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The Wasserstein Impact Measure (WIM): A practical tool for quantifying prior impact in Bayesian statistics Ley, Christophe ; ; in Computational Statistics and Data Analysis (2022), 174 The prior distribution is a crucial building block in Bayesian analysis, and its choice will impact the subsequent inference. It is therefore important to have a convenient way to quantify this impact, as ... [more ▼] The prior distribution is a crucial building block in Bayesian analysis, and its choice will impact the subsequent inference. It is therefore important to have a convenient way to quantify this impact, as such a measure of prior impact will help to choose between two or more priors in a given situation. To this end a new approach, the Wasserstein Impact Measure (WIM), is introduced. In three simulated scenarios, the WIM is compared to two competitor prior impact measures from the literature, and its versatility is illustrated via two real datasets. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 UL)Weak and strong from meshless methods for linear elastic problem under fretting contact conditions ; ; et al in Tribology International (2019), 138 We present numerical computation of stresses under fretting fatigue conditions derived from closed form expressions. The Navier-Cauchy equations, that govern the problem, are solved with strong and weak ... [more ▼] We present numerical computation of stresses under fretting fatigue conditions derived from closed form expressions. The Navier-Cauchy equations, that govern the problem, are solved with strong and weak form meshless numerical methods. The results are compared to the solution obtained from well-established commercial package ABAQUS, which is based on finite element method (FEM). The results show that the weak form meshless solution exhibits similar behavior as the FEM solution, while, in this particular case, strong form meshless solution performs better in capturing the peak in the surface stress. This is of particular interest in fretting fatigue, since it directly influences crack initiation. The results are presented in terms of von Mises stress contour plots, surface stress profiles, and the convergence plots for all three methods involved in the study. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 90 (3 UL)Weakening the tight coupling between geometry and simulation in isogeometric analysis Tomar, Satyendra ; ; et al Presentation (2016, June 07) In the standard paradigm of isogeometric analysis, the geometry and the simulation spaces are tightly integrated, i.e. the same non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) space, which is used for the geometry ... [more ▼] In the standard paradigm of isogeometric analysis, the geometry and the simulation spaces are tightly integrated, i.e. the same non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) space, which is used for the geometry representation of the domain, is employed for the numerical solution of the problem over the domain. However, there are situations where this tight integration is a bane rather than a boon. Such situations arise where, e.g., (1) the geometry of the domain is simple enough to be represented by low order NURBS, whereas the unknown (exact) solution of the problem is sufficiently regular, and thus, the numerical solution can be obtained with improved accuracy by using NURBS of order higher than that required for the geometry, (2) the constraint of using the same space for the geometry and the numerical solution is particularly undesirable, such as in the shape and topology optimization, and (3) the solution of the problem has low regularity but for the curved boundary of the domain one can employ higher order NURBS. Therefore, we propose to weaken this constraint. An extensive study of patch tests on various combinations of polynomial degree, geometry type, and various cases of varying degrees and control variables between the geometry and the numerical solution will be discussed. It will be shown, with concrete reasoning, that why patch test fails in certain cases, and that those cases should be avoided in practice. Thereafter, selective numerical examples will be presented to address some of the above-mentioned situations, and it will be shown that weakening the tight coupling between geometry and simulation offers more flexibility in choosing the numerical solution spaces, and thus, improved accuracy of the numerical solution. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 187 (9 UL)Weakening the tight coupling between geometry and simulation in isogeometric analysis Bordas, Stéphane ; Tomar, Satyendra ; et al Scientific Conference (2016, June 05) In the standard paradigm of isogeometric analysis, the geometry and the simulation spaces are tightly integrated, i.e. the same non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) space, which is used for the geometry ... [more ▼] In the standard paradigm of isogeometric analysis, the geometry and the simulation spaces are tightly integrated, i.e. the same non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) space, which is used for the geometry representation of the domain, is employed for the numerical solution of the problem over the domain. However, there are situations where this tight integration is a bane rather than a boon. Such situations arise where, e.g., (1) the geometry of the domain is simple enough to be represented by low order NURBS, whereas the unknown (exact) solution of the problem is sufficiently regular, and thus, the numerical solution can be obtained with improved accuracy by using NURBS of order higher than that required for the geometry, (2) the constraint of using the same space for the geometry and the numerical solution is particularly undesirable, such as in the shape and topology optimization, and (3) the solution of the problem has low regularity but for the curved boundary of the domain one can employ higher order NURBS. Therefore, we propose to weaken this constraint. An extensive study of patch tests on various combinations of polynomial degree, geometry type, and various cases of varying degrees and control variables between the geometry and the numerical solution will be discussed. It will be shown, with concrete reasoning, that why patch test fails in certain cases, and that those cases should be avoided in practice. Thereafter, selective numerical examples will be presented to address some of the above-mentioned situations, and it will be shown that weakening the tight coupling between geometry and simulation offers more flexibility in choosing the numerical solution spaces, and thus, improved accuracy of the numerical solution. Powered by [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 159 (5 UL)Weakening the tight coupling between geometry and simulation in isogeometric analysis: from sub- and super- geometric analysis to Geometry Independent Field approximaTion (GIFT) ; Tomar, Satyendra ; et al in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2018) This paper presents an approach to generalize the concept of isogeometric analysis (IGA) by allowing different spaces for parameterization of the computational domain and for approximation of the solution ... [more ▼] This paper presents an approach to generalize the concept of isogeometric analysis (IGA) by allowing different spaces for parameterization of the computational domain and for approximation of the solution field. The method inherits the main advantage of isogeometric analysis, i.e. preserves the original, exact CAD geometry (for example, given by NURBS), but allows pairing it with an approximation space which is more suitable/flexible for analysis, for example, T-splines, LR-splines, (truncated) hierarchical B-splines, and PHT-splines. This generalization offers the advantage of adaptive local refinement without the need to re-parameterize the domain, and therefore without weakening the link with the CAD model. We demonstrate the use of the method with different choices of the geometry and field splines, and show that, despite the failure of the standard patch test, the optimum convergence rate is achieved for non-nested spaces. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 229 (8 UL)A web-based tool for efficient carbon footprint calculations: Lux screen CO2 Hild, Paula ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2011, August 30) Several commercial software tools for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are already available on the market and recently included ad-hoc extensions to calculate carbon footprints. Unfortunately, these software ... [more ▼] Several commercial software tools for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are already available on the market and recently included ad-hoc extensions to calculate carbon footprints. Unfortunately, these software tools are often too complex and require too much specific expertise to be used by SMEs, consultants and others. For companies without any experience in the field of environmental assessment, the analysis of company-related CO2 emissions within a regional context is often an impossible task. The presented easy-to-use CO2 screening tool, adapted to their needs, was designed to support these companies. The web-based tool, ‘Lux screen CO2’ is able to assess and report site related direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, including the whole supply chain of the company and food-related impacts of the company restaurant. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 145 (1 UL)Well Conditioned and Optimally Convergent Extended Finite Elements and Vector Level Sets for Three-Dimensional Crack Propagation Agathos, Konstantinos ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2016, June) A three-dimensional (3D) version of the vector level set method [1] is combined to a well conditioned and optimally convergent XFEM variant in order to deal with non-planar three dimensional crack ... [more ▼] A three-dimensional (3D) version of the vector level set method [1] is combined to a well conditioned and optimally convergent XFEM variant in order to deal with non-planar three dimensional crack propagation problems. The proposed computational fracture method achieves optimal convergence rates by using tip enriched elements in a fixed volume around the crack front (geometrical enrichment) while keeping conditioning of the resulting system matrices in acceptable levels. Conditioning is controlled by using a three dimensional extension of the degree of freedom gathering technique [2]. Moreover, blending errors are minimized and conditioning is further improved by employing weight function blending and enrichment function shifting [3,4]. As far as crack representation is concerned, crack surfaces are represented by linear quadrilateral elements and the corresponding crack fronts by ordered series of linear segments. Level set values are obtained by projecting points at the crack surface and front respectively. Different criteria are employed in order to assess the quality of the crack representation. References [1] Ventura G., Budyn E. and Belytschko T. Vector level sets for description of propagating cracks in finite elements. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 58:1571-1592 (2003). [2] Laborde P., Pommier J., Renard Y. and Salaün M. High-order extended finite element method for cracked domains. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 64:354-381 (2005). [3] Fries T.P. A corrected XFEM approximation without problems in blending elements. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 75:503-532 (2008). [4] Ventura G., Gracie R. and Belytschko T. Fast integration and weight function blending in the extended finite element method. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 77:1-29 (2009). [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 189 (15 UL)A well-conditioned and optimally convergent XFEM for 3D linear elastic fracture ; ; Bordas, Stéphane et al in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (n.d.) A variation of the extended finite element method for 3D fracture mechanics is proposed. It utilizes global enrichment and point-wise as well as integral matching of displacements of the standard and ... [more ▼] A variation of the extended finite element method for 3D fracture mechanics is proposed. It utilizes global enrichment and point-wise as well as integral matching of displacements of the standard and enriched elements in order to achieve higher accuracy, optimal convergence rates and improved conditioning for two and three dimensional crack problems. A bespoke benchmark problem is introduced to determine the method's accuracy in the general 3D case where it is demonstrated that the proposed approach improves the accuracy and reduces the number of iterations required for the iterative solution of the resulting system of equations by 40% for moderately refined meshes and topological enrichment. Moreover, when a fixed enrichment volume is used, the number of iterations required grows at a rate which is reduced by a factor of 2 compared to standard XFEM, diminishing the number of iterations by almost one order of magnitude. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 345 (11 UL)What do we accept after an announcement? de Boer, Mathijs ; ; et al Scientific Conference (2008) Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 UL)What makes Data Science different? A discussion involving Statistics2.0 and Computational Sciences ; Bordas, Stéphane E-print/Working paper (2017) Data Science is today one of the main buzzwords be it in business, industrial or academic settings. Machine learning, experimental design, data-driven modelling are all, undoubtedly, rising disciplines if ... [more ▼] Data Science is today one of the main buzzwords be it in business, industrial or academic settings. Machine learning, experimental design, data-driven modelling are all, undoubtedly, rising disciplines if one goes by the soaring number of research papers and patents appearing each year. The prospect of becoming a ``Data Scientist'' appeals to many. A discussion panel organised as part of the European Data Science Conference (European Association for Data Science (EuADS)) asked the question: ``What makes Data Science different?'' In this paper we give our own, personal and multi-facetted view on this question, from an engineering and a statistics perspective. In particular, we compare Data Science to Statistics and discuss the connection between Data Science and Computational Science. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 996 (36 UL)What Really Drives the Spread of COVID-19 Tweets: A Revisit from Perspective of Content Chuai, Yuwei ; ; in 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA) (2022, October 13) COVID-19 content spreads wildly on social media and produces significant effects in both causing social panic and assisting pandemic management. However, what really enhances the diffusion of pandemic ... [more ▼] COVID-19 content spreads wildly on social media and produces significant effects in both causing social panic and assisting pandemic management. However, what really enhances the diffusion of pandemic-related content during COVID-19, particularly from the perspective of the content itself, remains unexplored. Using large-scale COVID-19 tweets posted on Twitter, this paper empirically examines the effects of the four key characteristics, namely emotions, topics, hashtags, and mentions, on information spread in the pandemic. The empirical results show that most negative emotions have positive effects on retweeting. Nevertheless, the positive effect of trust on retweeting is unexpectedly the strongest. And the positive effects of the political topics and mentioning politicians further indicate that people are sensitive to the politicization of information during the pandemic. The strongest anger intensity in the political topic also needs to be noticed. The results complement the extant understanding of information diffusion during COVID-19 and provide insights for the governments to understand the psychology and behavior of large population during disasters like global pandemics. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 16 (7 UL)Which App to Choose? An Online Tool that Supports the Decision-making Process of Recreational Runners to Choose an App ; Lallemand, Carine ; et al in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Design4Health Amsterdam 2020 (2020) In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the use of health and sports-related smartphone applications (apps). This is also reflected in App-stores, which are stacked with thousands of ... [more ▼] In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the use of health and sports-related smartphone applications (apps). This is also reflected in App-stores, which are stacked with thousands of health- and sports-apps, with new apps launched each day. These apps have great potential to monitor and support people’s physical activity and health. For users, however, it is difficult to know which app suits their needs. In this paper, we present an online tool that supports the decision-making process for choosing an appropriate app. We constructed and validated a screening instrument to assess app content quality, together with the assessment of users’ needs. Both served as input for building the tool through various iterations with prototypes and user tests. This resulted in an online tool which relies on app content quality scores to match the users’ needs with apps that score high in the screening instrument on those particular needs. Users can add new apps to the database via the screening instrument, making the tool self supportive and future proof. A feedback loop allows users to give feedback on the recommended app and how well it meets their needs. This feedback is added to the database and used in future filtering and recommendations. The principles used can be applied to other areas of sports, physical activity and health to help users to select an app that suits their needs. Potentially increasing the long-term use of apps to monitor and to support physical activity and health. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 66 (1 UL)Which Properties has an Icon? A Critical Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Standardised Data Protection Iconography Rossi, Arianna ; Lenzini, Gabriele in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust (STAST) (2021) Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this ... [more ▼] Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this paper, we firstly critically review some of those proposals. We then examine the properties that icons and icon sets should arguably fulfill according to Art.12's transparency provisions. Lastly, we discuss metrics and evaluation procedures to measure compliance with the Article. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 239 (28 UL)White Manipulation in Judgment Aggregation ; Pigozzi, Gabriella ; Slavkovik, Marija Scientific Conference (2009) Distributive systems consisting of autonomous and intelligent components need to be able to reason and make decisions based on the information these components share. Judgment aggregation investigates how ... [more ▼] Distributive systems consisting of autonomous and intelligent components need to be able to reason and make decisions based on the information these components share. Judgment aggregation investigates how individual judgments on logically connected propositions can be aggregated into a collective judgment on the same propositions. It is the case that seemingly reasonable aggregation procedures may force the group to hold an inconsistent judgment set. What happens when the agents realize that the group outcome will be inconsistent? We claim that, in order to avoid an untenable collective outcome, individuals may prefer to declare a non-truthful, less preferred judgment set. Thus, the prospect of an individual trying to manipulate the social outcome by submitting an insincere judgment set is turned from being an undesirable to a “virtuous” (or white) manipulation. We define white manipulation and present the initial study of it as a coordinated action of the whole group. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 105 (1 UL)White Paper: Data Protection and Privacy in Smart ICT - Scientific Research and Technical Standardization Samir Labib, Nader ; Liu, Chao ; Esmaeilzadeh Dilmaghani, Saharnaz et al Report (2018) Detailed reference viewed: 362 (72 UL)Wide-Beamwidth Circular Polarized Antenna for Diversity Combining Applications Vasquez-Peralvo, Juan Andres ; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos ; Eappen, Geoffrey et al in Vasquez-Peralvo, Juan Andres; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos; Eappen, Geoffrey (Eds.) et al Global Communications Conference, Rio de Janeiro, 4 - 9 December 2022 (in press) This paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing of a right-hand circularly polarized antenna working in the frequency band 17.7-20.2 GHz with a beamwidth of 42.4$^\circ$ and 5.4$^\circ$ for ... [more ▼] This paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing of a right-hand circularly polarized antenna working in the frequency band 17.7-20.2 GHz with a beamwidth of 42.4$^\circ$ and 5.4$^\circ$ for the H-plane and E-plane, respectively. The presented antenna is part of a set of three antennas, two high-gain antennas, and, presented in this paper, a low directive antenna used for reception. The application we describe in this paper combines the radio-frequency signals obtained from the O3b satellite constellation, using three antennas to apply path diversity later to reconstruct the original signal. Moreover, using an antenna with a beamwidth in one plane allows receiving two satellite signals at the same time, increasing by 3 dB the overall gain. The wide-band capabilities of the antenna are obtained using aperture coupling. In particular, the circular polarization of the antenna is generated using a truncated corner square patch. Further, a metasurface is placed at the top to enhance the axial ratio. Importantly, the simulation results obtained using CST Microwave Studio show that the antenna has a reflection coefficient below -10 dB and an axial ratio below -3 dB in the intended frequency range. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 50 (20 UL)Workplace Relocation and Mobility Changes in a Transnational Metropolitan Area: The Case of the University of Luxembourg Sprumont, François ; Viti, Francesco ; Caruso, Geoffrey et al in Transportation Research Procedia (2014, December), 4 The aim of this paper is to study the utility variation related to the commuting mobility of University staff members due to their future workplace relocation. During the year 2012, a travel survey was ... [more ▼] The aim of this paper is to study the utility variation related to the commuting mobility of University staff members due to their future workplace relocation. During the year 2012, a travel survey was completed by a total of 397 staff members, representing 36.4% of the university employees, who filled in a questionnaire which revealed complex decision making patterns due to the special traveling scenario involving four countries at once. A Multinomial Logit model has been used to anticipate the impact of university relocation from the capital city to a developing area in the south of the country which will happen between 2015 and 2018 and that will affect most of the employees. The effects of several Travel Demand Management measures are discussed based on the analysis of alternative scenarios [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 315 (33 UL)XDEM for Tuning Lumped Models of Thermochemical Processes Involving Materials in the Powder State Copertaro, Edoardo ; ; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio et al in Engineering Journal (2016), 20(5), 187-201 Processes involving materials in gaseous and powder states cannot be modelled without coupling interactions between the two states. XDEM (Extended Discrete Element Method) is a valid tool for tackling ... [more ▼] Processes involving materials in gaseous and powder states cannot be modelled without coupling interactions between the two states. XDEM (Extended Discrete Element Method) is a valid tool for tackling this issue, since it allows a coupled CFD- DEM simulation to be run. Such strength, however, mainly finds in long computational times its main drawback. This aspect is indeed critical in several applications, since a long computational time is in contrast with the increasing demand for predictive tools that can provide fast and accurate results in order to be used in new monitoring and control strategies. This paper focuses on the use of the XDEM framework as a tool for fine tuning a lumped representation of the non-isothermal decarbonation of a CaCO3 sample in powder state. The tuning of the lumped model is performed exploiting the multi-objective optimization capability of genetic algorithms. Results demonstrate that such approach makes it possible to estimate fast and accurate models to be used, for instance, in the fields of virtual sensing and predictive control. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 162 (6 UL)XDEM: from HPC to the Cloud Besseron, Xavier Scientific Conference (2017, January) Detailed reference viewed: 57 (6 UL)XFEM coupling of granular flows interacting with surrounding fluids ; Zilian, Andreas ; in ECCOMAS 2012 - European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, e-Book Full Papers (2012) In this paper, ideas for the simulation of sliding dry granular materials interacting with surrounding fluids are presented and first results are presented. The compressible granular material is modeled ... [more ▼] In this paper, ideas for the simulation of sliding dry granular materials interacting with surrounding fluids are presented and first results are presented. The compressible granular material is modeled as a medium which can show solid-like and fluid-like characteristics. Therefore a weighted decomposition of stress tensors of a solid-like and a fluid-like phase is applied. The surrounding incompressible fluids are described with a Newtonian constitutive model. Interface dynamics are handled with the level-set method. The model equations are discretized with the space-time finite element method. Discontinuous solution characteristics across interfaces are captured numerically by the extended finite element method (XFEM). For all discontinuities the space of ansatz functions is enriched with Heaviside functions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 123 (0 UL) |
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