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Exploring the polycentric city with multi-worker households: An agent-based microeconomic model Lemoy, Rémi ; ; in Computers, Environment & Urban Systems (2017), 62 We propose an agent-based dynamics which leads an urban system to the standard equilibrium of the Alonso, Muth, Mills (AMM) framework. Starting for instance from a random initialization, agents move and ... [more ▼] We propose an agent-based dynamics which leads an urban system to the standard equilibrium of the Alonso, Muth, Mills (AMM) framework. Starting for instance from a random initialization, agents move and bid for land, performing a kind of local search and finally leading the system to equilibrium rent, density and land use. Agreement with continuous analytical results is limited only by the discreteness of simulations. We then study polycentrism in cities with this tool. Two job centers are introduced, and the economic, social and environmental outcomes of various polycentric spatial structures are presented. We also introduce two-worker households whose partners may work in different job centers. When various two-worker households are mixed, polycentrism is desirable, as long as the centers are not too distant from each other. The environmental outcome is also positive, but housing surfaces.increase. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 96 (5 UL)Exploring the power of converse events Aucher, Guillaume ; in Dynamic Formal Epistemology (2009) Dynamic epistemic logic as viewed by Baltag, Moss and Solecki (BMS) and propositional dynamic logic (PDL) offer different semantics of events. On the one hand, BMS adds dynamics to epistemic logic by ... [more ▼] Dynamic epistemic logic as viewed by Baltag, Moss and Solecki (BMS) and propositional dynamic logic (PDL) offer different semantics of events. On the one hand, BMS adds dynamics to epistemic logic by introducing so-called event models as syntactic objects into the language. On the other hand, PDL has instead transition relations between possible worlds. This last approach allows to easily introduce converse events. In this paper we add epistemics to this, and call the resulting logic epistemic dynamic logic (EDL). We show that BMS can be translated into EDL thanks to this use of the converse operator : it enables us to translate the structure of the event model directly within a particular axiomatization of EDL, without having to refer to a particular epistemic event model in the language (as done in BMS).We show that EDL is more expressive and general than BMS and we characterize semantically and syntactically in EDL this embedding of BMS. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 75 (1 UL)An extended coordinate descent method for distributed anticipatory network traffic control Rinaldi, Marco ; in Transportation Research. Part B : Methodological (2015), 80 Anticipatory optimal network control can be defined as the practice of determining the set of control actions that minimizes a network-wide objective function, so that the consequences of this action are ... [more ▼] Anticipatory optimal network control can be defined as the practice of determining the set of control actions that minimizes a network-wide objective function, so that the consequences of this action are taken in consideration not only locally, on the propagation of flows, but globally, taking into account the user's routing behavior. Such an objective function is, in general, defined and optimized in a centralized setting, as knowledge regarding the whole network is needed in order to correctly compute it. This is a strong theoretical framework but, in practice, reaching a level of centralization sufficient to achieve said optimality is very challenging. Furthermore, even if centralization was possible, it would exhibit several shortcomings, with concerns such as computational speed (centralized optimization of a huge control set with a highly nonlinear objective function), reliability and communication overhead arising.The main aim of this work is to develop a decomposed heuristic descent algorithm that, demanding the different control entities to share the same information set, attains network-wide optimality through separate control actions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 63 (2 UL)The extended discrete element method (XDEM) for multi-physics applications Peters, Bernhard in Scholarly Journal of Engineering Research (2013) Detailed reference viewed: 101 (18 UL)The extended discrete element method (XDEM) for multi-physics applications Peters, Bernhard in Scholarly Journal of Engineering Research (2013), 2 The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials or particles as described through the classical Discrete Element ... [more ▼] The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials or particles as described through the classical Discrete Element Method (DEM) by additional properties such as the thermodynamic state, stress/strain, or electromagnetic field for each particle coupled to a continuum phase such as fluid flow or solid structures. Contrary to a continuum mechanics concept, XDEM aims at resolving the particulate phase through the various processes attached to particles, while DEM predicts the special-temporal position and orientation for each particle; XDEM additionally estimates properties such as the internal temperature and/or species distribution. These predictive capabilities are further extended by an interaction to fluid flow by heat, mass and momentum transfer and impact of particles on structures. These superior features as compared to traditional and pure continuum mechanic approaches are highlighted by predicted examples of relevant engineering applications. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 271 (42 UL)Die Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) für multiphysikalische Anwendungen Peters, Bernhard ; Besseron, Xavier ; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio et al Scientific Conference (2013) A vast number of engineering applications include a continuous and discrete phase simultaneously, and therefore, cannot be solved accurately by continuous or discrete approaches only. Problems that ... [more ▼] A vast number of engineering applications include a continuous and discrete phase simultaneously, and therefore, cannot be solved accurately by continuous or discrete approaches only. Problems that involve both a continuous and a discrete phase are important in applications as diverse as pharmaceutical industry e.g. drug production, agriculture food and processing industry, mining, construction and agricultural machinery, metals manufacturing, energy production and systems biology. <br />A novel technique referred to as Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is developed, that offers a significant advancement for coupled discrete and continuous numerical simulation concepts. XDEM treats the solid phase representing the particles and the fluidised phase usually a fluid phase or a structure as two distinguished phases that are coupled through heat, mass and momentum transfer. An outstanding feature of the numerical concept is that each particle is treated as an individual entity that is described by its thermodynamic state e.g. temperature and reaction progress and its position and orientation in time and space. The thermodynamic state includes one-dimensional and transient distributions of temperature and species within the particle and therefore, allows a detailed and accurate characterisation of the reaction progress in a fluidised bed. Thus, the proposed methodology provides a high degree of resolution ranging from scales within a particle to the continuum phase as global dimensions. <br />These superior features as compared to traditional and pure continuum mechanics approaches are applied to predict drying of wood particles in a packed bed and impact of particles on a membrane. Pre- heated air streamed through the packed bed, and thus, heated the particles with simultaneous evaporation of moisture. Water vapour is transferred into the gas phase at the surface of the particles and transported to the exit of the reactor. A rather inhomogeneous drying process in the upper part of the reactor with higher temperatures around the circumference of the inner reactor wall was observed. The latter is due to increased porosity in conjunction with higher mass flow rates than in the centre of the reactor, and thus, augmented heat transfer. A comparison of the weight loss over time agreed well with measurements. <br />Under the impact of falling particles the surface of a membrane deforms that conversely affects the motion of particles on the surface. Due to an increasing vertical deformation particles roll or slide down toward the bottom of the recess, where they are collected in a heap. Furthermore, during initial impacts deformation waves are predicted that propagate through the structure, and may, already indicate resonant effects already before a prototype is built. Hence, the Extended Discrete Element Method offers a high degree of resolution avoiding further empirical correlations and extends the knowledge into the underlying physics. Although most of the work load concerning CFD and FEM is arranged in the ANSYS workbench, a complete integration is intended that allows for a smooth workflow of the entire simulation environment. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 315 (29 UL)Extended Finite Element Method ; Zilian, Andreas ; in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2011), 86(4-5), 403 [No abstract available] Detailed reference viewed: 111 (3 UL)Extended finite element method for dynamic fracture of piezo-electric materials ; ; et al in Engineering Fracture Mechanics (2012), 92 We present an extended finite element formulation for dynamic fracture of piezo-electric materials. The method is developed in the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics. It is applied to mode I and ... [more ▼] We present an extended finite element formulation for dynamic fracture of piezo-electric materials. The method is developed in the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics. It is applied to mode I and mixed mode-fracture for quasi-steady cracks. An implicit time integration scheme is exploited. The results are compared to results obtained with the boundary element method and show excellent agreement. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 76 (0 UL)Extended finite element method with edge-based strain smoothing (ESm-XFEM) for linear elastic crack growth ; ; Bordas, Stéphane et al in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2012), 209-212 This paper presents a strain smoothing procedure for the extended finite element method (XFEM). The resulting "edge-based" smoothed extended finite element method (ESm-XFEM) is tailored to linear elastic ... [more ▼] This paper presents a strain smoothing procedure for the extended finite element method (XFEM). The resulting "edge-based" smoothed extended finite element method (ESm-XFEM) is tailored to linear elastic fracture mechanics and, in this context, to outperform the standard XFEM. In the XFEM, the displacement-based approximation is enriched by the Heaviside and asymptotic crack tip functions using the framework of partition of unity. This eliminates the need for the mesh alignment with the crack and re-meshing, as the crack evolves. Edge-based smoothing (ES) relies on a generalized smoothing operation over smoothing domains associated with edges of simplex meshes, and produces a softening effect leading to a close-to-exact stiffness, "super-convergence" and "ultra-accurate" solutions. The present method takes advantage of both the ES-FEM and the XFEM. Thanks to the use of strain smoothing, the subdivision of elements intersected by discontinuities and of integrating the (singular) derivatives of the approximation functions is suppressed via transforming interior integration into boundary integration. Numerical examples show that the proposed method improves significantly the accuracy of stress intensity factors and achieves a near optimal convergence rate in the energy norm even without geometrical enrichment or blending correction. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 91 (1 UL)Extended Finite Element Method with Global Enrichment ; ; Bordas, Stéphane et al Scientific Conference (2015, July) A variant of the extended finite element method is presented which facilitates the use of enriched elements in a fixed volume around the crack front (geometrical enrichment) in 3D fracture problems. The ... [more ▼] A variant of the extended finite element method is presented which facilitates the use of enriched elements in a fixed volume around the crack front (geometrical enrichment) in 3D fracture problems. The major problem associated with geometrical enrichment is that it significantly deteriorates the conditioning of the resulting system matrices, thus increasing solution times and in some cases making the systems unsolvable. For 2D problems this can be dealt with by employing degree of freedom gathering [1] which essentially inhibits spatial variation of enrichment function weights. However, for the general 3D problem such an approach is not possible since spatial variation of the enrichment function weights in the direction of the crack front is necessary in order to reproduce the variation of solution variables, such as the stress intensity factors, along the crack front. The proposed method solves the above problem by employing a superimposed mesh of special elements which serve as a means to provide variation of the enrichment function weights along the crack front while still not allowing variation in any other direction. The method is combined with special element partitioning algorithms [2] and numerical integration schemes [3] as well as techniques for the elimination of blending errors between the standard and enriched part of the approximation in order to further improve the accuracy of the produced results. Additionally, a novel benchmark problem is introduced which enables the computation of displacement and energy error norms as well as errors in the stress intensity factors for the general 3D case. Through this benchmark problem it is shown that the proposed method provides optimal convergence rates, improved accuracy and reduced computational cost compared to standard XFEM. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 618 (10 UL)Extended space-time finite elements for landslide dynamics ; Zilian, Andreas ; in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2013), 93(3), 329-354 The paper introduces a methodology for numerical simulation of landslides experiencing considerable deformations and topological changes. Within an interface capturing approach, all interfaces are ... [more ▼] The paper introduces a methodology for numerical simulation of landslides experiencing considerable deformations and topological changes. Within an interface capturing approach, all interfaces are implicitly described by specifically defined level-set functions allowing arbitrarily evolving complex topologies. The transient interface evolution is obtained by solving the level-set equation driven by the physical velocity field for all three level-set functions in a block Jacobi approach. The three boundary-coupled fluid-like continua involved are modeled as incompressible, governed by a generalized non-Newtonian material law taking into account capillary pressure at moving fluid-fluid interfaces. The weighted residual formulation of the level-set equations and the fluid equations is discretized with finite elements in space and time using velocity and pressure as unknown variables. Non-smooth solution characteristics are represented by enriched approximations to fluid velocity (weak discontinuity) and fluid pressure (strong discontinuity). Special attention is given to the construction of enriched approximations for elements containing evolving triple junctions. Numerical examples of three-fluid tank sloshing and air-water-liquefied soil landslides demonstrate the potential and applicability of the method in geotechnical investigations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 142 (2 UL)eXtended Variational Quasicontinuum Methodology for Modelling of Crack Propagation in Discrete Lattice Systems ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2017, July 17) Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 UL)Extension of 2D FEniCS implementation of Cosserat non-local elasticity to the 3D case ; Bordas, Stéphane ; Hale, Jack Report (2014) The objective of the study is the extension of the existing 2D FEniCS implementation of Cosserat elasticity to the 3D case. The first step is the implementation of a patch-test for a simple problem in ... [more ▼] The objective of the study is the extension of the existing 2D FEniCS implementation of Cosserat elasticity to the 3D case. The first step is the implementation of a patch-test for a simple problem in classical elasticity as a Timoshenko's beam - this study will show that DOLFIN could offer approximated solutions converging to the analytical solution. The second step is the computation of the stress in a plate with a circular hole. The stress concentration factors around the hole in classical and Cosserat elasticities will be compared, and a convergence study for the Cosserat case will be realised. The third step is the extension to the 3D case with the computation of the stress concentration factor around a spherical cavity in an infinite elastic medium. This computed value will be compare to the analytical solution described by couple-stress theory. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 222 (7 UL)Extracting the spatio-temporal variations in the gravity field recovered from GRACE spatial mission: methods and geophysical applications Prevost, Paoline Fleur Doctoral thesis (2019) Measurements of the spatio-temporal variations of Earth’s gravity field recovered from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have led to unprecedented insights into large spatial ... [more ▼] Measurements of the spatio-temporal variations of Earth’s gravity field recovered from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have led to unprecedented insights into large spatial mass redistribution at secular, seasonal, and sub-seasonal time scales. GRACE solutions from various processing centers, while adopting different processing strategies, result in rather coherent estimates. However, these solutions also exhibit random as well as systematic errors, with specific spatial and temporal patterns in the latter. In order to dampen the noise and enhance the geophysical signals in the GRACE data, several methods have been proposed. Among these, methods based on filtering techniques require a priori assumptions regarding the spatio-temporal structure of the errors. Despite the large effort to improve the quality of GRACE data for always finer geophysical applications, removing noise remains a problematic question as discussed in Chapter 1. In this thesis, we explore an alternative approach, using a spatio-temporal filter, namely the Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) described in Chapter 2. M-SSA is a data-adaptive, multivariate, and non-parametric method that simultaneously exploits the spatial and temporal correlations of geophysical fields to extract common modes of variability. We perform an M-SSA simultaneously on 13 years of GRACE spherical harmonics solutions from five different processing centers. We show that the method allows for the extraction of common modes of variability between solutions, and removal of the solution-specific spatio-temporal errors arising from each processing strategies. In particular, the method filters out efficiently the spurious North-South stripes, most likely caused by aliasing of the imperfect geophysical correction models of known phenomena. In Chapter 3, we compare our GRACE solution to other spherical harmonics solutions and to mass concentration (mascon) solutions which use a priori information on the spatio-temporal pattern of geophysical signals. We also compare performance of our M-SSA GRACE solution with respect to others by predicting surface displacements induced by GRACE-derived mass loading and comparing results with independent displacement data from stations of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Finally, in Chapter 4 we discuss the possible application of a refined GRACE solution to answer debated post-glacial rebound questions. More precisely, we focus on separating the post-glacial rebound signal related to past ice melting and the present ice melting in the region of South Georgia. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 UL)La Fabrication Additive Robotisée: Perspective et Recherche autour d'Impression 3D de Pièces Métalliques de Grandes Dimensions pour l'Industrie Aéronautique Mbodj, Natago Guilé ; Plapper, Peter Article for general public (2020) Detailed reference viewed: 54 (0 UL)Fast Stochastic Non-linear Model Predictive Control for Electric Vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Sajadi Alamdari, Seyed Amin ; Voos, Holger ; in 13th IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety, Vienna, Austria 27-28 June 2017 (2017, June 27) Semi-autonomous driving assistance systems have a high potential to improve the safety and efficiency of the battery electric vehicles that are enduring limited cruising range. This paper presents an ... [more ▼] Semi-autonomous driving assistance systems have a high potential to improve the safety and efficiency of the battery electric vehicles that are enduring limited cruising range. This paper presents an ecologically advanced driver assistance system to extend the functionality of the adaptive cruise control system. A real-time stochastic non-linear model predictive controller with probabilistic constraints is presented to compute on-line the safe and energy-efficient cruising velocity profile. The individual chance-constraint is reformulated into a convex second-order cone constraint which is robust for a general class of probability distributions. Finally, the performance of proposed approach in terms of states regulation, constraints fulfilment, and energy efficiency is evaluated on a battery electric vehicle. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 168 (9 UL)A fast, certified and "tuning free" two-field reduced basis method for the metamodelling of affinely-parametrised elasticity problems ; ; Bordas, Stéphane in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2016), 298 This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate ... [more ▼] This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate reduced order models for the primal variable (displacement) and flux (stress) fields. A two field greedy sampling strategy is proposed to construct these two fields simultaneously and in an efficient manner: at each iteration, one of the two fields is enriched by increasing the dimension of its reduced space in such a way that the CRE is minimised. This sampling strategy is then used as a basis to construct goal-oriented reduced order modelling. The resulting algorithm is certified and “tuning free”: the only requirement from the engineer is the level of accuracy that is desired for each of the outputs of the surrogate. It is also shown to be significantly more efficient in terms of computational expense than competing methodologies. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 98 (17 UL)A fast, certified and "tuning-free" two-field reduced basis method for the metamodelling of parametrised elasticity problems ; ; Bordas, Stéphane in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2015) This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate ... [more ▼] This paper proposes a new reduced basis algorithm for the metamodelling of parametrised elliptic problems. The developments rely on the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE), and the construction of separate reduced order models for the primal variable (displacement) and flux (stress) fields. A two-field Greedy sampling strategy is proposed to construct these two fields simultaneously and efficient manner: at each iteration, one of the two fields is enriched by increasing the dimension of its reduced space in such a way that the CRE is minimised. This sampling strategy is then used as a basis to construct goal-oriented reduced order modelling. The resulting algorithm is certified and "tuning-free": the only requirement from the engineer is the level of accuracy that is desired for each of the outputs of the surrogate. It is also one order of magnitude more efficient in terms of computational expenses than competing methodologies. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 369 (11 UL)FastMotif: Spectral Sequence Motif Discovery Colombo, Nicolo ; Vlassis, Nikos in Bioinformatics (2015) Motivation: Sequence discovery tools play a central role in several fields of computational biology. In the framework of Transcription Factor binding studies, most of the existing motif finding algorithms ... [more ▼] Motivation: Sequence discovery tools play a central role in several fields of computational biology. In the framework of Transcription Factor binding studies, most of the existing motif finding algorithms are computationally demanding, and they may not be able to support the increasingly large datasets produced by modern high-throughput sequencing technologies. Results: We present FastMotif, a new motif discovery algorithm that is built on a recent machine learning technique referred to as Method of Moments. Based on spectral decompositions, our method is robust to model misspecifications and is not prone to locally optimal solutions. We obtain an algorithm that is extremely fast and designed for the analysis of big sequencing data. On HT-Selex data, FastMotif extracts motif profiles that match those computed by various state-of- the-art algorithms, but one order of magnitude faster. We provide a theoretical and numerical analysis of the algorithm’s robustness and discuss its sensitivity with respect to the free parameters. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 127 (9 UL)Final report for the project "European Data Science Conference" Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine ; Böhmer, Matthias Report (2017) Detailed reference viewed: 86 (1 UL) |
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