

In this paper, automatic fault diagnosis in large scale power networks described by second-order nonlinear swing equations is studied. This work focuses on a class of faults that occur in the transmission lines. Transmission line protection is an important issue in power system engineering because a large portion of power system faults is occurring in transmission lines. This paper presents a novel technique to detect, isolate and identify the faults on transmissions using only a small number of observations. We formulate the problem of fault diagnosis of nonlinear power network into a compressive sensing framework and derive an optimisationbased formulation of the fault identification problem. An iterative reweighted `1-minimisation algorithm is finally derived to solve the detection problem efficiently. Under the proposed framework, a real-time fault monitoring scheme can be built using only measurements of phase angles of nonlinear power networks. [less ▲]

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See detailFastMotif: Spectral Sequence Motif Discovery
Colombo, Nicolo UL; Vlassis, Nikos UL

in Bioinformatics (2015)

Motivation: Sequence discovery tools play a central role in several fields of computational biology. In the framework of Transcription Factor binding studies, most of the existing motif finding algorithms ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Sequence discovery tools play a central role in several fields of computational biology. In the framework of Transcription Factor binding studies, most of the existing motif finding algorithms are computationally demanding, and they may not be able to support the increasingly large datasets produced by modern high-throughput sequencing technologies. Results: We present FastMotif, a new motif discovery algorithm that is built on a recent machine learning technique referred to as Method of Moments. Based on spectral decompositions, our method is robust to model misspecifications and is not prone to locally optimal solutions. We obtain an algorithm that is extremely fast and designed for the analysis of big sequencing data. On HT-Selex data, FastMotif extracts motif profiles that match those computed by various state-of- the-art algorithms, but one order of magnitude faster. We provide a theoretical and numerical analysis of the algorithm’s robustness and discuss its sensitivity with respect to the free parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributed high-gain attitude synchronization using rotation vectors
Song, W.; Thunberg, Johan UL; Hu, X. et al

in Journal of Systems Science and Complexity (2015), 28(2), 289-304

This paper addresses attitude synchronization problems for systems of multiple rigid-body agents with directed interconnection topologies. Two scenarios which differ in available information are ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses attitude synchronization problems for systems of multiple rigid-body agents with directed interconnection topologies. Two scenarios which differ in available information are considered. In the first scenario the agents can obtain their rotations and angular velocities relative to an inertial reference frame and transmit these information to their neighbors, while in the second scenario the agents can only obtain their own angular velocities and measure the relative rotations and relative angular velocities of their neighbors. By using rotation vectors and the high gain control, the authors provide torque control laws asymptotically synchronizing the rotations of the system almost globally for the first scenario and with initial rotations of the agents contained in a convex ball of SO(3) for the second scenario. An illustrative example is provided to show the synchronization results for both scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailA warmer world
van Dam, Tonie UL; Weigelt, Matthias UL; Jäggi, Adrian

in Pan European Networks (2015), (14), 58-59

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See detailMeshfree volume-averaged nodal projection method for nearly-incompressible elasticity using meshfree and bubble basis functions
Ortiz-Benardin, Alejandro; Hale, Jack UL; Cyron, Christian J.

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015), 285

We present a displacement-based Galerkin meshfree method for the analysis of nearly-incompressible linear elastic solids, where low-order simplicial tessellations (i.e., 3- node triangular or 4-node ... [more ▼]

We present a displacement-based Galerkin meshfree method for the analysis of nearly-incompressible linear elastic solids, where low-order simplicial tessellations (i.e., 3- node triangular or 4-node tetrahedral meshes) are used as a background structure for numerical integration of the weak form integrals and to get the nodal information for the computation of the meshfree basis functions. In this approach, a volume- averaged nodal projection operator is constructed to project the dilatational strain into an approximation space of equal- or lower-order than the approximation space for the displacement field resulting in a locking-free method. The stability of the method is provided via bubble-like basis functions. Because the notion of an ‘ele- ment’ or ‘cell’ is not present in the computation of the meshfree basis functions such low-order tessellations can be used regardless of the order of the approximation spaces desired. First- and second-order meshfree basis functions are chosen as a particular case in the proposed method. Numerical examples are provided in two and three dimensions to demonstrate the robustness of the method, its ability to avoid volumetric locking in the nearly-incompressible regime, and its improved performance when compared to the MINI finite element scheme on the simplicial mesh. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Nusselt number enhancements in liquid-liquid Taylor flows
Mac Giolla Eain, Marc UL

in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (2015), 80

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See detailSusceptibility-Weighted MRI for Deep Brain Stimulation: Potentials in Trajectory Planning
Hertel, Frank UL; Husch, Andreas UL; Dooms, Georges et al

in Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery (2015), 93(5), 303-308

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) trajectory plan- ning is mostly based on standard 3-D T1-weighted gado- linium-enhanced MRI sequences (T1-Gd). Susceptibility- weighted MRI sequences (SWI) show ... [more ▼]

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) trajectory plan- ning is mostly based on standard 3-D T1-weighted gado- linium-enhanced MRI sequences (T1-Gd). Susceptibility- weighted MRI sequences (SWI) show neurovascular struc- tures without the use of contrast agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SWI might be useful in DBS trajectory planning. Methods: We performed bilateral DBS planning using conventional T1-Gd images of 10 patients with different kinds of movement disorders. Afterwards, we matched SWI sequences and compared the visibility of vas- cular structures in both imaging modalities. Results: By ana- lyzing 100 possible trajectories, we found a potential vascu- lar conflict in 13 trajectories based on T1-Gd in contrast to 53 in SWI. Remarkably, all vessels visible in T1-Gd were also de- picted in SWI, whereas SWI showed many additional vascular structures which could not be identified in T1-Gd. Conclu- sion/Discussion: The sensitivity for detecting neurovascular structures for DBS planning seems to be significantly higher in SWI. As SWI does not require a contrast agent, we suggest that SWI may be a valuable alternative to T1-Gd MRI for DBS trajectory planning. Furthermore, the data analysis suggests that vascular interactions of DBS trajectories might be more frequent than expected from the very low incidence of symptomatic bleedings. The explanation for this is currently the subject of debate and merits further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental solutions and dual boundary element methods for fracture in plane Cosserat elasticity
Atroshchenko, Elena; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Proceedings of the Royal Society a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences (2015), 471(2179),

In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate ... [more ▼]

In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate the analogue of Somigliana stress identity, which can be used to obtain the stress and couple-stress fields inside the domain from the boundary values of the displacements, microrotation and stress and couple-stress tractions. Using these newly derived fundamental solutions, the boundary integral equations of both types are formulated and solved by the boundary element method. Simultaneous use of both types of equations (approach known as the dual boundary element method (BEM)) allows problems where parts of the boundary are overlapping, such as crack problems, to be treated and to do this for general geometry and loading conditions. The high accuracy of the boundary element method for both types of equations is demonstrated for a number of benchmark problems, including a Griffith crack problem and a plate with an edge crack. The detailed comparison of the BEM results and the analytical solution for a Griffith crack and an edge crack is given, particularly in terms of stress and couple-stress intensity factors, as well as the crack opening displacements and microrotations on the crack faces and the angular distributions of stresses and couple-stresses around the crack tip. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mechanical reliability of an electronic textile investigated using the virtual-power-based quasicontinuum method
Beex, Lars UL; Peerlings, Ron; Van Os, Koen et al

in Mechanics of Materials (2015), 80

The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a multiscale method for the solution of lattice models that combines coarse-grained regions and fully resolved regions with individual lattice events. QC methodologies ... [more ▼]

The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a multiscale method for the solution of lattice models that combines coarse-grained regions and fully resolved regions with individual lattice events. QC methodologies are mainly used to reduce the computational costs of conservative atomistic lattice computations. Recently, a virtual-power-based variant has been proposed that enables its use for non-conservative lattice computations. In this contribution the virtual-power-based QC approach is adopted in combination with a recently proposed mesostructural lattice model for electronic textile in order to investigate its mechanical behaviour. The interactions of the lattice model for electronic textile are modelled elastoplastically and hence, regular conservative QC approaches are not adequate. This article incorporates a modification of a previously defined exact summation rule for QC methods –by sampling the lattice interactions directly instead of via the lattice nodes. This leads to a significant reduction of the computational cost, whereas the accuracy of the summation rule remains unaffected. The presented methodology is used to efficiently investigate the failure envelope of an electronic textile – a woven fabric with embedded electronic components and conductive wires. The dependence of the failure envelope on the locations of the conductive wires and the stiffness of the weft yarns is investigated as well. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous Glucose Monitoring: Using CGM to Guide Insulin Therapy Virtual Trials Results
Mombaerts, Laurent UL; Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Matthew et al

in IFAC-PapersOnLine (2015)

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices can measure blood glucose levels through interstitial measurements almost continuously (1-5min sampling period). However, they are not as accurate as glucose ... [more ▼]

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices can measure blood glucose levels through interstitial measurements almost continuously (1-5min sampling period). However, they are not as accurate as glucose readings from blood measurements. The relation between tissue and blood glucose is dynamic and the sensor signal can degrade over time. In addition, CGM readings contains high frequency noise and can drift between measurements. However, maintaining continuous glucose monitoring has the potential to improve the level of glycemic control achieved and reduce nurse workload. For this purpose, a simple model was designed and tested to see the effect of inherent CGM error on the insulin therapy protocol, STAR (Stochastic TARgeted). An error model was generated from 9 patients that had one Guardian Real-Time CGM device (Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA, USA) inserted into their abdomen as part of an observation trial assesing the accuracy of CGM measurements compared to a blood gas analyser and glucometer readings. A resulting error model was then used to simulate the outcomes if the STAR protocol was guided by CGM values on 183 virtual patients. CGM alarms for hyper- and hypo-glycaemic region were included to improve patient safety acting as 'guardrails'. The STAR CGM protocol gave good performance and reduced workload by ~50%, reducing the number of measurements per day per patient from 13 to 7. The number of hypoglycaemic events increased compared to the current STAR from 0.03% <2.2mmol/L to 0.32%. However, in comparison to other published protocols it is still a very low level of hypoglycaemia and less than clinically acceptable value of 5% <4.0mmol/L. More importantly this study shows great promise for the future of CGM and their use in clinic. With the a newer generation of sensors, specifically designed for the ICU, promising less noise and drift suggesting that a reduced nurse workload without compromising safety or performance is with in reach. [less ▲]

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See detailAn extended coordinate descent method for distributed anticipatory network traffic control
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Tampère, C. M. J.

in Transportation Research. Part B : Methodological (2015), 80

Anticipatory optimal network control can be defined as the practice of determining the set of control actions that minimizes a network-wide objective function, so that the consequences of this action are ... [more ▼]

Anticipatory optimal network control can be defined as the practice of determining the set of control actions that minimizes a network-wide objective function, so that the consequences of this action are taken in consideration not only locally, on the propagation of flows, but globally, taking into account the user's routing behavior. Such an objective function is, in general, defined and optimized in a centralized setting, as knowledge regarding the whole network is needed in order to correctly compute it. This is a strong theoretical framework but, in practice, reaching a level of centralization sufficient to achieve said optimality is very challenging. Furthermore, even if centralization was possible, it would exhibit several shortcomings, with concerns such as computational speed (centralized optimization of a huge control set with a highly nonlinear objective function), reliability and communication overhead arising.The main aim of this work is to develop a decomposed heuristic descent algorithm that, demanding the different control entities to share the same information set, attains network-wide optimality through separate control actions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic multiconstraints optimization of cooling channels in ceramic matrix composites
Ghasemi, Hamid; Kerfriden, Pierre; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Composites. Part B, Engineering (2015), 81

This paper presents a computational reliable optimization approach for internal cooling channels in Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) under thermal and mechanical loadings. The algorithm finds the optimal ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a computational reliable optimization approach for internal cooling channels in Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) under thermal and mechanical loadings. The algorithm finds the optimal cooling capacity of all channels (which directly minimizes the amount of coolant needed). In the first step, available uncertainties in the constituent material properties, the applied mechanical load, the heat flux and the heat convection coefficient are considered. Using the Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO) approach, the probabilistic constraints ensure the failure due to excessive temperature and deflection will not happen. The deterministic constraints restrict the capacity of any arbitrary cooling channel between two extreme limits. A “series system” reliability concept is adopted as a union of mechanical and thermal failure subsets. Having the results of the first step for CMC with uniformly distributed carbon (C-) fibers, the algorithm presents the optimal layout for distribution of the C-fibers inside the ceramic matrix in order to enhance the target reliability of the component. A sequential approach and B-spline finite elements have overcome the cumbersome computational burden. Numerical results demonstrate that if the mechanical loading dominates the thermal loading, C-fibers distribution can play a considerable role towards increasing the reliability of the design. [less ▲]

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See detailLocally equilibrated stress recovery for goal oriented error estimation in the extended finite element method
Bordas, Stéphane UL; gonzález-estrada, octavio andrés; ródenas, Juan josé et al

in Computers and Structures (2015)

Goal oriented error estimation and adaptive procedures are essential for the accurate and efficient evaluation of finite element numerical simulations that involve complex domains. By locally improving ... [more ▼]

Goal oriented error estimation and adaptive procedures are essential for the accurate and efficient evaluation of finite element numerical simulations that involve complex domains. By locally improving the approximation qual- ity, for example, by using the extended finite element method (XFEM), we can solve expensive problems which could result intractable otherwise. Here, we present an error estimation technique for enriched finite element approxi- mations that is based on an equilibrated recovery technique, which considers the stress intensity factor as the quantity of interest. The locally equilibrated superconvergent patch recovery is used to obtain enhanced stress fields for the primal and dual problems defined to evaluate the error estimate. [less ▲]

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See detailA staggered cell-centered finite element method for compressible and nearly-incompressible linear elasticity on general meshes
Ong, Thanh Hai; Hoang, Thi Thao Phuong; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis (2015), 53(4), 2051-2073

We propose a new numerical method, namely, the staggered cell-centered finite element method for compressible and nearly incompressible linear elasticity problems. By building a dual mesh and its ... [more ▼]

We propose a new numerical method, namely, the staggered cell-centered finite element method for compressible and nearly incompressible linear elasticity problems. By building a dual mesh and its triangular submesh, the scheme can be constructed from a general mesh in which the displacement is approximated by piecewise linear (P1) functions on the dual submesh and, in the case of nearly incompressible problems, the pressure is approximated by piecewise constant (P0) functions on the dual mesh. The scheme is cell centered in the sense that the solution can be computed by cell unknowns of the primal mesh (for the displacement) and of the dual mesh (for the pressure). The method is presented within a rigorous theoretical framework to show stability and convergence. In particular, for the nearly incompressible case, stability is proved by using the macroelement technique. Numerical results show that the method, compared with other methods, is effective in terms of accuracy and computational cost. [less ▲]

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See detailGreener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective
Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique et al

in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (2015)

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼]

We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasising the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates Using the Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory
Thai, Chien H.; Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures (2015), 22(6), 451-469

Isogeometric analysis (IGA) aims at simplifying the computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) pipeline by using the same functions to describe the geometry (CAD) and the unknown ... [more ▼]

Isogeometric analysis (IGA) aims at simplifying the computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) pipeline by using the same functions to describe the geometry (CAD) and the unknown fields (Analysis). IGA can be based on a variety of CAD descriptions, the most widely used today being non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS). In this article, the suitability of NURBS-based isogeometric analysis within a third-order shear deformation theory for the simulation of the static, dynamic, and buckling response of laminated composite plates is investigated. The method employs NURBS basis functions to both represent the geometry (exactly) and the unknown field variables. One of the main advantages of the present method is directly inherited from IGA, that is to easily increase the approximation order. To avoid using a shear correction factor, a third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) is introduced. It requires C1-continuity of generalized displacements and the NURBS basis functions are well suited for this requirement. Several numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the present method compared with other published ones. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtual and smoothed finite elements: A connection and its application to polygonal/polyhedral finite element methods
Natarajan, Sundararajan; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Ooi, Ean Tat

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2015), 104(13), 1173-1199

We show both theoretically and numerically a connection between the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) and the virtual element method and use this approach to derive stable, cheap and optimally ... [more ▼]

We show both theoretically and numerically a connection between the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) and the virtual element method and use this approach to derive stable, cheap and optimally convergent polyhedral FEM.We show that the stiffness matrix computed with one subcell SFEM is identical to the consistency term of the virtual element method, irrespective of the topology of the element, as long as the shape functions vary linearly on the boundary. Using this connection, we propose a new stable approach to strain smoothing for polygonal/polyhedral elements where, instead of using sub-triangulations, we are able to use one single polygonal/polyhedral subcell for each element while maintaining stability. For a similar number of degrees of freedom, the proposed approach is more accurate than the conventional SFEM with triangular subcells. The time to compute the stiffness matrix scales with the O.dof s/1:1 in case of the conventional polygonal FEM, while it scales as O.dof s/0:7 in the proposed approach. The accuracy and the convergence properties of the SFEM are studied with a few benchmark problems in 2D and 3D linear elasticity. [less ▲]

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See detailStable 3D extended finite elements with higher order enrichment for accurate non planar fracture
Agathos, Konstantinos; Chatzi, Eleni; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015)

We present an extended finite element method (XFEM) for 3D nonplanar linear elastic fracture. The new approach not only provides optimal convergence using geometrical enrichment but also enables to ... [more ▼]

We present an extended finite element method (XFEM) for 3D nonplanar linear elastic fracture. The new approach not only provides optimal convergence using geometrical enrichment but also enables to contain the increase in conditioning number characteristic of enriched finite element formulations: the number of iterations to convergence of the conjugate gradient solver scales similarly to and converges faster than the topologically-enriched version of the standard XFEM. This has two advantages: (1) the residual can be driven to zero to machine precision for at least 50% fewer iterations than the standard version of XFEM; (2) additional enrichment functions can be added without significant deterioration of the conditioning. Numerical examples also show that our new approach is up to 40% more accurate in terms of stress intensity factors, than the standard XFEM. [less ▲]

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See detailA fast, certified and "tuning-free" two-field reduced basis method for the metamodelling of parametrised elasticity problems
Hoang, Khac Chi; Kerfriden, Pierre; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015)

This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate reduced order models for the primal variable (displacement) and flux (stress) fields. A two-field Greedy sampling strategy is proposed to construct these two fields simultaneously and efficient manner: at each iteration, one of the two fields is enriched by increasing the dimension of its reduced space in such a way that the CRE is minimised. This sampling strategy is then used as a basis to construct goal-oriented reduced order modelling. The resulting algorithm is certified and "tuning-free": the only requirement from the engineer is the level of accuracy that is desired for each of the outputs of the surrogate. It is also one order of magnitude more efficient in terms of computational expenses than competing methodologies. [less ▲]

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See detailA discrete-continuous approach to describe CaCO3 decarbonation in non-steady thermal conditions
Copertaro, Edoardo UL; Chiariotti, Paolo; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio et al

in Powder Technology (2015), 275

In cement production, direct measurements of thermal and chemical variables are often unfeasible as a consequence of aggressive environments, moving parts and physical inaccessibility, and therefore ... [more ▼]

In cement production, direct measurements of thermal and chemical variables are often unfeasible as a consequence of aggressive environments, moving parts and physical inaccessibility, and therefore prediction models are essential tools in these types of industrial applications. This article addresses the problem of the numerical prediction of the CaCO3 calcination process, which is the first and the most energy expensive process in clinker production. This study was conducted using the Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM), a framework which allows a Eulerian approach for the gas phase to be combined with a Lagrange one for the powder phase. A detailed validation of the numerical model was performed by comparison to non-isothermal TG curves for mass loss during the CaCO3 decarbonation process. The complex three-dimensional predictions for solid and gas phases are believed to represent a first step towards a new insight into the cement production process. Thus, the high accuracy and detailed description of the problem addressed, serve as a basis to assess the uncertainty of more simplified models such as those used in soft sensors. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric locking-free plate element: a simple first order shear deformation theory for functionally graded plates
Shuohui, Yin; Hale, Jack UL; Yu, Tiantang et al

in Composite Structures (2014), 118

An effective, simple, robust and locking-free plate formulation is proposed to analyze the static bending, buckling, and free vibration of homogeneous and functionally graded plates. The simple first ... [more ▼]

An effective, simple, robust and locking-free plate formulation is proposed to analyze the static bending, buckling, and free vibration of homogeneous and functionally graded plates. The simple first-order shear deformation theory (S-FSDT), which was recently presented in Thai and Choi (2013) [11], is naturally free from shear-locking and captures the physics of the shear-deformation effect present in the original FSDT, whilst also being less computationally expensive due to having fewer unknowns. The S-FSDT requires C1-continuity that is simple to satisfy with the inherent high-order continuity of the non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) basis functions, which we use in the framework of isogeometric analysis (IGA). Numerical examples are solved and the results are compared with reference solutions to confirm the accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the effects of boundary conditions, gradient index, and geometric shape on the mechanical response of functionally graded plates are investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing partial observability in network sensor location problems
Viti, Francesco UL; Rinaldi, Marco; Francesco, Corman et al

in Transportation Research. Part B : Methodological (2014), 70

The quality of information on a network is crucial for different transportation planning and management applications. Problems focusing on where to strategically extract this information can be broadly ... [more ▼]

The quality of information on a network is crucial for different transportation planning and management applications. Problems focusing on where to strategically extract this information can be broadly subdivided into observability problems, which rely on the topological properties of the network, and flow-estimation problems, where (prior) information on observed flows is needed to identify optimal sensor locations. This paper contributes mainly to the first category: more specifically, it presents a new methodology and an intuitive metric able to quantify the quality of a solution in case of partial observability, i.e. when not all flow variables are observed or can be uniquely determined from the observed flows. This methodology is based on existing approaches that can efficiently find solutions for full observability (i.e., the set of sensors needed to make the system fully determined), and exploits only the algebraic relations between link, route and origin-destination flow variables to quantify the information contained in any arbitrary subset of these variables. The new metric allows, through its adoption within simple search algorithms, to efficiently select sensor locations when the number of available sensors is limited by, for example, budget constraints and is less than the number needed to guarantee full observability. The chosen positions aim at selecting those locations that contain the largest information content on the whole network. This is an important contribution in this field, since even in small sized networks the solution for full observability requires an exceedingly large amount of sensors. The assessment of partial observability solutions, based on explicit route enumeration, allows one to categorize families of full observability solutions, and shows that these contain different information potential. This way, it is possible to rank solutions requiring a lower number of sensors while containing the same information content. We tested this new methodology both on toy networks, in order to analyse the properties of the metric and illustrate its logic, and to explain and test heuristic search algorithms for optimal sensor positioning on a real-sized network. Analysis of partial observability solutions shows that the basic search algorithms succeed in finding the links that contain the largest deal of information in a network. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraktive Transitionsforschung und Wissensgenerierung im Bereich nachhaltiges Bauen
JUNG ép. PRELLER, Bérénice UL; Affolderbach, Julia UL; Schulz, Christian UL et al

in pnd - rethinking planning (2014), 2014(2), 1-14

Basierend auf den Erfahrungen eines internationalen Forschungsprojekts zu den institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen für Innovativität im nachhaltigen Bauen illustriert der Beitrag das Potenzial interaktiver ... [more ▼]

Basierend auf den Erfahrungen eines internationalen Forschungsprojekts zu den institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen für Innovativität im nachhaltigen Bauen illustriert der Beitrag das Potenzial interaktiver Methoden für die Produktion von »Transitionswissen«. Die frühe Einbindung von lokalen Praktikern, Unternehmern, Wissenschaftlern, politischen Entscheidungsträgern und Vertretern von Nichtregierungsorganisationen dient dabei nicht nur den Forschenden zur Exploration des jeweiligen Forschungskontexts, sondern schafft eine Plattform für produktiven Austausch von Wissen. Methodisch unterstützt durch interaktive Workshops sowie Delphi-basierte Feedback- und Validierungsrunden entsteht über die Projektlaufzeit ein wechselseitiger Lernprozess, der zusätzlich durch den Austausch von Erfahrungen aus vier Fallstudienregionen in Europa, Australien und Kanada inspiriert wird. Er liefert für alle Beteiligten wichtige Erkenntnisse über die Gestaltbarkeit von nachhaltigkeitsorientierten Transitionsprozessen im Baubereich. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometry-Independent Field approximaTion: CAD-Analysis Integration, geometrical exactness and adaptivity
Xu, Gang; Atroshchenko, Elena; Ma, Weiyin et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2014)

In isogeometric analysis (IGA), the same spline representation is employed for both the geometry of the domain and approximation of the unknown fields over this domain. This identity of the geometry and ... [more ▼]

In isogeometric analysis (IGA), the same spline representation is employed for both the geometry of the domain and approximation of the unknown fields over this domain. This identity of the geometry and field approximation spaces was put forward in the now classic 2005 paper [20] as a key advantage on the way to the integration of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and subsequent analysis in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). [20] claims indeed that any change to the geometry of the domain is automatically inherited by the approximation of the field variables, without requiring the regeneration of the mesh at each change of the domain geometry. Yet, in Finite Element versions of IGA, a parameterization of the interior of the domain must still be constructed, since CAD only provides information about the boundary. The identity of the boundary and field representation decreases the flexibility in which this parameterization can be generated and somewhat constrains the modeling and simulation process, because an approximation able to represent the domain geometry accurately need not be adequate to also approximate the field variables accurately, in particular when the solution is not smooth. We propose here a new paradigm called Geometry-Independent Field approximaTion (GIFT) where the spline spaces used for the geometry and the field variables can be chosen and adapted independently while preserving geometric exactness and tight CAD integration. GIFT has the following features: (1) It is possible to flexibly choose between different spline spaces with different properties to better represent the solution of the problem, e.g. the continuity of the solution field, boundary layers, singularities, whilst retaining geometrical exactness of the domain boundary. (2) For multi-patch analysis, where the domain is composed of several spline patches, the continuity condition between neighboring patches on the solution field can be automatically guaranteed without additional constraints in the variational form. (3) Refinement operations by knot insertion and degree elevation are performed directly on the spline space of the solution field, independently of the spline space of the geometry of the domain, which makes the method versatile. GIFT with PHT-spline solution spaces and NURBS geometries is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords : Super-parametric methods, Isogeometric analysis (IGA), Geometry-independent Spline Space, PHT-splines, local refinement, adaptivity [less ▲]

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See detailLarge Eddy Simulations of the Influence of Piston Position on the Swirling Flow in a Model Two-Stroke Diesel Engine
Obeidat, Anas UL; Schnipper, Teis; Ingorsen, Kristian M. et al

in International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow (2014), 24(2), 325-241

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See detailA TWO-STEP APPROACH FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SEED MATRIX IN THE DYNAMIC DEMAND ESTIMATION
Cantelmo, Guido UL; Viti, Francesco UL; Tampère, Chris M.J. et al

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2014), 2466

In this work deterministic and stochastic optimization methods are tested for solving the Dynamic Demand Estimation problem. All the adopted methods demonstrate the difficulty in reproducing the correct ... [more ▼]

In this work deterministic and stochastic optimization methods are tested for solving the Dynamic Demand Estimation problem. All the adopted methods demonstrate the difficulty in reproducing the correct traffic regime, especially if the seed matrix is not sufficiently close to the real one. Therefore, in this paper a new and intuitive procedure to specify an opportune starting seed matrix is proposed: it is a two-step procedure based on the concept of dividing the problem into small-size problems, focusing on specific OD pairs in different steps. Specifically, the first step focuses on the optimization of a subset of OD variables (the ones who generate the higher flows or the ones who generate the bottlenecks on the network). In the second step the optimization works on all the OD pairs, using as starting matrix the matrix derived from the first step. In this way is possible to use a more performance optimization method for every step, improving the performance of the method and the quality of the result with respect to the classical “one-step” approach. The procedure has been tested on the real network of Antwerp, Belgium, demonstrating its efficacy in combination with different optimization methods. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributed attitude synchronization using backstepping and sliding mode control
Thunberg, Johan UL; Song, W.; Hong, Y. et al

in Control Theory and Technology (2014), 12(1), 48-55

We consider the problem of attitude synchronization for systems of rigid body agents with directed topologies. Two different scenarios for the rotation matrices of the agents are considered. In the first ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of attitude synchronization for systems of rigid body agents with directed topologies. Two different scenarios for the rotation matrices of the agents are considered. In the first scenario, the rotations are contained in a convex subset of SO(3), which is a ball of radius less than π/2, whereas in the second scenario the agents are contained in a subset of SO(3), which is a ball of radius less than π. Using a control law based on backstepping and sliding mode control, we provide distributed, semi-global, torque control laws for the agents so that the rotations asymptotically synchronize. The control laws for the agents in the first scenario only depend on the relative rotations between neighboring agents, whereas the control laws in the second scenario depend on rotations defined in a global coordinate frame. Illustrative examples are provided where the synchronization is shown for both scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailCertification of projection-based reduced order modelling in computational homogenisation by the Constitutive Relation Error
Kerfriden, Pierre; Ródenas, Juan-José; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2014), 97(6), 395-422

In this paper, we propose upper and lower error bounding techniques for reduced order modelling applied to the computational homogenisation of random composites. The upper bound relies on the construction ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose upper and lower error bounding techniques for reduced order modelling applied to the computational homogenisation of random composites. The upper bound relies on the construction of a reduced model for the stress field. Upon ensuring that the reduced stress satisfies the equilibrium in the nite element sense, the desired bounding property is obtained. The lower bound is obtained by defining a hierarchical enriched reduced model for the displacement. We show that the sharpness of both error estimates can be seamlessly controlled by adapting the parameters of the corresponding reduced order model. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic modeling of VISSIM's critical gap parameter at unsignalized intersections
Viti, Francesco UL; Wolput, Bart; Tampere, Chris M.J. et al

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2014), 2395

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See detailModels and Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems: new challenges and metaheuristic solutions for large-scale network applications
Viti, Francesco UL; Tampere, Chris M.J.

in Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems (2014), 18(1), 1-4

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See detailDynamic Origin-Destination Matrix Estimation on Large-Scale Congested Networks Using A Hierarchical Decomposition Scheme
Frederix, Rodric; Viti, Francesco UL; Tampere, Chris M.J.

in Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems (2014), 18(1), 51-66

Despite the ever increasing computing power, dynamic Origin-Destination (OD) estimation in congested networks remains troublesome. In previous research, we have shown that an unbiased estimation requires ... [more ▼]

Despite the ever increasing computing power, dynamic Origin-Destination (OD) estimation in congested networks remains troublesome. In previous research, we have shown that an unbiased estimation requires the calculation of the sensitivity of the link flows to all Origin Destination flows, in order to incorporate the effects of congestion spillback. This is however computationally infeasible for large-scale networks. To overcome this issue, we propose a hierarchical approach for off-line application that decomposes the dynamic OD estimation procedure in space. The main idea is to perform a more accurate dynamic OD estimation only on subareas where there is congestion spillback. The output of this estimation is then used as input for the OD estimation on the whole network. This hierarchical approach solves many practical and theoretical limitations of traditional OD estimation methods. The main advantage is that different OD estimation method can be used for different parts of the network as necessary. This allows applying more advanced and accurate, but more time consuming methods only where necessary. The hierarchical approach is tested on a study network and on a real network. In both cases the proposed methodology performs better than traditional OD estimation approaches, indicating its merit. [less ▲]

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See detailNitsche’s method method for mixed dimensional analysis: conforming and non-conforming continuum-beam and continuum-plate coupling
Nguyen, VP; Kerfriden, Pierre; Claus, SPA et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2014)

A Nitche’s method is presented to couple different mechanical models. They include coupling of a solid and a beam and of a solid and a plate. Both conforming and non-conforming formulations are presented ... [more ▼]

A Nitche’s method is presented to couple different mechanical models. They include coupling of a solid and a beam and of a solid and a plate. Both conforming and non-conforming formulations are presented. In a non-conforming formulation, the structure domain is overlapped by a refined solid model which is needed to either get more accuracy or to capture highly nonlinear events. Applications can be found in multi-dimensional analyses in which parts of a structure are modeled with solid elements and others are modeled using a coarser model with beam and/or plate elements. Discretisations are performed using both standard Lagrange elements and high order NURBS (Non Uniform Rational Bsplines) based isogeometric elements. We present various examples to demonstrate the performance of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical analysis of the inclusion-crack interaction by the extended finite element method
Natarajan, S; Kerfriden, P; Mahapatra, D Roy et al

in International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics (2014)

One of the partition of unity methods, the extended finite ele- ment method (XFEM), is applied to study the inclusion-crack in- teractions in an elastic medium. Both the inclusions and the crack are ... [more ▼]

One of the partition of unity methods, the extended finite ele- ment method (XFEM), is applied to study the inclusion-crack in- teractions in an elastic medium. Both the inclusions and the crack are modelled within the XFEM framework. A structured quadri- lateral mesh is used and the influence of crack length, the number of inclusions, and the geometry of the inclusions on the crack tip stress field are numerically studied. The interaction integral for non-homogeneous materials is used to compute the stress intensity factors ahead of the crack tip. The accuracy and flexibility of the XFEM is demonstrated by various numerical examples. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of composite plates through cell-based smoothed finite element and 4-noded mixed interpolation of tensorial components techniques
Rodrigues, J. D.; Natarajan, S.; Ferreira, Ana UL et al

in Computers and Structures (2014), 135

The static bending and the free vibration analysis of composite plates are performed with Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF). We combine the cell-based smoothed finite element method (CSFEM) and the 4 ... [more ▼]

The static bending and the free vibration analysis of composite plates are performed with Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF). We combine the cell-based smoothed finite element method (CSFEM) and the 4-noded mixed interpolation of tensorial components approach (MITC4). The smoothing method is used for the approximation of the bending strains, whilst the mixed interpolation allows the calculation of the shear transverse stress in a different manner. With a few numerical examples, the accuracy and the efficiency of the approach is demonstrated. The insensitiveness to shear locking is also demonstrated. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental Solutions and Dual Boundary Element Method for Crack Problems in Plane Cosserat Elasticity
Atroshchenko, Elena; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (2014)

In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate ... [more ▼]

In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate the analogue of Somigliana stress identity, which can be used to obtain the stress and couple stress fields inside the domain from the boundary values of the displacements, microrotation and stress and couple stress tractions. Using these newly derived fundamental solutions, the boundary integral equations of both types are formulated and solved by the boundary element method. Simultaneous use of both types of the equations (approach known as the dual BEM) allows to treat problems where parts of the boundary are overlapping, such as crack problems, and to do this for general geometry and loading conditions. The high accuracy of the boundary element method for both types of equations is demonstrated for a number of benchmark problems, including a Griffith crack problem and a plate with an edge crack. The detailed comparison of the BEM-results and the analytical solution for a Griffith crack is given, particularly, in terms of stress and couple stress intensity factors, as well as the crack opening displacements and microrotations on the crack faces. A modified method for computing the couple stress intensity factors is also proposed and evaluated. Finally, the asymptotic behavior of the solution to the Cosserat crack problems, in the vicinity of the crack tip is analyzed. [less ▲]

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See detailSerge Abiteboul, au cœur des données
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Technique et Science Informatiques (2014)

Des bases de données au « data déluge » actuel, Serge Abiteboul se passionne depuis plus de trente ans pour un domaine qui ne cesse d’évoluer et de nous confronter à de nouveaux défis, techniques, mais ... [more ▼]

Des bases de données au « data déluge » actuel, Serge Abiteboul se passionne depuis plus de trente ans pour un domaine qui ne cesse d’évoluer et de nous confronter à de nouveaux défis, techniques, mais aussi sociétaux. Il a reçu en 2013 le prix Milner de la Royal Society et vient d’achever le projet Webdam sur la gestion des données, pour lequel il avait été lauréat en 2008 d’une bourse ERC. Membre de l’Académie des Sciences et du Conseil National du Numérique, président du conseil scientifique de la SIF, co-fondateur du blog binaire, Serge Abiteboul, chercheur à Inria, revient sur sa carrière, ses recherches et éclaire pour nous quelques-uns des enjeux que pose aujourd’hui le numérique. [less ▲]

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See detailExplicit finite deformation analysis of isogeometric membranes
Chen, Lei; Nguyen-Thanh, Nhon; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2014)

NURBS-based isogeometric analysis was first extended to thin shell/membrane structures which allows for finite membrane stretching as well as large deflection and bending strain. The assumed non-linear ... [more ▼]

NURBS-based isogeometric analysis was first extended to thin shell/membrane structures which allows for finite membrane stretching as well as large deflection and bending strain. The assumed non-linear kinematics employs the Kirchhoff-Love shell theory to describe the mechanical behaviour of thin to ultrathin structures. The displacement fields are interpolated from the displacements of control points only, and no rotational degrees of freedom are used at control points. Due to the high order Ck (k ≥ 1) continuity of NURBS shape functions the Kirchhoff-Love theory can be seamlessly implemented. An explicit time integration scheme is used to compute the transient response of membrane structures to time-domain excitations, and a dynamic relaxation method is employed to obtain steady-state solutions. The versatility and good performance of the present formulation is demonstrated with the aid of a number of test cases, including a square membrane strip under static pressure, the inflation of a spherical shell under internal pressure, the inflation of a square airbag and the inflation of a rubber balloon. The mechanical contribution of the bending stiffness is also evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailSpare parts planning and control for maintenance operations
Arts, Joachim UL

in Civil-Comp Proceedings (2014), 104

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See detailNitsche’s method for two and three dimensional NURBS patch coupling
Nguyen, VP; Kerfriden, Pierre; Brino, Marco et al

in Computational Mechanics (2014), 53(6), 1163-1182

We present a Nitche’s method to couple non-conforming two and three-dimensional NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-splines) patches in the context of isogeometric analysis (IGA). We present results for linear ... [more ▼]

We present a Nitche’s method to couple non-conforming two and three-dimensional NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-splines) patches in the context of isogeometric analysis (IGA). We present results for linear elastostatics in two and and three-dimensions. The method can deal with surface-surface or volume-volume coupling, and we show how it can be used to handle heterogeneities such as inclusions. We also present preliminary results on modal analysis. This simple coupling method has the potential to increase the applicability of NURBS-based isogeometric analysis for practical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of functionally graded material plates using triangular elements with cell-based smoothed discrete shear gap method
Natarajan, S; Ferreira; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Mathematical Problems in Engineering (2014), Article ID 247932

In this paper, a cell based smoothed finite element method with discrete shear gap technique is employed to study the static bending, free vibration, mechanical and thermal buckling behaviour of ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a cell based smoothed finite element method with discrete shear gap technique is employed to study the static bending, free vibration, mechanical and thermal buckling behaviour of functionally graded material (FGM) plates. The plate kinematics is based on the first order shear deformation theory and the shear locking is suppressed by a discrete shear gap method. The shear correction factors are evaluated by employing the energy equivalence principle. The material property is assumed to be temperature dependent and graded only in the thickness direction. The effective properties are computed by using the Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. The accuracy of the present formulation is validated against available solutions. A systematic parametric study is carried out to examine the influence the gradient index, the plate aspect ratio, skewness of the plate and the boundary conditions on the global response of the FGM plates. The effect of a centrally located circular cutout on the global response is also studied. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributed attitude synchronization control of multi-agent systems with switching topologies
Thunberg, Johan UL; Song, W.; Montijano, E. et al

in Automatica (2014), 50(3), 832-840

This paper addresses the attitude synchronization problem in multi-agent systems with directed and switching interconnection topologies. Two cases for the synchronization problem are discussed under ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the attitude synchronization problem in multi-agent systems with directed and switching interconnection topologies. Two cases for the synchronization problem are discussed under different assumptions about the measurable information. In the first case the agents can measure their rotations relative to a global reference coordinate frame, whilst in the second case they can only measure the relative rotations between each other. Two intuitive distributed control laws based on the axis–angle representations of the rotations are proposed for the two cases, respectively. The invariance of convex balls in SO(3) is guaranteed. Moreover, attitude synchronization is ensured under the well-known mild switching assumptions, the joint strong connection for the first case and joint quasi-strong connection for the second case. To show the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes, illustrative examples are provided. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic modelling of clay/epoxy nanocomposites
Silani, Mohammad; Talebi, Hossein; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed et al

in Composite Structures (2014), 118

This paper presents a numerical investigation of the mechanical properties of exfoliated clay/epoxy nanocomposites. The large scatter in the material properties and distribution of the inclusions and ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a numerical investigation of the mechanical properties of exfoliated clay/epoxy nanocomposites. The large scatter in the material properties and distribution of the inclusions and matrix is taken into account by introducing an appropriate stochastic damage modelling at the nano scale. Then, the overall properties of the nanocomposite are upscaled using computational homogenisation. Two mechanical properties are investigated: the random distribution of the homogenised Young’s modulus and the overall loss of stiffness observed in the case of extreme loading. The results obtained in the former case are in good agreement with experimental results from the literature. In the second case, we show that exfoliation does not significantly affect the overall strength of the nanocomposite. [less ▲]

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See detailAn integrated design-analysis framework for three dimensional composite panels
Nguyen, Vinh-Phu; Kerfriden, Pierre; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Computer-Aided Design (2014)

We present an integrated design-analysis framework for three dimensional composite panels. The main components of the proposed framework consist of (1) a new curve/surface offset algorithm and (2) the ... [more ▼]

We present an integrated design-analysis framework for three dimensional composite panels. The main components of the proposed framework consist of (1) a new curve/surface offset algorithm and (2) the isogeometric concept recently emerged in the computational mechanics community. Using the presented approach, finite element analysis of composite panels can be performed with the only input is the geometry representation of the composite surface. In this paper, non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) are used to represent the panel surfaces. A stress analysis of curved composite panel with stiffeners is provided to demonstrate the proposed framework. [less ▲]

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See detailAn efficient goal-oriented sampling strategy using reduced basis method for parametrized elastodynamic problems
Hoang, Khac Chi; Kerfriden, Pierre; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations (2014)

In this paper, we study the class of linear elastodynamic problems with a ne parameter dependence using a goal-oriented approach by finite element (FE) and reduced basis (RB) methods. The main ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the class of linear elastodynamic problems with a ne parameter dependence using a goal-oriented approach by finite element (FE) and reduced basis (RB) methods. The main contribution of this paper is the "goal-oriented" proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-Greedy sampling strategy within the RB approximation context. The proposed sampling strategy looks for the parameter points such that the output error approximation will be minimized by Greedy iterations. In estimating such output error approximation, the standard POD-Greedy algorithm is invoked to provide enriched RB approximations for the FE outputs. We propose a so-called "cross-validation" process to choose adaptively the dimension of the enriched RB space corresponding with the dimension of the RB space under consideration. Numerical results show that the new goal-oriented POD-Greedy sampling procedure with the cross-validation process improves signi ficantly the space-time output computations in comparison with the ones computed by the standard POD-Greedy algorithm. The method is thus ideally suited for repeated, rapid and reliable evaluations of input-output relationships in the space-time setting. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric analysis of functionally graded plates using a refined plate theory
Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Tran, L. V.; Thai, C. H. et al

in Composites. Part B, Engineering (2014), 64

We present in this paper a simple and effective approach that incorporates isogeometric finite element analysis (IGA) with a refined plate theory (RPT) for static, free vibration and buckling analysis of ... [more ▼]

We present in this paper a simple and effective approach that incorporates isogeometric finite element analysis (IGA) with a refined plate theory (RPT) for static, free vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates. A new inverse tangent distributed function through the plate thickness is proposed. The RPT enables us to describe the non-linear distribution of shear stresses through the plate thickness without any requirement of shear correction factors (SCF). IGA utilizes basis functions namely B-splines or non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) which reach easily the smoothness of any arbitrary order. It hence satisfies the C1 requirement of the RPT model. The present method approximates the displacement field with four degrees of freedom per each control point allowing an efficient solution process. [less ▲]

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See detailSingular spectrum analysis for modeling seasonal signals from GPS time series
Chen, Qiang; van Dam, Tonie UL; Sneeuw, Nico et al

in Journal of Geodynamics (2013), 72

Seasonal signals in GPS time series are of great importance for understanding the evolution of regional mass fluctuations, i.e., ice, hydrology, and ocean mass. Conventionally these signals quasi-annual ... [more ▼]

Seasonal signals in GPS time series are of great importance for understanding the evolution of regional mass fluctuations, i.e., ice, hydrology, and ocean mass. Conventionally these signals quasi-annual and semi-annual signals are modeled by least-squares fitting harmonic terms with a constant amplitude and phase. In reality, however, such seasonal signals are modulated, i.e., they will have a time-variable amplitude and phase. Recently, Davis et al.(2012) proposed a Kalman filter based approach to capture the stochastic seasonal behavior of geodetic time series. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) is a non-parametric method, which uses time domain data to extract information from short and noisy time series without a priori knowledge of the dynamics affecting the time series. A prominent benefit is that trends obtained in this way are not necessarily linear. Further, true oscillations can be amplitude and phase modulated. In this work, we will assess the value of SSA for extracting time-variable seasonal signals from GPS time series. We compare our SSA-based results to those obtained using 1) least-squares analysis and 2) Kalman filtering. Our results demonstrate that SSA is a viable and complementary tool for extracting modulated oscillations from GPS time series. [less ▲]

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See detailEpipolar visual servoing for multirobot distributed consensus
Montijano, E.; Thunberg, Johan UL; Hu, X. et al

in IEEE Transaction on Robotics (2013), 29(5), 1212-1225

In this paper, we give a distributed solution to the problem of making a team of nonholonomic robots reach consensus about their orientations using monocular cameras. We consider a scheme where the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we give a distributed solution to the problem of making a team of nonholonomic robots reach consensus about their orientations using monocular cameras. We consider a scheme where the motions of the robots are decided using nearest-neighbor rules. Each robot is equipped with a camera and can only exchange visual information with a subset of the other robots. The main contribution of this paper is a new controller that uses the epipoles that are computed from the images provided by neighboring robots, eventually reaching consensus in their orientations without the necessity of directly observing each other. In addition, the controller only requires a partial knowledge of the calibration of the cameras in order to achieve the desired configuration. We also demonstrate that the controller is robust to changes in the topology of the network and we use this robustness to propose strategies to reduce the computational load of the robots. Finally, we test our controller in simulations using a virtual environment and with real robots moving in indoor and outdoor scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailConsistent Estimation of Gibbs Energy Using Component Contributions
Noor, Elad; Haraldsdottir, Hulda UL; Milo, Ron et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2013), 9(7), 1003098

Standard Gibbs energies of reactions are increasingly being used in metabolic modeling for applying thermodynamic constraints on reaction rates, metabolite concentrations and kinetic parameters. The ... [more ▼]

Standard Gibbs energies of reactions are increasingly being used in metabolic modeling for applying thermodynamic constraints on reaction rates, metabolite concentrations and kinetic parameters. The increasing scope and diversity of metabolic models has led scientists to look for genome-scale solutions that can estimate the standard Gibbs energy of all the reactions in metabolism. Group contribution methods greatly increase coverage, albeit at the price of decreased precision. We present here a way to combine the estimations of group contribution with the more accurate reactant contributions by decomposing each reaction into two parts and applying one of the methods on each of them. This method gives priority to the reactant contributions over group contributions while guaranteeing that all estimations will be consistent, i.e. will not violate the first law of thermodynamics. We show that there is a significant increase in the accuracy of our estimations compared to standard group contribution. Specifically, our cross-validation results show an 80% reduction in the median absolute residual for reactions that can be derived by reactant contributions only. We provide the full framework and source code for deriving estimates of standard reaction Gibbs energy, as well as confidence intervals, and believe this will facilitate the wide use of thermodynamic data for a better understanding of metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailNURBS-based finite element analysis of functionally graded plates: Static bending, vibration, buckling and flutter
Bui, Tinh Quoc; Rabczuk, Timon; González-Estrada, Octavio Andrés et al

in Composite Structures (2013), 99

In this paper, a non-uniform rational B-spline based iso-geometric finite element method is used to study the static and dynamic characteristics of functionally graded material (FGM) plates. The material ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a non-uniform rational B-spline based iso-geometric finite element method is used to study the static and dynamic characteristics of functionally graded material (FGM) plates. The material properties are assumed to be graded only in the thickness direction and the effective properties are computed either using the rule of mixtures or by Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. The plate kinematics is based on the first order shear deformation plate theory (FSDT). The shear correction factors are evaluated employing the energy equivalence principle and a simple modification to the shear correction factor is presented to alleviate shear locking. Static bending, mechanical and thermal buckling, linear free flexural vibration and supersonic flutter analysis of FGM plates are numerically studied. The accuracy of the present formulation is validated against available three-dimensional solutions. A detailed numerical study is carried out to examine the influence of the gradient index, the plate aspect ratio and the plate thickness on the global response of functionally graded material plates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralised minimum-time consensus
Yuan, Ye; Stan, Guy-Bart; Shi, Ling et al

in Automatica (2013), 49(5), 1227-1235

We consider the discrete-time dynamics of a network of agents that exchange information according to a nearest-neighbour protocol under which all agents are guaranteed to reach consensus asymptotically ... [more ▼]

We consider the discrete-time dynamics of a network of agents that exchange information according to a nearest-neighbour protocol under which all agents are guaranteed to reach consensus asymptotically. We present a fully decentralised algorithm that allows any agent to compute the final consensus value of the whole network in finite time using the minimum number of successive values of its own state history. We show that the minimum number of steps is related to a Jordan block decomposition of the network dynamics, and present an algorithm to compute the final consensus value in the minimum number of steps by checking a rank condition of a Hankel matrix of local observations. Furthermore, we prove that the minimum number of steps is related to graph theoretical notions that can be directly computed from the Laplacian matrix of the graph and from the minimum external equitable partition. [less ▲]

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See detailThe extended discrete element method (XDEM) for multi-physics applications
Peters, Bernhard UL

in Scholarly Journal of Engineering Research (2013), 2

The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials or particles as described through the classical Discrete Element ... [more ▼]

The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials or particles as described through the classical Discrete Element Method (DEM) by additional properties such as the thermodynamic state, stress/strain, or electromagnetic field for each particle coupled to a continuum phase such as fluid flow or solid structures. Contrary to a continuum mechanics concept, XDEM aims at resolving the particulate phase through the various processes attached to particles, while DEM predicts the special-temporal position and orientation for each particle; XDEM additionally estimates properties such as the internal temperature and/or species distribution. These predictive capabilities are further extended by an interaction to fluid flow by heat, mass and momentum transfer and impact of particles on structures. These superior features as compared to traditional and pure continuum mechanic approaches are highlighted by predicted examples of relevant engineering applications. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodenentwicklung zur numerischen Strömungsanalyse von Schaufelwasserrädern
Schippke, Henning; Zilian, Andreas UL; Seidel, Christian et al

in PAMM (2013)

Es wird ein Berechnungsmodell vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerischen Analyse der Strömungsvorgänge innerhalb von Schau- felwasserrädern möglich ist. Der Arbeitsschwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der ... [more ▼]

Es wird ein Berechnungsmodell vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerischen Analyse der Strömungsvorgänge innerhalb von Schau- felwasserrädern möglich ist. Der Arbeitsschwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der strömungsmechanischen Optimierung von Hochleis- tungswasserrädern der Weiterentwickelten Wasserradtechnologie. In dem Berechnungsmodell werden die inkompressiblen Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen in den unabhängigen Variablen Geschwindigkeiten und Druck mit Hilfe der zeit-diskontinuierlichen Raum-Zeit-Finite-Elemente-Methode diskretisiert und die auftretende Gebietsveränderung infolge der sich drehenden Struk- tur mit der Shear-Slip Mesh Update Methode als diskontinuierlichem Netzbewegungsverfahren erfasst. [less ▲]

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See detailDrawing ER diagrams with TikZ
Fiandrino, Claudio UL

in Ars TeXnica (2013), 15

The paper will illustrate some techniques to represent Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams with TikZ. In particular, it will focus on the standard internal library \library{er}, on the external package TikZ ... [more ▼]

The paper will illustrate some techniques to represent Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams with TikZ. In particular, it will focus on the standard internal library \library{er}, on the external package TikZ-er2, on the external tool Graphviz and on the object-oriented approach provided by the er-oo library. [less ▲]

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See detailSa-TikZ: a library to draw switching architectures
Fiandrino, Claudio UL

in Ars TeXnica (2013), 15

The article illustrates how it is possible to draw some types of switching architectures in a simple manner. The Sa-TikZ library provides not only the keys devoted to the drawing part, but also the keys ... [more ▼]

The article illustrates how it is possible to draw some types of switching architectures in a simple manner. The Sa-TikZ library provides not only the keys devoted to the drawing part, but also the keys devoted to customize the aspect of the architectures in the spirit of the TikZ syntax. [less ▲]

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See detailStress analysis without meshing: isogeometric boundary element method
Lian, Haojie; Simpson, Robert; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Proceedings of the ICE - Engineering and Computational Mechanics (2013), 166(2), 8899

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See detailPIV study of the effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow during the scavenging process in large two-stroke marine diesel engines
Haider, Sajjad; Schnipper, T.; Obeidat, Anas UL et al

in Journal of Marine Science and Technology (2013), 18(1), 133-143

A simplified model of a low speed large two- stroke marine diesel engine cylinder is developed. The effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow during the scavenging process is studied ... [more ▼]

A simplified model of a low speed large two- stroke marine diesel engine cylinder is developed. The effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow during the scavenging process is studied using the stereo- scopic particle image velocimetry technique. The mea- surements are conducted at different cross-sectional planes along the cylinder length and at piston positions covering the air intake port by 0, 25, 50 and 75 %. When the intake port is fully open, the tangential velocity profile is similar to a Burgers vortex, whereas the axial velocity has a wake- like profile. Due to internal wall friction, the swirl decays downstream, and the size of the vortex core increases. For increasing port closures, the tangential velocity profile changes from a Burgers vortex to a forced vortex, and the axial velocity changes correspondingly from a wake-like profile to a jet-like profile. For piston position with 75 % intake port closure, the jet-like axial velocity profile at a cross-sectional plane close to the intake port changes back to a wake-like profile at the adjacent downstream cross-sectional plane. This is characteristic of a vortex breakdown. The non-dimensional velocity profiles show no significant variation with the variation in Reynolds number. [less ▲]

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See detailAn isogeometric boundary element method for elastostatic analysis: 2D implementation aspects
Simpson, Robert; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Lian, Haojie et al

in Computers and Structures (2013), 118

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See detailAnalysis of complementary methodologies to assess the environmental impact of Luxembourg’s net consumption
Jury, Colin; Rugani, Benedetto; Hild, Paula UL et al

in Environmental Science and Policy (2013), 27

The choice of accounting methods and indicators to support national stakeholders and public authorities in environmental decision-making policies is made difficult by the extensive number of available ... [more ▼]

The choice of accounting methods and indicators to support national stakeholders and public authorities in environmental decision-making policies is made difficult by the extensive number of available tools and the general divergence of scientific opinions on their effectiveness. In this paper, a set of life cycle-based approaches are compared and a methodological framework is recommended to support policy makers in the evaluation and choice of environmental impact mitigation strategies. The net consumption (=production + imports exports) of Luxembourg, taken as a case study, is inventoried based on different Environmentally Extended Input–Output (EE-IO) scenarios and further assessed using the Ecological Footprint (EF), ReCiPe and Solar Energy Demand (SED). All the compartments of resources extraction and pollutant emissions and the main environmental impacts gener- ated by the Luxembourgish economic trade-offs are evaluated. Results highlight the need for higher consistency in the use of EE-IO tables mainly because of the uncertainty affecting the environmental extensions (EEs). This aspect plays a major role when applying different assessment methods and relevant changes in terms of overall environmental impact are observed according to different sets of resources and emissions inventoried. These changes, however, do not substantially influence the results at the level of single economic sector’s contribution. Regardless the consumption scenario and the indicator considered, the financial and banking sectors contribute to more than 40% to the total EF, SED and ReCiPe results. Strengths and weaknesses of each indicator are discussed, and direct and indirect contribution analyses by sector allowed outlining strategies for impact mitigation. [less ▲]

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See detailAn improved sampling rule for mapping geopotential functions of a planet from a near polar orbit
Weigelt, Matthias UL; Sneeuw, Nico; Schrama, E.J.O. et al

in Journal of Geodesy (2013), 87(2), 127-142

One of the limiting factors in the determination of gravity field solutions is the spatial sampling. Especially during phases, when the satellite repeats its own track after a short time, the spatial ... [more ▼]

One of the limiting factors in the determination of gravity field solutions is the spatial sampling. Especially during phases, when the satellite repeats its own track after a short time, the spatial resolution will be limited. The Nyquist rule-of-thumb for mapping geopotential functions of a planet, also referred to as the Colombo–Nyquist rule-of-thumb, provides a limit for the maximum achievable degree of a spherical harmonic development for repeat orbits. We show in this paper that this rule is too conservative, and solutions with better spatial resolutions are possible. A new rule is introduced which limits the maximum achievable order (not degree!) to be smaller than the number of revolutions if the difference between the number of revolutions and the number of nodal days is of odd parity and to be smaller than half the number of revolutions if the difference is of even parity. The dependence on the parity is reflected in the eigenvalue spectrum of the normal matrix and becomes especially important in the presence of noise. The rule is based on applying the Nyquist sampling theorem separately in North–South and East–West direction. This is only possible for satellites in highly inclined orbits like champ and grace. Tables for these two satellite missions are also provided which indicate the passed and (in case of grace) expected repeat cycles and possible degradations in the quality of the gravity field solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient recovery-based error estimation for the smoothed finite element method for smooth and singular linear elasticity
González-Estrada, O. A.; Natarajan, S.; Ródenas, J. J. et al

in Computational Mechanics (2013), 52(1), 37-52

An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown ... [more ▼]

An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown to provide significant advantages compared to conventional finite element approximations. In particular, a widely cited strength of such methods is improved accuracy for the same computational cost. Yet, few attempts have been made to directly assess the quality of the results obtained during the simulation by evaluating an estimate of the discretization error. Here we propose a recovery type error estimator based on an enhanced recovery technique. The salient features of the recovery are: enforcement of local equilibrium and, for singular problems a "smooth + singular" decomposition of the recovered stress. We evaluate the proposed estimator on a number of test cases from linear elastic structural mechanics and obtain efficient error estimations whose effectivities, both at local and global levels, are improved compared to recovery procedures not implementing these features. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental validation of a newly designed 6 degrees of freedom scanning laser head: Application to three-dimensional beam structure
Copertaro, Edoardo UL; Di Maio, Dario

in Review of Scientific Instruments (2013), 84

A new scanning laser head is designed to use single Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for performing measurements up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) at a target. The scanning head is supported by a rotating ... [more ▼]

A new scanning laser head is designed to use single Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for performing measurements up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) at a target. The scanning head is supported by a rotating hollow shaft, which allows the laser beam to travel up to the scanning head from an opposite direction where an LDV is set up. The scanning head is made of a set of two mirrors, which deflects the laser beam with an angle so that the rotation of the scanning head produces a conical scan. When measurements are performed at the focal point of the conical scan then three translational vibration components can be measured, otherwise the very small circle scan, before and after the focal point, can measure up to 6 degrees of freedom, including three translations and three rotations. This paper presents the 6DOF scanning head and the measurements of 3D operational deflection shapes of a test structure. [less ▲]

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See detailA partitioned model order reduction approach to rationalise computational expenses in nonlinear fracture mechanics
Kerfriden, P.; Goury, O.; Rabczuk, T. et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2013), 256

We propose in this paper a reduced order modelling technique based on domain partitioning for parametric problems of fracture. We show that coupling domain decomposition and projection-based model order ... [more ▼]

We propose in this paper a reduced order modelling technique based on domain partitioning for parametric problems of fracture. We show that coupling domain decomposition and projection-based model order reduction permits to focus the numerical effort where it is most needed: around the zones where damage propagates. No a priori knowledge of the damage pattern is required, the extraction of the corresponding spatial regions being based solely on algebra. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated numerically with an example relevant to engineering fracture. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of composite plates by a unified formulation-cell based smoothed finite element method and field consistent elements
Natarajan, S.; Ferreira, Ana UL; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Composite Structures (2013), 105

In this article, we combine Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF) [13,7] and cell based smoothed finite element method [28] for studying the static bending and the free vibration of thin and thick laminated ... [more ▼]

In this article, we combine Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF) [13,7] and cell based smoothed finite element method [28] for studying the static bending and the free vibration of thin and thick laminated plates. A 4-noded quadrilateral element based on the field consistency requirement is used for this study to suppress the shear locking phenomenon. The combination of cell based smoothed finite element method and field consistent approach with CUF allows a very accurate prediction of field variables. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated through numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular dynamics/xfem coupling by a three-dimensional extended bridging domain with applications to dynamic brittle fracture
Talebi, H.; Silani, M.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering (2013), 11(6), 527-541

We propose a method to couple a three-dimensional continuum domain to a molecular dynamics domain to simulate propagating cracks in dynamics. The continuum domain is treated by an extended finite element ... [more ▼]

We propose a method to couple a three-dimensional continuum domain to a molecular dynamics domain to simulate propagating cracks in dynamics. The continuum domain is treated by an extended finite element method to handle the discontinuities. The coupling is based on the bridging domain method, which blends the continuum and atomistic energies. The Lennard-Jones potential is used to model the interactions in the atomistic domain, and the Cauchy-Born rule is used to compute the material behavior in the continuum domain. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a three dimensional extended bridging domain method is reported. To show the suitability of the proposed method, a threedimensional crack problem with an atomistic region around the crack front is solved. The results show that the method is capable of handling crack propagation and dislocation nucleation. © 2013 by Begell House, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAn adaptive singular ES-FEM for mechanics problems with singular field of arbitrary order
Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Liu, G. R.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2013), 253

This paper presents a singular edge-based smoothed finite element method (sES-FEM) for mechanics problems with singular stress fields of arbitrary order. The sES-FEM uses a basic mesh of three-noded ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a singular edge-based smoothed finite element method (sES-FEM) for mechanics problems with singular stress fields of arbitrary order. The sES-FEM uses a basic mesh of three-noded linear triangular (T3) elements and a special layer of five-noded singular triangular elements (sT5) connected to the singular-point of the stress field. The sT5 element has an additional node on each of the two edges connected to the singular-point. It allows us to represent simple and efficient enrichment with desired terms for the displacement field near the singular-point with the satisfaction of partition-of-unity property. The stiffness matrix of the discretized system is then obtained using the assumed displacement values (not the derivatives) over smoothing domains associated with the edges of elements. An adaptive procedure for the sES-FEM is proposed to enhance the quality of the solution with minimized number of nodes. Several numerical examples are provided to validate the reliability of the present sES-FEM method. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailA computational library for multiscale modeling of material failure
Talebi, H.; Silani, M.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Computational Mechanics (2013)

We present an open-source software framework called PERMIX for multiscale modeling and simulation of fracture in solids. The framework is an object oriented open-source effort written primarily in Fortran ... [more ▼]

We present an open-source software framework called PERMIX for multiscale modeling and simulation of fracture in solids. The framework is an object oriented open-source effort written primarily in Fortran 2003 standard with Fortran/C++ interfaces to a number of other libraries such as LAMMPS, ABAQUS, LS-DYNA and GMSH. Fracture on the continuum level is modeled by the extended finite element method (XFEM). Using several novel or state of the art methods, the piece software handles semi-concurrent multiscale methods as well as concurrent multiscale methods for fracture, coupling two continuum domains or atomistic domains to continuum domains, respectively. The efficiency of our open-source software is shown through several simulations including a 3D crack modeling in clay nanocomposites, a semi-concurrent FE-FE coupling, a 3D Arlequin multiscale example and an MD-XFEM coupling for dynamic crack propagation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical extraction of process zones and representative subspaces in fracture of random composites
Kerfriden, P.; Schmidt, K. M.; Rabczuk, T. et al

in International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering (2013), 11(3), 253-287

We propose to identify process zones in heterogeneous materials by tailored statistical tools. The process zone is redefined as the part of the structure where the random process cannot be correctly ... [more ▼]

We propose to identify process zones in heterogeneous materials by tailored statistical tools. The process zone is redefined as the part of the structure where the random process cannot be correctly approximated in a low-dimensional deterministic space. Such a low-dimensional space is obtained by a spectral analysis performed on precomputed solution samples. A greedy algorithm is proposed to identify both process zone and low-dimensional representative subspace for the solution in the complementary region. In addition to the novelty of the tools proposed in this paper for the analysis of localized phenomena, we show that the reduced space generated by the method is a valid basis for the construction of a reduced-order model. © 2013 by Begell House, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAn isogeometric boundary element method for elastostatic analysis: 2D implementation aspects
Simpson, R. N.; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Lian, H. et al

in Computers and Structures (2013), 118

The concept of isogeometric analysis, whereby the parametric functions that are used to describe CAD geometry are also used to approximate the unknown fields in a numerical discretisation, has progressed ... [more ▼]

The concept of isogeometric analysis, whereby the parametric functions that are used to describe CAD geometry are also used to approximate the unknown fields in a numerical discretisation, has progressed rapidly in recent years. This paper advances the field further by outlining an isogeometric boundary element Method (IGABEM) that only requires a representation of the geometry of the domain for analysis, fitting neatly with the boundary representation provided completely by CAD. The method circumvents the requirement to generate a boundary mesh representing a significant step in reducing the gap between engineering design and analysis. The current paper focuses on implementation details of 2D IGABEM for elastostatic analysis with particular attention paid towards the differences over conventional boundary element implementations. Examples of Matlab® code are given whenever possible to aid understanding of the techniques used. [less ▲]

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See detailStress analysis without meshing: Isogeometric boundary-element method
Lian, H.; Simpson, R. N.; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering and Computational Mechanics (2013), 166(2), 88-99

The focus of this paper is the description and numerical validation of a computational method where stress analysis can be performed directly from computer-aided design data without mesh generation. The ... [more ▼]

The focus of this paper is the description and numerical validation of a computational method where stress analysis can be performed directly from computer-aided design data without mesh generation. The clear benefit of the approach is that no mesh needs to be generated prior to running the analysis. This is achieved by utilising the isogeometric concept whereby computer-aided design data are used to construct not only the geometry discretisation but also the displacement and traction approximations. In this manner, significant savings can be made in the engineering design and analysis process. This paper also demonstrates that, compared with a standard boundary-element method implementation using quadratic Lagrangian shape functions, superior accuracy is achieved using the present approach for the same number of degrees of freedom. It further illustrates practical applications of the method, comparing against results obtained with a standard boundary-element method and finite-element method for verification. In addition, a propeller is analysed as a sample to show the ability of the present method to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Sensor Placement for Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks Using Genetic Algorithms
Casillas, Myrna V.; Puig, Vicenç; Garza-Castañon, Luis E. et al

in Sensors (2013), 13(11), 14984-15005

This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results are compared with a semi-exhaustive search method with higher computational effort, proving that GA allows one to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. Moreover, three ways of increasing the robustness of the GA-based sensor placement method have been proposed using a time horizon analysis, a distance-based scoring and considering different leaks sizes. A great advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user, as long as it is based on leak sensitivity analysis. Experiments in two networks allow us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. [less ▲]

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See detailThe extended discrete element method (XDEM) for multi-physics applications
Peters, Bernhard UL

in Scholarly Journal of Engineering Research (2013)

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See detailUsing Complex Problem Solving Simulations for General Cognitive Ability Assessment: the Genetics Lab Framework
Mayer, Hélène; Hazotte, Cyril; Djaghloul, Younes et al

in International Journal of Information Science and Intelligent System (2013), 2(4), 71-88

This paper presents the conception and operation of “the Genetics Lab,” a research platform designed for general intelligence measurement. This tool has been developed and refined to measure cognitive ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the conception and operation of “the Genetics Lab,” a research platform designed for general intelligence measurement. This tool has been developed and refined to measure cognitive skills of students in Luxembourg, Thanks to its generic and clear architecture, “the Genetics Lab” makes a major contribution by addressing technical weaknesses and flaws met with tools previously used to assess intelligence. This new platform can be used as groundwork for other evaluation solutions. In this paper, we explore in depth the main fields of e-assessment such as instructions, localized and multilingual content production and display, traces, and scoring. We also describe how the platform was put into action to create complex simulations and to make data collection resulting from the user’s test a flawless process. This paper is a continuation and extension of earlier work. [less ▲]

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