Browse ORBi

- What it is and what it isn't
- Green Road / Gold Road?
- Ready to Publish. Now What?
- How can I support the OA movement?
- Where can I learn more?

ORBi

A goal-oriented reduced basis method for the wave equation in inverse analysis ; ; Bordas, Stéphane in International Conference on Computational Mechanics CM13 Proceedings (2013, March) In this paper, we extend the reduced-basis methods developed earlier for wave equations to goal-oriented wave equations with a ne parameter dependence. The essential new ingredient is the dual (or adjoint ... [more ▼] In this paper, we extend the reduced-basis methods developed earlier for wave equations to goal-oriented wave equations with a ne parameter dependence. The essential new ingredient is the dual (or adjoint) problem and the use of its solution in a sampling procedure to pick up “goal-orientedly” parameter samples. First, we introduce the reduced-basis recipe — Galerkin projection onto a space YN spanned by the reduced basis functions which are constructed from the solutions of the governing partial di erential equation at several selected points in parameter space. Second, we propose a new “goal-oriented” Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)–Greedy sampling procedure to construct these associated ba-sis functions. Third, based on the assumption of a ne parameter dependence, we use the o ine-online computational procedures developed earlier to split the computational procedure into o ine and online stages. We verify the proposed computational procedure by applying it to a three-dimensional simulation dental implant problem. The good numeri-cal results show that our proposed procedure performs better than the standard POD–Greedy procedure in terms of the accuracy of output functionals. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 260 (3 UL)A gradient weighted extended finite element method (GW-XFEM) for fracture mechanics ; Bordas, Stéphane ; et al in Acta Mechanica (2019), 230 In this study, a gradient weighted extended finite element method (GW-XFEM) is presented for the analysis of fracture problems. For this method, the domain discretization is the same as the standard XFEM ... [more ▼] In this study, a gradient weighted extended finite element method (GW-XFEM) is presented for the analysis of fracture problems. For this method, the domain discretization is the same as the standard XFEM. However, the gradient field is constructed by considering the influences of the element itself and its adjacent elements. Based on the Shepard interpolation, the weighted strain filed can be obtained, which will be utilized to construct the discretized system equations. The validity of the presented method is fully investigated through several numerical examples. From these results, it is shown that compared with standard XFEM, the presented method can achieve much better accuracy, efficiency and higher convergence, when dealing with fracture analysis. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)Graft materials provide greater static strength to medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy than when no graft is included ; Diffo Kaze, Arnaud ; et al in Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics (2019), 6(13), Background The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) with and without different graft materials. Good clinical and radiological outcomes ... [more ▼] Background The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) with and without different graft materials. Good clinical and radiological outcomes have been demonstrated when either using or not using graft materials during MOWHTO. Variations in the biomechanical properties of different graft types, regarding the stability they provide a MOWHTO, have not been previously investigated. Methods A 10 mm biplanar MOWHTO was performed on 15 artificial sawbone tibiae, which were fixed using the Activmotion 2 plate. Five bones had OSferion60 wedges (synthetic group), five had allograft bone wedges (allograft group), and five had no wedges (control group) inserted into the osteotomy gap. Static compression was applied axially to each specimen until failure of the osteotomy. Ultimate load, horizontal and vertical displacements were measured and used to calculate construct stiffness and valgus malrotation of the tibial head. Results The synthetic group failed at 6.3 kN, followed by the allograft group (6 kN), and the control group (4.5 kN). The most valgus malrotation of the tibial head was observed in the allograft group (2.6°). The synthetic group showed the highest stiffness at the medial side of the tibial head (9.54 kN·mm− 1), but the lowest stiffness at the lateral side (1.59 kN·mm-1). The allograft group showed high stiffness on the medial side of the tibial head (7.54 kN·mm− 1) as well as the highest stiffness on the lateral side (2.18 kN·mm− 1). Conclusions The use of graft materials in MOWHTO results in superior material properties compared to the use of no graft. The static strength of MOWHTO is highest when synthetic grafts are inserted into the osteotomy gap. Allograft wedges provide higher mechanical strength to a MOWHTO than when no graft used. In comparison to the synthetic grafts, allograft wedges result in the stiffness of the osteotomy being more similar at the medial and lateral cortices. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 84 (2 UL)Graphviz e TikZ Fiandrino, Claudio in Ars TeXnica (2012), 13 Graphviz is a very powerful tool to draw graphs. This article tries to explain how to export such graphs as a TikZ picture in a very simple way. Detailed reference viewed: 111 (8 UL)Greener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective Caruso, Geoffrey ; ; et al in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2015), 54 We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼] We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasizing the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 332 (47 UL)Greener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! A 2D urban economics perspective Caruso, Geoffrey ; ; et al in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2015) We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households ... [more ▼] We analyse urban growth forms by means of a 2D microeconomic model where households value green space at neighbourhood scale. We analytically demonstrate that cities can grow more densely when households have the possibility to enlarge the neighbourhood in which they value green space, thus emphasising the importance of neighbourhood planning in particular for facilitating short trips and views of green amenities. We also show by simulation that the size and form of the city, relative to the size and form of neighbourhoods, impact on the decision of households to leapfrog land or not, thus impacting on the emergence of scattered urbanisation patterns. We conclude that carefully addressing the spatial arrangement of green space and buildings and facilitating trips within neighbourhood units constitute an effective policy lever and an attractive way to deliver more sustainable cities. We further argue that our theoretical experiment with complementary analytical and computer-based simulation provides micro-economic reasoning to the main elements of the Garden City and neighbourhood unit planning concepts. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 141 (5 UL)h- and p-adaptivity driven by recovery and residual-based error estimators for PHT-splines applied to time-harmonic acoustics ; ; et al in Computers and Mathematics with Applications (2018), 77(9), 2369-2395 In this work, we demonstrate the application of PHT-splines for time-harmonic acoustic problems, modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Solutions of the Helmholtz equation have two features: global ... [more ▼] In this work, we demonstrate the application of PHT-splines for time-harmonic acoustic problems, modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Solutions of the Helmholtz equation have two features: global oscillations associated with the wave number and local gradients caused by geometrical irregularities. We show that after a sufficient number of degrees of freedom is used to approximate global oscillations, adaptive refinement can capture local features of the solution. We compare residual-based and recovery-based error estimators and investigate the performance of -refinement. The simulations are done in the context of recently introduced Geometry Independent Field approximaTion (GIFT), where PHT-splines are only used to approximate the solution, while the computational domain is parameterized with NURBS. This approach builds on the natural adaptation ability of PHT-splines and avoids the re-parameterization of the NURBS geometry during the solution refinement process. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)H2 Norm Based Network Volatility Measures ; ; Goncalves, Jorge et al in The proceedings of the American Control Conference (2014) Motivated by applications in biology and economics, we propose new volatility measures based on the H2 system norm for linear networks stimulated by independent or correlated noise. We identify critical ... [more ▼] Motivated by applications in biology and economics, we propose new volatility measures based on the H2 system norm for linear networks stimulated by independent or correlated noise. We identify critical links in a network, where relatively small improvements can lead to large reductions in network volatility measures. We also examine volatility measures of individual nodes and their dependence on the topological position in the network. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the volatility on different network interconnections, weights of the edges and other network properties. Hence in an intuitive and efficient way, we can identify critical links, nodes and interconnections in network which can shed light in the network design to make it more robust. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 109 (5 UL)Heterogeneous agent models in economics: a study of heterogeneous productivity of sectors ; Goncalves, Jorge ; in Proceedings of the 2008 American Control Conference (2008) Macroeconomic modeling is undergoing a change from the ground up. Previously models based on fully rational representative agents were constructed to give macroeconomics soli microeconomic foundations ... [more ▼] Macroeconomic modeling is undergoing a change from the ground up. Previously models based on fully rational representative agents were constructed to give macroeconomics soli microeconomic foundations. However the representative agent models have been shown to be inconsistent with empirical evidence and a new method of approach has emerged, one based on heterogeneity of agents. Recently heterogenous models have been used to simulate expected outcomes but due to their complexity little analytic work has been done. In this paper a basic model of the macro economy, with heterogeneous sectors differentiated by productivity, and driven by a jump Markov process, is investigated and steady state solutions for a sector’s output variance are discovered. We adjust the model to include a gain term, to represent a sector’s reaction to its error signal, excess demand, and then linearize the transition rates and apply the fluctuation dissipation theorem to solve the model. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 49 (0 UL)High Performance Parallel Coupling of OpenFOAM+XDEM Besseron, Xavier ; ; Rousset, Alban et al Presentation (2019, June 21) Detailed reference viewed: 200 (21 UL)Higher-order quasicontinuum methods for elastic and dissipative lattice models: uniaxial deformation and pure bending Beex, Lars ; ; et al in GAMM Mitteilungen (2015), 38(2), 344-368 The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been ... [more ▼] The quasicontinuum (QC) method is a numerical strategy to reduce the computational cost of direct lattice computations - in this study we achieve a speed up of a factor of 40. It has successfully been applied to (conservative) atomistic lattices in the past, but using a virtual-power-statement it was recently shown that QC approaches can also be used for spring and beam lattice models that include dissipation. Recent results have shown that QC approaches for planar beam lattices experiencing in-plane and out-of-plane deformation require higher-order interpolation. Higher-order QC frameworks are scarce nevertheless. In this contribution, the possibilities of a second-order and third-order QC framework are investigated for an elastoplastic spring lattice. The higher-order QC frameworks are compared to the results of the direct lattice computations and to those of a linear QC scheme. Examples are chosen so that both a macroscale and a microscale quantity influences the results. The two multiscale examples focused on are (i) macroscopically prescribed uniaxial deformation and (ii) macroscopically prescribed pure bending. Furthermore, the examples include an individual inclusion in a large lattice and hence, are concurrent in nature. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 304 (33 UL)A holding control strategy for diverging bus lines Laskaris, Georgios ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2018, July 24) We introduce a holding criterion for network configurations with lines that operate jointly along a common corridor and then individually diverge. The proposed holding decision rule accounts for all ... [more ▼] We introduce a holding criterion for network configurations with lines that operate jointly along a common corridor and then individually diverge. The proposed holding decision rule accounts for all different passengers groups in the overlapping segment and takes care of the transition to individual line operation. The holding rule is evaluated using simulation for different demand levels and segmentations and compared with other control schemes for a real-world network. Results show that gains in overall network performance as well as for specific passenger groups can be achieved under specific demand distributions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 58 (5 UL)How companies learn from design flaws: results from an empirical study of the german manufacturing industry ; Gericke, Kilian ; Blessing, Lucienne in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design (2005) Design flaws often become apparent at a time when the product is already in use and its development process, which in many cases includes extensive testing of parts, components and prototypes, is ... [more ▼] Design flaws often become apparent at a time when the product is already in use and its development process, which in many cases includes extensive testing of parts, components and prototypes, is considered complete. Such flaws may reach from poor ergonomics to the total failure of the product. Often, especially when user safety is at risk, design flaws are so severe that companies are forced to announce a product callback. Petroski suggests that many (if not most) products, which we are familiar with today, have a long history of previously flawed designs [3]. This implies that designers did indeed learn from design flaws in both senses of the word “learn”: discovering the flaw and utilizing the knowledge gained about it to find a solution. As far as discovering a design flaw is concerned, it can be assumed that the feedback from those who interact with the physical products in practice – the individuals who maintain, repair, recycle but essentially use the products – plays an important role. In their previous work, the authors pointed out hat this feedback information could not only be vital for identifying potential product hazards but helps designers to review the effects of their design measures and therefore to improve their products from generation to generation [4]. In order to obtain a better understanding of how designers learn from design flaws, a mail survey was conducted that aimed at investigating company-, process- and product-related factors of this phenomenon and to answer (among others) the following research questions: • To what extent are design flaws of a company’s (or a competitor’s) product a driving force in the development of new products? • How do the designers of a company become aware of design flaws of their products? • How successful are companies in correcting design flaws? • How do successful and unsuccessful companies differ in terms of size, activity profile of their designers and characteristics of their products? • What are possible factors that influence the success in correcting a design fault? [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 79 (2 UL)humix: a microfluidics-based in vitro co-culture device for investigating human-microbial molecular interactions Shah, Pranjul ; Wilmes, Paul Scientific Conference (2012, August 25) Detailed reference viewed: 147 (7 UL)A hybrid T-Trefftz polygonal finite element for linear elasticity ; ; Bordas, Stéphane E-print/Working paper (2014) In this paper, we construct hybrid T-Trefftz polygonal finite elements. The displacement field within the polygon is repre- sented by the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equation, also ... [more ▼] In this paper, we construct hybrid T-Trefftz polygonal finite elements. The displacement field within the polygon is repre- sented by the homogeneous solution to the governing differential equation, also called as the T-complete set. On the boundary of the polygon, a conforming displacement field is independently defined to enforce continuity of the displacements across the element boundary. An optimal number of T-complete functions are chosen based on the number of nodes of the polygon and degrees of freedom per node. The stiffness matrix is computed by the hybrid formulation with auxiliary displacement frame. Results from the numerical studies presented for a few benchmark problems in the context of linear elasticity shows that the proposed method yield highly accurate results. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 104 (3 UL)A hyper-reduction method using adaptivity to cut the assembly costs of reduced order models Hale, Jack ; ; Baroli, Davide et al E-print/Working paper (2019) At every iteration or timestep of the online phase of some reduced-order modelling schemes, large linear systems must be assembled and then projected onto a reduced order basis of small dimension. The ... [more ▼] At every iteration or timestep of the online phase of some reduced-order modelling schemes, large linear systems must be assembled and then projected onto a reduced order basis of small dimension. The projected small linear systems are cheap to solve, but assembly and projection are now the dominant computational cost. In this paper we introduce a new hyper-reduction strategy called reduced assembly (RA) that drastically cuts these costs. RA consists of a triangulation adaptation algorithm that uses a local error indicator to con- struct a reduced assembly triangulation specially suited to the reduced order basis. Crucially, this reduced assembly triangulation has fewer cells than the original one, resulting in lower assembly and projection costs. We demonstrate the efficacy of RA on a Galerkin-POD type reduced order model (RAPOD). We show performance increases of up to five times over the baseline Galerkin-POD method on a non-linear reaction-diffusion problem solved with a semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and up to seven times for a 3D hyperelasticity problem solved with a continuation Newton-Raphson algorithm. The examples are implemented in the DOLFIN finite element solver using PETSc and SLEPc for linear algebra. Full code and data files to produce the results in this paper are provided as supplementary material. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 227 (30 UL)Identification of material thermal stress-strain behaviour for simulation of conditions in metallurgical reactors Maciera Rodrigues, David Doctoral thesis (2011) Detailed reference viewed: 72 (5 UL)Identifying Attribute Importance in Early Product Development. Exemplified by Interactive Technologies and Age Pohlmeyer, Anna Elisabeth Doctoral thesis (2011) Detailed reference viewed: 71 (0 UL)Identifying elastoplastic parameters with Bayes' theorem considering double error sources and model uncertainty Rappel, Hussein ; Beex, Lars ; et al in Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics (2019), 55 We discuss Bayesian inference for the identi cation of elastoplastic material parameters. In addition to errors in the stress measurements, which are commonly considered, we furthermore consider errors in ... [more ▼] We discuss Bayesian inference for the identi cation of elastoplastic material parameters. In addition to errors in the stress measurements, which are commonly considered, we furthermore consider errors in the strain measurements. Since a difference between the model and the experimental data may still be present if the data is not contaminated by noise, we also incorporate the possible error of the model itself. The three formulations to describe model uncertainty in this contribution are: (1) a random variable which is taken from a normal distribution with constant parameters, (2) a random variable which is taken from a normal distribution with an input-dependent mean, and (3) a Gaussian random process with a stationary covariance function. Our results show that incorporating model uncertainty often, but not always, improves the results. If the error in the strain is considered as well, the results improve even more. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 311 (67 UL)Identifying fibre material parameter distributions with little experimental efforts Rappel, Hussein ; Beex, Lars ; Bordas, Stéphane Scientific Conference (2018, July 23) Detailed reference viewed: 83 (15 UL) |
||