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See detailDesign Challenges of Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence Learning Systems
Brust, Matthias R. UL; Bouvry, Pascal UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Intelligent Information and Database Systems - 12th Asian Conference ACIIDS 2020, Phuket, Thailand, March 23-26, 2020, Companion Proceedings (2020)

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See detailAutonomous Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Gaudín, Américo; Madruga, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Carlos et al

in High Performance Computing (2020)

This article explores the application of evolutionary algorithms and agent-oriented programming to solve the problem of searching and monitoring objectives through a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ... [more ▼]

This article explores the application of evolutionary algorithms and agent-oriented programming to solve the problem of searching and monitoring objectives through a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles. The subproblem of static off-line planning is studied to find initial flight plans for each vehicle in the fleet, using evolutionary algorithms to achieve compromise values between the size of the explored area, the proximity of the vehicles, and the monitoring of points of interest defined in the area. The results obtained in the experimental analysis on representative instances of the surveillance problem indicate that the proposed techniques are capable of computing effective flight plans. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cooperative Coevolutionary Approach to Maximise Surveillance Coverage of UAV Swarms
Stolfi Rosso, Daniel UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference CCNC 2020, Las Vegas, NV, USA, January 10-13, 2020 (2020)

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See detailAutomatic Testing and Improvement of Machine Translation
Sun, Zeyu; Zhang, Jie; Harman, Mark et al

in International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) (2020)

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See detailJoint Power Allocation and Access Point Selection for Cell-free Massive MIMO
Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; ShahbazPanahi, Shahram et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (2020)

Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-MIMO) is a promising technological enabler for fifth generation (5G) networks in which a large number of access points (APs) jointly serve the users ... [more ▼]

Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-MIMO) is a promising technological enabler for fifth generation (5G) networks in which a large number of access points (APs) jointly serve the users. Each AP applies conjugate beamforming to precode data, which is based only on the AP's local channel state information. However, by having the nature of a (very) large number of APs, the operation of CF-MIMO can be energy-inefficient. In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency performance of CF-MIMO by considering a practical energy consumption model which includes both the signal transmit energy as well as the static energy consumed by hardware components. In particular, a joint power allocation and AP selection design is proposed to minimize the total energy consumption subject to given quality of service (QoS) constraints. In order to deal with the combinatorial complexity of the formulated problem, we employ norm $l_{2,1}$-based block-sparsity and successive convex optimization to leverage the AP selection process. Numerical results show significant energy savings obtained by the proposed design, compared to all-active APs scheme and the large-scale based AP selection. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-Use Research In Ransomware Attacks: A Discussion on Ransomware Defence Intelligence
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (2020)

Previous research has shown that developers rely on public platforms and repositories to produce functional but insecure code. We looked into the matter for ransomware, enquiring whether also ransomware ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that developers rely on public platforms and repositories to produce functional but insecure code. We looked into the matter for ransomware, enquiring whether also ransomware engineers re-use the work of others and produce insecure code. By methodically reverse-engineering 128 malware executables, we have found that, out of 21 ransomware samples, 9 contain copy-paste code from public resources. Thanks to this finding, we managed to retrieve the decryption keys with which to nullify the ransomware attacks. From this fact, we recall critical cases of code disclosure in the recent history of ransomware and, arguing that ransomware are components in cyber-weapons, reflect on the dual-use nature of this research. We further discuss benefits and limits of using cyber-intelligence and counter-intelligence strategies that could be used against this threat. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Develop a GDPR-Compliant Blockchain Solution for Cross-Organizational Workflow Management: Evidence from the German Asylum Procedure.
Guggenmos, F; Lockl, J; Rieger, A et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020 (2020)

Blockchain technology has the potential to resolve trust concerns in cross-organizational workflows and to reduce reliance on paper-based documents as trust anchors. Although these prospects are real, so ... [more ▼]

Blockchain technology has the potential to resolve trust concerns in cross-organizational workflows and to reduce reliance on paper-based documents as trust anchors. Although these prospects are real, so is regulatory uncertainty. In particular, the reconciliation of blockchain with Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is proving to be a significant challenge. We tackled this challenge with the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we explain how we used Action Research to guide the Federal Office in creating a GDPR-compliant blockchain solution for the German asylum procedure. Moreover, we explain the architecture of the Federal Office’s solution and present two design principles for developing GDPR- compliant blockchain solutions for cross- organizational workflow management. [less ▲]

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See detailUnlinkable Updatable Databases and Oblivious Transfer with Access Control
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Rial, Alfredo UL

in 25th Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (2020)

An oblivious transfer with access control protocol (OTAC) allows us to protect privacy of accesses to a database while enforcing access control policies. Existing OTAC have several shortcomings. First ... [more ▼]

An oblivious transfer with access control protocol (OTAC) allows us to protect privacy of accesses to a database while enforcing access control policies. Existing OTAC have several shortcomings. First, their design is not modular. Typically, to create an OTAC, an adaptive oblivious transfer protocol (OT) is extended ad-hoc. Consequently, the security of the OT is reanalyzed when proving security of the OTAC, and it is not possible to instantiate the OTAC with any secure OT. Second, existing OTAC do not allow for policy updates. Finally, in practical applications, many messages share the same policy. However, existing OTAC cannot take advantage of that to improve storage efficiency. We propose an UC-secure OTAC that addresses the aforementioned shortcomings. Our OTAC uses as building blocks the ideal functionalities for OT, for zero-knowledge (ZK) and for an \emph{unlinkable updatable database} ($\UUD$), which we define and construct. $\UUD$ is a protocol between an updater $\fuudUpdater$ and multiple readers $\fuudReader_k$. $\fuudUpdater$ sets up a database and updates it. $\fuudReader_k$ can read the database by computing UC ZK proofs of an entry in the database, without disclosing what entry is read. In our OTAC, $\UUD$ is used to store and read the policies. We construct an $\UUD$ based on subvector commitments (SVC). We extend the definition of SVC with update algorithms for commitments and openings, and we provide an UC ZK proof of a subvector. Our efficiency analysis shows that our $\UUD$ is practical. [less ▲]

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See detailVisualisierungen des Induktionsprinzips
Perucca, Antonella UL; Todorovic, Milko

in Beiträge zum Mathematikunterricht 2020 (2020)

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See detailMachine Learning to Geographically Enrich Understudied Sources: A Conceptual Approach
Viola, Lorella UL; Verheul, Jaap

in Rocha, Ana; Steels, Luc; van den Herik, Jaap (Eds.) Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ARTIDIGH (2020)

This paper discusses the added value of applying machine learning (ML) to contextually enrich digital collections. In this study, we employed ML as a method to geographically enrich historical datasets ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the added value of applying machine learning (ML) to contextually enrich digital collections. In this study, we employed ML as a method to geographically enrich historical datasets. Specifically, we used a sequence tagging tool (Riedl and Padó 2018) which implements TensorFlow to perform NER on a corpus of historical immigrant newspapers. Afterwards, the entities were extracted and geocoded. The aim was to prepare large quantities of unstructured data for a conceptual historical analysis of geographical references. The intention was to develop a method that would assist researchers working in spatial humanities, a recently emerged interdisciplinary field focused on geographic and conceptual space. Here we describe the ML methodology and the geocoding phase of the project, focussing on the advantages and challenges of this approach, particularly for humanities scholars. We also argue that, by choosing to use largely neglected sources such as immigrant newspapers (a lso known as ethnic newspapers), this study contributes to the debate about diversity representation and archival biases in digital practices. [less ▲]

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See detailUC Updatable Databases and Applications
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Rial, Alfredo UL

in 12th International Conference on Cryptology (2020)

We define an ideal functionality $\Functionality_{\UD}$ and a construction $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ for an updatable database ($\UD$). $\UD$ is a two-party protocol between an updater and a reader. The ... [more ▼]

We define an ideal functionality $\Functionality_{\UD}$ and a construction $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ for an updatable database ($\UD$). $\UD$ is a two-party protocol between an updater and a reader. The updater sets the database and updates it at any time throughout the protocol execution. The reader computes zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs of knowledge of database entries. These proofs prove that a value is stored at a certain position in the database, without revealing the position or the value. (Non-)updatable databases are implicitly used as building block in priced oblivious transfer, privacy-preserving billing and other privacy-preserving protocols. Typically, in those protocols the updater signs each database entry, and the reader proves knowledge of a signature on a database entry. Updating the database requires a revocation mechanism to revoke signatures on outdated database entries. Our construction $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ uses a non-hiding vector commitment (NHVC) scheme. The updater maps the database to a vector and commits to the database. This commitment can be updated efficiently at any time without needing a revocation mechanism. ZK proofs for reading a database entry have communication and amortized computation cost independent of the database size. Therefore, $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ is suitable for large databases. We implement $\mathrm{\Pi_{\UD}}$ and our timings show that it is practical. In existing privacy-preserving protocols, a ZK proof of a database entry is intertwined with other tasks, e.g., proving further statements about the value read from the database or the position where it is stored. $\Functionality_{\UD}$ allows us to improve modularity in protocol design by separating those tasks. We show how to use $\Functionality_{\UD}$ as building block of a hybrid protocol along with other functionalities. [less ▲]

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See detailCompetitive Evolution of a UAV Swarm for Improving Intruder Detection Rates
Stolfi Rosso, Daniel UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in 2020 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops, IPDPSW 2020, New Orleans, LA, USA, May 18-22, 2020 (2020)

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See detailL’édition de chartes à Luxembourg: de l’érudition aux nouvelles technologies (et vice-versa?)
Salemme, Timothy UL

in Bendheim, Amelie (Ed.) Tagungsband Mittelalter zwischen Faszination und Fortschritt (2020)

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See detailLocalization Performance of 1-Bit Passive Radars in NB-IoT Applications
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Shankar, Bhavani UL et al

in Sedighi, Saeid; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Shankar, Bhavani (Eds.) et al Localization Performance of 1-Bit Passive Radars in NB-IoT Applications (2019, December 14)

Location-based services form an important use-case in emerging narrowband Internet-of-Things (NB-IoT) networks. Critical to this offering is an accurate estimation of the location without overlaying the ... [more ▼]

Location-based services form an important use-case in emerging narrowband Internet-of-Things (NB-IoT) networks. Critical to this offering is an accurate estimation of the location without overlaying the network with additional active sensors. The massive number of devices, low power requirement, and low bandwidths restrict the sampling rates of NB-IoT receivers. In this paper, we propose a novel low-complexity approach for NB-IoT target delay estimation in cases where one-bit analog-to-digital-converters (ADCs) are employed to sample the received radar signal instead of high-resolution ADCs. This problem has potential applications in the design of inexpensive NB-IoT radar and sensing devices. We formulate the target estimation as a multivariate fractional optimization problem and solve it via Lasserre's semi-definite program relaxation. Numerical experiments suggest feasibility of the proposed approach yielding high localization accuracy with a very low number of 1-bit samples. [less ▲]

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See detailCarrier Aggregation in Multi-Beam High Throughput Satellite Systems
Kibria, Mirza UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Maturo, Nicola UL et al

in Carrier Aggregation in Multi-Beam High Throughput Satellite Systems (2019, December 10)

Carrier Aggregation (CA) is an integral part of current terrestrial networks. Its ability to enhance the peak data rate, to efficiently utilize the limited available spectrum resources and to satisfy the ... [more ▼]

Carrier Aggregation (CA) is an integral part of current terrestrial networks. Its ability to enhance the peak data rate, to efficiently utilize the limited available spectrum resources and to satisfy the demand for data-hungry applications has drawn large attention from different wireless network communities. Given the benefits of CA in the terrestrial wireless environment, it is of great interest to analyze and evaluate the potential impact of CA in the satellite domain. In this paper, we study CA in multi-beam high throughput satellite systems. We consider both inter-transponder and intra-transponder CA at the satellite payload level of the communication stack, and we address the problem of carrier-user assignment assuming that multiple users can be multiplexed in each carrier. The transmission parameters of different carriers are generated considering the transmission characteristics of carriers in different transponders. In particular, we propose a flexible carrier allocation approach for a CA enabled multi-beam satellite system targeting a proportionally fair user demand satisfaction. Simulation results and analysis shed some light on this rather unexplored scenario and demonstrate the feasibility of the CA in satellite communication systems. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Scheduling and Precoding for Frame-Based Multigroup Multicasting in Satellite Communications
Bandi, Ashok UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Bandi, Ashok; Shankar, Bhavani; Chatzinotas, Symeon (Eds.) et al Joint Scheduling and Precoding for Frame-Based Multigroup Multicasting in Satellite Communications (2019, December 09)

Recent satellite standards enforce the coding of multiple users’ data in a frame. This transmission strategy mimics the well-known physical layer multigroup multicasting (MGMC). However, typical beam ... [more ▼]

Recent satellite standards enforce the coding of multiple users’ data in a frame. This transmission strategy mimics the well-known physical layer multigroup multicasting (MGMC). However, typical beam coverage with a large number of users and limited frame length lead to the scheduling of only a few users. Moreover, in emerging aggressive frequency reuse systems, scheduling is coupled with precoding. This is addressed in this work, through the joint design of scheduling and precoding for frame-based MGMC satellite systems. This aim is formulated as the maximization of the sum-rate under per beam power constraint and minimum SINR requirement of scheduled users. Further, a framework is proposed to transform the non-smooth SR objective with integer scheduling and nonconvex SINR constraints as a difference-of-convex problem that facilitates the joint update of scheduling and precoding. Therein, an efficient convex-concave procedure based algorithm is proposed. Finally, the gains (up to 50%) obtained by the jointed design over state-of-the-art methods is shown through Monte-Carlo simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal 3D Human Pose Estimation for Action Recognition from Arbitrary Viewpoints
Adel Musallam, Mohamed; Baptista, Renato UL; Al Ismaeil, Kassem UL et al

in 6th Annual Conf. on Computational Science & Computational Intelligence, Las Vegas 5-7 December 2019 (2019, December)

This work presents a new view-invariant action recognition system that is able to classify human actions by using a single RGB camera, including challenging camera viewpoints. Understanding actions from ... [more ▼]

This work presents a new view-invariant action recognition system that is able to classify human actions by using a single RGB camera, including challenging camera viewpoints. Understanding actions from different viewpoints remains an extremely challenging problem, due to depth ambiguities, occlusion, and a large variety of appearances and scenes. Moreover, using only the information from the 2D perspective gives different interpretations for the same action seen from different viewpoints. Our system operates in two subsequent stages. The first stage estimates the 2D human pose using a convolution neural network. In the next stage, the 2D human poses are lifted to 3D human poses, using a temporal convolution neural network that enforces the temporal coherence over the estimated 3D poses. The estimated 3D poses from different viewpoints are then aligned to the same camera reference frame. Finally, we propose to use a temporal convolution network-based classifier for cross-view action recognition. Our results show that we can achieve state of art view-invariant action recognition accuracy even for the challenging viewpoints by only using RGB videos, without pre-training on synthetic or motion capture data. [less ▲]

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See detailUC Priced Oblivious Transfer with Purchase Statistics and Dynamic Pricing
Damodaran, Aditya Shyam Shankar UL; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Rial, Alfredo UL

in Progress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2019 (2019, December)

Priced oblivious transfer (POT) is a cryptographic protocol that can be used to protect customer privacy in e-commerce applications. Namely, it allows a buyer to purchase an item from a seller without ... [more ▼]

Priced oblivious transfer (POT) is a cryptographic protocol that can be used to protect customer privacy in e-commerce applications. Namely, it allows a buyer to purchase an item from a seller without disclosing to the latter which item was purchased and at which price. Unfortunately, existing POT schemes have some drawbacks in terms of design and functionality. First, the design of existing POT schemes is not modular. Typically, a POT scheme extends a k-out-of-N oblivious transfer (OT) scheme by adding prices to the items. However, all POT schemes do not use OT as a black-box building block with certain security guarantees. Consequently, security of the OT scheme needs to be reanalyzed while proving security of the POT scheme, and it is not possible to swap the underlying OT scheme with any other OT scheme. Second, existing POT schemes do not allow the seller to obtain any kind of statistics about the buyer's purchases, which hinders customer and sales management. Moreover, the seller is not able to change the prices of items without restarting the protocol from scratch. We propose a POT scheme that addresses the aforementioned drawbacks. We prove the security of our POT in the UC framework. We modify a standard POT functionality to allow the seller to receive aggregate statistics about the buyer's purchases and to change prices dynamically. We present a modular construction for POT that realizes our functionality in the hybrid model. One of the building blocks is an ideal functionality for OT. Therefore, our protocol separates the tasks carried out by the underlying OT scheme from the additional tasks needed by a POT scheme. Thanks to that, our protocol is a good example of modular design and can be instantiated with any secure OT scheme as well as other building blocks without reanalyzing security from scratch. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Software Tuning of Parallel Programs for Energy-Aware Executions
Varrette, Sébastien UL; Pinel, Frédéric UL; Kieffer, Emmanuel UL et al

in Proc. of 13th Intl. Conf. on Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics (PPAM 2019) (2019, December)

For large scale systems, such as data centers, energy efficiency has proven to be key for reducing capital, operational expenses and environmental impact. Power drainage of a system is closely related to ... [more ▼]

For large scale systems, such as data centers, energy efficiency has proven to be key for reducing capital, operational expenses and environmental impact. Power drainage of a system is closely related to the type and characteristics of workload that the device is running. For this reason, this paper presents an automatic software tuning method for parallel program generation able to adapt and exploit the hardware features available on a target computing system such as an HPC facility or a cloud system in a better way than traditional compiler infrastructures. We propose a search based approach combining both exact methods and approximated heuristics evolving programs in order to find optimized configurations relying on an ever-increasing number of tunable knobs i.e., code transformation and execution options (such as the num- ber of OpenMP threads and/or the CPU frequency settings). The main objective is to outperform the configurations generated by traditional compiling infrastructures for selected KPIs i.e., performance, energy and power usage (for both for the CPU and DRAM), as well as the runtime. First experimental results tied to the local optimization phase of the proposed framework are encouraging, demonstrating between 8% and 41% improvement for all considered metrics on a reference benchmark- ing application (i.e., Linpack). This brings novel perspectives for the global optimization step currently under investigation within the presented framework, with the ambition to pave the way toward automatic tuning of energy-aware applications beyond the performance of the current state-of-the-art compiler infrastructures. [less ▲]

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See detailSafer UAV Piloting: A Robust Sense-and-Avoid Solution for Remotely Piloted Quadrotor UAVs in Complex Environments
Wang, Min UL; Voos, Holger UL

in Safer UAV Piloting: A Robust Sense-and-Avoid Solution for Remotely Piloted Quadrotor UAVs in Complex Environments (2019, December)

Current commercial UAVs are to a large extent remotely piloted by amateur human pilots. Due to lack of teleoperation experience or skills, they often drive the UAVs into collision. Therefore, in order to ... [more ▼]

Current commercial UAVs are to a large extent remotely piloted by amateur human pilots. Due to lack of teleoperation experience or skills, they often drive the UAVs into collision. Therefore, in order to ensure safety of the UAV as well as its surroundings, it is necessary for the UAV to boast the capability of detecting emergency situation and acting on its own when facing imminent threat. However, the majority of UAVs currently available in the market are not equipped with such capability. To fill in the gap, in this paper we present a complete sense-and-avoid solution for assisting unskilled pilots in ensuring a safe flight. Particularly, we propose a novel nonlinear vehicle control system which takes into account of sensor characteristics, an emergency evaluation policy and a novel optimization-based avoidance control strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated and validated in simulation with multiple moving objects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Human Mobility on Edge Data Center Deployment in Urban Environments
Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Capponi, Andrea UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Waikoloa, HI, USA, 2019 (2019, December)

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings storage and computational capabilities at the edge of the network into so-called Edge Data Centers (EDCs) to better low-latency applications. To this end ... [more ▼]

Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings storage and computational capabilities at the edge of the network into so-called Edge Data Centers (EDCs) to better low-latency applications. To this end, effective placement of EDCs in urban environments is key for proper load balance and to minimize outages. In this paper, we specifically tackle this problem. To fully understand how the computational demand of EDCs varies, it is fundamental to analyze the complex dynamics of cities. Our work takes into account the mobility of citizens and their spatial patterns to estimate the optimal placement of MEC EDCs in urban environments in order to minimize outages. To this end, we propose and compare two heuristics. In particular, we present the mobility-aware deployment algorithm (MDA) that outperforms approaches that do not consider citizens mobility. Simulations are conducted in Luxembourg City by extending the CrowdSenSim simulator and show that efficient EDCs placement significantly reduces outages. [less ▲]

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See detailCryptanalysis of CLT13 Multilinear Maps with Independent Slots
Coron, Jean-Sébastien UL; Notarnicola, Luca UL

in Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2019, 25th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Kobe, Japan, December 8–12, 2019, Proceedings, Part II (2019, December)

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See detailOn the Formal Structure of Rules in Conflict of Laws
Markovich, Réka UL

in Legal Knowledge and Information Systems 2019 (proceedings) (2019, December)

Law has different methods and principles to resolve conflicts between norms, most of these come from Roman Law, they are well-known and much discussed. There is a whole branch of law, though, which is ... [more ▼]

Law has different methods and principles to resolve conflicts between norms, most of these come from Roman Law, they are well-known and much discussed. There is a whole branch of law, though, which is much less discussed while having been created exactly in order to resolve special conflicts: conflict of laws. This system within Private International Law is dedicated to providing metarules in legal situations where more than one national legal systems’ rules could be applied: CoL rules indirectly settle the situation by declaring which one’s should. The formal representation of how these rules work contributes not only to the modelling of this branch of law but also provides methodologies for concerns arising from other conflicting normative systems, such as ethically sensitive situations where there are multiple stakeholders with different moral backgrounds. [less ▲]

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See detailA Lightweight Implementation of NTRU Prime for the Post-Quantum Internet of Things
Cheng, Hao UL; Dinu, Dumitru-Daniel; Groszschädl, Johann UL et al

in Laurent, Maryline; Giannetsos, Thanassis (Eds.) Information Security Theory and Practice, 13th IFIP WG 11.2 International Conference, WISTP 2019, Paris, France, December 11–12, 2019, Proceedings (2019, December)

The dawning era of quantum computing has initiated various initiatives for the standardization of post-quantum cryptosystems with the goal of (eventually) replacing RSA and ECC. NTRU Prime is a variant of ... [more ▼]

The dawning era of quantum computing has initiated various initiatives for the standardization of post-quantum cryptosystems with the goal of (eventually) replacing RSA and ECC. NTRU Prime is a variant of the classical NTRU cryptosystem that comes with a couple of tweaks to minimize the attack surface; most notably, it avoids rings with "worrisome" structure. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first assembler-optimized implementation of Streamlined NTRU Prime for an 8-bit AVR microcontroller and shows that high-security lattice-based cryptography is feasible for small IoT devices. An encapsulation operation using parameters for 128-bit post-quantum security requires 8.2 million clock cycles when executed on an 8-bit ATmega1284 microcontroller. The decapsulation is approximately twice as costly and has an execution time of 15.6 million cycles. We achieved this performance through (i) new low-level software optimization techniques to accelerate Karatsuba-based polynomial multiplication on the 8-bit AVR platform and (ii) an efficient implementation of the coefficient modular reduction written in assembly language. The execution time of encapsulation and decapsulation is independent of secret data, which makes our software resistant against timing attacks. Finally, we assess the performance one could theoretically gain by using a so-called product-form polynomial as part of the secret key and discuss potential security implications. [less ▲]

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See detailA case study on the impact of masking moving objects on the camera pose regression with CNNs
Cimarelli, Claudio UL; Cazzato, Dario UL; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in 2019 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) (2019, November 25)

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence ... [more ▼]

Robot self-localization is essential for operating autonomously in open environments. When cameras are the main source of information for retrieving the pose, numerous challenges are posed by the presence of dynamic objects, due to occlusion and continuous changes in the appearance. Recent research on global localization methods focused on using a single (or multiple) Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to estimate the 6 Degrees of Freedom (6-DoF) pose directly from a monocular camera image. In contrast with the classical approaches using engineered feature detector, CNNs are usually more robust to environmental changes in light and to occlusions in outdoor scenarios. This paper contains an attempt to empirically demonstrate the ability of CNNs to ignore dynamic elements, such as pedestrians or cars, through learning. For this purpose, we pre-process a dataset for pose localization with an object segmentation network, masking potentially moving objects. Hence, we compare the pose regression CNN trained and/or tested on the set of masked images and the original one. Experimental results show that the performances of the two training approaches are similar, with a slight reduction of the error when hiding occluding objects from the views. [less ▲]

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See detailAuthenticated Key Distribution: When the Coupon Collector is Your Enemy
Beunardeau, Marc; El Orche, Fatima Ezzahra UL; Maimut, Diana et al

in Innovative Security Solutions for Information Technology and Communications (2019, November 14)

We introduce new authenticated key exchange protocols which on the one hand do not resort to standard public key setups with corresponding assumptions of computationally hard problems, but on the other ... [more ▼]

We introduce new authenticated key exchange protocols which on the one hand do not resort to standard public key setups with corresponding assumptions of computationally hard problems, but on the other hand, are more efficient than distributing symmetric keys among the participants. To this end, we rely on a trusted central authority distributing key material whose size is independent of the total number of users, and which allows the users to obtain shared secret keys. We analyze the security of our construction, taking into account various attack models. Importantly, only symmetric primitives are needed in the protocol making it an alternative to quantum-safe key exchange protocols which rely on hardness assumptions. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-collusion security and distance bounding
Mauw, Sjouke UL; Smith, Zachary Daniel UL; Trujillo Rasua, Rolando UL et al

in Post-collusion security and distance bounding (2019, November 11)

Verification of cryptographic protocols is traditionally built upon the assumption that participants have not revealed their long-term keys. However, in some cases, participants might collude to defeat ... [more ▼]

Verification of cryptographic protocols is traditionally built upon the assumption that participants have not revealed their long-term keys. However, in some cases, participants might collude to defeat some security goals, without revealing their long-term secrets. We develop a model based on multiset rewriting to reason about collusion in security protocols. We introduce the notion of postcollusion security, which verifies security properties claimed in sessions initiated after collusion occurred. We use post-collusion security to analyse terrorist fraud on protocols for securing physical proximity, known as distance-bounding protocols. In a terrorist fraud attack, agents collude to falsely prove proximity, whilst no further false proximity proof can be issued without further collusion. Our definitions and the Tamarin prover are used to develop a modular framework for verification of distance-bounding protocols that accounts for all types of attack from literature. We perform a survey of over 25 protocols, which include industrial protocols such as Mastercard’s contactless payment PayPass and NXP’s MIFARE Plus with proximity check. For the industrial protocols we confirm attacks, propose fixes, and deliver computer-verifiable security proofs of the repaired versions [less ▲]

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See detailOptimum Design for Sparse FDA-MIMO Automotive Radar
Sedighi, Saeid UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Mishra, Kumar Vijay et al

in Sedighi, Saeid; Shankar, Bhavani; Mishra, Kumar Vijay (Eds.) et al Optimum Design for Sparse FDA-MIMO Automotive Radar (2019, November 03)

Automotive radars usually employ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna arrays to achieve high azimuthal resolution with fewer elements than a phased array. Despite this advantage, hardware costs ... [more ▼]

Automotive radars usually employ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna arrays to achieve high azimuthal resolution with fewer elements than a phased array. Despite this advantage, hardware costs and desired radar size limits the usage of more antennas in the array. Similar trade-off is encountered while attempting to achieve high range resolution which is limited by the signal bandwidth. However, nowadays given the demand for spectrum from communications services, wide bandwidth is not readily available. To address these issues, we propose a sparse variant of Frequency Diverse Array MIMO (FDA-MIMO) radar which enjoys the benefits of both FDA and MIMO techniques, including fewer elements, decoupling, and efficient joint estimation of target parameters. We then employ the Cram\'{e}r-Rao bound for angle and range estimation as a performance metric to design the optimal antenna placement and carrier frequency offsets for the transmit waveforms. Numerical experiments suggest that the performance of sparse FDA-MIMO radar is very close to the conventional FDA-MIMO despite 50\% reduction in the bandwidth and antenna elements. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the MSE Region under a Total Power Budget for Asynchronous Two-Way Relay Networks
Rahimi, Razgar; Shahbazpanahi, Shahram UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in The Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Pacific Grove, CA, 3-6 November 2019 (2019, November)

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See detailA New Optimization Tool for Mega-Constellation Design and its Application to Trunking Systems
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Spano, Danilo UL et al

in 37th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC), Japan, October 2019 (2019, November)

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See detailCrafting Conversational Agents' Personality in a User-Centric Context
Mano Ferreira, Cátia; Höhn, Sviatlana UL

in Proceedings of the 31st Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC 2019) and the 28th Belgian Dutch Conference on Machine Learning (Benelearn 2019) (2019, November)

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See detailEnhanced Sketchnoting through Semantic Integration of Learning Material
Atashpendar, Aryobarzan UL; Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Applied Informatics (2019, November)

Within the transition from pen-and-paper to digital solutions, many tablet-based note-taking apps have been developed. In addition, sketchnoting, a highly visual form of note-taking, has gained in ... [more ▼]

Within the transition from pen-and-paper to digital solutions, many tablet-based note-taking apps have been developed. In addition, sketchnoting, a highly visual form of note-taking, has gained in popularity, especially in teaching and learning. While current solutions already reduce the burden of organizing and searching through stacks of paper, they provide little support in finding additional information related to the notes, and search capabilities are mostly limited to textual queries and content. In this paper, we present a novel solution for digital sketchnoting aimed at enhancing the learning experience of students. In addition to common capabilities such as handwriting recognition, our note-taking app integrates semantic annotation and drawing recognition. Handwritten notes are recognized and passed through concept recognition and entity linking tools to enable a knowledge graph-based integration of contextually relevant learning resources. We extend traditional search capabilities by including the semantic metadata from the related material as well as enabling visual queries to find recognized sketches. Finally, resembling the exchange of paper notes among students, our app allows to share the semantically enhanced notes with other devices. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of Stellar as a Blockchain-based Micropayment System
Khan, Nida UL; Ahmad, Tabrez; State, Radu UL

in Springer SmartBlock 2019 - 2nd International Conference on Smart Blockchain (2019, November)

The advent of Bitcoin was heralded as an innovation in the global monetary system, that could bring down transaction fees by circumventing the need for third parties and conduct transactions in real time ... [more ▼]

The advent of Bitcoin was heralded as an innovation in the global monetary system, that could bring down transaction fees by circumventing the need for third parties and conduct transactions in real time. The divisibility of a blockchain cryptocurrency to even fractions of a cent, caused microtransactions to become feasible to formerly non-existent denominations. These microtransactions have spurred the development of novel ways of monetizing online resources and hold the potential to aid in alleviation of poverty. The paper conducts a feasibility study on Stellar as a blockchain-based micropayment system. It highlights the computational and other issues that impedes its progress and utilizes a characterization model for micropayment systems to evaluate the efficacy of the Stellar platform. The paper conducts a comparison with the micropayment solutions from Bitcoin, Ethereum and PayPal. The paper analyzes a subset of transactions from the Stellar blockchain to aid in drawing a conclusion on the undertaken study and elaborates on the mitigation tools to enable fraud prevention in online monetary transactions. [less ▲]

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See detailA Personalized Sentiment Model with Textual and Contextual Information
Guo, Siwen UL; Höhn, Sviatlana UL; Schommer, Christoph UL

in The SIGNLL Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, Hong Kong 3-4 November 2019 (2019, November)

In this paper, we look beyond the traditional population-level sentiment modeling and consider the individuality in a person's expressions by discovering both textual and contextual information. In ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we look beyond the traditional population-level sentiment modeling and consider the individuality in a person's expressions by discovering both textual and contextual information. In particular, we construct a hierarchical neural network that leverages valuable information from a person's past expressions, and offer a better understanding of the sentiment from the expresser's perspective. Additionally, we investigate how a person's sentiment changes over time so that recent incidents or opinions may have more effect on the person's current sentiment than the old ones. Psychological studies have also shown that individual variation exists in how easily people change their sentiments. In order to model such traits, we develop a modified attention mechanism with Hawkes process applied on top of a recurrent network for a user-specific design. Implemented with automatically labeled Twitter data, the proposed model has shown positive results employing different input formulations for representing the concerned information. [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdSenSim 2.0: a Stateful Simulation Platform for Mobile Crowdsensing in Smart Cities
Montori, Federico; Cortesi, Emanuele; Bedogni, Luca et al

in MSWIM '19: Proceedings of the 22nd International ACM Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Miami Beach, FL, USA, 2019. (2019, November)

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices ... [more ▼]

Mobile crowdsensing (MCS) has become a popular paradigm for data collection in urban environments. In MCS systems, a crowd supplies sensing information for monitoring phenomena through mobile devices. Typically, a large number of participants is required to make a sensing campaign successful. For such a reason, it is often not practical for researchers to build and deploy large testbeds to assess the performance of frameworks and algorithms for data collection, user recruitment, and evaluating the quality of information. Simulations offer a valid alternative. In this paper, we present CrowdSenSim 2.0, a significant extension of the popular CrowdSenSim simulation platform. CrowdSenSim 2.0 features a stateful approach to support algorithms where the chronological order of events matters, extensions of the architectural modules, including an additional system to model urban environments, code refactoring, and parallel execution of algorithms. All these improvements boost the performances of the simulator and make the runtime execution and memory utilization significantly lower, also enabling the support for larger simulation scenarios. We demonstrate retro-compatibility with the older platform and evaluate as a case study a stateful data collection algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Generalizability of code2vec Token Embeddings
Kang, Hong Jin; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL; David, Lo

in Proceedings of the 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (2019, November)

Many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, such as sentiment analysis or syntactic parsing, have benefited from the development of word embedding models. In particular, regardless of the training ... [more ▼]

Many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, such as sentiment analysis or syntactic parsing, have benefited from the development of word embedding models. In particular, regardless of the training algorithms, the learned embeddings have often been shown to be generalizable to different NLP tasks. In contrast, despite recent momentum on word embeddings for source code, the literature lacks evidence of their generalizability beyond the example task they have been trained for. In this experience paper, we identify 3 potential downstream tasks, namely code comments generation, code authorship identification, and code clones detection, that source code token embedding models can be applied to. We empirically assess a recently proposed code token embedding model, namely code2vec’s token embeddings. Code2vec was trained on the task of predicting method names, and while there is potential for using the vectors it learns on other tasks, it has not been explored in literature. Therefore, we fill this gap by focusing on its generalizability for the tasks we have identified. Eventually, we show that source code token embeddings cannot be readily leveraged for the downstream tasks. Our experiments even show that our attempts to use them do not result in any improvements over less sophisticated methods. We call for more research into effective and general use of code embeddings. [less ▲]

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See detailPrivacy Aspects and Subliminal Channels in Zcash
Biryukov, Alex UL; Feher, Daniel UL; Vitto, Giuseppe UL

in Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Securit (2019, November)

In this paper we analyze two privacy and security issues for the privacy-oriented cryptocurrency Zcash. First we study shielded transactions and show ways to fingerprint user transactions, including ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyze two privacy and security issues for the privacy-oriented cryptocurrency Zcash. First we study shielded transactions and show ways to fingerprint user transactions, including active attacks.We introduce two new attacks which we call Danaan-gift attack and Dust attack. Following the recent Sapling update of Zcash protocol we study the interaction between the new and the old zk-SNARK protocols and the effects of their interaction on transaction privacy. In the second part of the paper we check for the presence of subliminal channels in the zk-SNARK protocol and in Pedersen Commitments. We show presence of efficient 70-bit channels which could be used for tagging of shielded transactions which would allow the attacker (malicious transaction verifier) to link transactions issued by a maliciously modified zk-SNARK prover, while would be indistinguishable from regular transactions for the honest verifier/user. We discuss countermeasures against both of these privacy issues. [less ▲]

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See detailUser Terminal Wideband Modem for Very High Throughput Satellites
Kisseleff, Steven UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in 37th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference (ICSSC), Japan, October 2019 (2019, November)

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See detailA Multilayer Low-Altitude Airspace Model for UAV Traffic Management
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL; Musial, Jedrzej et al

in Samir Labib, Nader; Danoy, Grégoire; Musial, Jedrzej (Eds.) et al 9th ACM Symposium on Design and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications (DIVANet '19) (2019, November)

Over the recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles' (UAVs) technology developed rapidly. In turn shedding light on a wide range of potential civil and commercial applications ranging from mapping and ... [more ▼]

Over the recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles' (UAVs) technology developed rapidly. In turn shedding light on a wide range of potential civil and commercial applications ranging from mapping and surveillance, parcel delivery to more demanding ones that require UAVs to operate in heterogeneous swarms. However, with the great advantages UAVs bring, they are expected to soon dominate the shared, low-altitude airspace over populated cities, introducing multiple new research challenges in safely managing the unprecedented traffic demands. The main contribution of this work is addressing the complex problem of UAV traffic management at an abstract level by proposing a structure for the uncontrolled low-altitude airspace. The paper proposes a model of the airspace as a weighted multilayer network of nodes and airways and presents a set of experimental simulations of UAV traffic for the verification and validation of the model. Finally, the paper outlines our intended future work. [less ▲]

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See detailVPGA: an SDN-based Location Privacy Zones Placement Scheme for Vehicular Networks
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 38th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC) (2019, October 29)

Making personal data anonymous is crucial to ensure the adoption of connected vehicles. One of the privacy-sensitive information is location, which once revealed can be used by adversaries to track ... [more ▼]

Making personal data anonymous is crucial to ensure the adoption of connected vehicles. One of the privacy-sensitive information is location, which once revealed can be used by adversaries to track drivers during their journey. Vehicular Location Privacy Zones (VLPZs) is a promising approach to ensure unlinkability. These logical zones can be easily deployed over roadside infrastructures (RIs) such as gas station or electric charging stations. However, the placement optimization problem of VLPZs is NP-hard and thus an efficient allocation of VLPZs to these RIs is needed to avoid their overload and the degradation of the QoS provided within theses RIs. This work considers the optimal placement of the VLPZs and proposes a genetic-based algorithm in a software defined vehicular network to ensure minimized trajectory cost of involved vehicles and hence less consumption of their pseudonyms. The analytical evaluation shows that the proposed approach is cost-efficient and ensures a shorter response time. [less ▲]

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See detailOuter and Anti Joins in Temporal-Probabilistic Databases
Papaioannou, Katerina; Theobald, Martin UL; Böhlen, Michael H.

in 35th IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering, ICDE 2019, Macao, China, April 8-11, 2019 (2019, October 16)

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See detailSoftwarization of SCADA: Lightweight Statistical SDN-Agents for Anomaly Detection
Rinaldi, Giulia UL; Adamsky, Florian UL; Soua, Ridha UL et al

in 10th International Conference on Networks of the Future (NoF) (2019, October 04)

The increasing connectivity of restricted areas suchas Critical Infrastructures (CIs) raises major security concernsfor Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems,which are deployed to ... [more ▼]

The increasing connectivity of restricted areas suchas Critical Infrastructures (CIs) raises major security concernsfor Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems,which are deployed to monitor their operation. Given the impor-tance of an early anomaly detection, Intrusion Detection Systems(IDSs) are introduced in SCADA systems to detect malicious ac-tivities as early as possible. Agents or probes form the cornerstoneof any IDS by capturing network packets and extracting relevantinformation. However, IDSs are facing unprecedented challengesdue to the escalation in the number, scale and diversity of attacks.Software-Defined Network (SDN) then comes into play and canprovide the required flexibility and scalability. Building on that,we introduce Traffic Agent Controllers (TACs) that monitor SDN-enabled switches via OpenFlow. By using lightweight statisticalmetrics such as Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD), we are ableto detect the slightest anomalies, such as stealth port scans, evenin the presence of background traffic. The obtained metrics canalso be used to locate the anomalies with precision over 90%inside a hierarchical network topology. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimized and flexible scheduling of AGVs and process machines in Re- manufacturing 4 .0 Systems using multi-agent technology and simultaneous scheduling
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in Ramírez Fernández, Francisco Javier; Honrubia Escribano, Andrés (Eds.) Abstracts III International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing 2019 (2019, October 02)

In remanufacturing processes the condition of the used products is unknown. This leads to many challenges which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not known from manufacturing. One of these ... [more ▼]

In remanufacturing processes the condition of the used products is unknown. This leads to many challenges which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not known from manufacturing. One of these challenges is the stochastic routing of products based on the unknown product conditions. This problem in particular requires a flexible scheduling and control system for the remanufacturing system as well as the intralogistics. The aim of this research is to optimize the scheduling and control of remanufacturing systems considering the flexible material transport by AGVs. Therefore the networking of all resources is organized as an embedded system treating the remanufacturing system as a cyber-physical system in the context of industry 4.0. The scheduling and control of the remanufacturing system will be achieved by a combination of multi-agent technology to deal with unexpected events and the optimization of the schedule by simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs. Machine scheduling and transport scheduling have been vastly studied by many researchers, but most of the works address both problems separately. However, these two problems are closely linked and influence each other. By looking at them together, it is possible to achieve an improvement in the overall schedule. In the first step of the research work, the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs has been compared with the currently used sequential scheduling within a simulation study. For this purpose, benchmark instances known in the literature were used. The simulation results show the superiority of the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous State and False-Data Injection Attacks Reconstruction for NonLinear Systems: an LPV Approach
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Voos, Holger UL

in Bezzaoucha, Souad (Ed.) International Conference on Automation, Control and Robots (2019, October)

The present contribution addresses simultaneous state and actuator/sensor false-data injection attacks reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The considered actuator/sensor attacks are modeled as time ... [more ▼]

The present contribution addresses simultaneous state and actuator/sensor false-data injection attacks reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The considered actuator/sensor attacks are modeled as time-varying parameters with a multiplicative effect on the actuator input signal and the sensor output signal, respectively. Based on the sector non-linearity approach and the convex polytopic transformation, the nonlinear model is written in a Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) form, then an observer allowing both state and attack reconstruction is designed by solving an LMI optimization problem. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling duplicates in Dockerfiles families: Learning from experts
Oumaziz, Mohamed; Falleri, Jean-Rémy; Blanc, Xavier et al

in 35th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME) (2019, October)

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See detailUser Experience Design for E-Voting: How mental models align with security mechanisms
Zollinger, Marie-Laure UL; Distler, Verena UL; Roenne, Peter UL et al

in Electronic Voting (2019, October)

This paper presents a mobile application for vote-casting and vote-verification based on the Selene e-voting protocol and explains how it was developed and implemented using the User Experience Design ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a mobile application for vote-casting and vote-verification based on the Selene e-voting protocol and explains how it was developed and implemented using the User Experience Design process. The resulting interface was tested with 38 participants, and user experience data was collected via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews on user experience and perceived security. Results concerning the impact of displaying security mechanisms on UX were presented in a complementary paper. Here we expand on this analysis by studying the mental models revealed during the interviews and compare them with theoretical security notions. Finally, we propose a list of improvements for designs of future voting protocols. [less ▲]

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See detailHouston We Have a Law. A Model for National Regulation of Space Resources Activities.
Salmeri, Antonino UL

in Proceedings of the 70th International Astronautical Congress 2018 (2019, October)

The field of space resources activities is rapidly maturing, but we still do not have a legal regime able to cope with such development. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space ... [more ▼]

The field of space resources activities is rapidly maturing, but we still do not have a legal regime able to cope with such development. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space finally started to debate whether commercialization of space resources is permitted under current international space law only in 2018, and yet declaring that space resources activities are lawful is barely the start. In fact, the real challenge is how to regulate them in light of the obligations set forth in international space law, without jeopardizing their economic convenience. The present paper addresses precisely this question by presenting a draft law redacted in articles, coupled with a comprehensive explanatory note. Inter alia, the paper introduces a new “space resources activities” license and proposes a detailed authorization regime based on the grant of priority rights limited in size, number and time extension. Based on the above, the paper concludes praising the importance of domestic regulation of space resources activities, when based on the same language and spirit of the OST and coordinated through mutual recognition. [less ▲]

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See detailTrustworthiness in IoT - A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy
Samir Labib, Nader UL; Brust, Matthias R. UL; Danoy, Grégoire UL et al

in Samir Labib, Nader; Brust, Matthias R.; Danoy, Grégoire (Eds.) et al Trustworthiness in IoT - A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy (2019, October)

With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised management, improved energy efficiency and a better quality living through a wide array of value-added services. However, as sensing, actuation, communication and control become increasingly more sophisticated, such promising data-driven systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of security-critical and privacy-sensitive data, which makes them attractive targets of attacks. In turn this affirms the importance of trustworthiness in IoT and emphasises the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation. The goal of this paper is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT, its main pillars namely, security, privacy and data protection, and then analyse the state-of-the-art in research and standardisation for each of these subareas. Throughout the paper, we develop and refer to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The paper then presents a thorough gap analysis and concludes with recommendations for future work. [less ▲]

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See detailSDN-based Pseudonym-Changing Strategy for Privacy Preservation in Vehicular Networks
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Soua, Ridha UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 15th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob'19) (2019, October)

The pseudonym-changing approach is the de-factolocation privacy solution proposed by security standards toensure that drivers are not tracked during their journey. SeveralPseudonym Changing Strategies ... [more ▼]

The pseudonym-changing approach is the de-factolocation privacy solution proposed by security standards toensure that drivers are not tracked during their journey. SeveralPseudonym Changing Strategies (PCSs) have been proposed tosynchronize Pseudonym Changing Processes (PCPs) between con-nected vehicles. However, most of the existing strategies are static,rigid and do not adapt to the vehicles’ context. In this paper, weexploit the Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigm to proposea context-aware pseudonym changing strategy (SDN-PCS) whereSDN controllers orchestrate the dynamic update of the securityparameters of the PCS. Simulation results demonstrate that SDN-PCS strategy outperforms typical static PCSs to perform efficientPCPs and protect the location privacy of vehicular network users [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Event-based Attack-tolerant Control: A Polytopic Representation
Bezzaoucha, Souad UL; Voos, Holger UL

in Bezzaoucha, Souad (Ed.) International Conference on Automation, Control and Robots (2019, October)

In the present contribution, we present a new event-based control representation. Based on the polytopic approach, more specifically the sector nonlinear transformation, an event-based attack-tolerant ... [more ▼]

In the present contribution, we present a new event-based control representation. Based on the polytopic approach, more specifically the sector nonlinear transformation, an event-based attack-tolerant control, and scheduling co-design strategy are proposed. From the event triggering definition (sample-and-hold strategy), polytopic writing of the event-triggered feedback control is first presented and then incorporated into the system dynamics for analysis. Our goal is to present a unique model that is able to deal with the co-design problem simultaneously and that can be handled by classical control synthesis tools. The novel representation, including data deception and attack tolerant control is formulated as a BMI optimization problem ensuring both stability and some level performance requirements (L2 attenuation of the cyber-attack). [less ▲]

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See detailAn industrial study on the differences between pre-release and post-release bugs
Rwemalika, Renaud UL; Kintis, Marinos; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in Proceedings of 35th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (2019, September 30)

Software bugs constitute a frequent and common issue of software development. To deal with this problem, modern software development methodologies introduce dedicated quality assurance procedures. At the ... [more ▼]

Software bugs constitute a frequent and common issue of software development. To deal with this problem, modern software development methodologies introduce dedicated quality assurance procedures. At the same time researchers aim at developing techniques capable of supporting the early discovery and fix of bugs. One important factor that guides such research attempts is the characteristics of software bugs and bug fixes. In this paper, we present an industrial study on the characteristics and differences between pre-release bugs, i.e. bugs detected during software development, and post-release bugs, i.e. bugs that escaped to production. Understanding such differences is of paramount importance as it will improve our understanding on the testing and debugging support that practitioners require from the research community, on the validity of the assumptions of several research techniques, and, most importantly, on the reasons why bugs escape to production. To this end, we analyze 37 industrial projects from our industrial partner and document the differences between pre-release bugs and post-release bugs. Our findings suggest that post-release bugs are more complex to fix, requiring developers to modify several source code files, written in different programming languages, and configuration files, as well. We also find that approximately 82% of the post-release bugs involve code additions and can be characterized as "omission" bugs. Finally, we conclude the paper with a discussion on the implications of our study and provide guidance to future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation von bauphysikalischen Vormessungen im Rahmen von komplexen Innendämmprojekten
Latz, Sebastian Joachim UL; Thewes, Andreas; Scholzen, Frank UL et al

in Vogel, Albert (Ed.) Bauphysiktage 2019 in Weimar - Bauphysik in Forschung und Praxis (2019, September 25)

The installation of internal insulation systems within the scope of refurbishment changes the hygrothermal behaviour of the existing masonry of a building in the long term. The internal insulation layer ... [more ▼]

The installation of internal insulation systems within the scope of refurbishment changes the hygrothermal behaviour of the existing masonry of a building in the long term. The internal insulation layer reduces the temperature of the masonry during the heating period and considerably reduces the drying potential. If the moisture content is too high due to the absorption of driving rain from the outside and moisture from the interior climate, the masonry may be permanently damaged and mould may form. The proof of function can be achieved by hygrothermal simulations. These simulations require the input of sensitive boundary conditions and different material parameters. In order to obtain precise simulation results, these input values should be validated by building physics measurements. In order to be able to better assess the simulation parameters, various physical measurements for the preparation of a field test for interior insulation systems in a conference room were carried out on behalf of the administration of the bâtiments publics at the University of Luxembourg as part of the research project "Possibilities and limitations of interior insulation in the renovation of public buildings in Luxembourg". [less ▲]

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See detailInbetriebnahme und Monitoring einer Feldtestfläche zur außenliegenden Lufttemperierung
Schmidt, Christoph Wilhelm UL; Altgeld, Horst; Groß, Bodo et al

in Völker, Conrad; Kornadt, Oliver; Jentsch, Mark (Eds.) et al Schriftenreihe der Professur Bauphysik, Bauphysiktage 2019 in Weimar - Bauphysik in Forschung und Praxis (2019, September 25)

Der Beitrag ist inhaltlich dem Forschungsprojekt „Low Exergy Utilisation - Einsatz von außen-liegender Wandtemperierung bei der Gebäudesanierung - Feldtest, CO2- Wärmepumpe mit Eisspeicher“ (kurz LEXU II ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag ist inhaltlich dem Forschungsprojekt „Low Exergy Utilisation - Einsatz von außen-liegender Wandtemperierung bei der Gebäudesanierung - Feldtest, CO2- Wärmepumpe mit Eisspeicher“ (kurz LEXU II, Förderkennzeichen 0327370Y) zugeordnet. Im Rahmen des Pro-jektes wurde ein Großdemonstrator mit außenliegender Wand- und Lufttemperierung (kurz aWT & aLT) zusammen mit einem niederexergetischen Versorgungssystem, bestehend aus Eisspeicher, Wärmepumpe und PVT-Hybridkollektoren realisiert. Zur Heizperiode 2018/19 wurde die „Feldtestanlage“ in Betrieb genommen, sodass derzeit Messdaten generiert wer-den. In dem Forschungsprojekt wird der Demonstrator über eine Heizperiode und eine Kühl-periode messtechnisch begleitet und ausgewertet. Dabei wird der Großdemonstrator und alle Komponenten umfassend messtechnisch ausgewertet (~300 Messwerte). Ziel des Beitrags ist eine Darstellung der Grundlagen der außenliegenden Lufttemperierung, als niederexergetische und schnell regelbare Ergänzung zur außenliegenden Wandtemperie-rung. Bei der außenliegenden Lufttemperierung wird zwischen thermisch aktivierter Be-standswand und neuem Wärmedämm-Verbundsystem ein Luftspalt geschaffen, durch den Außenluft geführt und temperiert werden kann. Diese temperierte Außenluft wird dem dahin-terliegenden Raum (im Feldtest ein Büroraum mit rund 20 m² Grundfläche und zwei Arbeits-plätzen) als Frischluft zur Verfügung gestellt. Aufbauend auf den Grundlagen wird die Inbe-triebnahme der bereits umgesetzten Feldtestfläche mit möglichen Regelstrategien geschildert. Abschließend sollen erste Messergebnisse der Feldtestfläche dargestellt und diskutiert wer-den. Interessant sind hier vor allem (im Vergleich zur außenliegenden Wandtemperierung) die möglichen Zeitkonstanten und die erreichbaren Wärmeströme nach Innen (z.B. mögliche Wärmeübertragung als Kombination aus Konvektion im Luftspalt und Wärmeleitung durch die Bestandswand). Themengebiet: Energieeffiziente Gebäude & Bauphysik und Sanierung & Behaglichkeit und Raumklima [less ▲]

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See detailAuswertung eines Großdemonstrators mit außenliegender Wandtemperierung, Wärmepumpe, Eisspeicher und PTV-Hybridkollektoren
Schmidt, Christoph Wilhelm UL; Altgeld, Horst; Groß, Bodo et al

in Völker, Conrad; Kornadt, Oliver; Jentsch, Mark (Eds.) et al Schriftenreihe der Professur Bauphysik, Bauphysiktage 2019 in Weimar - Bauphysik in Forschung und Praxis (2019, September 25)

Der Beitrag ist inhaltlich dem Forschungsprojekt „Low Exergy Utilisation - Einsatz von außen-liegender Wandtemperierung bei der Gebäudesanierung - Feldtest, CO2- Wärmepumpe mit Eisspeicher“ (kurz LEXU II ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag ist inhaltlich dem Forschungsprojekt „Low Exergy Utilisation - Einsatz von außen-liegender Wandtemperierung bei der Gebäudesanierung - Feldtest, CO2- Wärmepumpe mit Eisspeicher“ (kurz LEXU II, Förderkennzeichen 0327370Y) zugeordnet. Im Rahmen des Pro-jektes wurde ein Großdemonstrator mit außenliegender Wand- und Lufttemperierung (kurz aWT & aLT) zusammen mit einem niederexergetischen Versorgungssystem, bestehend aus Eisspeicher, Wärmepumpe und PVT-Hybridkollektoren realisiert. Zur Heizperiode 2018/19 wurde die „Feldtestanlage“ in Betrieb genommen, sodass derzeit Messdaten generiert wer-den. In dem Forschungsprojekt wird der Demonstrator über eine Heizperiode und eine Kühl-periode messtechnisch begleitet und ausgewertet. Dabei wird der Großdemonstrator und alle Komponenten umfassend messtechnisch ausgewertet (~300 Messwerte). Ziel des Beitrags ist eine Darstellung der messtechnischen Auswertung des Großdemonstra-tors über die aktuelle Heizperiode (2018/19) und die anstehende Kühlperiode (2019). Der Fo-kus der Auswertung liegt auf der Feldtestfassade der außenliegenden Wandtemperierung und adressiert die folgenden Fragestellungen: - Konnten die theoretischen Ergebnisse aus Berechnung und Simulation reproduziert werden? - Welche Heizleistungen sind über die außenliegende Wandtemperierung übertragbar? - Welches Fazit kann nach dem Betrieb der Anlage/Feldtestfläche über ca. ein Jahr ge-zogen werden? Je nach aktuellem Stand der begleitenden Simulations- und Potentialstudien können auch hier erste Ergebnisse präsentiert werden. Inhaltlich baut der Beitrag auf dem Beitrag „Außen-liegende Wand- und Lufttemperierung: Umsetzung eines Großdemonstrators“ von den Bau-physiktagen 2017 in Kaiserslautern auf. Im Anschluss an die dort beschriebene Umsetzung soll nun ein Fazit bzgl. Umsetzung, Monitoring und Simulation gezogen werden. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in Urban VANETs
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volume 11803) (2019, September 25)

Infrastructure-less communications between moving vehicles present emblematic challenges because of high node mobility and link volatility, which may harm the performances of different categories of ... [more ▼]

Infrastructure-less communications between moving vehicles present emblematic challenges because of high node mobility and link volatility, which may harm the performances of different categories of emerging vehicular applications. In order to move data between vehicles that are not in direct communication range, several distributed routing protocols have been proposed and tested in vehicular networks, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Some previous works report disagreeing claims about routing protocol performances in similar vehicular scenarios. Therefore, in this work, we evaluate the performances in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), packet delay, frame collision rate, and signaling rate of three well-known routing protocols (AODV, DSDV, and GPSR), simulating them in a realistic Manhattan scenario. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of typical urban obstacles (e.g. buildings) on the considered performance metrics. We observed that, in the proposed urban scenario, AODV provided the best PDR, GPSR the best packet delay, and DSDV failed to provide satisfactory performances due to signaling-induced congestion. Simulations showed that considering the shadowing effects induced by the buildings in an urban scenario drastically changes the observed performances, i.e. reduces the frame collisions, decreases the PDR, and increases the packet delay. [less ▲]

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See detailBreaking Unlinkability of the ICAO 9303 Standard for e-Passports using Bisimilarity
Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL; Smith, Zachary Daniel UL et al

in Breaking Unlinkability of the ICAO 9303 Standard for e-Passports using Bisimilarity (2019, September 23)

We clear up confusion surrounding privacy claims about the ICAO 9303 standard for e-passports. The ICAO 9303 standard includes a Basic Access Control (BAC) protocol that should protect the user from being ... [more ▼]

We clear up confusion surrounding privacy claims about the ICAO 9303 standard for e-passports. The ICAO 9303 standard includes a Basic Access Control (BAC) protocol that should protect the user from being traced from one session to another. While it is well known that there are attacks on BAC, allowing an attacker to link multiple uses of the same passport, due to differences in implementation; there still remains confusion about whether there is an attack on unlinkability directly on the BAC protocol as specified in the ICAO 9303 standard. This paper clarifies the nature of the debate, and sources of potential confusion. We demonstrate that the original privacy claims made are flawed, by uncovering attacks on a strong formulation of unlinkability. We explain why the use of the bisimilarity equivalence technique is essential for uncovering our attacks. We also clarify what assumptions lead to proofs of formulations of unlinkability using weaker notions of equivalence. Furthermore, we propose a fix for BAC within the scope of the standard, and prove that it is correct, again using a state-of-the-art approach to bisimilarity. [less ▲]

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See detailBODYFITR: Robust Automatic 3D Human Body Fitting
Saint, Alexandre Fabian A UL; Shabayek, Abd El Rahman UL; Cherenkova, Kseniya UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) (2019, September 22)

This paper proposes BODYFITR, a fully automatic method to fit a human body model to static 3D scans with complex poses. Automatic and reliable 3D human body fitting is necessary for many applications ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes BODYFITR, a fully automatic method to fit a human body model to static 3D scans with complex poses. Automatic and reliable 3D human body fitting is necessary for many applications related to healthcare, digital ergonomics, avatar creation and security, especially in industrial contexts for large-scale product design. Existing works either make prior assumptions on the pose, require manual annotation of the data or have difficulty handling complex poses. This work addresses these limitations by providing a novel automatic fitting pipeline with carefully integrated building blocks designed for a systematic and robust approach. It is validated on the 3DBodyTex dataset, with hundreds of high-quality 3D body scans, and shown to outperform prior works in static body pose and shape estimation, qualitatively and quantitatively. The method is also applied to the creation of realistic 3D avatars from the high-quality texture scans of 3DBodyTex, further demonstrating its capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-flow congestion-aware routing in software-defined vehicular networks
Di Maio, Antonio UL; Palattella, Maria Rita UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in 2019 IEEE 90th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Fall) Proceedings (2019, September 22)

5G-enabled vehicular networks will soon allow their users to exchange safety and non-safety related information over heterogeneous communication interfaces. Routing vehicular data flows over multi-hop ... [more ▼]

5G-enabled vehicular networks will soon allow their users to exchange safety and non-safety related information over heterogeneous communication interfaces. Routing vehicular data flows over multi-hop Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications is one of the hardest challenges in vehicular networking, and it has been tackled in literature by using distributed algorithms. The distributed approach has shown significant inefficiencies in such dynamic vehicular scenarios, mainly due to poor network congestion control. To overcome the complexity of the envisioned architecture, and the inefficiency of distributed routing algorithms, we hereby propose to leverage the coordination capabilities of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to determine optimal V2V multi-hop paths and to offload traffic from the Vehicle-to-Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (V2I2V) to the V2V communications, using both cellular and Wi-Fi technologies. In order to achieve this goal, we propose Multi-Flow Congestion-Aware Routing (MFCAR), a centralized routing algorithm that relies on graph theory to choose short and uncongested V2V paths. Realistic simulations prove that MFCAR outperforms well- established centralized routing algorithms (e.g. Dijkstra's) in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), goodput and average packet delay, up to a five-fold performance gain. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the moment redistribution for steel concrete continuous beams
Yolacan, Taygun Firat UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in The 14th Nordic Steel Construction Conference (2019, September 18)

This study investigates moment redistribution phenomenon for pin ended double-span steel-concrete continuous composite beams and arise a question about moment redistribution for the continuous beams ... [more ▼]

This study investigates moment redistribution phenomenon for pin ended double-span steel-concrete continuous composite beams and arise a question about moment redistribution for the continuous beams subjected to partially distributed or concentrated loading conditions. The overall objective of the study is to propose a methodology to fulfil the technical gaps adopted by Eurocode-4, which considers the redistribution for only uniformly load condition. A robust iterative algorithm is developed to obtain moment-curvature relations of the standard composite cross-sections. Flexural stiffness-curvature relations of the cross-sections are predicted through the moment-curvature relations. Flexural stiffness distribution along the composite beams is determined with curvature compatibility. Fourth order differential load-deflection equation is evaluated with finite difference solution scheme for continuous beam conditions and variable flexural stiffness along the beam length. A non-iterative incremental load-deflection algorithm is developed to calculate moment distribution in continuous beams with variable flexural stiffness. A benchmark example is solved with Eurocode- 4 provisions to validate the developed algorithms. Moment redistribution from hogging (negative) zone to sagging (positive) zone of uniformly loaded double-span continuous composite beam is illustrated considering the degree of flexural stiffness degradation in the composite medium. A question is arisen for moment redistribution in the continuous beams subjected to partially distributed or concentrated loading conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of reinforcement to moment resistance of composite slabs
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Kurz, Wolfgang

in The 2019 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM19) (2019, September 17)

Composite slabs lead to slim and economic structural solutions with a low selfweight. The determination of their moment resistance follows the regulations presented in EN 1994-1-1 (2004) which are based ... [more ▼]

Composite slabs lead to slim and economic structural solutions with a low selfweight. The determination of their moment resistance follows the regulations presented in EN 1994-1-1 (2004) which are based on plastic design methods. The current version of Eurocode 4 does not consider explicitly additional reinforcement in the ribs for sagging moment resistance. However, the construction industry requires this possibility in order to provide economical and flexible design. Regarding this situation, further investigations are necessary to prove the applicability of plastic design methods. In the case of high bottom reinforcement ratio, a deep position of the plastic neutral axis occurs, and concrete compression failure may happen before most parts of the profiled steel sheeting and reinforcement yield. This leads to an overestimation of the bending resistance according to the plastic design method. A parametric study, based on approximately 290.000 different combinations of various cross-section geometries and materials, is provided to compare the plastic moment resistance with the resistance determined by strain-limited design. The results show that limitations are necessary to be enabled for the general application of plastic design methods. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-based Physical Layer Communications for Multiagent Collaboration
Mostaani, Arsham UL; Simeone, Osvaldo; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Mostaani, Arsham; Simeone, Osvaldo; Chatzinotas, Symeon (Eds.) et al PIMRC 2019 Proceedings (2019, September 11)

Consider a collaborative task carried out by two autonomous agents that can communicate over a noisy channel. Each agent is only aware of its own state, while the accomplishment of the task depends on the ... [more ▼]

Consider a collaborative task carried out by two autonomous agents that can communicate over a noisy channel. Each agent is only aware of its own state, while the accomplishment of the task depends on the value of the joint state of both agents. As an example, both agents must simultaneously reach a certain location of the environment, while only being aware of their own positions. Assuming the presence of feedback in the form of a common reward to the agents, a conventional approach would apply separately: (\emph{i}) an off-the-shelf coding and decoding scheme in order to enhance the reliability of the communication of the state of one agent to the other; and (\emph{ii}) a standard multiagent reinforcement learning strategy to learn how to act in the resulting environment. In this work, it is argued that the performance of the collaborative task can be improved if the agents learn how to jointly communicate and act. In particular, numerical results for a baseline grid world example demonstrate that the jointly learned policy carries out compression and unequal error protection by leveraging information about the action policy. [less ▲]

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See detailUnravelling the border-facade of France : a multi-level modelling of cross-border commuting
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Le Texier, Marion

in Caruso, Geoffrey; Gerber, Philippe; Jones, Catherine (Eds.) et al 21st European Colloquium on Theoretical and Quantitative Geography (ECTQG), Book of Abstracts, Mondorf-las-Bains, 5-9 septembre 2019 (2019, September 09)

Given its central position in Western Europe, France is the European country where cross-border commuting is most intense. Over 350000 residents cross the national border everyday to go to work. Cross ... [more ▼]

Given its central position in Western Europe, France is the European country where cross-border commuting is most intense. Over 350000 residents cross the national border everyday to go to work. Cross-border commuting raises a lot of concerns for planners on both side of each border, especially for provisioning transport infrastructure and local public services but also because it impacts land and housing markets, especially when salary differentials are high. While there is a lot of research about the daily functioning of specific borders (e.g. France-Switzerland or France-Luxembourg), generalization is lacking and spatial heterogeneities impede our understanding of the very determinants of cross-border commuting, such as the role of benefits differentials, transport costs and distance, or the relative availability of jobs at residential places and across the border. Further, these effects are most likely mediated differently by the socio-demographic characteristics of workers, their employment sector, and the quality of their residential environment at large. This suggests that an individual approach and a spatially detailed approach is needed, which contrasts sharply with the fact that most European-wide studies of cross-border commuting are conducted at very aggregated spatial scales (NUTS 2 or 3). [less ▲]

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See detail“It felt wrong to me to play that way” Understanding moral decision-making in video games through focus group discussions
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Bernard, Steve; Melzer, André UL

in Nebel, Steve; Pietschmann, Daniel; Schneider, Sascha (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the Media Psychology Division (2019, September 05)

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See detailOn the Use of Vertex-Frequency Analysis for Anomaly Detection in Graph Signals
Lewenfus, Gabriela; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in Anais do XXXVII Simpósio Brasileiro de Telecomunicações e Processamento de Sinais (SBrT 2019) (2019, September)

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See detailIntersymbol and Intercarrier Interference in OFDM Transmissions Through Highly Dispersive Channels
Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Moonen, Marc et al

in Proc. of the 27th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO-2019) (2019, September)

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See detailJoint User Grouping and Power Allocation for MISO Systems: Learning to Schedule
Yuan, Yaxiong; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Lei, Lei UL et al

in IEEE European Signal Processing Conference 2019 (2019, September)

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See detailAutomated evaluation of embedded-system design alternatives
Cordy, Maxime UL; Lazreg, Sami

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Systems and Software Product Line Conference, SPLC 2019, Volume A, Paris, France, September 9-13, 2019 (2019, September)

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See detailOptimal Resource Allocation for NOMA-Enabled Cache Replacement and Content Delivery
Lei, Lei UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Xiang, Lin UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (IEEE PIMRC 2019) (2019, September)

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See detailUsing Models to Enable Compliance Checking against the GDPR: An Experience Report
Torre, Damiano UL; Soltana, Ghanem UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE / ACM 22nd International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS 19) (2019, September)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) harmonizes data privacy laws and regulations across Europe. Through the GDPR, individuals are able to better control their personal data in the face of new ... [more ▼]

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) harmonizes data privacy laws and regulations across Europe. Through the GDPR, individuals are able to better control their personal data in the face of new technological developments. While the GDPR is highly advantageous to citizens, complying with it poses major challenges for organizations that control or process personal data. Since no automated solution with broad industrial applicability currently exists for GDPR compliance checking, organizations have no choice but to perform costly manual audits to ensure compliance. In this paper, we share our experience building a UML representation of the GDPR as a first step towards the development of future automated methods for assessing compliance with the GDPR. Given that a concrete implementation of the GDPR is affected by the national laws of the EU member states, GDPR’s expanding body of case laws and other contextual information, we propose a two-tiered representation of the GDPR: a generic tier and a specialized tier. The generic tier captures the concepts and principles of the GDPR that apply to all contexts, whereas the specialized tier describes a specific tailoring of the generic tier to a given context, including the contextual variations that may impact the interpretation and application of the GDPR. We further present the challenges we faced in our modeling endeavor, the lessons we learned from it, and future directions for research. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Fairness Optimization for NOMA-Enabled Multi-Beam Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications 2019 (2019, September)

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See detailContingent Payments on a Public Ledger: Models and Reductions for Automated Verification.
Bursuc, Sergiu UL; Kremer, Steve

in Bursuc, Sergiu; Kremer, Steve (Eds.) Contingent Payments on a Public Ledger: Models and Reductions for Automated Verification. (2019, September)

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See detailTime-Deconvolutive CNMF for Multichannel Blind Source Separation
Dias, Thadeu; Biscainho, Luiz Wagner; Alves Martins, Wallace UL

in Anais do XXXVII Simpósio Brasileiro de Telecomunicações e Processamento de Sinais (SBrT 2019) (2019, September)

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See detailBridging the Gap between Requirements Modeling and Behavior-driven Development
Alferez, Mauricio UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad UL et al

in Proceedings of 22nd IEEE / ACM International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS) (2019, September)

Acceptance criteria (AC) are implementation agnostic conditions that a system must meet to be consistent with its requirements and be accepted by its stakeholders. Each acceptance criterion is typically ... [more ▼]

Acceptance criteria (AC) are implementation agnostic conditions that a system must meet to be consistent with its requirements and be accepted by its stakeholders. Each acceptance criterion is typically expressed as a natural-language statement with a clear pass or fail outcome. Writing AC is a tedious and error-prone activity, especially when the requirements specifications evolve and there are different analysts and testing teams involved. Analysts and testers must iterate multiple times to ensure that AC are understandable and feasible, and accurately address the most important requirements and workflows of the system being developed. In many cases, analysts express requirements through models, along with natural language, typically in some variant of the UML. AC must then be derived by developers and testers from such models. In this paper, we bridge the gap between requirements models and AC by providing a UML-based modeling methodology and an automated solution to generate AC. We target AC in the form of Behavioral Specifications in the context of Behavioral-Driven Development (BDD), a widely used agile practice in many application domains. More specially we target the well-known Gherkin language to express AC, which then can be used to generate executable test cases. We evaluate our modeling methodology and AC generation solution through an industrial case study in the financial domain. Our results suggest that (1) our methodology is feasible to apply in practice, and (2) the additional modeling effort required by our methodology is outweighed by the benefits the methodology brings in terms of automated and systematic AC generation and improved model precision. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate Internationales und Europäisches Steuerrecht
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Taeger, Jürgen (Ed.) Tagungsband Herbstakademie 2019: Die Macht der Daten und der Algorithmen - Regulierung von IT, IoT und KI (2019, September)

Im Juni 2019 stellte die Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) das Arbeitsprogramm zur weiteren Ausarbeitung einer Anpassung des internationalen Ertragsteuerrechts an die ... [more ▼]

Im Juni 2019 stellte die Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) das Arbeitsprogramm zur weiteren Ausarbeitung einer Anpassung des internationalen Ertragsteuerrechts an die neue wirtschaftliche Realität der digitalisierten Welt vor. Auf Ebene der Europäischen Union (EU) gilt die Verabschiedung der im März 2018 von der Europäischen Kommission vorgestellten Richtlinien-Vorschläge (RL-Vorschläge) zu einer Digitalsteuer und einer sog. signifikanten digitalen Präsenz, nach intensiver Diskussion im Rat, als unwahrscheinlich. Der Gerichtshof der Europäischen Union beschäftigt sich derzeit mit der unionsrechtlichen Vereinbarkeit nationaler Sonderabgaben, die umsatzbasiert erhoben werden. Dieser Beitrag bietet einen Überblick über wesentliche Entwicklungen im internationalen und europäischen Steuerrecht bzgl. der Besteuerung digitalisierter Unternehmen. Der Beitrag knüpft an den Vortrag von Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann und der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2018 in Bochum, sowie dem Vortrag der Verfasserin anlässlich der Herbstakademie 2017 in Heidelberg an. [less ▲]

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See detailA Way Forward. Regulating New Space Activities Through Multi-Stakeholder Adaptive Governance
Salmeri, Antonino UL

in Proceedings of the XXV International Congress of the Italian Association of Aeronautics and Astronautics (2019, September)

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See detailCryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology
Biryukov, Alex UL; García-Alfaro

in Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology - ESORICS 2019 International Workshops (2019, September)

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See detailAn Approximate Solution for Symbol-Level Multiuser Precoding Using Support Recovery
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Kayhan, Farbod UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), Cannes 2-5 July 2019 (2019, August 29)

In this paper, we propose a low-complexity method to approximately solve the SINR-constrained optimization problem of symbol-level precoding (SLP). First, assuming a generic modulation scheme, the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a low-complexity method to approximately solve the SINR-constrained optimization problem of symbol-level precoding (SLP). First, assuming a generic modulation scheme, the precoding optimization problem is recast as a standard non-negative least squares (NNLS). Then, we improve an existing closed-form SLP (CF-SLP) scheme using the conditions for nearly perfect recovery of the optimal solution support, followed by solving a reduced system of linear equations. We show through simulation results that in comparison with the CF-SLP method, the improved approximate solution of this paper, referred to as ICF-SLP, significantly enhances the performance with a negligible increase in complexity. We also provide comparisons with a fast-converging iterative NNLS algorithm, where it is shown that the ICF-SLP method is comparable in performance to the iterative algorithm with a limited maximum number of iterations. Analytic discussions on the complexities of different methods are provided, verifying the computational efficiency of the proposed method. Our results further indicate that the ICF-SLP scheme performs quite close to the optimal SLP, particularly in the large system regime. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of interfacial crack propagation in strongly heterogeneous materials by using phase field method
Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Yvonnet, Julien; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Proceedings of the 8th GACM Colloquium on Computational Mechanics for Young Scientists from Academia and Industry (2019, August 28)

Phase field model has been proved to be a useful tool to study the fracture behaviors in heterogeneous materials. This method is able to model complex, multiple crack fronts, and branching in both 2D/3D ... [more ▼]

Phase field model has been proved to be a useful tool to study the fracture behaviors in heterogeneous materials. This method is able to model complex, multiple crack fronts, and branching in both 2D/3D without ad-hoc numerical treatments. In this study, a new interfacial cracking model in the phase field framework is proposed. The effects of both stiff and soft interphases on the fracture response of composite materials are considered. A dimensional-reduced model based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis is adapted to derive the null thickness imperfect interface models from an original configuration containing thin interphase. The idea of mixing the bulk and interfacial energy within the phase field framework is then used to describe the material degradation both on the interface and in bulk. Moreover, in order to ensure the physical crack propagation patterns, a unilateral contact condition is also proposed for the case of spring imperfect interface. The complex cracking phenomena on interfaces such as initiation, delamination, coalescence, deflection, as well as the competition between the interface and bulk cracking are successfully predicted by the present method. Concerning the numerical aspect, the one-pass staggered algorithm is adapted, providing an extremely robust approach to study interfacial cracking phenomena in a broad class of heterogeneous materials. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards context-aware automated writing evaluation systems
Patout, Pierre-André; Cordy, Maxime UL

in Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGSOFT International Workshop on Education through Advanced Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence, EASEAI@ESEC/SIGSOFT FSE 2019, Tallinn, Estonia, August 26, 2019 (2019, August 26)

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See detailHarnessing Higher-Order (Meta-)Logic to Represent and Reason with Complex Ethical Theories
Fuenmayor, David; Benzmüller, Christoph UL

in Nayak, A.; Sharma, A. (Eds.) PRICAI 2019: Trends in Artificial Intelligence (2019, August 23)

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See detailFaster Visual-Based Localization with Mobile-PoseNet
Cimarelli, Claudio UL; Cazzato, Dario UL; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel UL et al

in International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (2019, August 22)

Precise and robust localization is of fundamental importance for robots required to carry out autonomous tasks. Above all, in the case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), efficiency and reliability are ... [more ▼]

Precise and robust localization is of fundamental importance for robots required to carry out autonomous tasks. Above all, in the case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), efficiency and reliability are critical aspects in developing solutions for localization due to the limited computational capabilities, payload and power constraints. In this work, we leverage novel research in efficient deep neural architectures for the problem of 6 Degrees of Freedom (6-DoF) pose estimation from single RGB camera images. In particular, we introduce an efficient neural network to jointly regress the position and orientation of the camera with respect to the navigation environment. Experimental results show that the proposed network is capable of retaining similar results with respect to the most popular state of the art methods while being smaller and with lower latency, which are fundamental aspects for real-time robotics applications. [less ▲]

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See detailA new model selection criterion for finite mixture models
Schiltz, Jang UL

in Proceedings of the 62nd ISI World Statistics Congress (2019, August 20)

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See detailDatabase Processing-in-Memory: A Vision
Kepe, Tiago rodrigo; Almeida, Eduardo Cunha; Alves, Marcos A.Z. et al

in Database Processing-in-Memory: A Vision (2019, August 03)

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See detailChapter 18: Luxembourg
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Maisto, Guglielmo (Ed.) New Trends in the Definition of Permanent Establishment (2019, August)

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See detailKeynote lecture: Potential of the Deformation Area Difference (DAD)-Method for Condition Assessment of Bridge Structures
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Erdenebat, Dolgion

in Proceedings of SMAR 2019 - Fifth Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures (2019, August)

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See detailiFixR: bug report driven program repair
Koyuncu, Anil UL; Liu, Kui UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in ESEC/FSE 2019 Proceedings of the 2019 27th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (2019, August)

Issue tracking systems are commonly used in modern software development for collecting feedback from users and developers. An ultimate automation target of software maintenance is then the systematization ... [more ▼]

Issue tracking systems are commonly used in modern software development for collecting feedback from users and developers. An ultimate automation target of software maintenance is then the systematization of patch generation for user-reported bugs. Although this ambition is aligned with the momentum of automated program repair, the literature has, so far, mostly focused on generate-and- validate setups where fault localization and patch generation are driven by a well-defined test suite. On the one hand, however, the common (yet strong) assumption on the existence of relevant test cases does not hold in practice for most development settings: many bugs are reported without the available test suite being able to reveal them. On the other hand, for many projects, the number of bug reports generally outstrips the resources available to triage them. Towards increasing the adoption of patch generation tools by practitioners, we investigate a new repair pipeline, iFixR, driven by bug reports: (1) bug reports are fed to an IR-based fault localizer; (2) patches are generated from fix patterns and validated via regression testing; (3) a prioritized list of generated patches is proposed to developers. We evaluate iFixR on the Defects4J dataset, which we enriched (i.e., faults are linked to bug reports) and carefully-reorganized (i.e., the timeline of test-cases is naturally split). iFixR generates genuine/plausible patches for 21/44 Defects4J faults with its IR-based fault localizer. iFixR accurately places a genuine/plausible patch among its top-5 recommendation for 8/13 of these faults (without using future test cases in generation-and-validation). [less ▲]

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See detailGenerating Automated and Online Test Oracles for Simulink Models with Continuous and Uncertain Behaviors
Menghi, Claudio UL; Nejati, Shiva UL; Gaaloul, Khouloud UL et al

in Proceedings of the 27th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE ’19), (2019, August)

Test automation requires automated oracles to assess test outputs. For cyber physical systems (CPS), oracles, in addition to be automated, should ensure some key objectives: (i) they should check test ... [more ▼]

Test automation requires automated oracles to assess test outputs. For cyber physical systems (CPS), oracles, in addition to be automated, should ensure some key objectives: (i) they should check test outputs in an online manner to stop expensive test executions as soon as a failure is detected; (ii) they should handle time- and magnitude-continuous CPS behaviors; (iii) they should provide a quantitative degree of satisfaction or failure measure instead of binary pass/fail outputs; and (iv) they should be able to handle uncertainties due to CPS interactions with the environment. We propose an automated approach to translate CPS requirements specified in a logic-based language into test oracles specified in Simulink - a widely-used development and simulation language for CPS. Our approach achieves the objectives noted above through the identification of a fragment of Signal First Order logic (SFOL) to specify requirements, the definition of a quantitative semantics for this fragment and a sound translation of the fragment into Simulink. The results from applying our approach on 11 industrial case studies show that: (i) our requirements language can express all the 98 requirements of our case studies; (ii) the time and effort required by our approach are acceptable, showing potentials for the adoption of our work in practice, and (iii) for large models, our approach can dramatically reduce the test execution time compared to when test outputs are checked in an offline manner. [less ▲]

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See detailOn idempotent n-ary uninorms
Devillet, Jimmy UL; Kiss, Gergely; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Torra, Vicenç; Narukawa, Yasuo; Pasi, Gabriella (Eds.) et al Modeling Decisions for Artifical Intelligence (2019, July 24)

In this paper we describe the class of idempotent n-ary uninorms on a given chain.When the chain is finite, we axiomatize the latter class by means of the following conditions: associativity ... [more ▼]

In this paper we describe the class of idempotent n-ary uninorms on a given chain.When the chain is finite, we axiomatize the latter class by means of the following conditions: associativity, quasitriviality, symmetry, and nondecreasing monotonicity. Also, we show that associativity can be replaced with bisymmetry in this new axiomatization. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Multi-path Onion Routing-based Anonymization Networks
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL; Kaiser, Daniel UL; Mitseva, Asya UL et al

in Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXXIII, 2019 (2019, July 15)

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See detailTBar: Revisiting Template-based Automated Program Repair
Liu, Kui UL; Koyuncu, Anil UL; Kim, Dongsun et al

in 28th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA) (2019, July)

We revisit the performance of template-based APR to build com-prehensive knowledge about the effectiveness of fix patterns, andto highlight the importance of complementary steps such as faultlocalization ... [more ▼]

We revisit the performance of template-based APR to build com-prehensive knowledge about the effectiveness of fix patterns, andto highlight the importance of complementary steps such as faultlocalization or donor code retrieval. To that end, we first investi-gate the literature to collect, summarize and label recurrently-usedfix patterns. Based on the investigation, we buildTBar, a straight-forward APR tool that systematically attempts to apply these fixpatterns to program bugs. We thoroughly evaluateTBaron the De-fects4J benchmark. In particular, we assess the actual qualitative andquantitative diversity of fix patterns, as well as their effectivenessin yielding plausible or correct patches. Eventually, we find that,assuming a perfect fault localization,TBarcorrectly/plausibly fixes74/101 bugs. Replicating a standard and practical pipeline of APRassessment, we demonstrate thatTBarcorrectly fixes 43 bugs fromDefects4J, an unprecedented performance in the literature (includ-ing all approaches, i.e., template-based, stochastic mutation-basedor synthesis-based APR). [less ▲]

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See detailA Critical Security Analysis of the Password-Based Authentication Honeywords System Under Code-Corruption Attack
Genç, Ziya Alper UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Ryan, Peter UL et al

in Information Systems Security and Privacy (2019, July)

Password-based authentication is a widespread method to access into systems, thus password files are a valuable resource often target of attacks. To detect when a password file has been stolen, Juels and ... [more ▼]

Password-based authentication is a widespread method to access into systems, thus password files are a valuable resource often target of attacks. To detect when a password file has been stolen, Juels and Rivest introduced the Honeywords System in 2013. The core idea is to store the password with a list of decoy words that are ``indistinguishable'' from the password, called honeywords. An adversary that obtains the password file and, by dictionary attack, retrieves the honeywords can only guess the password when attempting to log in: but any incorrect guess will set off an alarm, warning that file has been compromised. In a recent conference paper, we studied the security of the Honeywords System in a scenario where the intruder also manages to corrupt the server's code (with certain limiting assumptions); we proposed an authentication protocol and proved it secure despite the corruption. In this extended journal version, we detail the analysis and we extend it, under the same attacker model, to the other two protocols of the original Honeywords System, the setup and change of password. We formally verify the security of both of them; further, we discuss that our design suggests a completely new approach that diverges from the original idea of the Honeywords System but indicates an alternative way to authenticate users which is robust to server's code-corruption. [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdsensed Data Learning-Driven Prediction of Local Businesses Attractiveness in Smart Cities
Capponi, Andrea UL; Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Fiandrino, Claudio UL et al

in IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), Barcelona, Spain, 2019 (2019, July)

Urban planning typically relies on experience-based solutions and traditional methodologies to face urbanization issues and investigate the complex dynamics of cities. Recently, novel data-driven ... [more ▼]

Urban planning typically relies on experience-based solutions and traditional methodologies to face urbanization issues and investigate the complex dynamics of cities. Recently, novel data-driven approaches in urban computing have emerged for researchers and companies. They aim to address historical urbanization issues by exploiting sensing data gathered by mobile devices under the so-called mobile crowdsensing (MCS) paradigm. This work shows how to exploit sensing data to improve traditionally experience-based approaches for urban decisions. In particular, we apply widely known Machine Learning (ML) techniques to achieve highly accurate results in predicting categories of local businesses (LBs) (e.g., bars, restaurants), and their attractiveness in terms of classes of temporal demands (e.g., nightlife, business hours). The performance evaluation is conducted in Luxembourg city and the city of Munich with publicly available crowdsensed datasets. The results highlight that our approach does not only achieve high accuracy, but it also unveils important hidden features of the interaction of citizens and LBs. [less ▲]

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See detailPLASTIC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS - ARE THERE ANY LIMITS?
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures ICSAS19 (2019, July)

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 differentiate four ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 differentiate four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic design of the moment resistance it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limitation of the strains. For standard composite beams in case of sagging moments and a high-lying plastic neutral axis, plastic design and strain-limited design give similar results. In the case of sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, a concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes decisive. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering high compression zone height of next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Based Resource Allocation: Efficient Content Delivery Enabled by Convolutional Neural Network
Lei, Lei UL; Yaxiong, Yuan UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL et al

in IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC) 2019 (2019, July)

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See detailJoint Power Allocation and Distributed Beamforming Design for Multi-Carrier Asynchronous Two-Way Relay Networks
KianiHarchehgani, Sharareh; Shahbazpanahi, Shahram UL; Dong, Min et al

in IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC) 2019, Cannes, July 2019 (2019, July)

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See detailSimulation-based optimization using multi-agent technology for efficient and flexible production planning and control in remanufacturing
Groß, Sebastian UL; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter UL

in International Conference on Remanufacturing (ICoR) 2019 (2019, June 25)

Remanufacturing is a process for used products to make them “as good as new or better”. A remanufacturing system typically consists of the processes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, reconditioning ... [more ▼]

Remanufacturing is a process for used products to make them “as good as new or better”. A remanufacturing system typically consists of the processes disassembly, cleaning, inspection, reconditioning reassembly and testing. Due to unknown condition of the used products many challenges occur which are special to the domain of remanufacturing and not know from manufacturing. The resulting stochastic routing of products and material in particular places special demands on the flexibility of the production planning and control (PPC) in remanufacturing systems. In order to enable stochastic routing, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are used, which also contributes to increasing the complexity of the PPC. Especially the simultaneous scheduling of machines and AGVs has to be addressed in order to enable an optimal remanufacturing process. This paper provides an overview about current research activities in the field of PPC in remanufacturing and scheduling approaches for AGVs. Furthermore, a promising approach to enable the required flexibility of the remanufacturing system and to control the dynamics contained therein is the use of a multi-agent technology. The proposed approach consists of an optimization of the PPC using a multi-agent based simulation. The multi agent-based simulation consists of intelligent agents that negotiate with each other in order to find an optimal solution and achieve high flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailWhispering Botnet Command and Control Instructions
Steichen, Mathis UL; Ferreira Torres, Christof UL; Fiz Pontiveros, Beltran UL et al

in 2nd Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology, Zug 24-26 June 2019 (2019, June 25)

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See detailAnytime Approximation in Probabilistic Databases via Scaled Dissociations
Van den Heuvel, Maarten; Ivanov, Peter; Gatterbauer, Wolfgang et al

in Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Management of Data, SIGMOD Conference 2019, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 30 - July 5, 2019 (2019, June 22)

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See detailAn enhanced interface model for friction fatigue problems of axially loaded piles
Kullolli, Borana; Baeßler, Matthias; Cuéllar, Pablo et al

in Proceedings of the ASME 2019 38th, International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Glasgow 9-14 June 2019 (2019, June 09)

The shaft bearing capacity often plays a dominant role for the overall structural behaviour of axially loaded piles in offshore deep foundations. Under cyclic loading, a narrow zone of soil at the pile ... [more ▼]

The shaft bearing capacity often plays a dominant role for the overall structural behaviour of axially loaded piles in offshore deep foundations. Under cyclic loading, a narrow zone of soil at the pile-soil interface is subject to cyclic shearing solicitations. Thereby, the soil may densify and lead to a decrease of confining stress around the pile due to micro-phenomena such as particle crushing, migration and rearrangement. This reduction of radial stress has a direct impact on the shaft capacity, potentially leading in extreme cases to pile failure. An adequate interface model is needed in order to model this behaviour numerically. Different authors have proposed models that take typical interface phenomena in account such as densification, grain breakage, normal pressure effect and roughness. However, as the models become more complex, a great number of material parameters need to be defined and calibrated. This paper proposes the adoption and transformation of an existing soil bulk model (Pastor- Zienkiewicz) into an interface model. To calibrate the new interface model, the results of an experimental campaign with the ring shear device under cyclic loading conditions are here presented. The constitutive model shows a good capability to reproduce typical features of sand behaviour such as cyclic compaction and dilatancy, which in saturated partially-drained conditions may lead to liquefaction and cyclic mobility phenomena. [less ▲]

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