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See detailLong-Term Effects of Retention in Grade 8 in Luxembourg
Klapproth, Florian; Keller, Ulrich UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 10)

Meta-analyses (Hattie, 2009; Jimerson, 2001) have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses (Hattie, 2009; Jimerson, 2001) have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects may be due to the absence of new learning experiences (Pagani, Tremblay, Vitaro, Boulerice & McDuff, 2001). However, in the short term, positive effects of grade retention are quite likely to occur (Klapproth, Schaltz, Brunner, Keller, Fischbach, Ugen & Martin, 2016). In Luxembourg, more than half of the students repeat at least one grade within their entire school career (Klapproth & Schaltz, 2015). Since grade retention is applied so frequently, the aim of the current study was to examine long-term effects of grade retention, and particularly retention in grade 8. The data used in this study were drawn from 2,835 Luxembourgish students who completed primary education (grade 6) and began secondary education (grade 7) in the 2008-2009 school year. We conducted propensity-score matching to select retained and promoted students with comparable characteristics. We used the “same age-cohort, same grade, different times of measurement” approach for comparisons (Klapproth et al., 2016). The dependent variables were the school marks in the main subjects (German, French, and mathematics) in grades 10, 11, and 12, which can vary between 0 and 60 (with higher values indicating better achievement, and values below 30 indicating insufficient achievement). Our results showed that grade 8 repeaters obtain significantly lower school marks in grades 10 to 12 as compared to matched non-repeaters, with most negative effects appearing for mathematics and French (as opposed to German) and with negative effects strengthening significantly with time. These results seem to confirm results of previous meta-analyses on longer-term effects of grade retention, seemingly suggesting that grade retention is no effective means to tackle low student achievement. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying Exposome Chemicals: Measured Data Metadata, Metabolism and More …
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 10)

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See detailNational Justice vs. Occupiers’ Justice? A conflict of competence in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg during World War I
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 08)

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German ... [more ▼]

From the standpoint of international law, the entry of German troops on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in August 1914 violated the small state’s neutrality. While the occupying German authorities saw this act as an occupatio pacifica and the violation of its neutrality as a necessity in order to respond to a state of emergency, the Luxembourgish government and its justice administration had to cope with a new set of problems. The government, led by state minister Paul Eyschen, and the country’s monarchical leader Marie-Adélaïde pursued a strategy of appeasement towards the occupier, but also attempted to guard the sovereignty of their state as well as of their justice system. With the establishment of German military justice and a central police office in Luxembourg, the sovereignty of Luxembourg’s French-inspired justice was curtailed. However, German authorities made clear that they do not intend to challenge the spheres of local justice, unless cases of military relevance would arise. After all, Luxembourg was a country with close links to the Kaiserreich and an important industrial partner and therefore had to receive a privileged treatment compared to other occupied territories. However, with Luxembourgers being arrested by the German military and German soldiers committing crimes on Luxembourgish ground, the two justice systems, military and local, clashed. Since the status of the “friendly occupation” created legal misunderstandings, local judges, magistrates of the high court (cour supérieure) and German authorities stood in constant correspondence regarding a large amount of court cases and competence disputes. Consequently, in 1915, members of the high magistrate made their way to Frankfurt and Berlin to discuss the status of Luxembourgish justice. These discussions would eventually lead back to the question whether the country was truly to be considered a theater of war (Kriegsschauplatz). Overall, the discussion about the spheres of national and occupier justice became part of a much larger question: What is the legal nature of German occupation in Luxemburg? This paper explores how the two justice systems interacted and highlights court cases where their competences intertwined. These observations show how the local administration had to apply a mix of compromise and pertinacity in order to avoid open conflict but at the same time tried to keep Luxembourgish civilians out of the reach of German military justice. In doing so, several interesting observations can be made regarding the legal discussions between lawyers and prosecutors of both sides. Additionally, the paper offers an insight into a variety of local cases ranging from German soldiers marauding drunkenly on Luxemburgish streets to the arrest of a Luxembourgish judge and amateur historian. Overall, the presented paper attempts to show that while the local justice system was not altered by the occupier, it suffered a cut in its competence in certain spheres of civil justice. However, in comparison to the later Nazi occupation of Luxembourg, local justice administration and its personnel were kept in their place, but had to constantly negotiate certain aspects of civil and international law with the German authorities – often to their own disadvantage. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst steps into developing multilingual practices in ECEC in Luxembourg: Insights from the projects MuLiPEC and COMPARE
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 07)

Translanguaging pedagogies promise to take account of students’ language and socio-cultural backgrounds and contribute to their academic achievements (García, Johnson, and Seltzer, 2017). Researchers who ... [more ▼]

Translanguaging pedagogies promise to take account of students’ language and socio-cultural backgrounds and contribute to their academic achievements (García, Johnson, and Seltzer, 2017). Researchers who have investigated translanguaging practices in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual contexts, have shown that translanguaging promotes learning, well-being, and identity-building (Lewis, Jones, and Baker, 2012; García & Sylvan, 2011; Young & Mary, 2016; Vaish 2019a). Studies in early childhood education and care (ECEC) remain scarce, particularly those that focus on the use of institutional languages and home languages. Furthermore, little is known about the implementation of translanguaging pedagogies and the challenges faced by professionals. One exception comes from Vaish (2019 a, b) who investigated the practices of primary teachers in Singapore who taught in English, Chinese and Malay. She identified three main challenges: superdiversity, negative attitudes towards home language, and teacher-centred pedagogies. Studies on professional development (PD) in ECEC have shown that PD can help practitioners change beliefs, knowledge and practices to some extent (Egert et al. 2018). This presentation comes from multilingual Luxembourg, where 63.7% of the 4-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish as their home language. Since 2017, educators in ECEC are required to develop children’s skills in Luxembourgish, familiarise them with French and value their home languages. Professional development courses help practitioners move away from monolingual policies and practices that existed prior to 2017, and implement multilingual pedagogies. This paper examines the challenges teachers and educators faced during this process. It is based on seven group interviews carried out during two research projects; the first aimed to develop multilingual pedagogies (MuLiPEC), the second collaboration with parents and multiliteracies (COMPARE). The findings, based on thematic analysis, indicate, firstly, that the educators faced multiple challenges when trying to change their practices such as their uncertainty of how to deal with multiliteracy, their behaviourist views on education, their inexperience of planning literacy activities in multiple languages, and, secondly, the ways in which they overcame them. The PD courses helped them reflect on their beliefs, challenge monolingual ideologies, and develop knowledge about language learning and new multilingual practices (Kirsch 2020). The findings shed light on the complexities of the implementation process and the support needed for professional learning. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Teachers, parents and children working together.
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 04)

Translanguaging pedagogy promotes deeper understanding of school subjects, increases metalinguistic awareness, affirms multilingual identities, and encourages home-school collaboration (García, 2017 ... [more ▼]

Translanguaging pedagogy promotes deeper understanding of school subjects, increases metalinguistic awareness, affirms multilingual identities, and encourages home-school collaboration (García, 2017). Given that multilingual education is mandatory In Luxembourg, our project aims to (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging to preschool teachers, (2) involve children’s families to reinforce home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children’s cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We used a mixed-method approach: language portraits, questionnaires, and focus groups with teachers, questionnaires and interviews with parents, and a test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language and video observations with children. During the period of six months, we delivered a 22-hour PD course that focused on the development of teachers’ multilingual classroom, home-school collaboration, information about the multilingual brain and cross-linguistic transfer, oracy and multiliteracies. We worked with 40 teachers, children in their preschools, and the children’s parents. In the final focus groups, the teachers shared that they felt more relieved that children’s home languages do not confuse them and do not hinder the learning of Luxembourgish. They saw children’s emergent multilingualism as beneficial for their learning and let them express themselves freely. In addition, they understood that translanguaging is about communication, which invited them to start using languages they did not know to better relate to the children in their class. The effect of the PD course on parents and children was also positive. Some children were more involved in learning activities when their languages were used and some parents were enthusiastic to share their language through storytelling in the classroom. García, O. (2017). Translanguaging in schools: Subiendo y Bajando, Bajando y Subiendo as afterword. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 256-263. doi:10.1080/15348458.2017.1329657 [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives on multilingualism and multilingual literacies from early childhood educators in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebić, Džoen Dominique UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 04)

The pedagogies of multiliteracies and translanguaging (García et al., 2017) call for multiliteracies, but early childhood educators are often ensure of how to develop practices in one, let alone multiple ... [more ▼]

The pedagogies of multiliteracies and translanguaging (García et al., 2017) call for multiliteracies, but early childhood educators are often ensure of how to develop practices in one, let alone multiple languages. The development of literacy skills is often reduced to the isolated training of phonological awareness or the letters of the alphabet. By contrast, storytelling is a holistic approach which contributes to the development of language and literacy skills (Sénéchal & Lefevre, 2001). It can promote multilingualism if multilingual speakers are involved (Kirsch, 2018). This presentation reports on the perspectives on multiliteracies of educators in crèches in multilingual Luxembourg, where 63.7% of the 4-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish at home. Multilingual education became mandatory in 2017, requesting educators to develop Luxembourgish, promote French and value home languages. The mix-method project Collaboration with parents and Multiliteracy in early Childhood Education aims to develop literacy practices in multiple languages and with multiple actors (parents, educators) through professional development in crèches. In this paper we report the findings of interviews and a survey sent to 700 educators in May 2020. The latter were asked to identify literacy practices (e.g. storytelling), language-promoting strategies, and translanguaging practices. The data are analysed with thematic analysis and descriptive statistical analysis. The findings will contribute to our understanding of current ideologies, pedagogies, and practices, and help identify issues and possible ways forward. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Decline of Repair Businesses? Luxembourg’s Repair Sector, 1971–1985
Krebs, Stefan UL; Hoppenheit, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 03)

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See detailLuxembourg Perspectives on Pre-Service Teacher Motivation: What Factors Influence the Choice of Becoming a Teacher, Perseverance and Success?
Rivas, Salvador UL; Poncelet, Débora UL; Reeff, Alain et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread ... [more ▼]

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread teacher shortages have led researchers to investigate what motivates candidates to become teachers and to remain in the profession (see for example Watt et al., 2012). Luxembourg is no exception, in 2019 for example, the government wanted to hire 320 new teachers at the fundamental school level; however, only 63 graduates from the country’s main teacher training programme at the University of Luxembourg took the required state exam to join the teaching ranks. The country needs 300 to 400 new fundamental schoolteachers per year to keep up with population growth. To help address this need, we draw on 10 years of admissions data (exam performance and noncognitive indicators) collected from candidates seeking entry to the University of Luxembourg’s teacher training programme. Our study investigates the major correlates, similarities and differences, between candidates that never-registered, i.e., candidates that after being admitted never start the programme; drop-outs, i.e., students that start but never finish; and of course, those that persist until completion. While circumstances may differ between these types of candidates, the first two nevertheless took-up the place that someone else who could have finished and possibly become a teacher. In light of the pressing need for more teachers, this study identifies important factors associated with showing up and staying in the programme until the end. Policy implications are described and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailValues-Based Territorial Food Networks (VTFN): conceptual framework spanning Local Food Systems (LFS), Short Food Supply Chains (SFSC), Civic Food Networks (CFN) and Alternative Food Networks (AFN)
Reckinger, Rachel UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

Localized food growing and livestock rearing initiatives with more direct transformation and commercialization structures, often at comparably small scales, gained ground worldwide. They represent various ... [more ▼]

Localized food growing and livestock rearing initiatives with more direct transformation and commercialization structures, often at comparably small scales, gained ground worldwide. They represent various types of ‘alternatives’ to industrialised agri-food processes and to standard producers/consumers divides characterizing the global food system. While these alternatives are not always new, they have sparked growing scholarly interest. Over time, the literature has addressed them via four main conceptual denominations: Local Food Systems (LFS), Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs), Civic Food Networks (CFS), Alternative Food Networks (AFN). These concepts have distinct foci, partial overlaps, and they seek to capture an immense heterogeneity of empirical phenomena. Yet this conceptual plurality risks to conceal that these empirical initiatives, despite their differences, have structural commonalities at food system level, relevant for understanding pathways to a sustainable food system transformation. Therefore, I argue for an overarching concept subsuming the existing ones. Values-based Territorial Food Networks (VTFN) would take into account the diverse perspectives from the four main concepts in this field, classify their specificities and address their shortcomings. The social critique at their core, leading to transitions, is constructed around values of ’doing things differently’, at the level of specific territories. The more robust and authentic these sustainability values in VTFN are – in terms of environmental integrity, social well-being, economic resilience and ethical governance – the more likely they are to be incorporated into practices, to become more and more legitimate and gain a voice at negotiation tables, in order to help reorient the current corporate agrifood regime. [less ▲]

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See detailCheminformatics and Mass Spectrometry meets Clinical Metabolomics
Schymanski, Emma UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 01)

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See detailMeta-Analytic Structural Equation Models of Executive Functions and Math Intelligence in Preschool Children
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, attention shifting, and working memory updating are the three core executive functions (EFs; Miyake et al., 2000) underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant for learning and everyday life. For example, they have shown to be differentially related to the mathematical component of intelligence (i.e., math intelligence) in school students and adults. While researchers suppose these three EFs to become more differentiated from early childhood to adulthood, neither the link of these constructs nor their structure has been conclusively established in preschool children yet. Primary studies on path models connecting EFs and math intelligence diverge in the exact relation of EFs and math intelligence. It remains unclear whether inhibition, shifting, and updating exhibit distinct but correlated constructs with respect to their relation to math intelligence. OBJECTIVES: With our meta-analysis, we aimed to (a) synthesize the relation between the three EFs and math intelligence in preschool children; and (b) compare plausible models of the effects of EFs on math intelligence. METHODS/RESULTS: Synthesizing data from 47 studies (363 effect sizes, 30,481 participants) from the last two decades via novel multilevel and multivariate meta-analytic models (Pustejovsky & Tipton, 2020), we found the three core EFs to be significantly related to math intelligence: Inhibition ("r" ̅ = .30, 95 % CI [.25, .35]), shifting ("r" ̅ = .32, 95 % CI [.25, .38]), and updating ("r" ̅ = .36, 95 % CI [.31, .40]). Looking at the three core EFs as one construct, the correlation was "r" ̅ = .34, 95 % CI [.31, .37]. Utilizing correlation-based, meta-analytic structural equation modeling (Jak & Cheung, 2020), our results exhibited significant relations of all EFs to math intelligence. These relations did not differ between the three core EFs. DISCUSSION: Our findings corroborate the positive link between EFs and math intelligence in preschool children and are similar to other age groups. From the model testing, we learned that representing EFs by a latent variable, thus capturing the covariance among the three core EFs, explained substantially more variation in math intelligence than representing them as distinct constructs. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the Impact of Network Delay on Bitcoin Mining
Cao, Tong UL; Decouchant, Jérémie UL; Yu, Jiangshan et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailHead, shoulders, Knie et pés – singing one’s way into multilingual practices. Language policies and practices in ECE
Kemp, Valérie; Colucci, Laura; Bebić, Džoen Dominique UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

While the European Commission (2011) has called for multilingual approaches in preschools and primary schools, their implementation is difficult and has rarely been studied (Kirsch et al. 2020 ... [more ▼]

While the European Commission (2011) has called for multilingual approaches in preschools and primary schools, their implementation is difficult and has rarely been studied (Kirsch et al. 2020). Multilingual language policies are likely to challenge traditional monolingual language ideologies and language hierarchies (Bergroth & Palviainen 2016, Ellis et al. 2011). The present paper looks at the non-formal early childhood education and care sector (ECEC) in multilingual Luxembourg, where a new plurilingual education programme has been implemented in 2017 (MENJE & SNJ 2018). It aims to develop skills in Luxembourgish (or French), familiarize children with French (or Luxembourgish) and value home languages. Furthermore, it encourages collaboration with parents and networking with social institutions (Kirsch & Seele 2020). The project COMPARE examines collaborative language and literacy practices with three-to-four-year-olds in crèches (day care centres in Luxembourg). This paper investigates the ways in which the educators in one crèche, helped by children’s parents, and the children themselves developed literacy activities in multiple languages and began to overcome monolingual ideologies. The data stem from seven video recordings totalling 29 minutes and fieldnotes written on four days over a period of three months. The data have been analysed with thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006). Our preliminary results show that the educators included six of the children’s home languages by engaging the children and their parents in a range of activities. They developed an inclusive stance to language diversity and, like the children, learned words in different languages. Thanks to the good collaboration with parents, they received home-recorded videos which they integrated into their daily practices. Finally, they considered children’s, at times, reluctant attitudes towards languages other than the majority languages and found ways of opening up their minds to language diversity. Children became the driving motor for the new multilingual practices (Boyd & Huss 2017). The findings are relevant for policy-makers, researchers and professionals because they show means to develop collaborative and inclusive multilingual practices and overcome possible challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailMoral Judgment in Video Games: Effects of Medium, Moral Intuitions and Media-Based Empathy
Grohmann, Lara; Holl, Elisabeth UL; Melzer, André UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailActionable knowledge and social learning for sustainability: Roles of professional knowledge and narratives
Hondrila, Kristina UL; König, Ariane UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

The contribution discusses why TD sustainability research would benefit from devoting more attention to professional knowledge and narratives. It presents concepts, empirical insights and methods on how ... [more ▼]

The contribution discusses why TD sustainability research would benefit from devoting more attention to professional knowledge and narratives. It presents concepts, empirical insights and methods on how this could be done. They are based on case studies on governance and social learning processes in two river basins in Luxembourg (post-2000) that have concerned challenges at the nexus of water, environment and agriculture and involved farmers, environmentalists and public water managers. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Multilingual Literacies – Views from four countries
Little, Sabine; Günther-van der Meij, Mirjam; Kirsch, Claudine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

This paper reports on progress from an EERA-funded Network Grant (Network 31) at a European level across the EERA Network, which compares and contrasts policy contexts and ongoing research around ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on progress from an EERA-funded Network Grant (Network 31) at a European level across the EERA Network, which compares and contrasts policy contexts and ongoing research around multilingualism and literacy across four nations, specifically Germany, England, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Children with ethnic minority background and low socio-economic status are more likely to have poor literacy skills and poorer academic outcomes (Farver et al., 2013). It is therefore essential to develop their preliteracy skills early because they are strong predictors of both their literacy development (e.g. Skibbe et al., 2011) and general educational attainment (Bialystok, 2013; Gogolin, 2014). Being biliterate has also been found to be a good predictor of successful additional language learning (Sanz, 2000). In multilingual contexts, students develop (multi)literacy skills in complex, ever changing contexts and through rich and heterogeneous experiences (Hammer et al., 2014). However, the linguistic resources of students with migrant background and lower socioeconomic status are often neglected throughout their school years, even though the languages in their repertoires provide valuable and mutually enriching resources. For example, bilinguals may strategically apply the acquired literacy skills in one language to write in another (Cenoz & Gorter, 2011). The omission to draw on the entire repertoire of multilinguals leads to inequality, which results in lower literacy outcomes and in discrepancies in competences in the various languages of bilinguals (Dworin, 2003). The quality of the home environment and institutions (e.g. early childhood and care) influences children’s language and literacy outcomes and predicts school success (NICHHD, 1998). Books remain the most favoured resource of multilingual families to engage children in literacy activities both in societal and the heritage languages, especially in the early years and early stages of education (Little, 2019). Studies in the field of home literacies have shown that parents, grandparents and children who engaged in book reading and in related activities such as telling and retelling stories, drew on their cultural funds of knowledge, made connections between the knowledge and skills gained in different learning contexts (e.g. home, school, community school), and blended the diverse literacy practices (Gregory, 2001). Engaging children in multilingual literacies does not only further their development of cognitive skills related to language and literacy but it also contributes to identity development. Projects where teachers and parents engage together with children in multilingual literacy activities, including multimodal digital ones, have shown that children are more motivated, engage deeper in their own learning and develop cognitive, language, and social skills, that teachers can work in more culturally and linguistically and inclusive way, and that parents feel more included in the school (Kirsch, 2018). [less ▲]

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See detailThreat Adaptive Byzantine Fault Tolerant State-Machine Replication
Simoes Silva, Douglas UL; Graczyk, Rafal UL; Decouchant, Jérémie et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense ... [more ▼]

Critical infrastructures have to withstand advanced and persistent threats, which can be addressed using Byzantine fault tolerant state-machine replication (BFT-SMR). In practice, unattended cyberdefense systems rely on threat level detectors that synchronously inform them of changing threat levels. How- ever, to have a BFT-SMR protocol operate unattended, the state- of-the-art is still to configure them to withstand the highest possible number of faulty replicas f they might encounter, which limits their performance, or to make the strong assumption that a trusted external reconfiguration service is available, which introduces a single point of failure. In this work, we present ThreatAdaptive the first BFT-SMR protocol that is automatically strengthened or optimized by its replicas in reaction to threat level changes. We first determine under which conditions replicas can safely reconfigure a BFT-SMR system, i.e., adapt the number of replicas n and the fault threshold f, so as to outpace an adversary. Since replicas typically communicate with each other using an asynchronous network they cannot rely on consensus to decide how the system should be reconfigured. ThreatAdaptive avoids this pitfall by proactively preparing the reconfiguration that may be triggered by an increasing threat when it optimizes its performance. Our evaluation shows that ThreatAdaptive can meet the latency and throughput of BFT baselines configured statically for a particular level of threat, and adapt 30% faster than previous methods, which make stronger assumptions to provide safety. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Risk and Price Jumps
Lehnert, Thorsten UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailAn Integrative Model of Moral Processing for the Video Game Medium
Melzer, André UL; Holl, Elisabeth UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

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See detailStability of Value-Added Models: Comparing Classical and Machine Learning Approaches
Emslander, Valentin UL; Levy, Jessica UL; Scherer, Ronny et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September)

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical ... [more ▼]

Background: What is the value that teachers or schools add to the evolution of students’ performance? Value-added (VA) modeling aims to answer this question by quantifying the effect of pedagogical actions on students’ achievement, independent of students’ backgrounds (e.g., Braun, 2005). A plethora of VA models exist, and several outcome measures are in use to estimate VA scores, yet without consensus on the model specification (Everson, 2017; Levy et al., 2019). Furthermore, it is unclear whether the most frequently used VA models (i.e., multi-level, linear regression, and random forest models) and outcome measures (i.e., language and mathematics achievement) indicate a similar stability of VA scores over time. Objectives: Drawing from the data of a highly diverse and multilingual school setting, where leveling out the influence of students’ backgrounds is of special interest, we aim to (a) clarify the stability of school VA scores over time; (b) shed light on the sensitivity toward different statistical models and outcome variables; and (c) evaluate the practical implications of (in)stable VA scores for individual schools. Method: Utilizing the representative, longitudinal data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (LUCET, 2021), we examined the stability of school VA scores. We drew on two longitudinal data sets of students who participated in the standardized achievement tests in Grade 1 in 2014 or 2016 and then again in Grade 3 two years later (i.e., 2016 and 2018, respectively), with a total of 5875 students in 146 schools. School VA scores were calculated using classical approaches (i.e., linear regression and multilevel models) and one of the most commonly used machine learning approaches in educational research (i.e., random forests). Results and Discussion: The overall stability over time across the VA models was moderate, with multilevel models showing greater stability than linear regression models and random forests. Stability differed across outcome measures and was higher for VA models with language achievement as an outcome variable as compared to those with mathematics achievement. Practical implications for schools and teachers will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the COVID-pandemic:The role of family culture and effects on well-being
Minelli, Anne; Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 27)

During the COVID pandemic governments across the globe put restrictions in place to curb the spread of the virus. During the strict lock-down phase, people were only permitted to leave the house for ... [more ▼]

During the COVID pandemic governments across the globe put restrictions in place to curb the spread of the virus. During the strict lock-down phase, people were only permitted to leave the house for essential reasons, and visiting of family members living in a different household was not allowed. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible effects of these COVID restrictions on well-being according to different family models. Extending Kağitçibasi’s (2007, 2013) postulated family model by Manzi et al.’s (2006) aspects of family cultures (enmeshment, cohesion, autonomy and social support) we first explored, if these family models can be replicated in Luxembourg. We then tested, if lock-down restrictions affected family models differently in terms of well-being. A total of N = 244 (Mage = 35 years, SD = 12.2; 73% female) completed our online questionnaire at the time of the strict lockdown in April-Mai 2020 in Luxembourg. To capture the impact of the pandemic, the questionnaire was divided into two parts. First, participants answered questions about their well-being, family culture and closeness to their parents in general. Participants were then reminded of COVID lockdown restrictions and asked to answer under these restrictions. Using cluster analysis we identified three family models, namely psychologically interdependent families (focus on cohesion and social support), independent families (focus on autonomy), and interdependent families (focus: enmeshment, cohesion and social support). The independent family cluster showed lower well-being before and during the pandemic compared to psychologically interdependent families. Our findings suggest that different family models as postulated by Kağitçibasi are indeed affected differently by the pandemic. Furthermore, there appears to be a particular association between cohesion and well-being. Implications of these findings will be discussed also in the family model framework. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the pandemic: Shaping of futures in (even more?) diverse educational settings - Critical discussion of contributions of invited symposium SIG 21
Max, Charles UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 27)

Looking at SIG 21’s mission statement, the diversity of learning and education (which is / was ?) a granted element in educational research, seems to hail from a post/past century, where not everyone was ... [more ▼]

Looking at SIG 21’s mission statement, the diversity of learning and education (which is / was ?) a granted element in educational research, seems to hail from a post/past century, where not everyone was doing learningonline, remotely via the same tools and devices (i.e. zoom, etc.) Therefore, we wonder ifthe diversity still can be looked at in similar ways, and if so, which other ways of looking at the « new normal » should be developed, both from a practical, empirical research point of view, but also from a theoretical and epistemic perspective, underlying new research (or research into the new normal).Following this first line of thought, which questions could determine future research into education, educational settings and learning as such? This seems of particular interest, as the current ways of looking into education are heavily biased by concerns of technological infrastructure, investment and structural fitness (i.e., teachers as appexperts, networks, online setups, disregarding actual learners). Moreover, other ways of looking into formerly accepted « groups » (i.e., gender, age, background) seem to fall apart and disintegrate, making the issue of heterogeneity even more challenging to grapple with. Finally, when looking at the landscape of educational contexts and their societal anchorage at large (i.e., learning settings, formal/informal settings, mobility, development of professionals …) one aspect seems of particular interest: Is there learning in and from the actual situation ? How sustainable are the developments? Which perspectives can be drawn beyond the short term? [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term effects of retention in grade 8 in Luxembourg
Klapproth, Florian; Keller, Ulrich UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 26)

Meta-analyses have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses have suggested that grade retention rarely has positive effects and more often negative effects on students’ performance and psycho-emotional well-being. The occurrence of negative effects may be due to the absence of new learning experiences. However, in the short term, positive effects of grade retention are quite likely to occur. In Luxembourg, more than half of the students repeat at least one grade within their entire school career. Since grade retention is applied quite frequently, the aim of the current study was to examine long-term effects of grade retention. A representative sample of 2,835 Luxembourgish 8th grade students was used for this study, and propensity score matching was applied to select a control group of promoted students who were similar to the retained students on a variety of characteristics. Furthermore, a type of comparison was used by which the outcome variables of the retained and promoted students were compared at different times while the grade- and age-cohort were held equal between groups. With respect to school marks as an indicator of students’ academic achievement, this study showed that grade 8 retention lowered repeaters’ school marks, on average, in grades 10 to 13, as compared to matched non-repeaters. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Estimates of Inequality of Opportunity Across European Cohorts (and Some Insights on the Long-term Impact of Educational Policy)
Andreoli, Francesco; Fusco, Alessio; Kyzyma, Iryna et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August 25)

This paper provides a set of new estimates of inequality of opportunity (IOp) in Europe, using the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC). Unlike previous research, we estimate ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a set of new estimates of inequality of opportunity (IOp) in Europe, using the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC). Unlike previous research, we estimate inequality of opportunity within birth cohorts, which we argue is the most appropriate population level for inequality of opportunity analysis. Most IOp measures require estimation of the conditional distribution of the outcome of interest given circumstances. With multiple circumstances and the sample sizes available in EU-SILC, we use distribution regression methods combined with local kernel weighting and show how these can be used to estimate a large set of IOp measures. Endowed with cohort-level estimates of IOp, we finally examine the relationship between educational policy variables measured at the time of parental education and offspring generation inequality of opportunity in adulthood. We find a negative relationship between the duration of compulsory education of the parents and IOp among offspring, but the relationship is not very strong. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher expectations and emotions concerning students with special needs or immigrant background
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Krischler, Mireille UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 23)

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a ... [more ▼]

Teachers are faced with increasingly heterogenous student groups, whereby the successful inclusion of all students largely depend on teachers´ competence and attitudes. Attitudes are understood as a multifaceted construct with cognitive, affective and conative components. In the current study we investigated to what extent teachers´ expectations concerning students´ academic performance - reflecting the cognitive component of attitudes - varied as a function of specific student characteristics (special educational needs and immigrant background). In addition, we assessed teachers´ emotions - reflecting the affective component of attitudes - concerning the inclusion of these students in mainstream education. Result confirmed previous findings that teachers´ expectations and emotions vary as a function of student characteristics. Teachers had lower expectations of the academic performance of students with learning difficulties than students with challenging behaviour, whereby the estimates of German proficiency were also affected by the immigrant background of the student. Teachers felt however less positive about the inclusion of students with challenging behaviour than of students with learning difficulties, regardless of the immigrant background of the student. Results will be discussed in relation to theory and their practical implications. [less ▲]

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See detailAutour des possessions luxembourgeoises dans le comté de Hainaut sous le règne de Jean, roi de Bohême et comte de Luxembourg (1310-1346)
Pettiau, Hérold UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 20)

The purpose of this contribution is to open what appeared at first sight to be a small dossier, devoted to the heritage held in the county of Hainaut for several decades at the beginning of the 14th ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this contribution is to open what appeared at first sight to be a small dossier, devoted to the heritage held in the county of Hainaut for several decades at the beginning of the 14th century between 1304 and 1343, and even afterwards, by the counts of the Luxembourg dynasty (Henry VII and his son John the Blind, King of Bohemia), of which I have presented the main items and the interest that their study (and publication) could bring. This file is interesting in more than one way: It is- on the Luxembourg side at least, little known - even if important documents have been published and available for a long time - these 'outlying' possessions have not been much taken into consideration by researchers working on the territorialisation of the principality or on the 'finances' of John of Bohemia. It also concerns a period during which documentary writing developed in the management of the possessions of the principalities of the Low Countries - including, of course, Hainaut (in union with Zealand Holland), which has been very well studied by Valeria Van Camp. In Luxembourg, a first cartulary, currently called liber foeodorum, was drawn up in 1308-1309, and subsequently completed; a second in 1343, and also a censary (or Urbar) noting the revenues of the various components of the possessions of the Luxembourgs by provostship, land, and castellany in the years 1306-1317, subsequently completed in the years 1322-1327. This file raises questions about the practical management of such possessions, which were quite remote, beyond the administrative organisation of the county. [less ▲]

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See detailNational and transnational family and friendship networks and their role for subjective well-being of older migrants compared to non-migrants in Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Hoffmann, Martine; Vandenbosch, Petra et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August 18)

Creating new bonds in the receiving country constitutes an important developmental task for migrants. Nonetheless, migrants often have smaller social networks in the receiving countries compared to non ... [more ▼]

Creating new bonds in the receiving country constitutes an important developmental task for migrants. Nonetheless, migrants often have smaller social networks in the receiving countries compared to non-migrants, while they stay connected with left behind family members in their countries of origin. The role of transnational ties can thereby be twofold – on the one hand, transnational relations might provide support for migrants from a distance, on the other hand feelings of loneliness might arise when network partners are living far away. The present study is part of the project PAN-VAL on active ageing in Luxembourg, financed by the Ministry of Family and Integration, which focusses on social embeddedness vs. social isolation of migrants and non-migrants living in the multicultural context of Luxembourg. A national sample of N=1000 migrants and non-migrants 50+ living in Luxembourg were asked about their family and friendship networks, their satisfaction with family, friends and life as a whole as well as their feelings of loneliness. Further, N = 20 qualitative interviews with older migrants and non-migrants in four selected municipalities were carried out to explore social networks in more depth. First analyses revealed smaller national family and friendship networks of migrants compared to non-migrants and people with double nationality, whereas migrants reported more transnational bonds. Migrants also reported a lower satisfaction with family and friendship networks compared to non-migrants and people with double nationality, whereas no differences were found between migrants and non-migrants with regard to feelings of loneliness. However, people with double nationality felt less lonely compared to both other groups. Results will be discussed in a life-span perspective, considering the role of national family and friendship networks to create a sense belonging as a fundamental need of human beings. [less ▲]

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See detailA professional development course in translanguaging: Teachers’ beliefs and attitudes
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 16)

In multilingual Luxembourg there are almost 65% of 4 year-old children who do not speak Luxembourgish, of which 28% speak Portuguese (MENJE, 2018). The new law declared multilingual early education ... [more ▼]

In multilingual Luxembourg there are almost 65% of 4 year-old children who do not speak Luxembourgish, of which 28% speak Portuguese (MENJE, 2018). The new law declared multilingual early education mandatory in 2017 with the focus on developing Luxembourgish, familiarizing children with French and valuing their home languages. Thus, our project aimed to: (1) offer a professional development (PD) course in translanguaging pedagogy for preschool teachers, (2) involve children's families to strengthen home-school collaboration, and (3) foster children's cognitive, linguistic, and socio-emotional engagement in the classroom. We employed mixed methods. With teachers we used focus groups, questionnaires, and language portraits, with parents, questionnaires and interviews, and, with children test in early literacy and numeracy in school and home language as well as video observations. The main topic of our 18-hour course (June – December 2019) was translanguaging pedagogy divided into 7 sessions with the focus on multilingual ecology, home-school collaboration, multilingual brain, and multilingual oracy and literacy. We worked with 4 groups of 38 preschool teachers, of which two groups represented two entire schools. The focus of the current presentation are the results from teacher questionnaires and focus groups, delivered before and after the professional development course. The analysis of teacher questionnaires showed that there was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards children's home languages and multilingualism in general and a significant decrease in focus on Luxembourgish only, after the course. In addition, the results from the focus groups indicated that most of the teachers realized that the inclusion of children's home languages and cultures are important for their linguistic and socio-emotional development. However, the monolingual stance towards Luxembourgish for most of the teachers remained quite firm. References: Ministry of National Education, Childhood and Youth [MENJE]. (2018). Key numbers of the national education: statistics and indicators – School year 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/index.html [less ▲]

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See detailA conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration
Gilodi, Amalia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, August 05)

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to ... [more ▼]

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is as popular as it is fuzzy. Its increased prominence in social research and in political and humanitarian discourses on migration has led many scholars and practitioners to treat the concept as self-explanatory, without problematizing neither its conceptualization nor its use and possible negative societal and psychological consequences. Set within the framework of the EU-funded project MIMY (n°870700), investigating the processes of integration of young migrants in 9 European countries, this paper critically evaluates different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and proposes a new multilevel conceptual model for understanding vulnerability in the context of migration. Focusing on different levels of analysis, the model situates individuals and groups in the broader socio-political hierarchies and power dynamics that inevitably affect them (structural vulnerability), acknowledges how these systems are (re)produced in situated interpersonal relationships (situational vulnerability) and accounts for migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability. Focusing on the interrelationships between levels of analysis, the model highlights how macro conditions and definitions of vulnerability may affect individual experiences, through processes such as stigmatization, internalization of stereotypes, disempowerment, but also how individuals can actively negotiate their ascribed ‘vulnerability’ through processes such as resistance, mobilization and collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the effects of income heterogeneity in monopolistically competitive markets”
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kichko, Sergey

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

This paper studies the e¤ects of income heterogeneity on monopolistically competitive product markets and welfare in the context of non-homothetic preferences. When richer individuals expenditures are ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the e¤ects of income heterogeneity on monopolistically competitive product markets and welfare in the context of non-homothetic preferences. When richer individuals expenditures are less sensitive to price change compared to poorer ones , a mean-preserving contraction of income distribution entices rms to charge higher prices, new rms enter and broaden product diversity. General equilibrium e¤ects have a negative impact on poorer individuals and, in speci c circumstances, on whole population. In open economies, lower income inequality in a country creates a price divergence between countries and decreases trade volumes and values. Those general equilibrium e¤ects are quantitatively non negligible. [less ▲]

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See detailDeparture and Trajectory Design Applications using Stretching Directions
Muralidharan, Vivek UL; Howell, Kathleen C.

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not always possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in departing from or arriving onto the orbit. Generally, for potential missions, the orbits of ... [more ▼]

Stable or nearly stable orbits do not always possess well-distinguished manifold structures that assist in departing from or arriving onto the orbit. Generally, for potential missions, the orbits of interest are nearly stable to reduce the possibility of rapid departure. The stable nature of these orbits also serves as a drawback for insertion or departure from the orbit. The Near Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) and the Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) offer some potential long-horizon trajectories for exploration missions. The current investigation focuses on leveraging the stretching direction as a tool for departure and trajectory design applications. The magnitude of the state variations along the maximum stretching direction is expected to grow rapidly and, therefore, offers information for efficient departure from the orbit. Similarly, the maximum stretching in reverse time, enables arrival with a minimal maneuver magnitude. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in teacher reports on students’ inclusion at school
Krischler, Mireille UL; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Nusser, Lena et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August)

Theoretical background: With the ratification of the UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 March 2009, Germany has made the commitment – as have 181 other countries – to ... [more ▼]

Theoretical background: With the ratification of the UN Convention of Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 26 March 2009, Germany has made the commitment – as have 181 other countries – to guarantee non-discriminatory access to inclusive and high-quality teaching at all levels of the (general) educational system. The much-noticed Article 24 of the UN CRPD demands that participating states ensure, among others, effective and personalized support measures in inclusive learning settings to maximize academic as well as social and emotional development of all learners. Access to the general educational system is a prerequisite, but not a sufficient condition for successful inclusion (Powell & Hadjar, 2016). Students´ wellbeing is regarded as an important indicator of the quality of inclusion and as one of the main aims of inclusive education (Kullmann et al., 2015). As such, responding to student diversity has brought about new challenges for teachers. In order to meet diversity challenges in classroom, it is critical that teachers adapt their instructional practices. In this regard, teacher’s ability to accurately assess a student’s subjective wellbeing is supposed to support each student’s personal and academic development. However, while teachers’ assessment accuracy for students’ academic achievement and cognitive abilities is in general relatively adequate, the agreement between self-reports and teacher reports of socio-emotional aspects is rather low (Machts et al., 2016). The low to moderate consistencies suggest the occurrence of an assessment bias. Recent findings indicate that especially student’s gender and the status special educational needs (SEN) influence teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion at school (Schwab et al., 2020). Teacher characteristics such as their self-efficacy and their attitudes towards inclusion are regarded as fundamental for successfully implementing inclusive education (Gebhardt et al., 2015). Teachers’ responsibility is related to the teachers’ belief in their ability to influence students and with positive attitudes towards teaching in heterogenous classrooms (Halvorsen et al., 2009). Furthermore, teachers with more job experience are better able to judge students’ performance (Van Ophuysen, 2006). In this line of thought, teachers’ assessment bias represented as stigmatization effects could ultimately lead to increasing educational inequalities. Even though to date several studies investigated the accuracy of teacher judgments, teachers’ assessment accuracy with respect to students’ emotional inclusion has been largely neglected in previous research. In this regard, the present study investigates, first, the consistency of the self-reports and the teacher reports of students‘ emotional well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept. Second, we address the question whether students’ gender, first language and SEN can explain teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion in school. Third, the possible influence of teachers’ job experience, self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion as well as their responsibility for every student on teachers´ assessment accuracy is also part of our study. Method: Data are from the project “Inklusion in der Sekundarstufe I in Deutschland” (INSIDE). The sample consisted of 3772 grade 6 students (Mage = 12.6 years, SDage = 0.62) from 231 schools and 432 teachers. To assess students’ emotional well-being, social participation and academic self-concept, both students and teachers were asked to fill out the German Version of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ; Venetz et al., 2015). In the project INSIDE, the PIQ items with negative wording were not included. Additionally, teachers filled out the Self-efficacy for Inclusive Teaching Questionnaire (Bosse & Spörer, 2014), the Attitudes towards an Inclusive Education System Questionnaire (Lüke & Grosche, 2017) and an adapted version of the Teacher Responsibility Scale (Lauermann & Karabenick, 2013). Analyses were performed in Mplus Version 8.0. Given the nested structure of the data, we used the complex sample option. First, we applied a correlated trait-correlated method minus one [CT-C(M-1)] model (Eid et al., 2003) to examine the consistency of student self-reports and teacher ratings. To address the second and third research questions, we fitted a CT-C(M-1) model with covariates and latent interaction effects (Koch et al., 2018). Results: Research question 1: How consistent are self-reports and teacher reports of students‘ emotional well-being, social inclusion and academic self-concept? Results showed low to moderate consistencies between self-reports and teacher reports (12–33%). The consistency between teachers’ reports and self-reports of students’ emotional well-being and social inclusion is rather low. The consistency for academic self-concept is somewhat higher. Research question 2: Do the students’ gender, first language and the status special educational needs (SEN) predict teachers’ assessment accuracy regarding students’ inclusion? The students’ gender and the status SEN were important predictors for the assessment bias. Teachers underestimate the academic self-concept of students with the status SEN (compared to students without SEN) – and to a smaller extent also their social inclusion and emotional well-being. Moreover, they tend to overestimate girls’ subjective well-being. Research question 3: Do the teachers’ job experience, self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion as well as their responsibility for every student predict teachers’ assessment accuracy of students’ inclusion? The bias could partly be explained by teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion and their responsibility for every student. Teachers’ assessment (in-)accuracy regarding students’ subjective well-being could be predicted only to a small extent by the teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion and their responsibility for every student. The findings will be discussed in terms of their significance for educational inequalities. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research will be given. [less ▲]

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See detailVisual primes as culture-sensitive method to understanding acculturation processes
Murdock, Elke UL; Campill, Marc-Antoine; Valsiner, Jaan

Scientific Conference (2021, July 31)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. With a foreign population percentage of 47, 5 %, Luxembourg is an example for a super-diverse society and provides a rich context to explore acculturation processes. The majority of immigrants have European roots, but the number of non-European immigrants is rising. Within this qualitative study we examined the identity construction processes of eight Japanese women living in Luxembourg using several visual primes guiding the interview. Building on Ying-yi Hong’s work on cultural mixing we developed hybrid images to evoke affective responses and to capture the negotiation processes between cultures. The choice of images was carefully prepared and first involved an ethnographic study of cultural dimensions of Japan and Luxembourg. Based on this analysis we decided to explore the domains of beauty, food, living, leisure and family. For each domain, we chose a prototypical European and Japanese image and created a hybrid image. All images were culturally meaningful and anchored in real life experiences. The Japanese images were tested in a pilot study in Japan. The interviews were carefully planned, each phase involving different visual stimuli. In the opening phase, the interviewer presented a business card in three different designs – European, Japanese and a mixed version. Interviewees could choose their preferred version and explain their choice. Next, a series of 15 matched typical images of Japan and Luxembourg were shown and the interviewees again chose their preferred images and explained their choice. Finally, the five sets of domain-specific images were presented. These provided a context for narration and especially the reaction to the hybrid stimuli showed how participants negotiate their cultural identities. The visual primes made the negotiation strategies visible. Findings from this study and the potential of this culture-sensitive method for accessing the process of acculturation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping a talent: An exploratory study of Talent Management in Russia
Usanova, Ksenia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 29)

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See detailSymposium: Immigrants‘ Acculturation across the Lifespan
Schwarz, Beate; Maehler, Debora; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes ... [more ▼]

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes with respect to practices and behaviors, values and norms, and identity and identification (Schwartz, Unger, Zamboanga, & Szapocznik, 2010). From a developmental perspective, acculturation of first and second-generation immigrants differ remarkably because usually second generation immigrants have more opportunities to interact with representatives of the host culture in a phase of life with high plasticity (Sam & Oppedal, 2003). The symposium wants to gain insight into the complex acculturation processes with four studies that referred to different dimensions of acculturation and including age groups from adolescence to old age. The studies used quantitative and qualitative analyses and variable- as well as person-centered approaches. Starting with adolescence, Maehler provides a meta-analysis on factors that are related to identification with the ethnic and mainstream culture. Murdock and Gales also refer to the identity dimension of acculturation, here among young adults in Germany. With a qualitative approach they identified the role of the parents and the intergenerational relationships for the way how these young adults integrate both identities. In the third study with middle-aged second- generation immigrants in Switzerland, again intergenerational relationships are in the focus. Schwarz and Pfammatter analyzed the association of intergenerational relationships with orientations toward ethnic and mainstream culture. In the last study, Albert and colleagues used a person-centered approach. They investigated the patterns of sense of belonging on a local and national level of older immigrants in Luxembourg and the associations with expectations to stay and well-being. All four studies provide specific insight into the acculturation mechanism that are relevant in different periods of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural Identity Integration – the importance of the context of the family
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the ... [more ▼]

Acculturation has been described as multidimensional process consisting of the confluence of different cultural practices, values and identifications. A growing body of research focuses on the understanding identifications of persons growing up with multiple cultural experiences and how these influences are negotiated within themselves. The current study draws on a qualitative design and involved a semi-structured interview and two exercises designed to stimulate reflection on cultural influences. We recruited eight female participants, aged between 21 and 25 years, who all grew up in Germany. Their parents originate from a wide range of countries of various cultural distance to Germany. Fairly homogenous in terms of socioeconomic status and educational background, the sample was very diverse in terms of cultural influences. Half of our participants grew up in mixed national families. Building on the multicultural identity integration research we were particularly interested whether participants identify with one cultural group over others (categorization), keep their influences separate (compartmentalization) or link their cultural influences (integration) and drivers for each outcome. The results point towards the important role of parents regarding cultural resources and practices. Our results point to categorization, if there is little or no contact to one parent, compartmentalization, if the relationship between parents is conflicted and integration if both parents engage equally in cultural maintenance. Families are the primary socialization unit and our findings suggest that parental commitment to transfer of cultural values and practices impacts the cultural identity configurations. Findings will be discussed in a systemic perspective of identity construal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailRoma (2018) d’Alfonso Cuaron : “C’est seulement l’eau qui révèle la verité dans ce film”
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 13)

Des vagues qui nous font jouir et qui nous apprennent à désirer Depuis ses débuts le cinéma semble l’art le plus apte à chercher, du côté de l’étrangeté, de l’indicible, de l’inconscient. C’est le « divan ... [more ▼]

Des vagues qui nous font jouir et qui nous apprennent à désirer Depuis ses débuts le cinéma semble l’art le plus apte à chercher, du côté de l’étrangeté, de l’indicible, de l’inconscient. C’est le « divan du pauvre », nous dit Guattari. En tout cas il est subversif comme la psychanalyse. Selon Slavoj Zizek il constitue un dispositif qui nous fait jouir et un lieu pédagogique qui nous apprend à désirer. Notre propos est de montrer à travers des extraits des films comme « Persona » de Bergman, « Breaking the Waves » de Lars von Trier, Silence de Scorsese , et « Les Quatre Cents Coups » de Truffaut, comment l’artiste nous confronte avec le réel et avec le fait qu’il n’y a plus de grand Autre. Ces scènes se jouent au bord de la mer, de l’étrangeté, finalement du traumatique. Touchés par la violence des vagues et la force du pulsionnel nous sommes confrontés avec notre regard, notre jouissance et notre désir. C’est en tant que « parlêtre » (Lacan), et plus spécifiquement en tant qu’être pulsionnel que nous nous rencontrons à travers de telles scènes. C’est finalement notre implication dans le film qui est questionnée dans notre intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles solutions face à l’impossibilité de former des paires de tandems ?
Lejot, Eve UL; Molostoff, Leslie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 12)

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See detailL'épopée de l'eau : à propos des Lusiades de Camões
Erchadi, Armand UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 12)

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See detailPanel Organiser: Meeting the Editors: De Gruyter Book Series 'Migrations in History'
Venken, Machteld UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailInteractive Narratives and Transmedia Storytelling: An Insight on Digital Exhibitions
Camarda, Sandra UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 09)

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See detailSymposium: Crossing borders – feeling connected? An exploration of drivers influencing the development of a sense of belonging in the receiving society
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors ... [more ▼]

Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors influencing the development of a sense of belonging. It brings together researchers from four different countries, applying different methodological approaches examining the development of belonging among different migrant groups. Jean Décieux explores the role of cultural distance in the host country adjustment process. Suggesting a multidimensional conceptualization of cultural distance, he presents findings based on recently migrated German nationals (N = 2856) drawn from the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS). The role of cultural distance in negotiating belonging among young migrant women growing up in Germany is the subject of Elke Murdock’s qualitative study. Results point to the important role of parents in the process. How parents’ commitment or lack of commitment affects their children’s construction of their sense of belonging is the focus of Anna Gruszczynska’s qualitative study among immigrant youth in the UK. She shows the fluctuating nature of the pursuit of belonging in time and space. Gry Paulgaard focuses on immigrants arriving in the rural space of Northern Norway. The project explores everyday life practices of refugees taking the materiality of a place as a starting point, acknowledging the interdependency between the social and material contexts for practice. Finally, Isabelle Albert investigates practices by older migrants living in multicultural Luxembourg, their engagement or otherwise in social practices and how this impacts on their sense of belonging. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the move within themselves – cultural distance and negotiation processes of cultural belonging
Murdock, Elke UL; Gales, Sissy

Scientific Conference (2021, July 08)

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one ... [more ▼]

In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one cultural point of reference from birth. In the growing body of literature on bi- and multiculturalism different models of cultural acquisition are described, but still little is known about how the negotiation process takes place and what factors facilitate resolution and well-being. The present study builds on a recent theoretical framework on multicultural identity integration developed by Yampolsky et al. and investigates the role of cultural distance in the negotiation process for cultural belonging. For the present study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight young women (Mage = 22.6). All grew up in Germany, yet each had a very different other cultural background ranging from Chile, Columbia, France, Ghana, Hungary, Luxembourg, Russia to Sri Lanka. We asked participants about their sense of belonging, perceived similarities and differences between their cultural influences and their way of positioning themselves within these. Each interview was complemented by two visual exercises illustrating the sense of belonging. The results show that all participants engaged in active negotiation processes and arrived at very different solutions in terms of belonging. The cultural integration process depends on a multitude of factors – cultural distance being one, but parents playing an important role. The findings will be discussed in light of current acculturation models. Explanations will be provided with special focus on implications for migration and acculturation research. [less ▲]

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See detailVulnerability in the context of migration: a critical assessment of its conceptualizations and uses
Gilodi, Amalia UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 07)

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its ... [more ▼]

The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb archiving of the COVID crisis in Europe : Close reading's challenges
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The ... [more ▼]

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Karin de Wild (Leiden University, The Netherlands) and Nicola Bingham will provide feedback on a very concrete experiment that the working group is conducting through a Datathon based on metadata and derived data. This distant reading approach is complemented by a more qualitative approach, which also raises challenges, as Valérie Schafer will explain. The presentation of several concrete research topics will further demonstrate the methodological challenges at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoricizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age: Global Governance
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the ... [more ▼]

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism and communication rights. [less ▲]

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See detail"Getting on the same page" - How participants' reading aloud from an interactive tabletop facilitates joint game participation
Heuser, Svenja UL; Arend, Béatrice UL; Sunnen, Patrick UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 01)

This paper addresses how adult participants in a multiparty serious game-activity (ORBIT project, see Sunnen et al. 2018) at an interactive tabletop (ITT) use reading aloud (Heuser et al. 2020) to co ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses how adult participants in a multiparty serious game-activity (ORBIT project, see Sunnen et al. 2018) at an interactive tabletop (ITT) use reading aloud (Heuser et al. 2020) to co-facilitate joint accessibility to interactionally relevant text information about the unfamiliar game they are engaging in. These so called ‘written informings’ displayed on the horizontal interface are designed to serve as a game-manual. Since the activity is new to the participants, they rely on these informings in order to jointly accomplish the game. We consider participants’ reading aloud as an interactional practice for participating in the interaction and getting each other ‘on the same page’. By verbalizing and thereby also emphasizing specific (parts of the) text at a specific point in the interaction, participants make written informings from the ITT interactionally relevant and mutually accessible within the group. [less ▲]

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See detailThe sense of belonging in the context of migration and active ageing: The case of multicultural Luxembourg
Albert, Isabelle UL; Bemtgen, Nadia; Hoffmann, Martine et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Migration is a life-changing transition and the establishment of new bonds in the receiving country constitutes an important developmental task. While feelings of belonging are closely linked to ... [more ▼]

Migration is a life-changing transition and the establishment of new bonds in the receiving country constitutes an important developmental task. While feelings of belonging are closely linked to subjective well-being, the feeling of not fitting in might be related to social exclusion and loneliness. Though social isolation is not bound to specific groups and ages, older migrants might be at a particular risk as recent studies suggest. The present study is part of the project PAN-VAL on active ageing in Luxembourg, financed by the Ministry of Family and Integration. Here, we focus on social embeddedness vs. social isolation of migrants and non-migrants living in the multicultural context of Luxembourg. Our aim is to identify facilitators and obstacles to participation in social activities, focusing in particular on the role of "sense of belonging" of older people to their place and country of residence. Applying a mixed-methods design, we will first focus on a national sample of N=1000 migrants and non-migrants 50+ living in Luxembourg who are asked about their family and friendship networks, leisure activities, sense of belonging to different entities (such as their neighborhood, municipality and country of residence) as well as their feelings of social isolation and loneliness. Secondly, we will draw on qualitative interviews in four selected municipalities contrasting active vs. non-active older migrants vs. non-migrants, exploring in more depth their experiences of belonging and social embeddedness. Results will be discussed in a life-span perspective, considering different developmental trajectories to belonging as a fundamental need of human beings. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring multicultural ideology: Scale development and validation in different languages and contexts
Stogianni, Maria UL; Schmidt, Lea Marie; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive ... [more ▼]

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive intercultural relations: a) Diversity: the presence of ethnocultural diversity in the population and b) Equity: the right for equal participation of all cultural groups in the society. Both diversity and equity are necessary conditions for the success of multicultural policies. Culturally heterogeneous communities that do not support inclusion and equitable participation of all groups face the negative consequences of segregation and marginalization. In line with this notion, an international research consortium is developing a revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale to assess the endorsement of multicultural ideology in different national contexts. The scale aims to distinguish various attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the acceptance of diversity and social inclusion of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Social Interaction, Equity/Inclusion, Extent of Differences, Conflictual Relations, Essentialistic Boundaries. We present the first assessment of the new scale in the German language. The survey was administered online to a sample of native German citizens (N = 382) with different demographic characteristics. Our aim was to understand the attitude of native citizens towards cultural diversity and their willingness to have members of ethnic minority groups be included in the larger society. We investigated the factor structure of the scale, its psychometric properties, and the relationship between multicultural ideology and some individual difference variables, such as ethnic group attachment and social dominance orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailSense of belonging, social embeddedness and perceived loneliness of older Luxembourgers and non-Luxembourgers in pandemic times
Albert, Isabelle UL; Bemtgen, Nadia; Hoffmann, Martine et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Luxembourg has witnessed a sharp increase in cultural diversity due to high levels of immigration in the past years, and the question of how inhabitants from different cultural origin establish a sense of ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg has witnessed a sharp increase in cultural diversity due to high levels of immigration in the past years, and the question of how inhabitants from different cultural origin establish a sense of belonging to their country of residence has become essential for social cohesion and inclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic has, however, shaken patterns of belonging dramatically. The place of residence has gained new meaning due to confinement measures, closed borders and local contact restrictions. Physical distancing could have particularly adverse effects on older migrants with smaller social networks in the receiving country, increasing the risk for loneliness and social isolation. The present study is part of the PAN-VAL project on active ageing funded by the Luxembourgish Family Ministry. We aim to analyze the impact of sense of belonging and social embeddedness on perceived loneliness before and since the COVID-19 crisis of older Luxembourgers and non-Luxembourgers living in the Grand-Duchy. A representative sample of N=1000 residents 50+ participated in a survey via telephone and online in December 2020. The standardized questionnaire included questions regarding national and transnational family and friendship networks, contact frequencies, sense of belonging to place and country of residence and of origin as well as perceived loneliness before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary findings indicate that sense of belonging predicted loneliness before and since the corona crisis, whereas a larger social network in Luxembourg was protective against loneliness only before but not since the crisis. Interestingly, a higher contact frequency with friends in Luxembourg reduced loneliness before the crisis, whereas higher contact frequency with friends abroad reduced loneliness since crisis. Results will be discussed considering resources as well as risk factors for loneliness in the context of migration and ageing in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detailDigging into Digital Roots: introduction
Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Presentation of the project at stake (a collective book whose idea was born within the ECREA Communication History Section), its approach and theoretical framework.

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See detailThe factor structure of mathematical abilities in Luxembourg’s national school monitoring: Its stability over elementary school and relations to, gender, language background, and SES
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Hornung, Caroline UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Mathematics skills are the fundament of modern societies, especially those based on a knowledge-economy. The age of digitalization renders mathematics education even more crucial since it builds the ... [more ▼]

Mathematics skills are the fundament of modern societies, especially those based on a knowledge-economy. The age of digitalization renders mathematics education even more crucial since it builds the starting point for all STEM-related fields. Consequently, mathematics is at the core of numerous educational Large-Scale Assessments on international (e.g. PISA, TIMSS) or national level (e.g. NAEP, NEPS, SNSA). Although the underlying test development frameworks are most often multi-dimensional or hierarchical, psychometric analyses usually focus on a single latent factor that represents a rather vague general mathematical ability. How and to what extent this simplification affects educational studies that rely on these data remains unclear. The present study takes Luxembourg’s national school monitoring program ÉpStan as example to tackle this question and clarify the consequences. ÉpStan’s mathematics test is conducted annually in elementary school Grades 1, 3, and 5 and is comprised of around 50 to 70 items. Since ÉpStan captures competencies of all students biyearly, each analysis will be based on the full cohort (n > 5000). First, we will investigate whether the curriculum-based test framework for mathematics can psychometrically be represented in a related (multi-dimensional) confirmatory factor model including the domains numbers & operations and space & form. This will be done in Grades 1, 3, and 5. Second, we will study the factor model’s cross-sectional stability within each Grade (over three consecutive years) and longitudinal stability between Grades. Finally, we will study the factors’ relations to students’ cognitive and sociodemographic characteristics and compare the results with correlations found using the most widely used one-dimensional model of mathematical abilities. Based on the results, we will discuss implications not only for educational studies that often uncritically make use of large-scale assessment data, but also highlight the consequences for group-level feedback that is based on such assessments. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge assessment with concept maps: Opportunities and challenges
Rohles, Björn UL; Koenig, Vincent UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives ... [more ▼]

21st-century digital society poses tremendous challenges for education and assessment. Learners have to understand the complex relations between diverse topics and learn how to learn their entire lives. Concept mapping is a promising approach to address these issues. It is a method that uses concepts connected by labeled links to visualize a semantic network of knowledge. Concept mapping is predestined for a digital approach because it allows for easy interactive editing, innovative test items, and incorporation of multimodal information. Concept mapping is available for summative and formative assessment and, thus, provides the opportunity to become a vital part of modern education. The biggest advantage of concept mapping (i.e., a comprehensive and yet comprehensible visualization of complex relations) also represents the biggest challenge when it comes to assessment with - and scoring of - concept maps. The first challenge is the enormous amount of indicators used for scoring concept maps in assessment. A second challenge comes from the fact that educators using concept mapping in their assessment have to understand and interpret the indicators that are used in scoring concept maps. This presentation reports on a Ph.D. project that investigates digital concept mapping in the context of knowledge assessment from a user experience perspective. The results are based on, first, a comprehensive international systematic literature review on concept map scoring, and second, three empirical studies covering the needs and experiences of learners and educators in concept mapping. It presents key findings from the iterative user experience design of a concept mapping tool as part of the online assessment platform OASYS, an overview of indicators used in concept map scoring, and research opportunities in knowledge assessment with concept maps. Finally, it stresses the value that user experience design brings to knowledge assessment with concept maps. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Executive Functions and their Relation to Math Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Meta-Analysis
Emslander, Valentin UL; Scherer, Ronny

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Introduction: Executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, updating) are linked to math intelligence in school students and adults. This link is particularly important because performance in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Executive functions (inhibition, attention shifting, updating) are linked to math intelligence in school students and adults. This link is particularly important because performance in school mathematics is predictive of various competencies later in life. While some researchers argue that tests of executive functions and math intelligence measure the same underlying construct, others argue that they measure distinct but correlated constructs. Also, evidence on the differentiation of cognitive skills over time exists. Clarifying the relation between executive functions and math intelligence is, however, challenging, especially because preschoolers cannot fill in commonly used questionnaires that require them to read. As a consequence, researchers have to resort to behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments of executive functions. Objectives/Methodology: With this meta-analysis of 29 studies containing 268 effect sizes, we examined the link between executive functions and math intelligence for a total sample of 25,510 preschool children. Specifically, we synthesized the corresponding correlations and sought to clarify which executive function assessments were used for preschool children and how the assessment characteristics may moderate the correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills. Results: Utilizing three-level random-effects meta-analysis, we found a moderate correlation between executive functions and mathematical skills in preschool children, r = 0.35. The type of assessment (behavioral, verbal, apparatus-, or computer-based assessments) did not moderate this relation. Differentiating between the three executive functions revealed average correlations of r = 0.30 between math and inhibition, r = 0.38 between math and attention shifting, and r = 0.36 between math and updating. These analyses will be supplemented by further moderator analyses. Conclusions: Our findings support the significant link between executive functions and mathematical skills in preschoolers—yet, the average correlations do not suggest that both measures are identical. Results will be discussed against the background of deployed assessments and testing environments. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall in size, great in significance: conspicilla and perspicilla in the visual arts of the Low Countries around 1600
Koeleman, Floor UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée ... [more ▼]

A largely forgotten constcamer painting from the early seventeenth century shows eyeglasses and a telescope in close proximity. The inclusion of these extensions of sight in The Five Senses of the Musée Magnin (Dijon) seems to allude to the implicit link between the two. As tools to observe with and through, these instruments visualize the limits of human perception and the ability to alter the scale of the visible world. The Five Senses was created in Antwerp around the same time the telescope first appeared in textual sources, namely 1608. However, the optical instrument is likely to have existed for years by then. This paper investigates if any references to the telescope in the visual arts predate the first written evidence of its invention. For artists the early telescope was probably not that challenging an object to represent. The exterior, a simple tube characterized by a diaphragm, housed two lenses made by the same glass industry that manufactured eyeglasses. This paper takes a closer look at the imagery of eyeglasses and telescopes, depicted in the visual arts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The meaning assigned to these instruments can be inferred from the context in which they are presented and their relative scale. Together eyeglasses and telescopes feature prominently in constcamer paintings dedicated to visual perception, understood both physically and metaphysically. While the exact date of creation remains subject to debate, The Five Senses probably contains the earliest known depiction of a telescope – true to scale. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop : Data as a new resource? Similarities and differences of data vs. material resources
Schafer, Valerie UL; Veraart, Frank; Niet, Irene

Scientific Conference (2021, June 29)

This exploratory workshop is dedicated to scholars interested in technological developments related to digital technologies and resource developments. The workshop focusses on three notions: (1 ... [more ▼]

This exploratory workshop is dedicated to scholars interested in technological developments related to digital technologies and resource developments. The workshop focusses on three notions: (1) historical parallels of digital data with the development of other key material resources, (2) data as a commodity and its infrastructure, and (3) sustainability issues and (big)data. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island and NO2 with urban population: A meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, June 29)

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See detailIterative STEAM design in primary grades and in pre-service teacher training
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben

Scientific Conference (2021, June 24)

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See detailThe effect of temperature and joining speed on the joining quality for conduction laser joining of metals to polymers
Amne Elahi, Mahdi UL; Hennico, Max; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 24)

Laser joining of metals to polymers offers several advantages to produce lightweight hybrid assemblies. An important one is the exceptional control over the heat input which defines the temperature at the ... [more ▼]

Laser joining of metals to polymers offers several advantages to produce lightweight hybrid assemblies. An important one is the exceptional control over the heat input which defines the temperature at the interface of the materials. Initially, the in-situ heating observation of PA inside ESEM is considered. Then, aluminum and polyamide are joined in an overlap configuration while the temperature was recorded simultaneously at different areas between the materials. The results show that due to excessive heat input, polyamide degrades and leaves bubbles in the melted area. Finally, the materials are laser joined with several joining speeds to investigate different cooling rates of the polyamide during the joining process. It is concluded that joining with high cooling rates generates an amorphous melted layer of the polyamide which is different from the semi-crystalline structure of the bulk. This difference acts as a stress concentration zone and reduces the shear strength of the assembly. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering Pesticides, Pharmaceuticals TPs in Luxembourg Waters using Open Cheminformatics Approaches
Krier, Jessy; Singh, Randolph R.; Kondic, Todor UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June 24)

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See detailChallenging the Status Quo: Citizens’ Access to Justice to Protect a Healthy Environment in Europe
Muñoz, Susana UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 22)

The EU and its Member States must guarantee the respect of citizens’ right of access to environmental information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters ... [more ▼]

The EU and its Member States must guarantee the respect of citizens’ right of access to environmental information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters. Nevertheless, no framework for access to justice in the EU Member States exists. On 14 October 2020, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal amending the Aarhus Regulation as part of the European Green Deal. The aim is to strengthen the EU’s system of access to justice in environmental matters, including the role of the Member States and national courts. Drawing on European and national case law and legislation, this paper provides a critical review of the current application of access to justice and the proposed amendments. It further explores legal avenues for strengthening the citizens’ access to justice within the multilevel protection of a healthy environment in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Educational Economics of UNESCO's First Regional Centre on Fundamental Education in the Immediate Post-War Period: An Archival Exploration
Kesteloot, Stefanie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 21)

The end of the Second World War marked the start of a new era, with worldwide support for a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in December 1948. By signing the Universal Declaration, the Member ... [more ▼]

The end of the Second World War marked the start of a new era, with worldwide support for a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in December 1948. By signing the Universal Declaration, the Member States of the United Nations pledged to promote a series of universal values. As part of the UN, UNESCO made a major effort to disseminate the Declaration and its content globally, at a national, regional and local level. The idea of “building peace in the minds of men and women” and encouraging equal rights was central to UNESCO’s mission. An archival exploration of the correspondence material of UNESCO’s secretariat, available at the UNESCO archives, offers an insight into the continuous struggle faced by the staff for the creation and implementation of educational initiatives on human rights. One focus of UNESCO’s work was the area of fundamental education. Early general correspondence found related to this topic reveals the continuous flow of communication between the different UNESCO departments, especially the office of the Director-General and the Departments of Mass Communication and Education. The discussions were mainly centred on the development of centres for fundamental education. The location to choose, the content and methodology to use, and the appropriate strategy to raise the funds needed for the continued implementation of regional centres of fundamental education, were just some of the issues addressed. The initial financial and ideological support from the Member States seems to have been slowly replaced by budgetary constraints and political opposition. A network of international experts on fundamental education helped promote UNESCO’s initiatives to possible funders with a view to creating twelve fundamental education centres all over the world. Their contribution was seen as vital for the implementation of the project. Despite the hard work and lobbying activities, only two of the initially planned twelve centres were established. Through this focus on fundamental education, I will argue that, despite the worldwide support for this philosophical and humanistic ideal, political and economic interests soon came to dominate the transition of this initial project to local communities, creating imbalances in relations within and between nations. Consequently, the dissemination and promotion of the UDHR was subject to a wide range of individual translations by UNESCO’s Member States. This only enlarged the difficult task for the intergovernmental organisation to mediate the development of peace in the minds of men and women. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of Cu-Al weld status using convolutional neural network
Mathivanan, Karthik UL; Plapper, Peter UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 21)

Welding copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) result in brittle intermetallic (IMC) phases, which reduces the joint performance. The key for a strong joint is to maintain an optimum amount of Al and Cu ... [more ▼]

Welding copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) result in brittle intermetallic (IMC) phases, which reduces the joint performance. The key for a strong joint is to maintain an optimum amount of Al and Cu composition in the joint. To implement this without the destruction of the sample is a challenge. For this purpose, high-resolution images of the weld zone are utilized after welding. With the image processing technique, the presence of (Al/Cu) material melted is distinguished. Therefore, the different weld type/status like insufficient melt, optimum melt, and excessive melt is detected from the images. This paper analyses the weld images and applies the convolutional neural network technique to predict the weld type. The microstructure and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the fusion zone for each weld type are correlated to the weld images. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gap in Covid-19 memory banks: on the use and usefulness of rapid response collections
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 18)

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See detailThinking Borders and Border Thinking
Wille, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 17)

Obwohl die Grenz- und Migrationsforschung große Überschneidungen aufweisen, unterscheiden sie sich z.B. hinsichtlich ihrer Erkenntnisinteressen und Theoretisierungen. Der Vortrag baut auf solchen ... [more ▼]

Obwohl die Grenz- und Migrationsforschung große Überschneidungen aufweisen, unterscheiden sie sich z.B. hinsichtlich ihrer Erkenntnisinteressen und Theoretisierungen. Der Vortrag baut auf solchen Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschieden auf und zeigt zunächst die Verbindungen zwischen Grenz- und Migrationsforschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden aus Sicht der Grenzforschung verschiedene analytische Trends – insbesondere die komplexitätsorientierte Perspektive – und die damit verbundenen Grenzkonzepte vorgestellt. Abschließend werden die analytischen Trends mit der Methode „border thinking“ (Mignolo) in Zusammenhang gebracht und gefragt, inwiefern sie für die Migrationsforschung nützlich sein können. [less ▲]

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See detailLuxembourg born-digital heritages of the COVID-19 crisis, Round Table
Zumthurm, Tizian UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 16)

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See detailAWJC Nozzle simulation by 6-way coupling of DEM+CFD+FEM using preCICE coupling library
Adhav, Prasad UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; ROUSSET, Alban et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June 16)

The objective of this work is to study the particle-laden fluid-structure interaction within an Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Nozzle. Such coupling is needed to study the erosion phenomena caused by the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this work is to study the particle-laden fluid-structure interaction within an Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Nozzle. Such coupling is needed to study the erosion phenomena caused by the abrasive particles inside the nozzle. So far, the erosion in the nozzle was predicted only through the number of collisions, using only a simple DEM+CFD[1] coupling. To improve these predictions, we extend our model to a 6-way Eulerian-Lagrangian momentum coupling with DEM+CFD+FEM to account for deformations and vibrations in the nozzle. Our prototype uses the preCICE coupling library[2] to couple 3 numerical solvers: XDEM[3] (for the particle motion), OpenFOAM[4] (for the water jet), and CalculiX[5] (for the nozzle deformation). XDEM handles all the particle motions based on the fluid properties and flow conditions, and it calculates drag terms. In the fluid solver, particles are modeled as drag and are injected in the momentum equation as a source term. CalculiX uses the forces coming from the fluid solver and XDEM as boundary conditions to solve for the displacements. It is also used for computing the vibrations induced by particle impacts. . The preliminary 6-way DEM+CFD+FEM coupled simulation is able to capture the complex particle-laden multiphase fluid-structure interaction inside AWJC Nozzle. The erosion concentration zones are identified and are compared to DEM+CFD coupling[1]. The results obtained are planned to be used for predicting erosion intensity in addition to the concentration zones. In the future, we aim to compare the erosions predictions to experimental data in order to evaluate the suitability of our approach. The FEM module of the coupled simulation captures the vibration frequency induced by particles and compares it with the natural frequency of the nozzle. Thus opening up opportunities for further investigation and improvement of the Nozzle design. [less ▲]

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See detailMeandering Identities: Affective Dialogues across Continents
Murdock, Elke UL; Campill, Marc-Antoine

Scientific Conference (2021, June 10)

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. In terms of its demographic composition, Luxembourg can in fact be described as super-diverse. The foreign population ... [more ▼]

One facet of contemporary societies is their increasingly divers composition. In terms of its demographic composition, Luxembourg can in fact be described as super-diverse. The foreign population percentage stands at 47.5% and encloses migrants of different generation statuses and intentions to stay – ranging from a working day, to the length of a contract to permanence. Luxembourg is a trilingual country, with English and Portuguese being widely spoken as well. Luxembourg thus provides a rich context for identity construction. The majority of immigrants have European roots, but there is an increasing number of foreigners with a non-European background. We explored the identity-construction processes of eight Japanese women who had moved to Luxembourg. In particular, we were interested in the negotiation process or cultural dialogues these Japanese women engage in following their move to Luxembourg. Multicultural Luxembourg and homogenous Japan provide two very different cultural contexts and our aim was to understand if and how our subjects would engage in dialogues across continents. As noted by Hermans (2001) I positions create dialogical relations with each other by reorganizing themselves in flexible ways from one position to another due to its context-dependency. In our qualitative study we prompted context by providing three sets of visual stimuli. The first set comprised typical images of Luxembourg, the second matched images of Japan and in the third set we presented hybrid images – juxtaposing Japanese and European images. Especially the reactions to the last set of primes prompted a dialogical narration – dialogical interactions between different I positions. For the majority of our subjects we observed a harmonious or flexible flow of I positions within the self – a meandering between reference points and experiences in Japan and Luxembourg. Some ambivalence and disharmonious dialogues could also be observed. Examples for these affective dialogues across continents will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailResponsibility for Property and Assets Frozen or Seized by States Upon Request by the International Criminal Court
Owiso, Owiso UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 10)

Article 57(3)(e) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court empowers the International Criminal Court to ‘seek the cooperation of States pursuant to article 93, paragraph 1 (k), to take ... [more ▼]

Article 57(3)(e) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court empowers the International Criminal Court to ‘seek the cooperation of States pursuant to article 93, paragraph 1 (k), to take protective measures for the purpose of forfeiture, in particular for the ultimate benefit of victims’ while Article 93(1)(k) imposes an obligation on state parties to the statute to provide assistance to the Court in the ‘identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual forfeiture’. However, the Court does not yet have sufficient jurisprudence to flesh out the conceptual and practical boundaries of these provisions, including the question of responsibility for the management of the frozen or seized property and assets. If the Court’s very limited relevant jurisprudence is anything to go by, it is urgently necessary to interrogate these provisions and their practical application, as these questions lie at the very core of the Court’s integrity and credibility. This is especially so as the Court seeks to expand its practical reach beyond (mainly indigent) non-state actors to state actors, a situation that is likely to call more attention to the Court’s powers and responsibilities specifically relating to Articles 57(3)(e) and 93(1)(k). This article interrogates the Court’s powers under Article 57(3)(e) and the extent of obligations of the Court and state parties arising from Article 93(1)(k), and the possible implications for the rights of accused persons, the rights and expectations of victims and for state cooperation. [less ▲]

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See detailScaling of urban heat island and nitrogen dioxide with urban population: a meta-analysis
Wei, Yufei UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Lemoy, Rémi

Scientific Conference (2021, June 10)

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See detailSymposium: Looking back or forward? The cultural identity construction of immigrant youth.
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Maehler, Debora et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June 03)

This symposium pursues cultural identity formation (in terms of identifications with country of origin and country of residence) of immigrant youth using different methods. We will start with a literature ... [more ▼]

This symposium pursues cultural identity formation (in terms of identifications with country of origin and country of residence) of immigrant youth using different methods. We will start with a literature review on previous findings on cultural identification of first-generation immigrant youth worldwide, zoom in closer by looking on identity transmission processes between generations and finishing off with individual-level findings on identity construction by second-generation immigrants. First, results from a meta-analysis will be presented which investigated core factors affecting identity development among first-generation youth. The meta-analysis summarized which individual and context related factors predict cultural identity formation. The second study, employing a quantitative design, focuses on the cultural identity processes and dynamics of change between first-generation immigrant parents and their children (second generation) in a heterogeneous European country context - Luxemburg. The third study employs a qualitative design focusing on identity negotiation processes of young second generation immigrants growing up in Germany. Young Tamils were interviewed, exploring the cultural navigation processes in-depth. Findings across the studies and approaches indicate moderate to strong identifications with both, the country of origin and country of residence. The drivers for each outcome will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights from a qualitative study of second-generation young Tamils growing up in Germany
Murdock, Elke UL; Mohanambal, Pavithraa

Scientific Conference (2021, June 03)

The aim of the study is to examine identity construal processes of young Tamils growing up in Germany. Their parents moved to Germany in the 80s fleeing conflict in Sri Lanka. Building on the theoretical ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study is to examine identity construal processes of young Tamils growing up in Germany. Their parents moved to Germany in the 80s fleeing conflict in Sri Lanka. Building on the theoretical framework on biculturalism developed by Yampolsky et al. (2013) we explored, using a qualitative approach, to what extent second-generation Tamils see themselves as a product of two cultures. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten participants (5 men and 5 women). All participants were born in Germany and completed schooling in Germany. All participants also attended Tamil schools and speak the Tamil language. Traditional Tamil values include making parents proud (collectivistic orientation), a conservative understanding of gender roles and emphasizing duty over joy. This is quite different to predominant values in Germany which is why we wanted to explore, how second-generation Tamils organize their cultural identities and what compromises they make in order to live up to cultural influences and expectations, focusing on the negotiation processes our participants engage in in navigating their cultural influences. The majority of our participants feel committed to both cultural influences and identify with both. We will show the different ways of compromise our participants have adopted. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Trajectory Analysis in Finite Mixture Modeling
Noel, Cédric UL; Schiltz, Jang UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 02)

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See detailReplicating the Kinora: 3D modelling and printing as heuristics in digital media history
van der Heijden, Tim UL; Wolf, Claude UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June 02)

This presentation reflects on the Kinora replica project, an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) and the Department of Engineering ... [more ▼]

This presentation reflects on the Kinora replica project, an interdisciplinary collaboration between the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) and the Department of Engineering (DoE) of the University of Luxembourg. Combining historical inquiry with a hands-on and technical approach – involving the latest 3D modelling and desktop additive manufacturing engineering techniques – it provides insights into the process of making a working replica of the Kinora motion picture technology from the early 1900s. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalgesic effects of interacting with a VR game and associated psychophysiological responses
Holl, Elisabeth UL; Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be an effective tool for pain distraction by redirecting attention away from painful stimuli. Although VR therapy has been successfully implemented in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be an effective tool for pain distraction by redirecting attention away from painful stimuli. Although VR therapy has been successfully implemented in clinical settings, little is known about the underlying factors that modulate analgesic responses, such as cognitive load, executive functions and VR or gaming experience. Methods: A final sample of N = 90 healthy participants played the VR game Subnautica in a high and a low cognitive load condition. In the low load condition, participants explored the VR along a predefined route. In the high load condition, participants had to additionally memorize eight digits presented along the route. Pain heat thresholds as well as psychophysiological measures (ECG, EDA) were recorded during a non-interactive resting state period prior to playing as well as during the two VR sessions. Furthermore, participants completed questionnaires (e.g., pain attitude) and executive functioning tasks (e.g., go/nogo task). Results: Pain thresholds did not differ for high versus low demand. However, participants achieved higher threshold for the interactive playing sessions compared to the resting state period. Psychophysiological markers (e.g., HRV) indicate lower sympathetic activity during the resting state compared to the playing session (resting state < low load < high load). Moreover, pain catastrophizing and fear of pain were significant predictors of pain thresholds. Discussion: Results shed light on the role of inter-individual differences and psychophysiological markers of VR-based pain sensitivity and indicate factors that facilitate/impair distraction effects. This may have important implication for the use of VR-therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPain Processing in Older Age – Evidence from Event-Related Potentials
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; González-Rolán, Ana Maria et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Aging is known to affect neurobiological and physiological aspects of pain perception and has been associated with reduced pain sensitivity and a deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. To ... [more ▼]

Aging is known to affect neurobiological and physiological aspects of pain perception and has been associated with reduced pain sensitivity and a deterioration of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. To investigate age differences in neural electrophysiological correlates of pain processing, we induced acute pain in healthy older (60 yrs+) and younger adults (18 to 35 yrs), using short transdermal electrical pulses administered to the inner forearm, with individually adjusted stimulation intensities. Participants received alternating blocks of painful and non-painful control stimulation and rated the intensity and unpleasantness of each stimulus on two visual analog scales. Pain-related evoked potentials were recorded with a 64-channel EEG. Preliminary results indicate that younger and older participants rated painful stimuli more intensive and unpleasant compared to the control stimulation, with older adults showing a slight habituation over time. In younger adults, ERP amplitudes (N2, P2 P3) of painful stimulation were enhanced compared to non- painful stimulation. In contrast, older participants showed generally reduced ERPs, no difference between pain and non-painful stimulation and by tendency longer latencies for painful stimulation. This suggests that nociceptive neural processing is altered in aging, while the reported pain perception is unaffected. Given that aging is also associated with a decline of cognitive functions and PFC volume and activity changes, this could have implications for the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation. Altogether, our results highlight the need for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain processing in older adults, and how these age-related changes affect (cognitive) pain treatments in this population. [less ▲]

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See detailDISCOV: Encouraging a Healthy Active Lifestyle through the Design of Interactive Environments.
van Renswouw, Loes; Verhoef, Jasmijn; Vos, Steven et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detailSymposium: Contextual and life-course determinants of later-life cognitive functioning and dementia
Leist, Anja UL; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detailApplying synchronization in branch and trunk bus networks: an experimental analysis
Laskaris, Georgios; Rinaldi, Marco; Viti, Francesco UL

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detailCognitive distraction from pain: An fMRI study on the role of age and executive functions
Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; Dierolf, Angelika UL; González-Roldán, Ana M. et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Completing a cognitive task has been shown to be a powerful strategy to reduce concurrent pain. This reduction in pain is assumed to result from a competition between the painful stimulus and the ... [more ▼]

Completing a cognitive task has been shown to be a powerful strategy to reduce concurrent pain. This reduction in pain is assumed to result from a competition between the painful stimulus and the distractive task for attentional and executive resources mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region that is particularly affected by age-related grey matter atrophy. In the present study, we investigated the role of age-related changes in gray matter volume and executive functions in modulating the efficacy of distraction from pain. In a first session, young and older adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. In a second session, we acquired functional brain images while participants completed a working memory task with two levels of cognitive load (low vs. high load) and concurrently received individually adjusted heat stimuli (innocuous vs. painful) to their lower arm. While we found no age-related differences in the distraction effect size on the behavioural level, young adults showed a larger neural distraction effect in several regions involved in pain processing, including the insula, caudate and midcingulate cortex. Interestingly, older adults with better executive functions, particularly, better inhibitory control abilities, showed a larger neural distraction effect in the insula, thalamus and primary somatosensory cortex, and more activation in frontal clusters during the high load task. Taken together, these findings suggest that age alters the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive distraction from pain, and that the magnitude of these changes may be dependent on the preservation of executive functions. [less ▲]

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See detailTypes of health-related behaviours: a cluster analysis of the Luxembourgish HBSC data
Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut Erich UL; van Duin, Claire UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Background: Although it is known that health behaviours, socio-demographic variables and outcomes correlate, it is rarely investigated if there are typical patterns of these variables among the research ... [more ▼]

Background: Although it is known that health behaviours, socio-demographic variables and outcomes correlate, it is rarely investigated if there are typical patterns of these variables among the research subjects. Objectives: To find out whether the students can be divided into distinct groups based on their health behaviour and whether these groups differ in other ways (outcomes and socio-demographics). Method: In step 1, a hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out to determine the number of groups and to identify the cluster centres. In step 2, this information was entered as the initial values of a cluster centre analysis. In step 3, the clusters were characterised using additional variables. Results: The 8065 students surveyed could be divided into 5 distinct groups based on their data on smoking, drinking, soft drinks, exercising, fighting and bullying, with cluster 1 and cluster 5 representing the strongest contrast. Cluster 1 comprises students whose health behaviour is generally positive. It is the largest cluster with 49.5% of students. Cluster 5 comprises students whose behaviour is consistently negative. It is the smallest cluster with 7.1% of students. Students in cluster 2 are close to average on many variables, but their dental health is problematic because they frequently consume soft drinks and rarely brush their teeth. Students in cluster 3 are physically inactive, their mental health is poor, but they are also rarely injured. The students in cluster 4 stand out because of their aggressive behaviour. Conclusion: With the help of cluster analysis, it is possible to categorise the students into a small number of groups based on their health behaviour. These groups are coherent in terms of health behaviour, many outcome variables and socio-demographic variables. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting bariatric surgery patients in their aftercare journey: a playful technological intervention “Truth-or-Dare?"
Driesse, Emma; Verburg, Pepijn; Jansen, Jos-Marien et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Background The amount of people coping with obesity keeps on increasing. While the physical comorbidities are clearly visible, mental issues such as a low self-image are just as damaging. Bariatric ... [more ▼]

Background The amount of people coping with obesity keeps on increasing. While the physical comorbidities are clearly visible, mental issues such as a low self-image are just as damaging. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment with long-term results [2, 3]. Its effectiveness is however often expressed in postoperative weight loss, leaving the impact on psychological health aside [3]. Methods To support bariatric patients in the aftercare pathway, we designed Truth-or-Dare. Combining a physical artefact and a mobile app, Truth-or-Dare is a playful way to track patients' mental state, using challenges to help them to establish a better self-image and a physical exercise routine. The frame attracts attention by dropping magnetic wooden blocks, indicating it is time to play! The app displays a personalized exercise or reflection challenge. By placing the block back on one side of the frame the choice is made: truth or dare? The Truth-or-Dare frame and app have been used by a former bariatric patient for two weeks. Every 6-12 hours a block fell out of the frame. We conducted two semistructured interviews, the first focused on the experience and initial thoughts about the product, the second informed by the data gathered. During the deployment, we also implemented a feedback loop to collect participants’ experiences with the challenges, allowing to understand which strategy was the most effective for a patient and to iterate on them. Findings The challenges were positively perceived by the participant and helped her to become more aware of her behavior and mindset. While she enjoyed taking her time to perform each challenge, she felt pressed and rushed by the too short interval between challenges. She often rated the challenges as unpleasant, complicated or annoying, yet motivating. If a challenge is annoying, it does not mean it is not motivating. “If I would not want challenges like that, I would ignore my problems.” We observed a pattern of switching between truth and dare challenges, mainly triggered by the physical properties of the board. Discussion Playful Truth-or-Dare challenges implemented in a physical artefact and a related app are a new intervention approach for mental wellbeing after bariatric surgery. It shows potential in raising awareness amongst patients around their behaviors and motivating them throughout their journey. As the product is placed in a shared environment, family members are encouraged to join, which has a positive influence on both the patient and partner [1]. The design of the physical product uses friction as a motivational mechanism: (a) a block on the ground calls for action. Will the patient remove it without performing a challenge or engage with the game? (b) placing the block back, one can choose Truth or Dare. Yet, the board is designed to prevent one type of challenge to be chosen too often. These moments of friction act as triggers to step outside the comfort zone. Further research is necessary to refine the challenges, or even personalize them, and to investigate the longterm effect of Truth-or-Dare on patients’ mental wellbeing and self-image. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural identity in the context of migration – The case of Portuguese first generation immigrants in Luxembourg and their second generation children
Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros, Stephanie

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

While first generation immigrants carry a cultural heritage to their receiving country, their children are confronted with different cultural influences during their formative years. How does this so ... [more ▼]

While first generation immigrants carry a cultural heritage to their receiving country, their children are confronted with different cultural influences during their formative years. How does this so-called second-generation experience their cultural identities compared to their parents? To tackle this question, the present study focused on first- and second-generation Portuguese migrants living in Luxembourg. The sample comprises n = 72 PT young adult children (mean age M = 28.2, SD = 7.9; 61.1% female) who participated in the FNR-funded IRMA-project together with their parents (n = 70 PT mothers and n = 65 PT fathers). An adapted version of the bicultural identity orientation scale was employed to assess three dimensions of bicultural identity - compatible, conflicted and frame-switching. We examined patterns of identity constructions of first and second generation by use of cluster analysis, resulting in four profiles: blended, alternating, separated and ambivalent biculturals. Whereas second generation young adults were represented in each typology, parents were mostly found in the alternating or separated clusters. Clusters of parents and their children will be compared and factors contributing to parent-child congruence/incongruence identified. Results will be discussed considering regulatory processes of subjective well-being and different migration experiences in light of generation and age. [less ▲]

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See detailDistraction from Pain: An fMRI Study on the Role of Age-related Changes in Executive Functions
Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; González-Roldán, Ana M.; Montoya, Pedro et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

Even though aging is associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the "top-down" modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from ... [more ▼]

Even though aging is associated with increased and prolonged episodes of pain, little is known about potential age-related changes in the "top-down" modulation of pain, such as cognitive distraction from pain. The hypoalgesic effect of distraction results from a competition for attentional and executive resources mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Given that age-related grey matter atrophy is particularly prominent in the PFC, older adults may benefit less from distraction to reduce pain than young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on task-related hypoalgesia and its neural mechanisms, with a focus on the role of executive functions in distraction from pain. 64 participants (32 young adults: 26.69 ± 4.14 years; 32 older adults: 68.28 ± 7.00 years) first completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. In a second session, we administered a pain distraction paradigm while functional brain images were acquired. In this paradigm, participants completed a low (0-back) and a high (2-back) load condition of a working memory task while receiving either innocuous or painful heat stimuli to their lower arm. To control for age-related differences in sensitivity to pain and perceived task difficulty, stimulus intensity and task speed were individually calibrated. Both age groups showed significantly reduced activity in a network of regions involved in pain processing when performing the high compared to the low load distraction task; however, young adults showed a larger neural distraction effect in several of these regions, including the insula, caudate and midcingulate cortex. Moreover, in older adults, better executive functions – in particular inhibitory control abilities – were associated with a larger neural distraction effect in the insula, thalamus and primary somatosensory cortex, and with more activation in several prefrontal cortex regions during the high load task. These findings clearly demonstrate that the top-down control of pain is altered by age and could explain the higher vulnerability of older adults to developing chronic pain. Moreover, our findings suggest that the assessment of executive functions may be a useful tool for predicting the efficacy of cognitive pain modulation strategies in older adults. [less ▲]

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See detailRaya: A Tangible Sports Buddy Reminding Oneself of the Commitment to Exercise
Menheere, Daphne; de Haan, Alynne; Vos, Steven et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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See detailChannel Modeling and Analysis of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Assisted Vehicular Networks
Kong, Long UL; He, Jiguang; Ai, Yun et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June)

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