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See detailReport on digitalisation in Company law
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL; Armour, J.; Bartkus, G. et al

Report (2016)

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See detailThe Case for FIFO Real-Time Scheduling
Altmeyer, Sebastian UL; Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

Report (2016)

Selecting the right scheduling policy is a crucial issue in the development of an embedded real-time application. Whereas scheduling policies are typically judged according to their ability to schedule ... [more ▼]

Selecting the right scheduling policy is a crucial issue in the development of an embedded real-time application. Whereas scheduling policies are typically judged according to their ability to schedule task sets at a high processor utilizations, other concerns, such as predictability and simplicity are often overlooked.In this paper, we argue that FIFO scheduling with offsets is a suitable choice when these concerns play a key role. To this end, we examine the predictability of FIFO, present a schedulability analysis for it and evaluate both, performance and predictability of FIFO scheduling with and without offsets. Our results show that FIFO with offsets exhibits competitive performance for task with regular periods, at an unmatched predictability. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Immigration Status and Purpose of Stay
Becker, Fabienne UL; Dionisio, Linda UL; Li, Lisa UL et al

Report (2016)

Section 1 offers an overview of the Luxembourg immigration legislation which provides for the possibility to switch between categories of authorisations of stay in Article 39 of the amended Law of 29 ... [more ▼]

Section 1 offers an overview of the Luxembourg immigration legislation which provides for the possibility to switch between categories of authorisations of stay in Article 39 of the amended Law of 29 August 2008 on the Free Movement of Persons and Immigration (hereafter referred to as Law on Immigration). Third-country nationals wishing to stay in Luxembourg for more than three months are required to apply for an authorisation of stay before arriving in Luxembourg. The third-country national applying for a permit for more than three months has to submit to a medical examination before requesting the delivery of the permit. After the medical exam, a certificate is delivered detailing whether the third-country national fulfils the conditions of entry to the territory or not. This certificate has to be enclosed to the residence permit application. The third-country national must also fulfil conditions pertaining to his/her registration in the municipality of his/her future residence as well as appropriate accommodation.In regards to changes of statuses, the third-country national with an authorisation of stay for more than three months has the possibility to apply for a different permit provided s/he fulfils the conditions for the category of permit s/he is aiming to change to. The Law on Immigration sets up this principle in its Article 39 (3) and excludes from its application the following categories: students, trainees, volunteers, au pairs and pupils. The rationale behind those exceptions is that those permits are considered temporary by definition, as they are linked to an activity which is limited in time.A special provision, Article 59 of the Law on Immigration, allows young graduates after the expiry of their student permit to change into the category of salaried worker and have a first work experience in Luxembourg for the limited, non-renewable, duration of two years. After this period the third-country national has to return in his/her country of origin. This provision and its conditions were debated by stakeholders during the elaboration of the Law on Immigration, concerns surrounding the limit of two years’ work experience or the limiting condition of having a contract linked to the diploma obtained in Luxembourg were mentioned. Article 59 is however the result of a compromise between fostering a young graduate’s capabilities with a first work experience and provide for a possibility to fill the gap in the Luxembourg workforce on one hand and on the other mitigate the risk of brain drain for the third-country national’s country of origin.Other considerations to allow for switches between categories of statuses were of humanitarian nature, such as Articles 76 (family member), 89 (1) (authorisation of stay for exceptional reasons), 98 (victim of human trafficking) and 131 (2) (medical reasons) of the Law on Immigration. These articles aim to increase the autonomy and legal security of vulnerable third-country nationals. Section 2 details the different statuses taken into account for the purpose of the present study. The table under question 1 also contains categories that do not exist as such in Luxembourg legislation: the separate category of highly qualified worker was replaced by the European Blue Card with the implementation of the Law of 18 December 2011,the categories of business owner, seasonal workers, intra-corporate transferee and investor do not exist autonomously, but third-country nationals falling under these categories are nonetheless covered by other existing statuses. However, a modification of the current legal framework is under way in order to create the categories of intra-corporate transferees and seasonal workers.Therefore the relevant categories of statuses for Luxembourg at this point in time are family member, education (student), researcher, European Blue Card, salaried worker, self-employed worker, international protection applicant, victim of trafficking in human beings, private reasons, athletes, au pairs and beneficiaries of medical treatment. The authorisation of stay for exceptional reasons was included in this study even if not considered a category of stay.Section 3 delves more specifically into the subject matter of the present study and introduces more in detail the changes of statuses that are possible from within the country. The present study excluded from its scope the change into long-term resident, which is the most common change of status in Luxembourg. Several changes, while theoretically possible, are also unlikely to take place in practice as they would lead to a loss of rights for the concerned third-country national. This loss of rights applies to switches into the categories of students, pupils, volunteers, trainees, au pairs, seasonal workers, posted workers and international protection applicants. As a consequence, the main changes of statuses in practice concern the categories of Family member, salaried worker, European Blue Card, Self-employed and Private reasons.The special consideration given to third-country nationals in vulnerable situations, such as victims of trafficking in human beings or third-country nationals with an authorisation of stay for medical reasons, may obtain a permit for private reasons and, if they engage in a full-time salaried activity, may later switch to salaried worker without having to submit to the labour market test.The study also presents the different actors on a national level that might be confronted with changes of statuses as well as the different channels of communication that are available to circulate the information to third-country nationals. The concerned actors may vary from one category of permit to the next, however the Directorate of Immigration will be involved in nearly every case. The Chamber of Commerce also has a part to play in changes into self-employed workers. The main channel of communication, aside from office hours of institutions dealing with migration, is the website www.guichet.lu which centralises all the relevant information.Taking as a basis the different comments during the elaboration of the Law on Immigration as well as interviews conducted with different stakeholders for the purpose of this study, these changes of statuses are generally perceived in a positive light, with several actors, such as the Chamber of Commerce or Fondation Caritas, arguing in favour of lighter requirements to allow for such switches, especially where changes for humanitarian grounds are concerned.The topic of changes of statuses of immigration has not as of yet attracted interest in Luxembourg. There is no data or study available on the topic and it has not triggered any large debate on the national level.Nevertheless, Section 4 puts forward a number of good practices. In fact, whenever the Directorate of Immigration or another organisation providing advice on immigration, notices a possibility for a third-country national to obtain a permit that is more favourable, this will be brought to the attention of the concerned person. The Directorate of Immigration has also proven flexibility and understanding in situations including children. Alternative solutions are also provided by the Directorate of Immigration when a holder of the authorisation of stay for medical reasons falls into irregularity. A further notable good practice is the extensive support provided to third-country nationals aiming to change into self-employed worker by the Chamber of Commerce. Finally, the constant information sharing between the relevant actors consists a good practice with enormous potential as it draws the discussion into practical concerns faced with the implementation of the Law on Immigration. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of beneficiaries of international/humanitarian protection into the labour market: Policies and good practices
Petry, David UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2016)

In Luxembourgish legislation the term “international protection” includes both refugee status and subsidiary protection status. Integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourgish legislation the term “international protection” includes both refugee status and subsidiary protection status. Integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the Luxembourgish labour market might appear quite unproblematic at first glance. From a legal point of view, the access is indeed very much open to both beneficiaries of international protection as well as beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. As from 2006 onwards, the legislator proceeded with an approximation of both statuses, providing the same rights to both types of beneficiaries of international protection. As soon as the applicants are granted international protection they are authorised to engage in employed or self-employed activities under the same conditions as Luxembourgish nationals, with the exceptionof civil servant jobs. This is also true for most of the support measures that aim to advance or enhance the access to employment, whether on the level of education, vocational training, language learning, recognition of diploma, counselling, social aid or access to housing. In each of those areas, the beneficiaries of international may in principle benefit from equivalent access as provided to other migrants, third-countrynationals or Luxembourgish nationals. Yet, the reality on the ground seldom matches the aims of the legislative framework. Effective access to the labour market remains a significant challenge for beneficiaries of international protection in order to fully integrate in Luxembourgish society. The linguistic regime as well as the high demands in terms of language requirements constitute a first major hurdle, both at the level of education/vocational training and the labour market. Rather than being able to immediately access the regular education system, respectively the labour market, refugees must first engage in a learning process sometimes coupled with administrative procedures (i.e. recognition of diplomas) that may significantly slow down the integration process. The transition period that begins once the applicant is granted international protection status appears to be particularly challenging. Indeed, several measures from which the applicants for international protection benefited during the procedure will no longer be available once they are granted the status. Thus, social aid, including housing, provided to international protection seekers will no longer be applicable to refugees. Even though national authorities have implemented several specific targeted measures in order to facilitate the transition period (i.e. progressive financial contribution to accommodation costs), it remains a phase of instability and uncertainty for the refugees and their families. This also stresses the need for employment-related support measures, which in Luxembourg are implemented in a more general integration framework. Thus, most of the support measures that exist for beneficiaries of international protection are not tailored to them in particular, but they are also open to other types of migrants or foreigners living in Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Organes Exécutifs des Parlements, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg
Poirier, Philippe UL

Report (2016)

Les Organes Exécutifs des Parlements, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg dans une perspective ... [more ▼]

Les Organes Exécutifs des Parlements, comparaison de la situation en Allemagne, en Belgique, en France, en Suisse et au Luxembourg, rapport pour la Chambre des Députés du Luxembourg dans une perspective néo-institutionnaliste [less ▲]

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See detail2015 Lab report - Legato report 001
Bordas, Stéphane UL

Report (2016)

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See detailAnalyse de l'utilisation des (e-)pétitions à la Chambre des Députés
Kies, Raphaël UL

Report (2016)

The report was commissioned by the Chamber of Deputies for preparing the campaign around the constitutional referendum that was held in June 2015. It has two objectives. The first is to assess the ... [more ▼]

The report was commissioned by the Chamber of Deputies for preparing the campaign around the constitutional referendum that was held in June 2015. It has two objectives. The first is to assess the citizens’ opinion and awareness on the four referendum issues. The evaluation was made on the basis of four citizen consultations composed by a representative panel of citizens resident in Luxembourg. In addition of providing an overview of the state of citizens’ knowledge and opinions (and their evolution), the analysis allows to assess how participants perceive the consultation process itself. The second objective is to present and discuss concrete proposals to include citizen’s in the constitutional reform and in the referendum campaign. This last part is based on the teachings of the consultation carried out in Luxembourg as well as three case studies where people were fully involved in the constitutional reform process: the case of Iceland, Ireland and the State of Oregon (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailA Representation Theorem for Abstract Cumulative Aggregation
Ambrossio, Diego Agustin UL; Parent, Xavier UL; van der Torre, Leon UL

Report (2016)

From any two conditional obligations “X if A” and “Y if B”, cumulative aggregation derives the combined obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ (B \ X)”, whereas simple aggregation derives the obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ ... [more ▼]

From any two conditional obligations “X if A” and “Y if B”, cumulative aggregation derives the combined obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ (B \ X)”, whereas simple aggregation derives the obligation “X ∪ Y if A ∪ B”. We propose FC systems consisting of cumulative aggregation together with factual detachment, and we give a representation result for FC systems, as well as for FA systems consisting of simple aggregation together with factual detachment. We relate FC and FA systems to each other and to input/output logics recently introduced by Parent and van der Torre. [less ▲]

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See detailMIGRATION INTERNATIONALE AU LUXEMBOURG: Système d'observation permanente des migrations OCDE
Nienaber, Birte UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

Le Luxembourg est une terre d’immigration depuis plus de 50 ans. Situé au cœur de l’Europe, le pays attire aussi bien les citoyens de l’UE que les ressortissants des pays du monde entier. Ces populations ... [more ▼]

Le Luxembourg est une terre d’immigration depuis plus de 50 ans. Situé au cœur de l’Europe, le pays attire aussi bien les citoyens de l’UE que les ressortissants des pays du monde entier. Ces populations jouent un rôle central vis-à-vis de l’économie du pays, et apportent une importante contribution à la croissance de la population et au marché du travail. En 2015, la population du Luxembourg a poursuivi sa croissance stable d’environ 13 000 personnes par an, en augmentation de 2,36 %, passant de 562 958 au 1er janvier 2015 à 576 249 au 1er janvier 2016. Les citoyens étrangers ont continué à jouer un rôle essentiel dans la croissance de la population du Luxembourg, aussi bien en matière d’immigration nette que sur le plan des naissances. L’immigration nette affichait un total de +11 159 personnes en 2015, signifiant un surplus d’arrivées par rapport aux départs. La proportion de citoyens étrangers ressortissants de pays de l’UE était de 76,1 %, les ressortissants de pays tiers représentaient 32,9 %, tandis que la contribution des ressortissants luxembourgeois était négative à -9 %. Le nombre de naissances a enregistré un pic en 2015, égal à celui de 2013, avec 6 115 naissances au total. Les ressortissants étrangers ont contribué à l’accroissement naturel du Luxembourg avec un surplus de 2 150 naissances tandis qu’un déficit de naissances de -18 a été enregistré chez les ressortissants luxembourgeois. 2015 a également été une année record en ce qui concerne les naturalisations. Les Belges ont été les plus nombreux à avoir acquis la nationalité luxembourgeoise en 2015, suivis par les Français et les Portugais. Au 1er janvier 2016, 46,7 % des résidents luxembourgeois étaient étrangers. 34,6 % de la population étrangère totale étaient des Portugais, qui demeuraient la nationalité la plus représentée, suivis par les Français (15,5 %) et les Italiens (7,5 %). Les ressortissants de pays tiers les plus représentés étaient monténégrins. En raison du conflit syrien et de l’afflux de demandeurs de protection internationale qui en a suivi, la population syrienne vivant au Luxembourg a enregistré la plus forte hausse proportionnelle en 2015, avec une croissance de 461,5 % entre janvier 2015 et janvier 2016. En observant le marché du travail au Luxembourg, le rôle central joué par les ressortissants étrangers dans l’économie nationale devient évident. Au premier trimestre 2016, les résidents luxembourgeois représentaient 55 % de la main-d’œuvre salariée du pays. Parmi eux, 27,5 % étaient des ressortissants luxembourgeois, tandis que les ressortissants des Etats membres de l’UE représentaient 24,2 % et les ressortissants de pays tiers 3,3 %. Les travailleurs transfrontaliers venant de France, de Belgique et d’Allemagne représentaient 45 % du total des salariés au Luxembourg. Ils travaillent principalement dans les secteurs manufacturiers, la construction et le commerce. Le secteur HORECA (hôtellerie, restauration et cafés) recrute majoritairement des résidents étrangers. Les ressortissants de pays tiers qui ne bénéficient pas des accords de libre circulation doivent être détenteurs d’un titre de séjour pour pouvoir entrer au Luxembourg. Une augmentation du nombre de premières délivrances de titres de séjour a été enregistrée pour la plupart des catégories par rapport à l’année précédente, où une baisse dans la quasi-totalité des catégories avait été observée. En 2015, les titres de séjour étaient le plus souvent délivrés dans les catégories « Membre de famille », « Travailleur salarié » et « Carte bleue européenne ». L’année 2015 a été marquée par une forte augmentation du nombre de demandes de protection internationale qui a plus que doublé par rapport à 2014 (2 447 demandes en 2015). Malgré une forte augmentation fin 2015, il y a eu un ralentissement de la tendance en 2016. Néanmoins, le nombre de demandes de protection internationale demeure plus élevé qu’en 2013/2014. La plupart des demandes émanaient de ressortissants syriens ou iraquiens, (27,3 % et 22 % respectivement), qui ne représentaient que 9 % et 1 % respectivement en 2014. De plus, les taux de reconnaissance des statuts (statut de réfugié et statut conféré par la protection subsidiaire) et de retour ont augmenté. En 2015, le Luxembourg s’est engagé à accueillir 557 personnes conformément à la décision du Conseil de l’Union européenne visant à relocaliser 160 000 demandeurs de protection internationale venant de Grèce et d’Italie. Ainsi, dans le cadre de cette décision, 114 réfugiés ont été relocalisés depuis la Grèce et 20 réfugiés ont été relocalisés depuis l’Italie avant la mi-août 2016. En outre, 46 réfugiés en provenance de Turquie ont été réinstallés en 2015, suivis de 52 autres réfugiés conformément à l’engagement pris par le Luxembourg d’accueillir 194 réfugiés de Turquie dans le contexte de l’accord conclu en mars 2016 entre l’UE et la Turquie. De plus, 44 Syriens ont été accueillis en 2015 suite à une demande d’assistance émanant des autorités allemandes. Face à un afflux grandissant de demandeurs de protection internationale, un programme d’accueil d’urgence a été développé en 2015. Le programme prévoyait l’établissement de centres de primo-accueil ainsi que le renforcement des ressources humaines de l’Office luxembourgeois de l’accueil et de l’intégration (OLAI) et de la Direction de l’immigration, placée sous l’autorité du Ministère des Affaires étrangères. L’OLAI a également renforcé sa collaboration inter-ministérielle et avec les parties prenantes au niveau local. Un accent a également été mis sur l’intégration, avec des déploiements majeurs, dont la mise en place de projets d’intégration par les municipalités dans le contexte du « Plan d’intégration communal » et avec la création du Centre luxembourgeois pour l’intégration et la cohésion sociale (LISKO), qui soutient les bénéficiaires de protection internationale à s’intégrer dans la société luxembourgeoise. En 2015 et 2016, le Luxembourg a continué à transposer et à mettre en application plusieurs directives de l’UE. La loi du 18 décembre 2015 relative à l’accueil de demandeurs de protection internationale et de protection temporaire transpose la Directive 2013/33/UE (refonte : conditions d’accueil) dans le droit national. La loi du 18 décembre 2015 sur la protection internationale et la protection temporaire transpose la Directive 2013/32/UE (refonte : procédure), établissant les procédures d’octroi et de retrait de la protection internationale et de la protection subsidiaire et la standardisation du contenu de cette protection. Le projet de loi mettant en application la Directive 2013/55/UE sur la reconnaissance des qualifications professionnelles a été déposé à la Chambre des députés en 2015 et le projet de loi mettant en application la Directive 2014/36/UE relative aux travailleurs saisonniers et la Directive 2014/66/UE relative aux titres de séjour des personnes faisant l’objet d’un transfert intragroupe et des investisseurs a été présenté en 2016. En ce qui concerne la transposition de la Directive applicable à la Carte bleue, un décret du gouvernement a été émis le 22 mai 2015 établissant les professions concernées par le seuil salarial inférieur pour l’embauche de travailleurs hautement qualifiés. Au niveau national, plusieurs changements législatifs visent à répondre aux enjeux posés par l’hétérogénéité du Luxembourg. Le projet de loi n 6410 relatif à la jeunesse, déposé à la Chambre des députés le 6 février 2015, permet aux travailleurs transfrontaliers d’accéder au système de chèques-services précédemment réservé aux résidents luxembourgeois. Le projet de loi n 6893 relatif à la reconnaissance des qualifications a été déposé à la Chambre des députés en octobre 2015. Lors du référendum du 7 juin 2015, la proposition visant à étendre le droit de vote aux résidents non luxembourgeois a été rejetée par une vaste majorité, qui considérait l’acquisition de la nationalité comme un moyen plus approprié d’acquérir le droit de vote. Par conséquent, le gouvernement a pris des mesures en vue de réformer la loi sur la nationalité, afin d’assouplir les critères à remplir pour l’acquisition de la nationalité, et ainsi permettre d’élargir la participation aux élections. Le projet de loi n 6977 sur la nationalité a été déposé à la Chambre des députés le 24 mars 2016. Il prévoit de réduire la durée de résidence requise de sept à cinq années et de réintroduire la procédure d’option pour les personnes ayant des liens étroits avec le Luxembourg. Le niveau de maîtrise du luxembourgeois, langue nationale du Grand-Duché, a été au centre des débats sur le projet de loi relatif à la nationalité. Certains craignaient que les exigences linguistiques ne fassent obstacle à l’acquisition de la nationalité par les ressortissants étrangers, tandis que d’autres mettaient en avant la maîtrise de la langue en tant que facteur déterminant d’intégration, et donc d’acquisition de la nationalité.   [less ▲]

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See detailVielfalt betreuter Kindheiten. Ethnographische Fallstudien zu den Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements 2-4jähriger Kinder
Bollig, Sabine UL; Honig, Michael-Sebastian UL; Nienhaus, Sylvia UL

Report (2016)

Kinder werden gemeinhin als Adressaten, aber weniger als Akteure von institutionellen Angeboten der Bildung und Betreuung in früher Kindheit wahrgenommen – und das obwohl sie ein komplexes Leben zwischen ... [more ▼]

Kinder werden gemeinhin als Adressaten, aber weniger als Akteure von institutionellen Angeboten der Bildung und Betreuung in früher Kindheit wahrgenommen – und das obwohl sie ein komplexes Leben zwischen Familie, Kindertagesbetreuung und Vorschule führen. Das Forschungsprojekt "CHILD - Children in the Luxembourgian Day Care System" hat das Feld der frühen Bildung und Betreuung von der Position der Kinder aus betrachtet und in kindheitstheoretischer und praxisanalytischer Perspektive nach der Vielfalt betreuter Kindheiten gefragt. Vom Standpunkt der Kinder aus differenziert sich das Luxemburger Feld von Bildung und Betreuung in früher Kindheit in vielfältige Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements aus. Sie bestimmen nicht nur die Erfahrungen, die Kinder mit nichtfamilialer Bildung und Betreuung machen – und man muss hinzufügen: die nur Kinder machen –, sondern sie bedingen auch die strukturelle Position der Kinder als Mitgestalter von Bildungs- und Betreuungslandschaften früher Kindheit. Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements sind eine Domäne der Kinder, obwohl sie sich in einem Zusammenspiel vieler aufeinander bezogener Orte, Kontexte und Akteure realisieren. In diesem Forschungsbericht werden acht ethnographische Fallstudien präsentiert, welche die Multilokalität, Multikontextualität und Multiperspektivität der Bildungs- und Betreuungsarrangements zwei- bis vierjähriger Kinder im Lichte der Alltagspraxis der Kinder analysieren. Die acht Fallstudien zeigen daher nicht nur, dass und wie Kinder zur täglichen Herstellung des Feldes früher Bildung und Betreuung beitragen, sie machen auch die Vielfalt betreuter Kindheiten in Luxemburg sichtbar. [less ▲]

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See detailStates and the development of International Criminal Law: Report on Greece Report on Greece
Pichou, Maria UL

Report (2016)

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The ... [more ▼]

The report will be published in English and Spanish in a book that will comprise all reports by each Rapporteur/Secretary of the Foundation for Advanced Studies in Legal Sciences in Argentina (FAECJ). The purpose of the report is to provide a short and profound view of the development of international criminal law in each country. [less ▲]

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See detailhistograph. Graph-based exploration, crowdsourced indexation
Guido, Daniele; Wieneke, Lars UL; During, Marten UL

Report (2016)

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See detailStudent mobility in Luxembourg
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL; Karl, Ute UL

Report (2016)

This chapter is part of the Workpackage 2 report of the Horizon 2020-Project "Mapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility in Europe" (MOVE)

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See detailINTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD
Nienaber, Birte UL; Jacobs, Sarah UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2016)

Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who play a central role in the national economy, making an important contribution to the population growth and the labour market. Over the course of 2015, Luxembourg’s population has continued its steady growth of approximately 13.000 people per year, increasing by 2,36%, from 562.958 on 1st January 2015 to 576.249 on 1st January 2016. Foreign citizens have continued to play an essential role in Luxembourg’s population growth, both in terms of net migration and births. The total net migration amounted to +11.159 individuals in 2015, which signifies a surplus of arrivals over departures. Foreign EU citizens accounted for 76,1%; third-country nationals represented 32,9%, while Luxembourgish nationals’ contribution was negative, at -9%. The number of births in 2015 was the highest on record, equal to that in 2013, with 6.115 births in total. Foreigners contributed a birth surplus of 2.150 to Luxembourg’s natural increase, while a birth deficit of -18 was recorded for Luxembourgish nationals. 2015 also marked a record year regarding naturalisations, with Belgians remaining the citizens that obtain citizenship most frequently, followed by the French and the Portuguese. On 1st January 2016, 46,7% of Luxembourg’s residents were foreigners. Representing 34,6% of the total foreign population, Portuguese remained the most represented nationality, followed by France (15,5%) and Italy (7,5%), while the most numerous third-country nationals were Montenegrins. Due to the war in Syria and the influx of applicants for international protection that followed, the Syrian population living in Luxembourg showed the highest proportional increase during 2015, growing by 461,5% from January 2015 to January 2016. A look at Luxembourg’s labour market also reveals the central role that foreigners play in the national economy. In the first quarter of 2016, residents of Luxembourg represented 55% of the country’s salaried workforce. Of these, 27,5% were Luxembourgish nationals, while EU nationals represented 24,2% and third-country nationals 3,3%. Cross-border workers from France, Belgium and Germany represented 45% of all salaried workers in Luxembourg. They mainly work in the manufacturing industries, construction and commerce. A majority of recruitments in the HORECA sector are of foreign residents. Third-country nationals who do not benefit from free movement must be issued with a residence permit in order to enter Luxembourg. An increase in first issues of residence permits was recorded for most categories compared to the preceding year, which had experienced a decrease in almost all categories. In 2015, residence permits were most frequently issued in the “family member”, “salaried worker” and “European Blue Card” categories. 2015 was marked by a significant increase in the number of applications for international protection, which has more than doubled when compared to 2014 (2.447 applications in 2015). While there was a strong increase at the end of 2015, the trend slowed down in 2016. Nonetheless, the number of applications for international protection remains higher than levels in 2013/2014. Most applications were from Syrians and Iraqis (27,3% and 22% respectively), who accounted for only 9% and 1% respectively in 2014. Moreover, both the rate of status recognition (refugee and subsidiary protection status) and of return decision increased. In 2015, Luxembourg pledged to relocate 557 individuals to Luxembourg in the framework of the EU Council decision to relocate 160.000 international protection applicants from Greece and Italy. Within this framework, 114 refugees have been relocated from Greece and 20 from Italy up until mid-August 2016. Furthermore, 46 refugees were resettled from Turkey in 2015, followed by 52 further refugees as a result of Luxembourg’s pledge to resettle 194 refugees from Turkey in the context of the EU-Turkey agreement of March 2016. Additionally, 44 Syrians were welcomed in 2015 following a request for assistance by German authorities. Faced with the increased inflow of applicants for international protection, an emergency reception plan was developed in 2015. The plan included the establishment of first-instance reception centres and the strengthening of the capacity in human resources of both the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI) and the Directorate of Immigration, which is under the authority of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The OLAI also strengthened the collaboration with stakeholders at inter-ministerial and local levels. A strong focus has also been put on integration, where major developments include the setting up of integration projects by the municipalities in the context of the ‘Communal Integration Plan’ project and the creation of Luxembourg’s Centre for Integration and Cohesion (LISKO), a service supporting the beneficiaries of international protection in their process of integration in Luxembourgish society. Over the course of 2015 and 2016, Luxembourg continued to transpose and implement several EU directives. The law of 18th December 2015 on the reception of applicants for international protection and temporary protection transposes Directive 2013/33/EU (re-cast reception conditions) into national law. The law of 18th December 2015 on international protection and temporary protection transposed Directive 2013/32/EU (re-cast procedure), establishing the procedures for granting and withdrawing international and subsidiary protection and the standardisation of the content of this protection. The bill implementing Directive 2013/55/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications was introduced into parliament in 2015 and the bill implementing Directive 2014/36/EU on seasonal workers and Directive 2014/66/EU on intra-corporate transferees and investors’ residence permits was introduced in 2016. Regarding the transposition of the Blue Card Directive, a Government Decree was issued on 22nd May 2015 establishing the professions to which the lower salary threshold for hiring highly qualified workers applies. On the national level, a number of legislative changes address some of the challenges set by Luxembourg’s heterogeneity. The bill no. 6410 on youth, introduced into parliament on 6th February 2015, gives cross-border workers access to the care service voucher system which was previously only available to Luxembourgish residents. Bill no. 6893 on the recognition of qualifications was introduced in parliament in October 2015. At the referendum of 7th June 2015, the proposal to extend the right to vote of non-Luxembourgish residents was rejected by a large majority, who argued in favour of the acquisition of nationality as the more appropriate way to acquire the right to vote. Consequently, the government took steps towards reforming the law on nationality in order to soften the requirements for acquisition of nationality, and in this way enable the broadening of participation in elections. Bill no. 6977 on nationality was introduced in parliament on 24th March 2016. It includes the reduction of the required duration of residency from seven to five years and the reintroduction of procedure of option in cases of close links with Luxembourg. The level of fluency in Luxembourgish required has become a central focus of the debate on the bill on nationality, some fearing that linguistic requirements would become an obstacle to foreigners’ acquisition of nationality, others underlining the command of the language as a central factor in integration and thus also in the acquisition of nationality.   [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting young adults with special educational needs (SEN) in obtaining higher qualifications
Limbach-Reich, Arthur UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Report (2016)

Supporting young adults with special educational needs in obtaining higher qualifications is an ambitious, desirable and noble project, occasionally labeled “university for all” or “full inclusion in ... [more ▼]

Supporting young adults with special educational needs in obtaining higher qualifications is an ambitious, desirable and noble project, occasionally labeled “university for all” or “full inclusion in higher education”. But there is a risk, that beyond inclusive rhetoric, universities persist in being perceived by national policymakers and also perceive themselves as elite organizatins, that is only accessible to highly educated and highly skilled persons that will be successful in labour market competition and so promise to recapitalize (increasingly high) investments in higher education. Not inclusion efforts and individuals with disabilities, but rather national economic growth and international competitiveness are in the centre of contemporary concerns, despite the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and global acknowledgment of inclusive education as a human right. While some students with disabilities certainly do manage to adapt to the existing systems of higher education, especially when they receive reasonable accommodations they deserve, but there will be other students with more severe disabilities who may need more support to reach their individual learning goals and who may not promise to 'return' the invest. Yet not only those students with disabilities who are labeled as incompatible with employment remain persistently excluded from higher education. Having in mind this risk, the rhetoric of “university for all” has to be reconsidered. At the same time that many universities are seriously challenged by reductions in public funding, universal design principles diffuse worldwide, and the UN Convention mandates accessibility at all levels of learning, including higher education. [less ▲]

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See detailCapacity and information needs assessment of the civil society organisations in the Caribbean
Korjonen, Maria Helena UL; Hughes, Emma

Report (2016)

Funded by the international department at Public Health England and the Department of Health England, this is a study looking at capacity and information needs in the Caribbean civil society organisations.

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See detailPrivacy-Preserving Proximity Services
Haus, Michael; Emara, Karim Ahmed Awad El-Sayed UL; Ott, Joerg

Report (2016)

In the last years, the paradigm of personal computing changed drastically, moving away from stationary PCs and heavyweight laptops to mobile devices. This change is based on the ubiquity of mobile ... [more ▼]

In the last years, the paradigm of personal computing changed drastically, moving away from stationary PCs and heavyweight laptops to mobile devices. This change is based on the ubiquity of mobile interconnected devices leading to great opportunities for services that utilize location, such as navigation or communication with nearby friends. Location-based Services (LBS) are widely used based on a centralized architecture and absolute GPS positions. We focus on Proximity-based Services (PBS) based on peer-to-peer architecture to detect what is around us. In addition, we provide further insights about which data are potentially useful to create meaningful proximity information. Many LBS and PBS achieve their functionality without advanced privacy protection mechanisms. However, mobile data especially location data is sensitive, because adversaries can infer whereabouts of mobile users. Moreover, the uniqueness of human mobility traces is high yielding to a high identification rate of individual users. Therefore, we review the most recent literature in the domain of private proximity testing including attack models. [less ▲]

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See detailGestaltung von Jugendpolitik als transversale Kooperation
Residori, Caroline UL; Reichert, Claudine; Biewers, Sandra UL et al

Report (2015)

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See detailINTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG: Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD - Luxembourg
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dionisio, Linda UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL et al

Report (2015)

Migration has always played an important role in Luxembourg’s history. In 2014 and 2015, due to the refugee crisis, migration became the focus of the economic, social and political debates, in particular ... [more ▼]

Migration has always played an important role in Luxembourg’s history. In 2014 and 2015, due to the refugee crisis, migration became the focus of the economic, social and political debates, in particular during Luxembourg’s Presidency of the Council of the European Union. As a country that is a founding Member of the European Union and located at the centre of the EU, Luxembourg has a strong attraction for EU citizens and this - in turn - has a direct incidence on the demographic composition of the country and the workforce. Luxembourg’s demographic composition reflects its migratory diversity. In 2014, the net migration balance was positive having increased by 6.8% in comparison to 2013. As such, the country’s rising population numbers were mainly attributed to the immigration of individuals coming from EU Member States and other European countries. These numbers include European Union (EU), European economic area (EEA) citizens and third-country nationals from non-EU European countries. The country’s diversity is equally reflected in its labour market which heavily relies on its foreign workforce. In fact, Luxembourgish citizens represented 31% of the workforce in 2014, while EU citizens reached 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross border workers also represented a very important part of the Luxembourgish workforce with 44.4 %. Due to the refugee crisis, the number of international protection applicants increased between 2013 and 2014. As a consequence, the recognition rate of the status increased as well. On the other hand, the number of returns continued to decrease. In order to respond to the crisis in an adequate manner, additional funds and staff for the Directorate of Immigration and the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency were allocated. Given the magnitude of the migration crisis and the pressure on external border Member States, the EU Council took the decision to relocate 160.000 international protection applicants (European relocation scheme) who are currently in Greece and in Italy. In order to implement this decision, Luxembourg agreed to welcome 527 international protection applicants. The first group of 30 relocated individuals from Greece arrived in Luxembourg on 4 November 2015. During 2014, Luxembourg implemented several EU directives. Directive 2011/36/EU of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings was implemented by the Law of 9 April 2014, which reinforced the rights of victims of trafficking in human beings by criminalising begging and the trafficking of children. Extensive work was undertaken to transpose Directives 2012/32/EU and 2012/33/EU of the Common European Asylum System. Two draft bills are currently within the last stages of the legislative procedure and their implementation is set to take place in 2015, after several amendments were brought to the draft bills at the end of September and October 2015. On the national level, recent legislative changes and reforms answer to several aims, ranging from attracting certain categories of migrants to strengthening the support provided to unaccompanied minors. The creation of a new authorisation of stay for investors and the modification of certain authorisations of stay to adapt them for business managers are currently under discussion by an inter-ministerial working group, which is preparing two draft bills on these issues. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding Strategic Cooperation: The Implementation of Cross-Sectoral Youth Policy in Luxembourg - Findings from an Evaluation Study
Residori, Caroline UL; Reichert, Claudine; Biewers, Sandra UL et al

Report (2015)

This report summarises the main findings of the evaluation of the Luxemburgish Youth Pact for an international audience and focuses on the implementation of a cross‐sectoral youth policy and cross ... [more ▼]

This report summarises the main findings of the evaluation of the Luxemburgish Youth Pact for an international audience and focuses on the implementation of a cross‐sectoral youth policy and cross-sectoral collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe memory-hard Argon2 password hash function
Biryukov, Alex UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL; Dinu, Dumitru-Daniel UL et al

Report (2015)

This document describes the Argon2 memory-hard function for password hashing and other applications. We provide a implementer oriented description together with sample code and test vectors. The purpose ... [more ▼]

This document describes the Argon2 memory-hard function for password hashing and other applications. We provide a implementer oriented description together with sample code and test vectors. The purpose is to simplify adoption of Argon2 for Internet protocols. [less ▲]

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See detailLean Model-Driven Development through Model-Interpretation: the CPAL design flow
Navet, Nicolas UL; Fejoz, Loïc; Havet, Lionel et al

Report (2015)

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model ... [more ▼]

We introduce a novel Model-Driven Development (MDD) flow which aims at more simplicity, more intuitive programming, quicker turnaround time and real-time predictability by leveraging the use of model-interpretation and providing the language abstractions needed to argue about the timing correctness on a high-level. The MDD flow is built around a language called Cyber-Physical Action Language (CPAL). CPAL serves to describe both the functional behaviour of activities (i.e., the code of the function itself) as well as the functional architecture of the system (i.e., the set of functions, how they are activated, and the data flows among the functions). CPAL is meant to support two use-cases. Firstly, CPAL is a development and design space exploration environment for CPS with main features being the formal description, the editing, graphical representation and simulation of CPS models. Secondly, CPAL is a real-time execution platform. The vision behind CPAL is that a model is executed and verified in simulation mode on a workstation and the same model can be later run on an embedded board with a timing-equivalent run-time time behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailIsogeometric boundary element methods for three dimensional fatigue crack growth
Peng, Xuan; Atroshchenko, Elena; Kerfriden, Pierre et al

Report (2015)

The isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) based on NURBS is adopted to model fracture problem in 3D. The NURBS basis functions are used in both crack representation and physical quantity ... [more ▼]

The isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) based on NURBS is adopted to model fracture problem in 3D. The NURBS basis functions are used in both crack representation and physical quantity approximation. A stable quadrature scheme for singular integration is proposed to enhance the robustness of the method in dealing with highly distorted element. The convergence study in crack opening displacement is performed for penny-shaped crack and elliptical crack. Two ways to extract stress intensity factors (SIFs), the contour $M$ integral and virtual crack closure integral, are implemented based on the framework of dual integral equations. An algorithm is outlined and validated to be stable for fatigue crack growth, thanks to the smoothness not only in crack geometry but also in stress/SIFs solution brought by IGABEM. [less ▲]

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See detailÉléments pour une évaluation de la réforme de la formation professionnelle : les principales critiques
Meyers, Raymond UL; Speltz, Fernand; Houssemand, Claude UL

Report (2015)

Une importante réforme de la formation professionnelle initiale est en cours au Luxembourg depuis 2008. Elle consiste en l'introduction systématique d'un enseignement par compétences pour l'ensemble des ... [more ▼]

Une importante réforme de la formation professionnelle initiale est en cours au Luxembourg depuis 2008. Elle consiste en l'introduction systématique d'un enseignement par compétences pour l'ensemble des 120 métiers et en la mise en œuvre des formations sous une forme modulaire et flexible. Ainsi, les principales modifications par rapport à l’ancien modèle sont la substitution des notations chiffrées de savoirs par des évaluations qualitatives de compétences, et les rattrapages à la carte des modules non réussis par l'élève jusqu'à réussite de ceux-ci, dans le cadre de la limite temporelle légale. Cette nouvelle procédure a buté sur un nombre important de difficultés, critiques et résistances. Une « réforme de la réforme » a été entreprise depuis 2014, aboutissant en février 2015 au dépôt d'un nouveau projet de loi (n° 6774) visant à réviser l'ancienne. Afin de préparer et d'accompagner cette révision et les discussions autour de ce travail législatif, l’Institut LifeLong Learning and Guidance (LLLG) de l’Université du Luxembourg a été chargé par le Service de la formation professionnelle (SFP) du ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse (MENJE), de réaliser une étude qualitative d'évaluation de la formation professionnelle telle qu'elle se présente actuellement. Le présent document reprend certaines conclusions de cette étude. Il est à destination des commanditaires de celle-ci, mais également de la commission de l'Education nationale, de l'Enfance et de la Jeunesse de la Chambre des députés. [less ▲]

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See detailEcho iTEO. Co-languaging, collaborating, co-constructing
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Gretsch, Gérard

Report (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (4 UL)
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See detailBIX – Der Bibliotheksindex
Pausch, Marie-Pierre UL; Park, Beth Anne UL; Ourth, Annette UL

Report (2015)

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See detailEffective lifelong learning strategies and value creation at the enterprise level: Thematic report
Brandi, Ulrik; Iannone, Rosa Lisa UL

Report (2015)

This report describes and maps out effective lifelong learning strategies as they are employed at an enterprise level, including an analysis of how such strategies influence enterprises’ learning capacity ... [more ▼]

This report describes and maps out effective lifelong learning strategies as they are employed at an enterprise level, including an analysis of how such strategies influence enterprises’ learning capacity in their strive towards value creation and high performance. The empirical data triangulates three sources: 1) past empirical and theoretical work (1990-2012); 2) LLLight’in’Europe’s (FP7) empirical data; 3) 2009 and 2013 European Company Survey results. A key conjecture for the empirical analysis and conceptual model is that the ways in which different kinds of learning opportunities, understood as human resource practices (HRPs), are enacted in an enterprise is linked to available arrangements of specific systems, structures, values, processes and resources, mediated by learning. Similarities and differences in these factors create arrays of learning opportunities and potentials for attracting, sustaining and developing competences. The research and analytical synthesis address three interrelated areas of lifelong learning in enterprises, identified as imperatives in high-performance work systems: skills development; learning systems and incentives; and work design and the organisation of work. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards more secure and usable cloud storage for E-Health
Ghatpande, Sankalp; Gheorghe, Gabriela UL

Report (2015)

Secure storage for medical data when using cloud systems is a problem of high importance to healthcare institutions and cloud providers as well. This report investigates how safe is the storage provided ... [more ▼]

Secure storage for medical data when using cloud systems is a problem of high importance to healthcare institutions and cloud providers as well. This report investigates how safe is the storage provided by state of the art tools, discusses their limitations and proposes some solutions and techniques to improve confidentiality when storing medical data remotely. [less ▲]

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See detailHarvesting Fix Hints in the History of Bugs
Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL

Report (2015)

In software development, fixing bugs is an im- portant task that is time consuming and cost-sensitive. While many approaches have been proposed to automatically detect and patch software code, the ... [more ▼]

In software development, fixing bugs is an im- portant task that is time consuming and cost-sensitive. While many approaches have been proposed to automatically detect and patch software code, the strategies are limited to a set of identified bugs that were thoroughly studied to define their properties. They thus manage to cover a niche of faults such as infinite loops. We build on the assumption that bugs, and the associated user bug reports, are repetitive and propose a new approach of fix recommendations based on the history of bugs and their associated fixes. In our approach, once a bug is reported, it is automatically compared to all previously fixed bugs using information retrieval techniques and machine learning classification. Based on this comparison, we recommend top-k fix actions, identified from past fix examples, that may be suitable as hints for software developers to address the new bug [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding relationships between school, family and community to enhance students' school persistence and avoid Early School Leaving (ESL)
Poncelet, Débora UL; Billa, Jean; Schürnbrand, Carmen et al

Report (2015)

Dropout is a multidimensional phenomenon, resulting from a combination of personal, family and school factors that interact with each other. The combination of risk factors (or protective factors) is an ... [more ▼]

Dropout is a multidimensional phenomenon, resulting from a combination of personal, family and school factors that interact with each other. The combination of risk factors (or protective factors) is an event or a condition that increase (or reduce) the likelihood of an individual experience of emotional or behavioural problems, that may contribute to school dropout. The decision to stop school education is the result of a long evolutionary process that is characterized by an accumulation of frustrations, often induced by academic failures and difficult relationships with peers, teachers, and parents. Through involvement in educational aspects, families especially play an important role in student success and affect conditions that might lead to dropping out: positive impact on school performance, enhancing motivation and school involvement, improving well-being and school behaviours, building a constructive and efficient relationship between school and family could be an efficient way to avoid school dropout. In this session, our exchanges and reflections aim at comparing and analyzing issues, experiences, ideas, and questions from different interventions of European representatives. Through these different contributions, we try to highlight concrete policies for UE countries regarding the connections that we can do between school dropout and relationships between school, family and community. [less ▲]

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See detailBilateral comparison between the FG5X-216 and FG5-242
Francis, Olivier UL; Ullrich, Christian

Report (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (10 UL)
See detailGroup interest and subsidiary governance in Luxembourg
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

Report (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 141 (3 UL)
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See detailA Study of Potential Component Leaks in Android Apps
Li, Li UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Li, Daoyuan UL et al

Report (2015)

We discuss the capability of a new feature set for malware detection based on potential component leaks (PCLs). PCLs are defined as sensitive data-flows that involve Android inter-component communications ... [more ▼]

We discuss the capability of a new feature set for malware detection based on potential component leaks (PCLs). PCLs are defined as sensitive data-flows that involve Android inter-component communications. We show that PCLs are common in Android apps and that malicious applications indeed manipulate significantly more PCLs than benign apps. Then, we evaluate a machine learning-based approach relying on PCLs. Experimental validation show high performance with 95% precision for identifying malware, demonstrating that PCLs can be used for discriminating malicious apps from benign apps. By further investigating the generalization ability of this feature set, we highlight an issue often overlooked in the Android malware detection community: Qualitative aspects of training datasets have a strong impact on a malware detector’s performance. Furthermore, this impact cannot be overcome by simply increasing the Quantity of training material. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative gravity measurements in Ilulissat in July 2013
Francis, Olivier UL

Report (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 155 (24 UL)
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See detailLes langues dans les offres d'emploi au Luxembourg (1984-2014)
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Fehlen, Fernand UL

Report (2015)

Cette étude propose une analyse des demandes linguistiques dans les offres d’emploi au Luxembourg dans deux médias différents : 1) À partir d’un échantillon d’offres du Luxemburger Wort portant sur la ... [more ▼]

Cette étude propose une analyse des demandes linguistiques dans les offres d’emploi au Luxembourg dans deux médias différents : 1) À partir d’un échantillon d’offres du Luxemburger Wort portant sur la période 1984-2014, elle décrit l’évolution des compétences linguistiques exigées ou souhaitées sur le marché du travail du Luxembourg. 2) Pour tenir compte de l’importance croissante des recrutements en ligne, une deuxième étude porte sur un corpus d’offres publiées sur le site Internet Jobs.lu. La prise en compte de ces deux sources permet de montrer une segmentation linguistique entre les différentes branches d’activité et une augmentation des demandes langagières explicites au fil des 30 dernières années. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Becker, Fabienne UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2015)

Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States ... [more ▼]

Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States, Luxembourg is the country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. Due to its size and geographic position, Luxembourg was able to have access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial centre was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centres and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which the country has found, up until now, within the Greater Region. This reality is even more pronounced with regards to the labour market: the number of actives (salaried and non-salaried) on 31 March 2014 shows that Luxembourgish nationals represented only 31%, EU citizens 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 42% of the workforce and the resident migrant population (EU citizens and third-country nationals) 28%. Cross-border workers, which consist of skilled and highly skilled labour are substantially attracted for two reasons: 1) more competitive salaries on the Luxemburgish labour market ; and 2) a geographical location which allows the commuting of cross-border workers. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to focus on attracting highly added value activities focussed on new technologies (biomedicine and information as well as communication technologies – focusing on IT security), logistics and research. However, being one of the smallest countries in the European Union, Luxembourg has limited human resources to guarantee the growth not only of the financial sector but also of the new technologies sectors. The government introduced the highly qualified worker residence permit in the bill on free movement of persons and immigration approved by law of 29 August 2008 almost a year before of the enactment of the Blue Card Directive to facilitate the entry of third-country national highly qualified workers. However, this reform was isolated and incomplete and took place without making a real evaluation of the workforce demand of the different sectors of the economy. Even though until now Luxembourg has been relying on the workforce from the Greater Region, for some socio-economic and political stakeholders, highly qualified workforces began to become scarce in the Greater region. In addition to the cross-border workers, the lifting of restrictions to access all the sectors of the labour market for citizens of the new Member States (EU-8) can be considered as a mitigating factor for the need to make an evaluation of the workforce demand, because the high salaries paid in Luxembourg became a real pull factor for the highly qualified workers. As a consequence, the political authorities did not foresee a systematic plan on how to address labour shortages in specific sectors of the economy, because there has not been a significant need for doing so. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-Driven Security based on A Unified System of Security Design Patterns
Nguyen, Phu Hong UL

Report (2015)

Model-Driven Security (MDS) for secure systems development still has limitations to be more applicable in practice. A recent systematic review of MDS shows that current MDS approaches have not dealt with ... [more ▼]

Model-Driven Security (MDS) for secure systems development still has limitations to be more applicable in practice. A recent systematic review of MDS shows that current MDS approaches have not dealt with multiple security concerns system- atically. Besides, catalogs of security patterns which can address multiple security concerns have not been applied efficiently. This paper presents an MDS approach based on a unified System of Security design Patterns (SoSPa). In SoSPa, security design patterns are collected, specified as reusable aspect models to form a coherent system of them that guides developers in systematically addressing multiple security concerns. SoSPa consists of not only interrelated security design patterns but also a refinement process towards their application. We applied SoSPa to design the security of crisis management systems. The result shows that multiple security concerns in the case study have been addressed by systematically integrating different security solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic des Besoins et des Demandes Spécifiques des Bénéficiaires de Pays Tiers du Contrat d’Accueil et d’Intégration
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bucki, Barbara

Report (2015)

Les buts du projet ont été : • Elaborer une photographie des profils sociodémographiques et économiques des 2547 signataires du CAI dont 1130 sont issus de pays tiers • Etablir un diagnostic quantitatif ... [more ▼]

Les buts du projet ont été : • Elaborer une photographie des profils sociodémographiques et économiques des 2547 signataires du CAI dont 1130 sont issus de pays tiers • Etablir un diagnostic quantitatif et qualitatif de leurs besoins spécifiques concernant le dispositif du CAI et ses prestations, de ses retombées sur l’intégration et la qualité de vie. Les objectifs du projet • Décrire le profil socioéconomique des signataires de PT au regard de celui des signataires issus de l’UE et des données sur les étrangers du recensement 2011 ainsi que leur participation aux prestations du dispositif du CAI ; • Analyser le profil socioéconomique des bénéficiaires ayant répondu au questionnaire de PT vs. EU ainsi que celui des volontaires de PT ayant participé aux consultations collectives ; • Examiner les difficultés rencontrées par les bénéficiaires PT dans leur intégration ainsi que leurs besoins et leurs demandes par rapport aux prestations existantes ; • Identifier les retombées du dispositif du CAI sur leur participation à la vie sociale, leur qualité de vie (emploi, formation, santé…) et leur utilisation des services ; • Déterminer les améliorations possibles qui pourraient renforcer le processus du dispositif du CAI afin de soutenir leur intégration. Méthode. Parmi les 452 bénéficiaires du Contrat d'Accueil et d'Intégartion, 233 personnes sont issues de Pays Tiers et ont répondu à un questionnaire. Parmi eux, 50 personnes ont été volontaires pour participer à l’une des 11 consultations collectives animées en français, anglais, espagnol, serbo-croate et chinois. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool transitions from primary to secondary school: development of intervention strategies to improve the quality of teachers´transition decisions
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

Report (2015)

The TRANSINTER project focused on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education in ... [more ▼]

The TRANSINTER project focused on intervention modules to improve teachers’ diagnostic competence, especially in regards to decisions on students’ transition from primary to secondary education in Luxembourg. The main aims of the project were to investigate the effect of three different intervention / training modules, separately and in combination, as well as the influence of group constellation on decision making processes. In order to address the aims, several steps were taken. First, we conducted a thorough literature review, which provided a solid theoretical framework for the studies within the project. Second we developed materials and a criterion to evaluate changes in teachers’ decision making accuracy. At the individual level, we conducted 3 studies to investigate the short and long term effects of accountability, theoretical knowledge and the application of prediction rules on teachers’ decision accuracy. All 3 studies showed at the baseline that teachers’ general decision accuracy was of high standard but also that decision accuracy for ethnic majority students was significantly better than for ethnic minority students. Similarly, teachers were generally more accurate in decisions for students with typical academic profiles compared to mixed profiles. The study on the effects of accountability showed that increased accountability resulted in increased decision accuracy, especially in regards to decisions for ethnic minority students with typical profiles. The studies concerning the introduction of theoretical models of decision making and judgment formation and the application of SPRs resulted in an improvement of transition decisions for ethnic minority students only. Unfortunately, the differential intervention effects of increased accountability, the introduction of theoretical models, and the application of SPRs could not be maintained over time, that is, at follow up, the ethnicity bias reappeared. Interestingly, when we combined the intervention modules to investigate their combined effect on the accuracy of transition decisions, the training in the application of formal decision rules seemed most effective in reducing ethnicity bias. It should be noted that this training was delivered to preservice teachers whilst the intervention studies were conducted with experienced inservice teachers. At the inter-individual level, we investigated the effect of group constellation on the accuracy of transition decisions. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did neither detect a social loafing nor a social facilitation effect and decisions taken in groups did not differ from decisions taken alone. From these studies we can conclude that teachers’ transition decisions can be improved by providing experienced teachers with theoretical knowledge and by increasing accountability. Preservice teachers may profit most from training in the application of formal decision rules as part of a comprehensive training concerning diagnostic competence. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Extensive Systematic Review on Model-Driven Development of Secure Systems
Nguyen, Phu Hong UL

Report (2015)

Context: Model-Driven Security (MDS) is as a specialised Model-Driven Engineering research area for supporting the development of secure systems. Over a decade of research on MDS has resulted in a large ... [more ▼]

Context: Model-Driven Security (MDS) is as a specialised Model-Driven Engineering research area for supporting the development of secure systems. Over a decade of research on MDS has resulted in a large number of publications. Objective: To provide a detailed analysis of the state of the art in MDS, a systematic literature review (SLR) is essential. Method: We conducted an extensive SLR on MDS. Derived from our research questions, we designed a rigorous, extensive search and selection process to identify a set of primary MDS studies that is as complete as possible. Our three-pronged search process consists of automatic searching, manual searching, and snowballing. After discovering and considering more than thousand relevant papers, we identified, strictly selected, and reviewed 108 MDS publications. Results: The results of our SLR show the overall status of the key artefacts of MDS, and the identified primary MDS studies. E.g. regarding security modelling artefact, we found that developing domain-specific languages plays a key role in many MDS approaches. The current limitations in each MDS artefact are pointed out and corresponding potential research directions are suggested. Moreover, we categorise the identified primary MDS studies into 5 principal MDS studies, and other emerging or less common MDS studies. Finally, some trend analyses of MDS research are given. Conclusion: Our results suggest the need for addressing multiple security concerns more systematically and simultaneously, for tool chains supporting the MDS development cycle, and for more empirical studies on the application of MDS methodologies. To the best of our knowledge, this SLR is the first in the field of Software Engineering that combines a snowballing strategy with database searching. This combination has delivered an extensive literature study on MDS. [less ▲]

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See detailA Pobreza e a Mente: Perspectiva da Ciência Cognitiva
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Tourinho, Carlos; Puglisi, Marina et al

Report (2015)

Nós procuramos entender por que a pobreza é um obstáculo para o desenvolvimento e o rendimento escolar das crianças. Munidos deste conhecimento, podemos oferecer evidências robustas que podem ser ... [more ▼]

Nós procuramos entender por que a pobreza é um obstáculo para o desenvolvimento e o rendimento escolar das crianças. Munidos deste conhecimento, podemos oferecer evidências robustas que podem ser utilizadas pelas autoridades educacionais em nossa sociedade para quebrar este vínculo. Este estudo utiliza dados multidimensionais de 355 brasileiros, alunos do 1° e 2° anos do Ensino Fundamental I, provenientes de diferentes origens e escolas. O objetivo foi verificar como as crianças adquirem as habilidades cognitivas que auxiliam na aprendizagem. Foram utilizados dados obtidos a partir de testes cognitivos, bem como entrevistas e questionários preenchidos por pais, professores e alunos. O estudo sugere que, embora o baixo nível socioeconômico exerça um forte impacto negativo sobre o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma criança, uma educação de boa qualidade nos primeiros anos de vida pode contornar esse problema. Os resultados encontrados dão suporte à hipótese de que as experiências que as crianças têm no início da vida afetam o desenvolvimento do cérebro. Uma base cognitiva sólida é crucial para o aprendizado e é um fator fundamental para quebrar o ciclo da pobreza, para promover o desenvolvimento econômico e reduzir as desigualdades sociais. Assim, fazemos as seguintes sugestões para futuras pesquisas e elaboração de políticas públicas: - Investimento em Educação Infantil (creches e pré-escolas) pode ser a maneira mais eficaz para reduzir as desigualdades e promover a mobilidade social ascendente. - Capacitação de professores sobre aprendizagem com base nos preceitos da ciência cognitiva para dar-lhes uma maior consciência do porquê de alguns alunos apresentarem comportamento difícil e/ou dificuldades de aprendizagem. - Elaboração de políticas públicas baseadas em evidências científicas. Políticos e profissionais devem trabalhar em conjunto com cientistas no intuito de desenvolver programas com maiores probabilidades de sucesso. [less ▲]

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See detail« De l’Empathie Pour Lutter Contre le Harcèlement à l’Ecole (EPLUCHE) »
Kerivel, Aude UL

Report (2015)

L’expérimentation évaluée consiste à proposer une éducation à l’empathie pendant deux années scolaires consécutives aux élèves de 20 classes de CM1 puis de CM2, afin de lutter contre le harcèlement à ... [more ▼]

L’expérimentation évaluée consiste à proposer une éducation à l’empathie pendant deux années scolaires consécutives aux élèves de 20 classes de CM1 puis de CM2, afin de lutter contre le harcèlement à l’école. A partir du concept d’empathie, présenté par une équipe de recherche comme la capacité à reconnaître les émotions d’autrui, à assumer le point de vue d’autrui et à manifester de la sensibilité »1, chercheurs, artistes, sportifs, coordonnateurs ECLAIR et enseignants vont co-construire, expérimenter et proposer des séances de jeux sportifs, dansés, théâtre forum et jeux de rôle, toujours associés à des temps de verbalisation. La question que nous pose cette expérimentation est donc la suivante : de quelle manière l’éducation à l’empathie peut-elle permettre de prévenir, résoudre, voire éviter les situations de harcèlement entre pairs et plus largement de violence à l’école ? L’objectif de notre expérimentation est de mesurer l’impact de l’expérimentation sur la population visée, à savoir les élèves, mais aussi les parents et les enseignants de CM1 puis de CM2, de repérer les conditions de mise en œuvre et de transférabilité du dispositif. La choix d’une méthode mixte et innovante alliant observations, observations participantes, entretiens collectifs, questionnaires et questionnaire ludique au début et à la fin de la démarche (à destination des enfants), ainsi que le suivi régulier de l’expérimentation, nous permet de rendre un certain nombre de conclusions quant aux effets de l’expérimentation sur l’ensemble des populations. L’expérimentation, grâce au travail collaboratif et au va-et-vient entre théorie et pratique a su s’ajuster afin de faire en sorte que l’ensemble des enfants et que le plus grand nombre de parents bénéficient du dispositif. Parmi les principaux effets hypothétiques2 de l’expérimentation, nous pouvons repérer une baisse significative du nombre d’enfants concernés par les situations d’exclusion (passant de 47,6% en 2013 à 30,2% en 2014) et de harcèlement (passant de 24% à 12,3%). Au delà des situations de harcèlement, l’expérimentation semble impacter le climat scolaire de manière plus générale, puisqu’on observe par exemple une baisse de la peur dans les situations d’apprentissage telles que le passage au tableau. L’information transmise à la majorité des parents et leur participation, pour une partie, aux goûters, témoignent du fait que l’empathie n’entraine pas seulement l’adhésion des professionnels. Ces derniers, déterminants dans la mise en œuvre du dispositif, ont eux aussi été impactés par l’expérimentation, tant en ce qui concerne une sensibilisation à la notion de harcèlement et une capacité à repérer et agir en équipe en direction de ces situations, que dans la connaissance par le biais de « l’éprouvé » et la capacité à la transmission de l’empathie. Les conditions de réalisation de cette expérimentation tiennent à un ensemble d’éléments : - le soutien et la confiance de la hiérarchie, donnant la possibilité aux enseignants d’accéder à un nouveau concept, incarné par le chercheur à l’origine de la théorie ; - le travail à partir de ce concept permettant aux enseignants prise de recul et appropriation de théorie dont l’intérêt tient à la possibilité d’engagement dans la construction d’une mise en œuvre permise par le temps laissé ; - la possibilité d’expérimenter par le corps, mais aussi de dégager au fur et à mesure de nouvelles notions (émotions, rites...) enrichies par le croisement des différents regards et la rencontre. Enfin, ce que nous pouvons retenir de cette expérimentation, c’est le caractère positif et valorisant de la notion d’empathie, qui propose un autre point de départ que celui de la lutte contre le harcèlement par exemple. Une compétence sociale, qui peut aider au travail d’égalité entre filles et garçons et réconciliant rapport à soi et rapport aux autres. [less ▲]

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See detailAdmitting third-country nationals for business purposes
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Becker, Fabienne UL; Besch, Sylvain et al

Report (2015)

In Luxembourg, the amended law of 29 August 2008 on free movement of persons and immigration does not provide a definition for immigrant investors or immigrant business owners. A third-country national ... [more ▼]

In Luxembourg, the amended law of 29 August 2008 on free movement of persons and immigration does not provide a definition for immigrant investors or immigrant business owners. A third-country national investor can either receive a residence permit as a self-employed worker or a residence permit for private reasons. Which one of both residence permits the applicant receives is dependent of whether s/he wants to actively work in the company s/he invests in or whether s/he wants to be a passive investor. As the global economic growth is not located anymore in Europe and in the USA but in emerging economies (i.e. BRIC countries), the government is targeting investors and capital also from these countries. An interministerial working group was set up, which prepares two drafts bills to create a legal framework for attracting third-country national investors and business managers in Luxembourg. This working group is composed of the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economy (General Directorate of Small and Medium-Sized enterpises) and the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (Directorate of Immigration). [less ▲]

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See detailComputational Mechanics Lab Report 2013-2014
Bordas, Stéphane UL

Report (2015)

This is the report of the Computational Mechanics Lab led by Prof. Stéphane Bordas

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See detailElements of direct democracy in the recent practice of European countries: some thoughts à propos the Roundtable ‘Constitutional Change and People
Pichou, Maria UL

Report (2015)

How can the general public participate in constitution-making and constitution-amending procedures? Are popular initiatives in constitutional change more desirable or feasible in European countries today ... [more ▼]

How can the general public participate in constitution-making and constitution-amending procedures? Are popular initiatives in constitutional change more desirable or feasible in European countries today? The recent Roundtable ‘Constitutional Change and People’, organised by the University of Luxembourg and the International Association of Constitutional Law (Constitution-Making and Constitutional Change Research Group) on December 12th 2014, dealt with these issues. The discussion was prompted by ongoing developments in some European countries, which reveal a tendency to introduce elements of direct democracy, such as referendums, online petitions and citizens’ initiatives into the field of constitutional change. The introductory address by the President of the European Court of Justice Prof. Dr. Vasileios Skouris, underlined the difficulties that many European constitutions face in integrating the ‘European phenomenon’. The interaction between the European legal order and national constitutions is still a source of legal uncertainty. There is a movement towards strengthening the possibility of people contributing to constitutional changes around the world in general, and in Europe specifically, after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. The timeliness of analysing recent examples of people’s participation in constitutional changes in France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Romania and Switzerland, therefore, becomes evident. [less ▲]

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See detailArgon and Argon2
Biryukov, Alex UL; Dinu, Dumitru-Daniel UL; Khovratovich, Dmitry UL

Report (2015)

This is a design specification for the functions Argon and Argon2 for the international password hashing competition (PHC), 2013-2015. Argon is our original submission to PHC. It is a multipurpose hash ... [more ▼]

This is a design specification for the functions Argon and Argon2 for the international password hashing competition (PHC), 2013-2015. Argon is our original submission to PHC. It is a multipurpose hash function, that is optimized for highest resilience against tradeoff attacks, so that any, even small memory reduction would lead to significant time and computational penalties. Argon can be used for password hashing, key derivation, or any other memory-hard computation (e.g., for cryptocurrencies). Argon2 summarizes the state of the art in the design of memory-hard functions. It is a streamlined and simple design. It aims at the highest memoryfilling rate and effective use of multiple computing units, while still providing defense against tradeoff attacks. Argon2 is optimized for the x86 architecture and exploits the cache and memory organization of the recent Intel and AMD processors. Argon2 has two variants: Argon2d and Argon2i. Argon2d is faster and uses data-depending memory access, which makes it suitable for cryptocurrencies and applications with no threats from side-channel timing attacks. Argon2i uses data-independent memory access, which is preferred for password hashing and password based key derivation. Argon2i is slower as it makes more passes over the memory to protect from tradeoff attacks. We recommend Argon for the applications that aim for the highest tradeoff resilience and want to guarantee prohibitive time and computational penalties on any memory-reducing implementation. According to our cryptanalytic algorithms, an attempt to use half of the requested memory (for instance, 64 MB instead of 128 MB) results in the speed penalty factor of 140 and in the penalty 218. The penalty grows exponentially as the available memory decreases, which effectively prohibits the adversary to use any smaller amount of memory. Such high computational penalties are a unique feature of Argon. We recommend Argon2 for the applications that aim for high performance. Both versions of Argon2 allow to fill 1 GB of RAM in a fraction of second, and smaller amounts even faster. It scales easily to the arbitrary number of parallel computing units. Its design is also optimized for clarity to ease analysis and implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailDissemination of information on voluntary return: How to reach irregular migrants not in contact with the authorities - Luxembourg
Li, Lisa UL; Petry, David UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2015)

The focus of this study lies with irregular migrants who are not in contact with the authorities. Due to their irregular situation, it is difficult to provide information on the numbers of persons that ... [more ▼]

The focus of this study lies with irregular migrants who are not in contact with the authorities. Due to their irregular situation, it is difficult to provide information on the numbers of persons that are irregularly staying in Luxembourg. Several actors were able to provide some estimations on the scale of irregular migrants, but these estimations can only ever be partial. Statistics are available concerning the assisted voluntary return and reintegration from Luxembourg programme that is operated by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) as well as concerning the counselling services offered by different non-governmental organisations and associations. However, most of these numbers refer to migrants that are known to the authorities, mainly because they are rejected applicants for international protection. [less ▲]

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See detailMedia pluralism monitor 2015: Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Schall, Céline UL; Nommesch, Kim

Report (2015)

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See detailCivil Judicial Experts in the EU: Analysis of EU Legislation and Recommendations
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

Report (2015)

Upon request bythe JURI Committee, this study provides an analysis of existing EU legislation applicable to judicial expertise for the purpose of assessing whether cross-border expertise in the EU is ... [more ▼]

Upon request bythe JURI Committee, this study provides an analysis of existing EU legislation applicable to judicial expertise for the purpose of assessing whether cross-border expertise in the EU is hampered or restricted, and whether steps could be taken to facilitate it and to further develop a genuine European area of civil justice. It concludes that, while existing EU law is largely satisfactory, there are still major issues, and that EU action would be necessary to address them. [less ▲]

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See detailEine Bilanz zur Gesetzesreform Aide 'a l'Enfance et à la Famille (AEF)
Peters, Ulla UL; Jäger, Julia UL; Ministerium für nationale Bildung, Kindheit und Jugend Luxemburg

Report (2015)

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See detailConsultations citoyennes et réformes constitutionnelles
Kies, Raphaël UL

Report (2015)

The report was commissioned by the Chamber of Deputies for preparing the campaign around the constitutional referendum that was held in June 2015. It has two objectives. The first is to assess the ... [more ▼]

The report was commissioned by the Chamber of Deputies for preparing the campaign around the constitutional referendum that was held in June 2015. It has two objectives. The first is to assess the citizens’ opinion and awareness on the four referendum issues. The evaluation was made on the basis of four citizen consultations composed by a representative panel of citizens resident in Luxembourg. In addition of providing an overview of the state of citizens’ knowledge and opinions (and their evolution), that analysis allows to assess how participants perceive the consultation process itself. The second objective is to present and discuss concrete proposals to include citizen’s in the process of the constitutional reform and the referendum. This last part is based on the teachings of the consultation carried out in Luxembourg as well as three case studies where people were fully involved in the constitutional reform process: the case of Iceland, Ireland and the State of Oregon (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailESPON on the road - Bringing closer ESPON evidence for decision making
Breuer, Ina; Radvanski, Adam; Schön, Karl Peter et al

Report (2015)

The ESPONontheRoad project was a Transnational Networking Activity (TNA) of nineteen ESPON Contact Points (ECPs) with the aim to bring ESPON results closer for decision-making and thus increase the ... [more ▼]

The ESPONontheRoad project was a Transnational Networking Activity (TNA) of nineteen ESPON Contact Points (ECPs) with the aim to bring ESPON results closer for decision-making and thus increase the capitalisation of the ESPON Programme. During a year, participating ECPs brought ESPON closer to the local and regional level, and to citizens in physical and virtual forms. The project built a bridge between the issues on a local level and scientific evidence on EU territorial development policy themes. After taking stock of the most recent policy issues in each national context, ECPs formed transnational working groups to have a common understanding of the messages coming from ESPON results. These working groups designed the most appropriate and efficient form of communication for their target groups. In this way ESPON results were put into the macroregional context of West, South, North and Central-Eastern areas, and both the content-related and the organisational tasks were organised in a balanced way. The activity report summaries the goals of the project, presents how they were implemented and what are the lessons learnt. It concludes with recommendations for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailMachbarkeitsstudie "Betreuungsatlas Schweiz": Die Geographie betreuter Kindheit
Neumann, Sascha UL; Tinguely, Luzia; Hekel, Nicole UL et al

Report (2015)

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See detailLocal Autonomy Index for the European countries (1990-2014): Luxembourg (LUX)
Kies, Raphaël UL; Nommesch, Kim

Report (2015)

Local autonomy index project 2015 (march 2015 – June 2015) is EU Commission funded project coordinated by the Graduate Institute of Public Administration at the University of Lausanne; The goal of the ... [more ▼]

Local autonomy index project 2015 (march 2015 – June 2015) is EU Commission funded project coordinated by the Graduate Institute of Public Administration at the University of Lausanne; The goal of the project is to create a Local Authority Index (LAI) which can be used to report and analyse changes in the amount of decentralisation in some 38 countries. Evaluation includes in depth research on relevant legislation, analyzing tendencies and conducting interviews with relevant stakeholders, communication and close team work with fellow collaborators and coordinators. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy and Data Protection by Design-from policy to engineering
Danezis, George; Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Hansen, Marit et al

Report (2015)

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See detailComputational Metaphysics
Benzmüller, Christoph UL; Wisniewski, Max; Steen, Alexander UL

Report (2015)

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See detailPrivacy and Security in an Age of Surveillance
Ryan, Peter UL; Preneel, Bart; Rogaway, Phillip et al

Report (2015)

The Snowden revelations have demonstrated that the US and other nations are amassing data about people's lives at an unprecedented scale. Furthermore, these revelations have shown that intelligence ... [more ▼]

The Snowden revelations have demonstrated that the US and other nations are amassing data about people's lives at an unprecedented scale. Furthermore, these revelations have shown that intelligence agencies are not only pursuing passive surveillance over the world's communication systems, but are also seeking to facilitate such surveillance by undermining the security of the internet and communications technologies. Thus the activities of these agencies threatens not only the rights of individual citizens but also the fabric of democratic society. Intelligence services do have a useful role to play in protecting society and for this need the capabilities and authority to perform targeted surveillance. But the scope of such surveillance must be strictly limited by an understanding of its costs as well as benefits, and it should not impinge on the privacy rights of citizens any more than necessary. Here we report on a recent Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop addressing these issues - a four-day gathering of experts from multiple disciplines connected with privacy and security. The meeting explored the scope of mass-surveillance and the deliberate undermining of the security of the internet, defined basic principles that should underlie needed reforms, and discussed the potential for technical, legal and regulatory means to help restore the security of the internet and stem infringement of human-rights by ubiquitous electronic surveillance. [less ▲]

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See detailCheat Sheet: Social Network Analysis for Humanists
During, Marten UL

Report (2015)

Social Network Analysis concepts and methods are extremely powerful ways to describe complex social relations. The field however has developed their own their concepts, some of which require a little bit ... [more ▼]

Social Network Analysis concepts and methods are extremely powerful ways to describe complex social relations. The field however has developed their own their concepts, some of which require a little bit of translation. This cheat sheet should help with the … Continue reading → [less ▲]

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See detailSimulink Fault Localization: an Iterative Statistical Debugging Approach
Liu, Bing UL; Lucia, Lucia UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

Report (2015)

Debugging Simulink models presents a significant challenge in the embedded industry. In this work, we propose SimFL, a fault localization approach for Simulink models by combining statistical debugging ... [more ▼]

Debugging Simulink models presents a significant challenge in the embedded industry. In this work, we propose SimFL, a fault localization approach for Simulink models by combining statistical debugging and dynamic model slicing. Simulink models, being visual and hierarchical, have multiple outputs at different hierarchy levels. Given a set of outputs to observe for localizing faults, we generate test execution slices, for each test case and output, of the Simulink model. In order to further improve fault localization accuracy, we propose iSimFL, an iterative fault localization algorithm. At each iteration, iSimFL increases the set of observable outputs by including outputs at lower hierarchy levels, thus increasing the test oracle cost but offsetting it with significantly more precise fault localization. We utilize a heuristic stopping criterion to avoid unnecessary test oracle extension. We evaluate our work on three industrial Simulink models from Delphi Automotive. Our results show that, on average, SimFL ranks faulty blocks in the top 8.9% in the list of suspicious blocks. Further, we show that iSimFL significantly improves this percentage down to 4.4% by requiring engineers to observe only an average of five additional outputs at lower hierarchy levels on top of high-level model outputs. [less ▲]

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See detailScience Productivity, Higher Education Development and the Knowledge Society (SPHERE Project) Final Report
Baker, David P.; Crist, John T.; Zhang, Liang et al

Report (2015)

This project created and analyzed a new, large global dataset on scientific journal articles, published between 1900 and 2011, and a series of case studies to examine how systems of higher education ... [more ▼]

This project created and analyzed a new, large global dataset on scientific journal articles, published between 1900 and 2011, and a series of case studies to examine how systems of higher education developed and grew nations’ capacity for scientific research. The analysis resulted in a series of new insights about global scientific production that were only possible with a consideration of long-term trends. First, despite predictions as early as the 1960s that the growth rate of “big science” would slow, the dataset shows in fact that “big science” started a phase of exponential growth in the early 1960s that has continued unabated for decades. “Big science” has transformed into “mega-global science” and the trends of global diffusion and regional differentiation began much earlier in the 20th century than is commonly understood. Second, the analysis of rates of regional journal article production also depicts clear shifts in the competition for ascendancy in scientific production. For the first half of the 20th century, global competition for scientific impact was primarily an Atlantic battle between the top producers of Europe (Germany, France, and the U.K.) and the United States. The locus of competition shifted by the, end of the 20th century to a contest between the current research “superpower, ” the United States, and the fast-growing producer, China, along with the many less populous countries of Western Europe with their highly productive science systems. With the contributions of other East Asian, high volume producers such as Japan and South Korea in the later decades of the 20th century, and simultaneous slowing of research production in U.S. science, the center of gravity for research production has been pulled eastward for the past two decades. Third, while science may indeed be an inherently global and collaborative enterprise, the trend toward global collaboration of authors is a relatively recent one. Historically, one-third of all research articles worldwide result from international collaboration, and less than 26 percent are the product of one researcher alone. In 1980 however only about 2 percent of all SCIE publications involved a collaboration across international lines. Three decades later this proportion is eleven times what it was in 1980. Finally, the study also concluded that overall volume of production is not a sufficient measure of scientific capacity by itself. When adjusting for the size of population and the economy the proportion of GDP spent on R&D or the number of researchers some smaller countries (especially in Europe) are more productive on a per capita basis than mid-sized or even larger ones. Similarly the ratio of investment in science to scientific production is much higher in the high volume producers than it is in some small states. While output is smaller in these states, they have maximized R&D investments more efficiently than their larger competitors. [less ▲]

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See detailDeprivation and poverty among children in Tajikistan: A multiple overlapping deprivation analysis
Neubourg, Chris De; Karpati, Julia; Cebotari, Victor UL

Report (2015)

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See detailGradient Smoothing in Finite Elasticity: near-incompressibility
Lee, Chang-Kye; Bordas, Stéphane UL; Kerfriden, Pierre

Report (2015)

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See detailMediennutzung Jugendlicher in Luxemburg
König, Andreas; Steffgen, Georges UL

Report (2015)

Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung an luxemburgischen Jugendlichen zu deren Nutzungsverhalten von Computerspielen und des Internets vorgestellt. Ziel der Studie ... [more ▼]

Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung an luxemburgischen Jugendlichen zu deren Nutzungsverhalten von Computerspielen und des Internets vorgestellt. Ziel der Studie war zum einen, einen diesbezüglich aktualisierten Überblick, und zum anderen, bislang für Luxemburg noch fehlende Prävalenzdaten zur dysfunktionalen Nutzung zu gewinnen. Ausgehend von einem für die luxemburgische Stichprobe modifizierten Fragebogen, der im Rahmen der EU NET ADB Studie (Tsitsika et al., 2013) zum gleichen doppelten Zweck in sieben europäischen Ländern eingesetzt wurde, wurden n=362 Kinder und Jugendliche im Alter von 10 bis 21 Jahren in Papierform bzw. Online befragt, von denen n=265 den Fragebogen vollständig beantworteten (Papierversion: n=50, Online-Version: n=215). Erfasst wurden neben für den Internetzugang verwendeten Geräten und gewählten Orten vor allem das zeitliche Ausmaß der Nutzung von Computerspielen und Internet allgemein, sowie spezifisch die Häufigkeit, mit der bestimmten Online-Aktivitäten nachgegangen wird. Die Ergebnisse lassen deutlich werden, dass Computerspiele und das Internet einen großen Teil der Freizeit der befragten Kinder und Jugendlichen einnehmen. Eine umfassende deskriptive und statistische Auswertung der erhobenen Daten zeigt auf, dass sich alle relevanten Parameter im Rahmen der zum Vergleich vorliegenden Daten aus anderen europäischen Ländern (Tsitsika et al., 2013) bewegen. Dies schließt allerdings auch die Feststellung eines vergleichbaren Handlungsbedarfs ein. Dieser betrifft neben präventiven und pädagogischen Maßnahmen der Hinführung zu einem verantwortungsvollen Umgang mit den Computerspielen und Internet allgemein, sowie im Speziellen mit altersinadäquaten Inhalten, insbesondere die Versorgung des Anteils an Jugendlichen, die bereits ein klinisch auffälliges pathologisches Nutzungsverhalten zeigen. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Test Suite Generation for Time-Continuous Simulink Models
Matinnejad, Reza UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Briand, Lionel UL

Report (2015)

All engineering disciplines are founded and rely on models, al- though they may differ on purposes and usages of modeling. Inter- disciplinary domains such as Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) seek approaches ... [more ▼]

All engineering disciplines are founded and rely on models, al- though they may differ on purposes and usages of modeling. Inter- disciplinary domains such as Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) seek approaches that incorporate different modeling needs and usages. Specifically, the Simulink modeling platform greatly appeals to CPS engineers due to its seamless support for simulation and code generation. In this paper, we propose a test generation approach that is applicable to Simulink models built for both purposes of simulation and code generation. We define test inputs and outputs as signals that capture evolution of values over time. Our test gener- ation approach is implemented as a meta-heuristic search algorithm and is guided to produce test outputs with diverse shapes according to our proposed notion of diversity. Our evaluation, performed on industrial and public domain models, demonstrates that: (1) In con- trast to the existing tools for testing Simulink models that are only applicable to a subset of code generation models, our approach is applicable to both code generation and simulation Simulink mod- els. (2) Our new notion of diversity for output signals outperforms random baseline testing and an existing notion of signal diversity in revealing faults in Simulink models. (3) The fault revealing ability of our test generation approach outperforms that of the Simulink Design Verifier, the only testing toolbox for Simulink. [less ▲]

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