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L2-gain of double integrators with saturation nonlinearity Goncalves, Jorge in Proceedings of the 15th IFAC World Congress (2002) This paper uses quadratic surface Lyapunov functions to efficiently check if a double integrator in feedback with a saturation nonlinearity has L2-gain less than gamma > 0. We show that for many of such ... [more ▼] This paper uses quadratic surface Lyapunov functions to efficiently check if a double integrator in feedback with a saturation nonlinearity has L2-gain less than gamma > 0. We show that for many of such systems, the L2-gain is non-conservative in the sense that they are approximately equal to the low erbound obtained by replacing the saturation with a constant gain of 1. These results allow the use of classical analysis tools like mu -analysis or IQCs to analyze systems with double integrators and saturations, including servo systems like some mechanical systems, satellites, hard-disks, CD players, etc. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 65 (1 UL)Lab Testing Beyond Usability: Challenges and Recommendations for Assessing User Experiences Lallemand, Carine ; Koenig, Vincent in Journal of Usability Studies (2017), 12(3), 133-154 In the “third wave” of human-computer interaction (HCI), the advent of the conceptual approach of UX broadens and changes the HCI landscape. Methods approved before, mainly within the conceptual approach ... [more ▼] In the “third wave” of human-computer interaction (HCI), the advent of the conceptual approach of UX broadens and changes the HCI landscape. Methods approved before, mainly within the conceptual approach of usability, are still widely used, and yet their adequacy for UX evaluation remains uncertain in many applications. Laboratory testing is undoubtedly the most prominent example of such a method. Hence, in this study, we investigated how the more comprehensive and emotional scope of UX can be assessed by laboratory testing. In this paper, we report on a use case study involving 70 participants. They first took part in user/laboratory tests and then were asked to evaluate their experience with the two systems (perceived UX) by filling out an AttrakDiff scale and a UX needs fulfillment questionnaire. We conducted post-test interviews to better understand participants’ experiences. We analyzed how the participants’ perceived UX depends on quantitative (e.g., task completion time, task sequence, level of familiarity with the system) and qualitative aspects (think aloud, debriefing interviews) within the laboratory context. Results indicate that the laboratory setting has a strong impact on the participants’ perceived UX, and support a discussion of the quality and limitations of laboratory evaluations regarding UX assessment. In this paper, we have identified concrete challenges and have provided solutions and tips useful for both practitioners and researchers who seek to account for the subjective, situated, and temporal nature of the UX in their assessments. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 216 (7 UL)Large Eddy Simulations of the Influence of Piston Position on the Swirling Flow in a Model Two-Stroke Diesel Engine Obeidat, Anas ; ; et al in International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow (2014), 24(2), 325-241 Detailed reference viewed: 74 (4 UL)Large scale phase field model of fracture and cutting in soft tissues ; Hale, Jack ; et al Scientific Conference (2015, July) The phase field method has proven to be an important tool in computational mechanics in that it is able to deal naturally with crack nucleation and branching [1]. In this contribution, we demonstrate a ... [more ▼] The phase field method has proven to be an important tool in computational mechanics in that it is able to deal naturally with crack nucleation and branching [1]. In this contribution, we demonstrate a large scale phase field model of fracture and cutting of soft tissues undergoing non-linear deformations with a material law defined by a hyperelastic energy density functional. We will also provide some initial thoughts on the how the effect of a porous medium can be incorporated into the phase field model. We implement this work using the FEniCS project and PETSc software packages [2, 3]. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 213 (9 UL)Legal Ontology for Nexus: Water, Energy and Food in EU Regulations Rahman, Md Mizanur Doctoral thesis (2016) Objectives of the thesis are – (a) to identify the problems in water-energy-food nexus from ICT and Law point of view and to propose theoretically a legal knowledge framework for water-energy-food nexus ... [more ▼] Objectives of the thesis are – (a) to identify the problems in water-energy-food nexus from ICT and Law point of view and to propose theoretically a legal knowledge framework for water-energy-food nexus in order to reduce those problems technologically, (b) to construct and implement legal ontology for nexus extracted from EU water, energy and food Regulations in OWL 2 language, which is a part of the grater work of implementing legal knowledge framework for water-energy-food nexus pro-posed through the compilation of objective (a). Considering these objectives, this thesis presents total five chapters. Chapter 1 is dedicated to fulfill the requirement of objective (a) and the rest chapters are devoted for objective (b). More particularly chapter four presents technical descriptions of the legal ontology for nexus, while chapter two and three articulate methodological aspect of it. Chapter five evaluates legal ontology for nexus. Additionally, besides the list of references, annex 1 delivers all asserted restrictions used in this ontology and annex 2 provides the links of all modules and documentations of legal ontology for nexus. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 362 (25 UL)Lessons learnt from a corporate car-sharing system: the case of the University of Luxembourg Viti, Francesco ; Kümpel, Katja Scientific Conference (2017, May) Detailed reference viewed: 53 (3 UL)Leveraging GIS Data and Topological Information to Infer Trip Chaining Behaviour at Macroscopic Level ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2019, June) One of the open challenges in transport modelling is to estimate within-day demand flows that reflect the complexity of individual activity-travel behaviour. While disaggregate (Activity-Based) demand ... [more ▼] One of the open challenges in transport modelling is to estimate within-day demand flows that reflect the complexity of individual activity-travel behaviour. While disaggregate (Activity-Based) demand models can recreate realistic daily mobility patterns at an individual level, they usually require an accurate knowledge of individual user behaviour (i.e. via travel surveys), which is not always available. As a result, practitioners often turn to aggregate demand models, that have the advantage of being less demanding in terms of data but typically under represent the demand for secondary activities. In this work, we take research on within-day demand modelling one step forward by proposing a framework that combines traditional methodologies with heterogeneous data sources in order to explicitly represent trip chaining at an aggregated level. We show that the combination of web-based crowd sensed data, network data and behavioural constraints allows to capture complex spatial and temporal correlations between demand patterns. The methodology is applied on the classical Gravity model to show how to incorporate within-day dynamics. Yet, any alternative demand model can be adopted. In our case, Generation and Attraction are used to estimate the systematic demand, that is enriched of information about individual activity patterns, and then a novel definition of impedance function based on Hagestraand ellipse theory plays a central role in spatially distributing locations of trips using geographic relationships and constraints deriving from space-time behaviour. A case study for Luxembourg City has been presented to show the potential of the methodology: the choice of using data from a different spatial context to account for the temporal dimension has been validated through comparisons with official statistics. The results of simulating a workplace relocation show the advantages of this new approach in representing demand related to secondary activities. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 70 (6 UL)LEXU II „Low Exergy Wall & Air Tempering for Building Refurbishment“ ; Scholzen, Frank Scientific Conference (2018, April 20) Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 UL)Lifetime prediction for solder joints with the extended finite element method ; ; et al in Proceedings of 12th Int. Conf. on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2011 (2011) Predicting the lifetime of solder joints undergoing thermal cycling is crucial for the electronics industry in order to guarantee a certain performance of their products in the field. Semi-empirical ... [more ▼] Predicting the lifetime of solder joints undergoing thermal cycling is crucial for the electronics industry in order to guarantee a certain performance of their products in the field. Semi-empirical methods are often used to predict the average lifetime of the critical joints. However, to get a reliable failure probability the standard deviation must also be addressed. The deviation of the lifetime from the mean value is a consequence of the variation in microstructure found in actual joints. We therefore propose a new methodology that calculates crack growth based on microstructural features of the joint. A series of random microstructures is generated. Crack growth calculations are performed for each of these structures. The structural problem is solved numerically with the extended finite element method which allows a complete automation of the process. The mean crack length and standard deviation are calculated from the crack growth simulations and the result is compared to experimental data. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 54 (1 UL)LINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF CRACKED ISOTROPIC PLATES USING THE EXTENDED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2010, March) The behaviour of plate structures under compressive loads has been of great concern for engineering applications, especially in aeronautical and aerospace structures in which the demanding design of ... [more ▼] The behaviour of plate structures under compressive loads has been of great concern for engineering applications, especially in aeronautical and aerospace structures in which the demanding design of weight critical applications usually leads to stability problems. In this paper, the linear buckling problem of cracked isotropic plates is studied using the extended finite element method (XFEM). The mixed interpolation technique of the well-established MITC4 quadrilateral finite element with 12 standard degrees of freedom per element is used. The critical buckling load and mode shapes of simply supported square plates are computed as a function of crack length. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 197 (0 UL)Linear buckling analysis of cracked plates by SFEM and XFEM ; ; Bordas, Stéphane et al in Journal of Mechanics of Material and Structures (2011), 6(9-10), 1213-1238 In this paper, the linear buckling problem for isotropic plates is studied using a quadrilateral element with smoothed curvatures and the extended finite element method. First, the curvature at each point ... [more ▼] In this paper, the linear buckling problem for isotropic plates is studied using a quadrilateral element with smoothed curvatures and the extended finite element method. First, the curvature at each point is obtained by a nonlocal approximation via a smoothing function. This element is later coupled with partition of unity enrichment to simplify the simulation of cracks. The proposed formulation suppresses locking and yields elements which behave very well, even in the thin plate limit. The buckling coefficient and mode shapes of square and rectangular plates are computed as functions of crack length, crack location, and plate thickness. The effects of different boundary conditions are also studied. © 2011 by Mathematical Sciences Publishers. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 153 (0 UL)Linear identification of nonlinear systems: A lifting technique based on the Koopman operator Mauroy, Alexandre ; Goncalves, Jorge in Proceedings of the 55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2016, December) We exploit the key idea that nonlinear system identification is equivalent to linear identification of the socalled Koopman operator. Instead of considering nonlinear system identification in the state ... [more ▼] We exploit the key idea that nonlinear system identification is equivalent to linear identification of the socalled Koopman operator. Instead of considering nonlinear system identification in the state space, we obtain a novel linear identification technique by recasting the problem in the infinite-dimensional space of observables. This technique can be described in two main steps. In the first step, similar to a component of the Extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition algorithm, the data are lifted to the infinite-dimensional space and used for linear identification of the Koopman operator. In the second step, the obtained Koopman operator is “projected back” to the finite-dimensional state space, and identified to the nonlinear vector field through a linear least squares problem. The proposed technique is efficient to recover (polynomial) vector fields of different classes of systems, including unstable, chaotic, and open systems. In addition, it is robust to noise, well-suited to model low sampling rate datasets, and able to infer network topology and dynamics. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 124 (8 UL)A Linear Programming Approach to Parameter Fitting for the Master Equation ; Goncalves, Jorge in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2009), 54(10), 2451-2455 This technical note proposes a new framework for the design of continuous time, finite state space Markov processes. In particular, we propose a paradigm for selecting an optimal matrix within a pre ... [more ▼] This technical note proposes a new framework for the design of continuous time, finite state space Markov processes. In particular, we propose a paradigm for selecting an optimal matrix within a pre-specified pencil of transition rate matrices. Given any transition rate matrix specifying the time-evolution of the Markov process, we propose a class of figures of merit that upper-bounds the long-term evolution of any statistical moment. We show that optimization with respect to the aforementioned class of cost functions is tractable via dualization and linear programming methods. In addition, we suggest how this approach can be used as a tool for the sub-optimal design of the master equation, with performance guarantees. Our results are applied to illustrative examples. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 78 (1 UL)Linear smoothed extended finite element method ; ; et al E-print/Working paper (n.d.) The extended finite element method (XFEM) was introduced in 1999 to treat problems involving discontinuities with no or minimal remeshing through appropriate enrichment functions. This enables elements to ... [more ▼] The extended finite element method (XFEM) was introduced in 1999 to treat problems involving discontinuities with no or minimal remeshing through appropriate enrichment functions. This enables elements to be split by a discontinuity, strong or weak and hence requires the integration of discontinuous functions or functions with discontinuous derivatives over elementary volumes. Moreover, in the case of open surfaces and singularities, special, usually non-polynomial functions must also be integrated.A variety of approaches have been proposed to facilitate these special types of numerical integration, which have been shown to have a large impact on the accuracy and convergence of the numerical solution. The smoothed extended finite element method (SmXFEM) [1], for example, makes numerical integration elegant and simple by transforming volume integrals into surface integrals. However, it was reported in [1, 2] that the strain smoothing is inaccurate when non-polynomial functions are in the basis. This is due to the constant smoothing function used over the smoothing domains which destroys the effect of the singularity. In this paper, we investigate the benefits of a recently developed Linear smoothing procedure [3] which provides better approximation to higher order polynomial fields in the basis. Some benchmark problems in the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) are solved to compare the standard XFEM, the constant-smoothed XFEM (Sm-XFEM) and the linear-smoothed XFEM (LSm-XFEM). We observe that the convergence rates of all three methods are the same. The stress intensity factors (SIFs) computed through the proposed LSm-XFEM are however more accurate than that obtained through Sm-XFEM. To conclude, compared to the conventional XFEM, the same order of accuracy is achieved at a relatively low computational effort. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 91 (3 UL)Linear smoothed extended finite element method for fatigue crack growth simulations ; ; et al in Engineering Fracture Mechanics (2018), 206 In this paper, the recently proposed linear smoothed extended finite element method (LSmXFEM) is employed to simulate the fatigue crack growth. Unlike the conventional extended finite element method, the ... [more ▼] In this paper, the recently proposed linear smoothed extended finite element method (LSmXFEM) is employed to simulate the fatigue crack growth. Unlike the conventional extended finite element method, the LSmXFEM does not require special numerical integration technique to integrate the terms in the stiffness matrix. The stress intensity factors (SIFs) are evaluated by using the domain form of the interaction integral technique. The fatigue crack growth rate is evaluated using the generalized Paris’ law in conjunction with the maximum hoop stress criterion. The robustness of the method is demonstrated with a few examples for which the results are available in the literature. Then, the fatigue crack growth from the numerical simulation is compared with the experimental investigations performed on CR5 grade cold formed steel. It is seen that the fatigue life and the crack path obtained from the proposed method is in close agreement with the experimental observation. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 UL)A linear smoothed higher-order CS-FEM for the analysis of notched laminated composites ; ; et al in Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements (2017), 85 Higher-order elements with highly accurate solutions are attractive for stress analysis and stress concentration problems. However, the distorted eight-node serendipity quadrilateral element is known to ... [more ▼] Higher-order elements with highly accurate solutions are attractive for stress analysis and stress concentration problems. However, the distorted eight-node serendipity quadrilateral element is known to yield inaccurate re- sults and sub-optimal convergence rate. In this paper, we present a higher order CS-FEM to alleviate the effect of distorted mesh and guarantee the quality of solutions by employing a linear smoothing technique over eight-node quadratic serendipity elements. The modified. strain matrix is computed by the divergence theorem between the nodal shape functions and their derivatives using Taylor’s expansion of the weak form. The proposed method eliminates the need for isoparametric mapping and numerical studies demonstrate that the proposed method is insensitive to mesh distortion. The improved accuracy and superior convergence rates are numerically demon- strated with a few benchmark problems. The analysis of the stress concentration around cutouts also proves that the present method has good performance for the laminated composites. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 84 (1 UL)Linear smoothed polygonal and polyhedral finite elements ; ; Bordas, Stéphane et al E-print/Working paper (n.d.) It was observed in [1, 2] that the strain smoothing technique over higher order elements and arbitrary polytopes yields less accurate solutions than other techniques such as the conventional polygonal ... [more ▼] It was observed in [1, 2] that the strain smoothing technique over higher order elements and arbitrary polytopes yields less accurate solutions than other techniques such as the conventional polygonal finite element method. In this work, we propose a linear strain smoothing scheme that improves the accuracy of linear and quadratic approximations over convex polytopes. The main idea is to subdivide the polytope into simplicial subcells and use a linear smoothing function in each subcell to compute the strain. This new strain is then used in the computation of the stiffness matrix. The convergence properties and accuracy of the proposed scheme are discussed by solving few benchmark problems. Numerical results show that the proposed linear strain smoothing scheme makes the approximation based on polytopes to deliver improved accuracy and pass the patch test to machine precision. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 418 (10 UL)A linear smoothed quadratic finite element for the analysis of laminated composite Reissner–Mindlin plates ; ; et al in Composite Structures (2017), 180 It is well known that the high-order elements have significantly improved the accuracy of solutions in the traditional finite element analysis, but the performance of high-order elements is restricted by ... [more ▼] It is well known that the high-order elements have significantly improved the accuracy of solutions in the traditional finite element analysis, but the performance of high-order elements is restricted by the shear-locking and distorted meshes for the plate problems. In this paper, a linear smoothed eight-node Reissner-Mindlin plate element (Q8 plate element) based on the first order shear deformation theory is developed for the static and free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates, the computation of the interior derivatives of shape function and isoparametric mapping can be removed. The strain matrices are modified with a linear smoothing technique by using the divergence theorem between the nodal shape functions and their derivatives in Taylor’s expansion. Moreover, the first order Taylor’s expansion is also employed for the construction of stiffness matrix to satisfy the linear strain distribution. Several numerical examples indicate that the novel Q8 plate element has good performance to alleviate the shear-locking phenomenon and improve the quality of the solutions with distorted meshes. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 76 (2 UL)Linear smoothing over arbitrary polytopes ; ; et al Scientific Conference (n.d.) The conventional constant strain smoothing technique yields less accurate solutions that other techniques such as the conventional polygonal finite element method [1, 2]. In this work, we propose a linear ... [more ▼] The conventional constant strain smoothing technique yields less accurate solutions that other techniques such as the conventional polygonal finite element method [1, 2]. In this work, we propose a linear strain smoothing scheme that improves the accuracy of linear and quadratic approximations over convex poly- topes. The method relies on sub-division of the polytope into simplical subcells; however instead of using a constant smoothing function, we employ a linear smoothing function over each subcell. This gives a new definition for the strain to compute the stiffness matrix. The convergence properties and accuracy of the proposed scheme are discussed by solving few benchmark problems. Numerical results show that the proposed linear strain smoothing scheme makes the approximation based on polytopes able to deliver the optimal convergence rate as in traditional quadrilateral and hexahedral finite elements. The accuracy is also improved, and all the methods tested pass the patch test to machine precision. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 116 (0 UL)Linear smoothing over arbitrary polytopes for compressible and nearly incompressible linear elasticity ; Tomar, Satyendra ; Bordas, Stéphane et al Scientific Conference (2016, June) We present a displacement based approach over arbitrary polytopes for compressible and nearly incompressible linear elastic solids. In this approach, a volume-averaged nodal projection operator is ... [more ▼] We present a displacement based approach over arbitrary polytopes for compressible and nearly incompressible linear elastic solids. In this approach, a volume-averaged nodal projection operator is constructed to project the dilatational strain into an approximation space of equal or lower-order than the approximation space for the displacement field, resulting in a locking-free method. The formulation uses the usual Wachspress interpolants over arbitrary polytopes and the stability of the method is ensured by the addition of bubble like functions. The smoothed strains are evaluated based on the linear smoothing procedure. This further softens the bilinear form allowing the procedure to search for a solution satisfying the divergence- free condition. The divergence-free condition of the proposed approach is verified through systematic numerical study. The formulation delivers optimal convergence rates in the energy and L2-norms. Inf-sup tests are presented to demonstrated the stability of the formulation. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 204 (3 UL) |
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