ORBilu Typology

Document Types Sub-Types
Scientific Journals
  • Article(1)
    The result of an academic work published in a scientific periodical generally peer-reviewed(2) or at least submitted for proofreading to a committee of experts in the domain.
  • Short Communication(1)
    An original scientific article that briefly summarises a more complete or in-process research work. Can also be included in this typology: clarifications or short summaries in relation to a theme which have the characteristics of an article in terms of scientific quality.
  • Book Review
    A text whose goal is to present or analyse a work or works by a specialist in the domain.
  • Letter to the Editor(1)
    Letter addressed to an editor in reaction to an article he/she has published. This type of document is most commonly found in the STM domain (Scientific/Technical/Medical).
  • Complete Issue
    Entire issue/special supplement of a scientific periodical dedicated to a specific subject (theme, event, etc.). In this case, the ORBi submitter exercises the function of publication director or scientific editor for the entire issue.
  • Other(1)
    Category reserved for texts published in scientific periodicals that do not fall into one of the categories above or publications relevant to other types of documents like E-Prints/Working Papers, prefaces (or parts thereof), entire issues of periodicals, etc. A scientific article which is “in press” should not appear in this category but in the “Article” category with the “in press” status being specified in the field “Publication Date”.

    Found here, however, under this typology, are documents such as an editorial, an erratum, an introduction to a special supplement/issue of a periodical, a bibliographic record, etc. Clarifications on the content can be entered in the “Comments” field of the ORBi submission form.
  • Book published by the author, translator, etc.
    A publication (book) that treats, in a complete, detailed and scientific manner, a theme, person or subject. In most cases, the publication contains a unique, international and normalised identification number: an ISBN (International Standard Book Number). The publication can be in one or multiple volumes with a single publication date or following a publication plan defined in advance for a limited duration.

    The evaluation process of works can be variable (review committee, etc.) but generally does not correspond to peer reviewing as defined above(2).

    Here, the ORBilu submitter exercises the function of author, co-author, translator, etc. for the entire document, possibly with other co-authors. In this case, the specific responsibility of each of the authors cannot be clearly identified. Therefore, each author assumes the collegial responsibility of the work.
  • Collective work published as editor or director
    Published works having the same characteristics as above (B01) but for which the ORBilu submitter is the scientific editor or publication director. In this case, he/she has written only small parts of the work. The authors of the different parts are clearly identified.
Parts of Books(3)
  • Contribution to collective works
    Part or chapter of a work corresponding to the author’s individual contribution, most often under the coordination of a scientific editor or a publication director.
  • Contribution to encyclopaedias, dictionaries, etc.
    Article published in an encyclopaedia, dictionary, etc.
  • Preface, postscript, glossary, etc.
    Short components to a work including preliminary parts (preface, editorial, etc.) or the contents following the principal text (postscript, glossary, etc.) and insofar as they present a certain scientific interest.
Scientific congresses, symposiums and conference proceedings
  • Unpublished conference
    Oral paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference. If the oral paper has since been published, it should ONLY be entered in this category if the published version differs sufficiently from the unpublished version to be considered a distinct work (for example: in certain cases in the social sciences where the published version can be a genuine, in-depth re-writing of the paper including supplementary and/or subsequent elements).
  • Paper published in a book
    Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference published as part of a larger work.
  • Paper published in a journal
    Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference published as an article in a scientific periodical.
  • Poster
    Paper or presentation given during a symposium or scientific conference published as a poster.
Scientific Presentations in Universities or Research Centres Communication of a scientific nature written outside of any conferences or symposiums but in the framework of a university or a research centre. These communications address a specialised audience (researchers, experts, etc.) and not the general public. As a general rule, this type of communication is given by invitation and for a single event (or as a major part of an event), contrary to conferences and symposiums which are characterised by a set of papers given around a particular theme or themes.
  • Expert Report
    Document written by an expert or a group of experts coming from a specific branch of activities and at the request of a corporate body or a private individual for evaluation, audit or consulting purposes, principally used by both parties. It is only in certain disciplines that this type of publication is considered to be a scientific publication (engineering, etc.).
    However, in general, expert reports written, for example, by doctors or psychologists about individual cases are not taken into account, principally, for ethical reasons but also, because in the sector, they are not considered to be a scientific output as such.
  • Internal Report
    Document written for a corporate body or a private individual reporting on the results of scientific research. Its “internal” character signifies that the distribution of the initial document is only the researcher, his/her team and the sponsor. In certain sectors, researchers consider that this type of report represents an important part of their scientific activity and that it deserves to be more widely known.
  • External Report
    Document written for a corporate body or a private individual reporting on the results of scientific research. Its “external” character signifies that the document was initially foreseen to have a distribution larger than an internal research report.
  • Other
Dissertations and Theses(4)
  • Bachelor/Master Dissertation
    University-level work written for the completion of a bachelor’s or master’s degree.
  • Doctoral Thesis
    University-level research work, defended in front of a jury, in order to obtain a diploma or a university degree.
  • Post-doctoral Thesis
    University-level research work, defended in front of a jury, in order to obtain a diploma or a university degree.
  • Others
    University-level work done in order to obtain a diploma, certificate or title not mentioned in the other sub-types of this category.
Learning Materials
  • Course Notes
  • Other
    Support documents written for a course, training, etc. They could be presentations in various formats (PowerPoint, video, etc.) but also text documents that the author does not consider to be course notes.
Patent A patent corresponds to a protected invention. The patent holder has the legal title permitting him/her to forbid others, during a certain period of time and in a specific territory, to make, use or commercialise his/her invention without his/her authorisation. By definition, this type of document can only be deposited in the institutional repository after the official date of publication of the application.
Cartographic Materials(3)
  • Single Work
    Conventional representation, at any scale and in any format, of abstract or concrete phenomena that can be located in space and time. Here, the cartographic document consists of a single entity.
    Examples: map, orthophotoplan, etc.
  • Part of another publication
    Cartographic document responding to the definition above but published as an accompaniment to another document or work. This distinction is justified only by the fact that the metadata is not the same since, in the case of a cartographic document contained within another publication, the metadata linked to the publication must be indicated.
Computer Developments
  • Textual, Factual or Bibliographical Database
    Factual Databases:
    Databases grouping together established and certified raw data concerning a domain such as chemistry, physics, medicine, etc. A factual database can integrate non-factual data such as graphics, schemas, etc.

    Textual Databases:
    Databases in which full or partial texts are stored, most of the time unstructured, but linked in such a manner that a search request is performed on the item as a whole. This type of document often concerns the social sciences.
  • Software
    Group of programmes designed to perform a particular task on a computer.
  • Other
E-Prints/Working papers
Scientific or technical working document available only in electronic format and unpublished according to the traditional publishing circuit. In this case, it may not have been subject to peer-review.

These types of documents generally appear on the personal websites of the author or are linked to an institution. In the case of working papers, such as can be found in economics, they can concern working papers which often evolve and that regularly offer additional value even after publication because they contain more information or a more refined argument from the author.
  • First made available on ORBilu
    The text has not yet been released elsewhere on another web site. The distinction with the type “E-Prints/Working papers – first released on an external site” is justified only by the fact that, in the first case, the full text deposit is required (otherwise the document does not exist) and thus, in the second case, it is optional.
  • Already available on another site
    The document was first released on another web site. In this case, the web address (URL) is required (for perpetual access reasons, the deposit of the full text is strongly recommended).
Diverse Speeches and Writings
Articles, communications, speeches, etc. which are not part of a scientific goal (for example: academic welcome speech, etc.) or which target the general public, possibly specialised (for example: professionals of a particular domain) but who are not part of the academic body nor researchers.
  • Article for the general public
    Example: article in a periodical with a local or professional public. Note: only articles for which the author is the actual research should be taken into consideration. Articles written by journalists, interviews, etc., do not make up publications by the author.
  • Conference given outside the academic context
  • Speech
  • Other

(1) For these types of documents, an additional level of detail can be selected:

(2) The status “peer-reviewed” is attributed to a document that has been reviewed by external peers (committee of experts in the domain) of an editorial board, preferably blindly or anonymously.

(3) For these types of documents, an additional level of detail can be selected:

(4) For these types of documents, an additional level of detail can be selected: