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Greener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective Caruso, Geoffrey ; ; et al in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2015), 54 We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼] We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 339 (47 UL)Greener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective Caruso, Geoffrey ; ; et al in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2015) We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼] We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasising the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 145 (6 UL)Guest Editorial Introduction of the Special Issue on Management of Future Motorway and Urban Traffic Systems ; ; Viti, Francesco in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2020), 21(4), 1631-1634 Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 UL)h- and p-adaptivity driven by recovery and residual-based error estimators for PHT-splines applied to time-harmonic acoustics ; ; et al in Computers and Mathematics with Applications (2018), 77(9), 2369-2395 In this work, we demonstrate the application of PHT-splines for time-harmonic acoustic problems, modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Solutions of the Helmholtz equation have two features: global ... [more ▼] In this work, we demonstrate the application of PHT-splines for time-harmonic acoustic problems, modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Solutions of the Helmholtz equation have two features: global oscillations associated with the wave number and local gradients caused by geometrical irregularities. We show that after a sufficient number of degrees of freedom is used to approximate global oscillations, adaptive refinement can capture local features of the solution. We compare residual-based and recovery-based error estimators and investigate the performance of -refinement. The simulations are done in the context of recently introduced Geometry Independent Field approximaTion (GIFT), where PHT-splines are only used to approximate the solution, while the computational domain is parameterized with NURBS. This approach builds on the natural adaptation ability of PHT-splines and avoids the re-parameterization of the NURBS geometry during the solution refinement process. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 52 (0 UL)H2 Norm Based Network Volatility Measures ; ; Goncalves, Jorge et al in The proceedings of the American Control Conference (2014) Motivated by applications in biology and economics, we propose new volatility measures based on the H2 system norm for linear networks stimulated by independent or correlated noise. We identify critical ... [more ▼] Motivated by applications in biology and economics, we propose new volatility measures based on the H2 system norm for linear networks stimulated by independent or correlated noise. We identify critical links in a network, where relatively small improvements can lead to large reductions in network volatility measures. We also examine volatility measures of individual nodes and their dependence on the topological position in the network. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the volatility on different network interconnections, weights of the edges and other network properties. Hence in an intuitive and efficient way, we can identify critical links, nodes and interconnections in network which can shed light in the network design to make it more robust. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 114 (5 UL)Heterogeneous agent models in economics: a study of heterogeneous productivity of sectors ; Goncalves, Jorge ; in Proceedings of the 2008 American Control Conference (2008) Macroeconomic modeling is undergoing a change from the ground up. Previously models based on fully rational representative agents were constructed to give macroeconomics soli microeconomic foundations ... [more ▼] Macroeconomic modeling is undergoing a change from the ground up. Previously models based on fully rational representative agents were constructed to give macroeconomics soli microeconomic foundations. However the representative agent models have been shown to be inconsistent with empirical evidence and a new method of approach has emerged, one based on heterogeneity of agents. Recently heterogenous models have been used to simulate expected outcomes but due to their complexity little analytic work has been done. In this paper a basic model of the macro economy, with heterogeneous sectors differentiated by productivity, and driven by a jump Markov process, is investigated and steady state solutions for a sector’s output variance are discovered. We adjust the model to include a gain term, to represent a sector’s reaction to its error signal, excess demand, and then linearize the transition rates and apply the fluctuation dissipation theorem to solve the model. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 50 (0 UL)High Performance Parallel Coupling of OpenFOAM+XDEM Besseron, Xavier ; ; Rousset, Alban et al Presentation (2019, June 21) Detailed reference viewed: 219 (25 UL)Higher-order quasicontinuum methods for elastic and dissipative lattice models: uniaxial deformation and pure bending Beex, Lars ; ; et al in GAMM Mitteilungen (2015), 38(2), 344-368 The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been ... [more ▼] The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been applied to (conservative) atomistic lattices in the past, but using a virtual-power-statement it was recently shown that QC approaches can also be used for spring and beam lattice models that include dissipation. Recent results have shown that QC approaches for planar beam lattices experiencing in-plane and out-of-plane deformation require higher-order interpolation. Higher-order QC frameworks are scarce nevertheless. In this contribution, the possibilities of a second-order and third-order QC framework are investigated for an elastoplastic spring lattice. The higher-order QC frameworks are compared to the results of the direct lattice computations and to those of a linear QC scheme. Examples are chosen so that both a macroscale and a microscale quantity influences the results. The two multiscale examples focused on are (i) macroscopically prescribed uniaxial deformation and (ii) macroscopically prescribed pure bending. Furthermore, the examples include an individual inclusion in a large lattice and hence, are concurrent in nature. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 311 (33 UL)A holding control strategy for diverging bus lines Laskaris, Georgios ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2018, July 24) We introduce a holding criterion for network configurations with lines that operate jointly along a common corridor and then individually diverge. The proposed holding decision rule accounts for all ... [more ▼] We introduce a holding criterion for network configurations with lines that operate jointly along a common corridor and then individually diverge. The proposed holding decision rule accounts for all different passengers groups in the overlapping segment and takes care of the transition to individual line operation. The holding rule is evaluated using simulation for different demand levels and segmentations and compared with other control schemes for a real-world network. Results show that gains in overall network performance as well as for specific passenger groups can be achieved under specific demand distributions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 58 (5 UL)How companies learn from design flaws: results from an empirical study of the german manufacturing industry ; Gericke, Kilian ; Blessing, Lucienne in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design (2005) Design flaws often become apparent at a time when the product is already in use and its development process, which in many cases includes extensive testing of parts, components and prototypes, is ... [more ▼] Design flaws often become apparent at a time when the product is already in use and its development process, which in many cases includes extensive testing of parts, components and prototypes, is considered complete. Such flaws may reach from poor ergonomics to the total failure of the product. Often, especially when user safety is at risk, design flaws are so severe that companies are forced to announce a product callback. Petroski suggests that many (if not most) products, which we are familiar with today, have a long history of previously flawed designs [3]. This implies that designers did indeed learn from design flaws in both senses of the word “learn”: discovering the flaw and utilizing the knowledge gained about it to find a solution. As far as discovering a design flaw is concerned, it can be assumed that the feedback from those who interact with the physical products in practice – the individuals who maintain, repair, recycle but essentially use the products – plays an important role. In their previous work, the authors pointed out hat this feedback information could not only be vital for identifying potential product hazards but helps designers to review the effects of their design measures and therefore to improve their products from generation to generation [4]. In order to obtain a better understanding of how designers learn from design flaws, a mail survey was conducted that aimed at investigating company-, process- and product-related factors of this phenomenon and to answer (among others) the following research questions: • To what extent are design flaws of a company’s (or a competitor’s) product a driving force in the development of new products? • How do the designers of a company become aware of design flaws of their products? • How successful are companies in correcting design flaws? • How do successful and unsuccessful companies differ in terms of size, activity profile of their designers and characteristics of their products? • What are possible factors that influence the success in correcting a design fault? [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 82 (2 UL)HPC Multi-physics Biomass Furnace simulations as a Service Besseron, Xavier ; ; Peters, Bernhard et al Scientific Conference (2020, November) Detailed reference viewed: 51 (0 UL)humix: a microfluidics-based in vitro co-culture device for investigating human-microbial molecular interactions Shah, Pranjul ; Wilmes, Paul Scientific Conference (2012, August 25) Detailed reference viewed: 149 (7 UL)A hybrid MGA-MSGD ANN training approach for approximate solution of linear elliptic PDEs Dehghani, Hamidreza ; Zilian, Andreas E-print/Working paper (2020) We introduce a hybrid "Modified Genetic Algorithm-Multilevel Stochastic Gradient Descent" (MGA-MSGD) training algorithm that considerably improves accuracy and efficiency of solving 3D mechanical problems ... [more ▼] We introduce a hybrid "Modified Genetic Algorithm-Multilevel Stochastic Gradient Descent" (MGA-MSGD) training algorithm that considerably improves accuracy and efficiency of solving 3D mechanical problems described, in strong-form, by PDEs via ANNs (Artificial Neural Networks). This presented approach allows the selection of a number of locations of interest at which the state variables are expected to fulfil the governing equations associated with a physical problem. Unlike classical PDE approximation methods such as finite differences or the finite element method, there is no need to establish and reconstruct the physical field quantity throughout the computational domain in order to predict the mechanical response at specific locations of interest. The basic idea of MGA-MSGD is the manipulation of the learnable parameters’ components responsible for the error explosion so that we can train the network with relatively larger learning rates which avoids trapping in local minima. The proposed training approach is less sensitive to the learning rate value, training points density and distribution, and the random initial parameters. The distance function to minimise is where we introduce the PDEs including any physical laws and conditions (so-called, Physics Informed ANN). The Genetic algorithm is modified to be suitable for this type of ANN in which a Coarse-level Stochastic Gradient Descent (CSGD) is exploited to make the decision of the offspring qualification. Employing the presented approach, a considerable improvement in both accuracy and efficiency, compared with standard training algorithms such classical SGD and Adam optimiser, is observed. The local displacement accuracy is studied and ensured by introducing the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) at sufficiently fine mesh as the reference displacements. A slightly more complex problem is solved ensuring the feasibility of the methodology [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 52 (0 UL)A hybrid T-Trefftz polygonal finite element for linear elasticity ; ; Bordas, Stéphane E-print/Working paper (2014) In this paper, we construct hybrid T-Trefftz polygonal finite elements. The displacement field within the polygon is repre- sented by the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equation, also ... [more ▼] In this paper, we construct hybrid T-Trefftz polygonal finite elements. The displacement field within the polygon is repre- sented by the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equation, also called as the T-complete set. On the boundary of the polygon, a conforming displacement field is independently defined to enforce continuity of the displacements across the element boundary. An optimal number of T-complete functions are chosen based on the number of nodes of the polygon and degrees of freedom per node. The stiffness matrix is computed by the hybrid formulation with auxiliary displacement frame. Results from the numerical studies presented for a few benchmark problems in the context of linear elasticity shows that the proposed method yield highly accurate results. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 107 (3 UL)A hyper-reduction method using adaptivity to cut the assembly costs of reduced order models Hale, Jack ; ; Baroli, Davide et al E-print/Working paper (2019) At every iteration or timestep of the online phase of some reduced-order modelling schemes, large linear systems must be assembled and then projected onto a reduced order basis of small dimension. The ... [more ▼] At every iteration or timestep of the online phase of some reduced-order modelling schemes, large linear systems must be assembled and then projected onto a reduced order basis of small dimension. The projected small linear systems are cheap to solve, but assembly and projection are now the dominant computational cost. In this paper we introduce a new hyper-reduction strategy called reduced assembly (RA) that drastically cuts these costs. RA consists of a triangulation adaptation algorithm that uses a local error indicator to con- struct a reduced assembly triangulation specially suited to the reduced order basis. Crucially, this reduced assembly triangulation has fewer cells than the original one, resulting in lower assembly and projection costs. We demonstrate the efficacy of RA on a Galerkin-POD type reduced order model (RAPOD). We show performance increases of up to five times over the baseline Galerkin-POD method on a non-linear reaction-diffusion problem solved with a semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and up to seven times for a 3D hyperelasticity problem solved with a continuation Newton-Raphson algorithm. The examples are implemented in the DOLFIN finite element solver using PETSc and SLEPc for linear algebra. Full code and data files to produce the results in this paper are provided as supplementary material. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 236 (31 UL)Identification of material thermal stress-strain behaviour for simulation of conditions in metallurgical reactors Maciera Rodrigues, David Doctoral thesis (2011) Detailed reference viewed: 73 (5 UL)Identifying Attribute Importance in Early Product Development. Exemplified by Interactive Technologies and Age Pohlmeyer, Anna Elisabeth Doctoral thesis (2011) Detailed reference viewed: 73 (0 UL)Identifying elastoplastic parameters with Bayes' theorem considering double error sources and model uncertainty Rappel, Hussein ; Beex, Lars ; et al in Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics (2019), 55 We discuss Bayesian inference for the identi cation of elastoplastic material parameters. In addition to errors in the stress measurements, which are commonly considered, we furthermore consider errors in ... [more ▼] We discuss Bayesian inference for the identi cation of elastoplastic material parameters. In addition to errors in the stress measurements, which are commonly considered, we furthermore consider errors in the strain measurements. Since a difference between the model and the experimental data may still be present if the data is not contaminated by noise, we also incorporate the possible error of the model itself. The three formulations to describe model uncertainty in this contribution are: (1) a random variable which is taken from a normal distribution with constant parameters, (2) a random variable which is taken from a normal distribution with an input-dependent mean, and (3) a Gaussian random process with a stationary covariance function. Our results show that incorporating model uncertainty often, but not always, improves the results. If the error in the strain is considered as well, the results improve even more. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 335 (67 UL)Identifying fibre material parameter distributions with little experimental efforts Rappel, Hussein ; Beex, Lars ; Bordas, Stéphane Scientific Conference (2018, July 23) Detailed reference viewed: 87 (15 UL)Identifying material parameter distributions of fibers with extremely limited experimental efforts Rappel, Hussein ; Beex, Lars ; Bordas, Stéphane Scientific Conference (2018, July 22) Detailed reference viewed: 59 (6 UL) |
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