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See detailOn the impacts of transport policies and urban form on traffic-induced air pollution (extended abstract)
Schindler, Mirjam UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Hesse, Markus; Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2013 (2013)

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. It is not only a hazard to the environment but also on human health. Many argue that a compact city is the desirable urban form in the context of ... [more ▼]

Air pollution is a major concern in urban areas worldwide. It is not only a hazard to the environment but also on human health. Many argue that a compact city is the desirable urban form in the context of sustainability due to shorter travelling distances and reduced conversion of land. If considering not only the environmental pillar of sustainability in terms of total emissions but also the social one comprising human exposure and social well-being, the argumentation might change. The question we ask is whether selected common transport policies are efficient solutions to overcome the environmental and social challenge? In order to investigate this question, we developed a modelling system in order to test the impacts of different transport policies, either on the urban structure itself or on traffic flows and respectively on air quality. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the performance of strain smoothing for quadratic and enriched finite element approximations (XFEM/GFEM/PUFEM)
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Natarajan, S.; Kerfriden, P. et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2011), 86(4-5), 637-666

By using the strain smoothing technique proposed by Chen et al. (Comput. Mech. 2000; 25:137-156) for meshless methods in the context of the finite element method (FEM), Liu et al. (Comput. Mech. 2007; 39 ... [more ▼]

By using the strain smoothing technique proposed by Chen et al. (Comput. Mech. 2000; 25:137-156) for meshless methods in the context of the finite element method (FEM), Liu et al. (Comput. Mech. 2007; 39(6):859-877) developed the Smoothed FEM (SFEM). Although the SFEM is not yet well understood mathematically, numerical experiments point to potentially useful features of this particularly simple modification of the FEM. To date, the SFEM has only been investigated for bilinear and Wachspress approximations and is limited to linear reproducing conditions. The goal of this paper is to extend the strain smoothing to higher order elements and to investigate numerically in which condition strain smoothing is beneficial to accuracy and convergence of enriched finite element approximations. We focus on three widely used enrichment schemes, namely: (a) weak discontinuities; (b) strong discontinuities; (c) near-tip linear elastic fracture mechanics functions. The main conclusion is that strain smoothing in enriched approximation is only beneficial when the enrichment functions are polynomial (cases (a) and (b)), but that non-polynomial enrichment of type (c) lead to inferior methods compared to the standard enriched FEM (e.g. XFEM). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the role of enrichment and statistical admissibility of recovered fields in a posteriori error estimation for enriched finite element methods
González-Estrada, O. A.; Ródenas, J. J.; Bordas, Stéphane UL et al

in Engineering Computations (2012), 29(8), 814-841

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of the statistical admissibility of the recovered solution and the ability of the recovered solution to represent the singular solution; also ... [more ▼]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of the statistical admissibility of the recovered solution and the ability of the recovered solution to represent the singular solution; also the accuracy, local and global effectivity of recovery-based error estimators for enriched finite element methods (e.g. the extended finite element method, XFEM). Design/methodology/approach - The authors study the performance of two recovery techniques. The first is a recently developed superconvergent patch recovery procedure with equilibration and enrichment (SPR-CX). The second is known as the extended moving least squares recovery (XMLS), which enriches the recovered solutions but does not enforce equilibrium constraints. Both are extended recovery techniques as the polynomial basis used in the recovery process is enriched with singular terms for a better description of the singular nature of the solution. Findings - Numerical results comparing the convergence and the effectivity index of both techniques with those obtained without the enrichment enhancement clearly show the need for the use of extended recovery techniques in Zienkiewicz-Zhu type error estimators for this class of problems. The results also reveal significant improvements in the effectivities yielded by statistically admissible recovered solutions. Originality/value - The paper shows that both extended recovery procedures and statistical admissibility are key to an accurate assessment of the quality of enriched finite element approximations. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (3 UL)
See detailOn the sociopolitical and institutional production of digital cities
Carr, Constance UL

Presentation (2022)

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See detailOn the structure of a new superhard hexagonal carbon phase
Zhang, Bin; Liang, Yongcheng; Guo, Zaoyang et al

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2010), 1233(PART 1), 489-493

Molecular dynamics simulations show that graphite will transform into a superhard phase under cold compression. Recent experiments show that there is a sp 3-rich hexagonal carbon polymorph (a 0=2.496 Å, c ... [more ▼]

Molecular dynamics simulations show that graphite will transform into a superhard phase under cold compression. Recent experiments show that there is a sp 3-rich hexagonal carbon polymorph (a 0=2.496 Å, c 0=4.123Å) with a bulk modulus of 447 GPa and average density about 3.6g/cm 3, restricted to the space group of P-62c (No. 190), but the detailed atomic structure was not obtained [Wang et al., P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101(38), 13699]. Here we set carbon atoms occupying P-62c 4f Wyckoff positions of P-62c, and calculate the total energy of the different structures changing the internal parameter z by first-principles calculations using geometry optimisation algorithm in CASTEP code, which shows that the stable structures in energy (at local minimum points) are hexagonal carbon (z=1/4) and hexagonal diamond (z=1/16). The calculated mechanical properties and lattice parameters of the structure P-62c 4f (z=1/4) are in good agreement with those of the new hexagonal carbon proposed by Wang et al., which indicates that the atomic structure is a possible candidate. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of recovery techniques for accurate error estimation and error bounding in XFEM
Ródenas, J. J.; González-Estrada, O. A.; Fuenmayor, F. J. et al

in Bordas, Stéphane; Kerfriden, Pierre (Eds.) 2nd International Conference on the Extended Finite Element Method (2011)

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See detailOn the weightwise nonlinearity of weightwise perfectly balanced functions
Gini, Agnese UL; Meaux, Pierrick UL

E-print/Working paper (n.d.)

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See detailOn three-dimensional modelling of crack growth using partition of unity methods
Rabczuk, Timon; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Zi, Goangseup

in Computers and Structures (2010), 88(23-24), 1391-1411

This paper reviews different crack tracking techniques in three-dimensions applicable in the context of partition of unity methods, especially meshfree methods. Issues such as describing and tracking the ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews different crack tracking techniques in three-dimensions applicable in the context of partition of unity methods, especially meshfree methods. Issues such as describing and tracking the crack surface are addressed. A crack tracking procedure is proposed in detail and implemented in the context of the extended element-free Galerkin method (XEFG). Several three-dimensional cracking examples are compared to other results from the literature or the experimental data and show good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailOn time integration in the XFEM
Fries, T.-P.; Zilian, Andreas UL

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2009), 79(1), 69-93

The extended finite element method (XFEM) is often used in applications that involve moving interfaces. Examples are the propagation of cracks or the movement of interfaces in two-phase problems. This ... [more ▼]

The extended finite element method (XFEM) is often used in applications that involve moving interfaces. Examples are the propagation of cracks or the movement of interfaces in two-phase problems. This work focuses on time integration in the XFEM. The performance of the discontinuous Galerkin method in time (space-time finite elements (FEs)) and time-stepping schemes are analyzed by convergence studies for different model problems. It is shown that space-time FE achieve optimal convergence rates. Special care is required for time stepping in the XFEM due to the time dependence of the enrichment functions. In each time step, the enrichment functions have to be evaluated at different time levels. This has important consequences in the quadrature used for the integration of the weak form. A time-stepping scheme that leads to optimal or only slightly sub-optimal convergence rates is systematically constructed in this work. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailA one point integration rule over star convex polytopes
Francis, Amrita; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Atroshchenko, Elena et al

in Computers and Structures (2019), 215

In this paper, the recently proposed linearly consistent one point integration rule for the meshfree methods is extended to arbitrary polytopes. The salient feature of the proposed technique is that it ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the recently proposed linearly consistent one point integration rule for the meshfree methods is extended to arbitrary polytopes. The salient feature of the proposed technique is that it requires only one integration point within each n-sided polytope as opposed to 3n in Francis et al. (2017) and 13n integration points in the conventional approach for numerically integrating the weak form in two dimensions. The essence of the proposed technique is to approximate the compatible strain by a linear smoothing function and evaluate the smoothed nodal derivatives by the discrete form of the divergence theorem at the geometric center. This is done by Taylor’s expansion of the weak form which facilitates the use of the smoothed nodal derivatives acting as the stabilization term. This translates to 50% and 30% reduction in the overall computational time in the two and three dimensions, respectively, whilst preserving the accuracy and the convergence rates. The convergence properties, the accuracy and the efficacy of the one point integration scheme are discussed by solving few benchmark problems in elastostatics. [less ▲]

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See detailOnline Fault Diagnosis for Nonlinear Power Systems
Pan, Wei UL; Yuan, Ye; Sandberg, Henrik et al

in Automatica (2015), 55

In this paper, automatic fault diagnosis in large scale power networks described by second-order nonlinear swing equations is studied. This work focuses on a class of faults that occur in the transmission ... [more ▼]

In this paper, automatic fault diagnosis in large scale power networks described by second-order nonlinear swing equations is studied. This work focuses on a class of faults that occur in the transmission lines. Transmission line protection is an important issue in power system engineering because a large portion of power system faults is occurring in transmission lines. This paper presents a novel technique to detect, isolate and identify the faults on transmissions using only a small number of observations. We formulate the problem of fault diagnosis of nonlinear power network into a compressive sensing framework and derive an optimisationbased formulation of the fault identification problem. An iterative reweighted `1-minimisation algorithm is finally derived to solve the detection problem efficiently. Under the proposed framework, a real-time fault monitoring scheme can be built using only measurements of phase angles of nonlinear power networks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 150 (14 UL)
See detailDie Online-Testplattform OASYS
Keller, Ulrich UL; François, Eric UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Presentation (2014, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 259 (78 UL)
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See detailOpen Science @LCSB-ECI
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, June 17)

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See detailOpen-Cell Aluminium Foams with Graded Coatings as Passively Controllable Energy Absorbers
Jung, Anne; Beex, Lars UL; Diebels, Stefan et al

in Materials and Design (2015), 87

Compared to most bulk materials, open-cell aluminium (Al) foams (OCAFs) are light-weight and can absorb a significant amount of energy in compression, e.g. during impact.When coatedwith nickel (Ni), OCAFs ... [more ▼]

Compared to most bulk materials, open-cell aluminium (Al) foams (OCAFs) are light-weight and can absorb a significant amount of energy in compression, e.g. during impact.When coatedwith nickel (Ni), OCAFs can absorb even more energy, making them more appropriate for impacts at higher velocities than uncoated OCAFs. When Ni-coated OCAFs experience low-velocity impact however, the stopping distance during the impact is small compared to that of uncoated OCAFs and hence, deceleration occurs fast. This exposes devices (and possibly human beings) protected by OCAFs to large internal forces leading to internal damage. An OCAF that combines the properties of uncoated and coated OCAFs can absorb energy during both low-velocity and high-velocity impact scenarios. This contribution introduces two of such OCAFs which are created by partially and gradually coating OCAFs. The general mechanics of the two OCAFs are revealed using experimental and numerical observation methods. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical measurement under space conditions
Bremer, Mats UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The growing interest in space by governmental and private institutions has increased significantly in recent years. The issue of quality control plays an extremely important role in space travel, as ... [more ▼]

The growing interest in space by governmental and private institutions has increased significantly in recent years. The issue of quality control plays an extremely important role in space travel, as possible defects can cause enormous damage. The present work deals with a possible method to improve already existing quality control procedures for space flight. With the help of a 3D scanner, different components are measured and evaluated under space conditions. In particular, the linear thermal expansions are analyzed. The work has shown that the elaborated procedure works for metallic materials. For composites or joints between different materials, positive approaches were shown, which, however, could not be validated within the scope of this work. Components made of pure carbon fiber material cannot be evaluated with the technical equipment used. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal dispatching of electric and hybrid buses subject to scheduling and charging constraints
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Parisi, Federico; Laskaris, Georgios UL et al

Scientific Conference (2018, November)

We consider the problem of optimally determining the sequence of electric and hybrid buses departing from a multi-line bus terminal, considering both service constraints (schedule adherence) and energy ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of optimally determining the sequence of electric and hybrid buses departing from a multi-line bus terminal, considering both service constraints (schedule adherence) and energy constraints (electric bus charging status, bus recharging scheduling in capacitated facilities). The problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear Program, with the objective of minimizing the total operational cost for the bus lines in question. System dynamics are captured by practical sets of constraints, ranging from scheduling adherence to discharge- recharge dynamics. Individual operational costs at the bus level and at the trip level are fully parametrized, allowing for extensive sensitivity analysis. We investigate a real-life case study based on the city of Luxembourg, where two charging stations have been installed in the central station’s bus terminal. Experimental results show that, while full electrification is indeed possible, the required fleet size depends strongly on the given line(s) timetable. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Management of Electrified and Cooperative Bus Systems
Viti, Francesco UL; Rinaldi, Marco UL; Laskaris, Georgios

in Transportation Systems for Smart, Sustainable, Inclusive and Secure Cities (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (2 UL)
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See detailOptimal multi-line bus dispatching at terminals with electric charging scheduling constraints
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Parisi, Federico; D'Ariano, Andrea et al

Scientific Conference (2018, July)

We consider the problem of optimally determining the sequence of electric and conventional internal combustion buses departing from a multi-line bus terminal, considering both service constraints ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of optimally determining the sequence of electric and conventional internal combustion buses departing from a multi-line bus terminal, considering both service constraints (schedule adherence) and energy constraints (electric bus charging status, bus recharging scheduling in capacitated facilities). The problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear Program, with the objective of minimizing the total operational cost for the bus lines in question. System dynamics are captured by twenty sets of constraints, ranging from scheduling adherence to discharge-recharge dynamics. Individual operational costs at the bus level (cost of running an electric / non electric bus per km, cost of recharging) and at the trip level (penalty due to failed schedule adherence) are fully parametrised, allowing for extensive sensitivity analysis. We investigate a real-life case study based in the city of Luxembourg, where two charging stations have been installed in the central station’s bus terminal. Through the model we investigate: i) the minimum amount of electric buses necessary to perform a day’s schedule for two currently partially electrified lines, without resorting to conventional internal combustion alternatives; ii) the impact of electrifying two additional lines, specifically considering the trade-offs related to either adding new buses or new charging stations at the bus terminal. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 158 (10 UL)