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See detailLehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und ihre Korrelate: Ein systematisches Review von Meta-Analysen
Emslander, Valentin UL; Holzberger, Doris; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Scientific Conference (2023, March 01)

THEORETISCHER HINTERGRUND Gute Beziehungen zur eigenen Lehrerin können sich positiv auf den Erfolg eines Schülers auswirken. Dieser Effekt kann mit Bowlby’s (1982) Bindungstheorie erklärt werden und wird ... [more ▼]

THEORETISCHER HINTERGRUND Gute Beziehungen zur eigenen Lehrerin können sich positiv auf den Erfolg eines Schülers auswirken. Dieser Effekt kann mit Bowlby’s (1982) Bindungstheorie erklärt werden und wird empirisch immer wieder gestützt (z.B. Hamre & Pianta, 2001). Positive Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen zeichnen sich durch emotionale Wärme und Nähe aus; negative Aspekte durch Konflikt und Abhängigkeit. So stehen positive Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen nicht nur mit akademischen Leistungen in Verbindung, sondern auch mit einer Vielzahl anderer, wünschenswerter Schülerentwicklungen. Zahlreiche Meta-Analysen deuten auf signifikante Zusammenhänge zwischen Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und schulischem Engagement, guten Beziehungen zu Gleichaltrigen, exekutiven Funktionen, allgemeinem Wohlbefinden und der Verringerung aggressiver oder störender Verhaltensweisen hin (Endedijk et al., 2021; Nurmi, 2012; Roorda et al., 2017; Vandenbroucke et al., 2018). Diese Befunde sind jedoch weit verstreut in der Literatur, sodass Forschungslücken unentdeckt bleiben. Auch unterscheiden sich bisherige Überblicksarbeiten in ihren Methoden und den gefundenen Zusammenhängen zwischen Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und Ergebnisvariablen von Schüler*innen. Darüber hinaus ist die Literatur uneindeutig, welche Moderatoren (z.B. Alter oder Geschlecht) diese Beziehungen beeinflussen. Gleichzeitig variiert die Qualität der Meta-Analysen in diesem Feld merklich, was die Interpretation ihrer Ergebnisse erschweren kann. FRAGESTELLUNG Angesichts dieser Forschungslücken haben wir die meta-analytische Literatur systematisch durchsucht und zusammengefasst (Cooper & Koenka, 2012), um einen Überblick über Korrelate von Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen zu schaffen. Hierbei untersuchten wir drei Forschungsfragen 1. Inwieweit hängen akademische, verhaltensbezogene, sozio-emotionale, motivationale und kognitive Schülereigenschaften mit Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen in der meta-analytischen Literatur zusammen? 2. Welche Moderatoren beeinflussen diese Zusammenhänge? 3. Welche methodische Qualität haben die einbezogenen Meta-Analysen? METHODE Um diese Forschungsfragen zu beantworten, analysierten wir 24 Meta-Analysen, die rund 130 Effektstärken für über eine Million Schüler*innen umfassten. Nach der Präregistrierung erfolgte eine systematische Literatursuche. Während mehrerer Runden der Überprüfung mithilfe unserer Ein- und Ausschlusskriterien identifizierten wir 24 passende Meta-Analysen. Aus diesen Meta-Analysen extrahierten wir die Effektstärken zum Zusammenhang von Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und akademische, verhaltensbezogene, sozio-emotionale, motivationale und allgemeine kognitive Schülereigenschaften. Für die Forschungsfragen 1 und 2 haben wir die Ergebnisse zusammengefasst und einen narrativen Überblick erarbeitet. Für Forschungsfrage 3 bewerteten wir die Qualität der Meta-Analysen mit Hilfe der AMSTAR-2 Skala (angepasst an korrelative Studien in der Psychologie und Bildungsforschung; Shea et al., 2017). ERGEBNISSE UND IHRE BEDEUTUNG Mit Blick auf die Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen werden unterschiedliche Ergebnisvariablen analysiert (Forschungsfrage 1). Die stärksten Zusammenhänge zeigten sich für Konflikt und Abhängigkeit in der Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung mit Verhaltensproblemen der Schüler*innen (r = .35 bis .57; Nurmi, 2012). Positive Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen zeigte die stärkste Verbindung mit der Beteiligung in der Schule (r = .26 bis .34; Roorda et al., 2011), prosozialem, externalisierendem und internalisierendem Verhalten (r = .25; Endedijk et al., 2021) sowie mit Lernmotivation in Kombination mit Beteiligung der Schüler*innen (r = .23; Wang et al., 2020). Alter oder Klassenstufe waren die am häufigsten untersuchten Moderatoren mit teilweise gegenläufigen Befunden (Forschungsfrage 2). Geschlechterunterschiede wurden dagegen seltener festgestellt. Gleichzeitig wurde der Effekt der Informationsquelle häufig untersucht, d.h., ob und auf welche Weise Lehrkräfte, Gleichaltrige oder die Schüler*innen selbst die Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung bewerteten. Für Forschunsgfrage 3 diskutieren wir die Qualitätsunterschiede der Meta-Analysen. Mit dem systematischen Review von Meta-Analysen fassen wir die Forschungslandschaft zu Korrelaten von Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen zusammen und zeigen, in welchem Zusammenhang diese mit Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen stehen. Unseren Ergebnissen folgend sollten Lehrkräfte für die Wirkung von Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und deren Zusammenhängen sensibilisiert werden. Einige Interventionen zur Verbesserung von dieser wichtigen Beziehungen wurden bereits meta-analytisch mit vielversprechende Ergebnissen untersucht (Kincade et al., 2020). Ein nächster Schritt ist nun die experimentelle Überprüfung der gefundenen Korrelate, um positive Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen als wirksame Strategie zur Verbesserung von akademischen, verhaltensbezogenen, sozio-emotionalen, motivationalen und kognitiven Schülereigenschaften kausal zu bestätigen. LITERATUR Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Basic Books. Cooper, H., & Koenka, A. C. (2012). The overview of reviews: Unique challenges and opportunities when research syntheses are the principal elements of new integrative scholarship. American Psychologist, 67(6), 446–462. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027119 Decristan, J., Kunter, M., & Fauth, B. (2022). Die Bedeutung individueller Merkmale und konstruktiver Unterstützung der Lehrkraft für die soziale Integration von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Mathematikunterricht der Sekundarstufe. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 36(1–2), 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1024/1010-0652/a000329 Endedijk, H. M., Breeman, L. D., van Lissa, C. J., Hendrickx, M. M. H. G., den Boer, L., & Mainhard, T. (2021). The Teacher’s Invisible Hand: A Meta-Analysis of the Relevance of Teacher–Student Relationship Quality for Peer Relationships and the Contribution of Student Behavior. Review of Educational Research, 003465432110514. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543211051428 Givens Rolland, R. (2012). Synthesizing the Evidence on Classroom Goal Structures in Middle and Secondary Schools: A Meta-Analysis and Narrative Review. Review of Educational Research, 82(4), 396–435. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312464909 Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early Teacher-Child Relationships and the Trajectory of Children’s School Outcomes through Eighth Grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625–638. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00301 Kincade, L., Cook, C., & Goerdt, A. (2020). Meta-Analysis and Common Practice Elements of Universal Approaches to Improving Student-Teacher Relationships. Review of Educational Research, 90(5), 710–748. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654320946836 Korpershoek, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuijk, M., & Doolaard, S. (2016). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Classroom Management Strategies and Classroom Management Programs on Students’ Academic, Behavioral, Emotional, and Motivational Outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86(3), 643–680. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626799 Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Chiu, M. M. (2016). Affective Teacher—Student Relationships and Students’ Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01311 Nurmi, J.-E. (2012). Students’ characteristics and teacher–child relationships in instruction: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 7(3), 177–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.03.001 Roorda, D. L., Jak, S., Zee, M., Oort, F. J., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2017). Affective Teacher–Student Relationships and Students’ Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Update and Test of the Mediating Role of Engagement. School Psychology Review, 46(3), 239–261. https://doi.org/10.17105/SPR-2017-0035.V46-3 Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The Influence of Affective Teacher–Student Relationships on Students’ School Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493–529. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654311421793 Shea, B. J., Reeves, B. C., Wells, G., Thuku, M., Hamel, C., Moran, J., Moher, D., Tugwell, P., Welch, V., Kristjansson, E., & Henry, D. A. (2017). AMSTAR 2: A critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ, j4008. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j4008 Vandenbroucke, L., Spilt, J., Verschueren, K., Piccinin, C., & Baeyens, D. (2018). The Classroom as a Developmental Context for Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analysis on the Importance of Teacher–Student Interactions for Children’s Executive Functions. Review of Educational Research, 88(1), 125–164. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654317743200 Wang, M.-T., L. Degol, J., Amemiya, J., Parr, A., & Guo, J. (2020). Classroom climate and children’s academic and psychological wellbeing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Developmental Review, 57, 100912. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2020.100912 [less ▲]

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See detailLehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen: Von der Generalisierbarkeit positiver Befunde
Emslander, Valentin UL; Holzberger, Doris

Scientific Conference (2023, March 01)

Zahlreiche Studien zeigen Zusammenhänge zwischen positiven Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und Ergebnisvariablen im schulischen Kontext (z.B. Noten, wahrgenommene Leistung, soziales Verhalten, Lernmotivation ... [more ▼]

Zahlreiche Studien zeigen Zusammenhänge zwischen positiven Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und Ergebnisvariablen im schulischen Kontext (z.B. Noten, wahrgenommene Leistung, soziales Verhalten, Lernmotivation; Givens Rolland, 2012; Korpershoek et al., 2016). Hierbei werden Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen ganz unterschiedlich konzeptualisiert: Während die Lehrer-Schüler-Interaktion vor allem den praktischen Austausch zwischen Lehrkraft und Schüler*in betrachtet (z.B. Beteiligung am Unterrichtsgespräch), verbindet die konstruktive Unterstützung durch die Lehrkraft unterrichtliche und inhaltliche Unterstützung mit der Wärme und Qualität der Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung (vgl. Decristan et al., 2022; Endedijk et al., 2021; Hamre & Pianta, 2001). Beide Aspekte sind bedeutend für den schulischen Lernerfolg (Endedijk et al., 2021). Vor dem Hintergrund zahlreicher Befunde stellt sich die Frage der Generalisierbarkeit von Effekten positiver Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und -Interaktionen: Profitieren alle Schüler*innen gleichermaßen von emotionaler Nähe und Freundlichkeit der Lehrkraft? Oder zeigen sich Unterschiede, beispielsweise zwischen Jungen und Mädchen oder Schüler*innen verschiedenen Alters, inwieweit sich positive Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen auf Ergebnisvariablen auswirken? Auch die meta-analytische Literatur ist sich in diesen Fragen teilweise uneins (vgl. Lei et al., 2016; Roorda et al., 2017). Offen bleibt zudem, welche Schüler*innen besondere Nachteile haben bei einer negativen Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung (Nurmi, 2012). Unser Symposium zeichnet ein umfassendes Bild dieser wichtigen Beziehung und Interaktion im Herzen der schulischen Bildung anhand der Generalisierbarkeit gefundener Effekte: Der erste Beitrag (Emslander et al., 2023) vergleicht die Rolle der elterliche Unterstützung mit der Unterstützung durch die Lehrkraft auf die akademische Entwicklung der Schüler*innen. Die umfangreiche längsschnittliche Studie verwendet Daten von Haupt-, Real- und Mittelschulen über einen Zeitraum von vier Jahren in der Adoleszenz. Ein Augenmerk liegt auf Unterschieden in den Zusammenhängen zwischen der fünften und achten Klasse. Der zweite Beitrag untersucht den Einfluss der Fehlerkultur bei der Beteiligung am Unterrichtsgespräch. Mithilfe von Videodaten werden Unterrichtsstunden in Mathematik und Deutsch untersucht. Die Studie untersucht differenzielle Befunde der Zusammenhänge in Abhängigkeit des Selbstkonzepts und Migrationshintergrunds von Schüler*innen. Ein dritter Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit dem moderierenden Einfluss der Schülerwahrnehmung von konstruktiven Lehrkraftunterstützung in der Sekundarstufe und ihrem Zusammenhang zu mathematischen Selbstkonzept und Interesse. Das besondere Augenmerk dieser Studie liegt auf den Unterschieden in der Motivation von jungen Frauen und Männern für das Fach Mathematik. Abschließend bietet ein vierter Beitrag einen Überblick über Korrelate von Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen in der Literatur. Das systematische Review von Meta-Analysen illustriert Zusammenhänge, Moderatoren und Studienqualität auf dem Gebiet der Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen. Besonders werden Alter und Geschlecht der Schüler*innen ebenso wie wer die Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung einschätzt kontrovers diskutiert. LITERATUR Decristan, J., Kunter, M., & Fauth, B. (2022). Die Bedeutung individueller Merkmale und konstruktiver Unterstützung der Lehrkraft für die soziale Integration von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Mathematikunterricht der Sekundarstufe. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 36(1–2), 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1024/1010-0652/a000329 Emslander, V., Holzberger, D., Fischbach, A., & Scherer, R. (2023, January 3). Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen und ihre Korrelate: Ein systematisches Review von Meta-Analysen [Teacher-Student Relationships and their Correlates: A systematic Review of Meta-Analyses]. In Emslander, V., & Holzberger, D. (Eds.) (2023, February 28 – March 2). Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen: Von der Generalisierbarkeit positiver Befunde [Teacher-Student Relationships: Of the Generalizability of Positive Results]. Symposium at the 10th Conference of the Society for Empirical Educational Research (GEBF), Essen, Germany. http://hdl.handle.net/10993/54530 Endedijk, H. M., Breeman, L. D., van Lissa, C. J., Hendrickx, M. M. H. G., den Boer, L., & Mainhard, T. (2021). The Teacher’s Invisible Hand: A Meta-Analysis of the Relevance of Teacher–Student Relationship Quality for Peer Relationships and the Contribution of Student Behavior. Review of Educational Research, 92(3). https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543211051428 Givens Rolland, R. (2012). Synthesizing the Evidence on Classroom Goal Structures in Middle and Secondary Schools: A Meta-Analysis and Narrative Review. Review of Educational Research, 82(4), 396–435. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312464909 Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early Teacher-Child Relationships and the Trajectory of Children’s School Outcomes through Eighth Grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625–638. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00301 Korpershoek, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuijk, M., & Doolaard, S. (2016). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Classroom Management Strategies and Classroom Management Programs on Students’ Academic, Behavioral, Emotional, and Motivational Outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86(3), 643–680. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626799 Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Chiu, M. M. (2016). Affective Teacher—Student Relationships and Students’ Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01311 Nurmi, J.-E. (2012). Students’ characteristics and teacher–child relationships in instruction: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 7(3), 177–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.03.001 Roorda, D. L., Jak, S., Zee, M., Oort, F. J., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2017). Affective Teacher–Student Relationships and Students’ Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Update and Test of the Mediating Role of Engagement. School Psychology Review, 46(3), 239–261. https://doi.org/10.17105/SPR-2017-0035.V46-3 [less ▲]

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See detailSoftware Model for Robot Programming and Example of Implementation for Navigation System
Chaychi, Samira UL; Reis, Sandro UL; Zampunieris, Denis UL

in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Applications (ICARA 2023) (2023, March)

In this paper, we are going to consider a current challenge in a robotic software system. We consider a problem, which is the lack of separation of concerns in robotic systems, and propose a software ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we are going to consider a current challenge in a robotic software system. We consider a problem, which is the lack of separation of concerns in robotic systems, and propose a software model to address the problem and resolve the current challenges. The core purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of using separation of concerns principles to create a well-ordered model of independent components that address separated concerns individually. Considering the problem, we developed a software model with the help of a proactive engine to address the challenges. We use robotic operating systems to help us to implement the robot simulator. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Analysis and Benchmarking of a Temperature Downscaling Deep Learning Model
Panner Selvam, Karthick UL; Brorsson, Mats Hakan UL

in 31st Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-Based Processing, Naples, Italy 1-3 March 2023 (2023, March)

We are presenting here a detailed analysis and performance characterization of a statistical temperature downscaling application used in the MAELSTROM EuroHPC project. This application uses a deep ... [more ▼]

We are presenting here a detailed analysis and performance characterization of a statistical temperature downscaling application used in the MAELSTROM EuroHPC project. This application uses a deep learning methodology to convert low-resolution atmospheric temperature states into high-resolution. We have performed in-depth profiling and roofline analysis at different levels (Operators, Training, Distributed Training, Inference) of the downscaling model on different hardware architectures (Nvidia V100 & A100 GPUs). Finally, we compare the training and inference cost of the downscaling model with various cloud providers. Our results identify the model bottlenecks which can be used to enhance the model architecture and determine hardware configuration for efficiently utilizing the HPC. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive methodology for in-depth profiling and benchmarking of the deep learning models. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative Results of Fusing Code and Documentation for Learning to Accurately Identify Sensitive Source and Sink Methods An Application to the Android Framework for Data Leak Detection
Samhi, Jordan UL; Kober, Kober; Kabore, Abdoul Kader UL et al

in 30th IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (2023, March)

Apps on mobile phones manipulate all sorts of data, including sensitive data, leading to privacy related concerns. Recent regulations like the European GDPR provide rules for the processing of personal ... [more ▼]

Apps on mobile phones manipulate all sorts of data, including sensitive data, leading to privacy related concerns. Recent regulations like the European GDPR provide rules for the processing of personal and sensitive data, like that no such data may be leaked without the consent of the user. Researchers have proposed sophisticated approaches to track sensitive data within mobile apps, all of which rely on specific lists of sensitive source and sink methods. The data flow analysis results greatly depend on these lists' quality. Previous approaches either used incomplete hand-written lists and quickly became outdated or relied on machine learning. The latter, however, leads to numerous false positives, as we show. This paper introduces CoDoC that aims to revive the machine-learning approach to precisely identify the privacy-related source and sink API methods. In contrast to previous approaches, CoDoC uses deep learning techniques and combines the source code with the documentation of API methods. Firstly, we propose novel definitions that clarify the concepts of taint analysis, source, and sink methods. Secondly, based on these definitions, we build a new ground truth of Android methods representing sensitive source, sink, and neither methods that will be used to train our classifier. We evaluate CoDoC and show that, on our validation dataset, it achieves a precision, recall, and F1 score of 91%, outperforming the state-of-the-art SuSi. However, similarly to existing tools, we show that in the wild, i.e., with unseen data, CoDoC performs poorly and generates many false-positive results. Our findings suggest that machine-learning models for abstract concepts such as privacy fail in practice despite good lab results. To encourage future research, we release all our artifacts to the community. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods and Concepts of the Construction of Territories on Maps of the 16th century in the West of the Holy Roman Empire.
Uhrmacher, Martin UL

Scientific Conference (2023, March)

At the beginning of the early modern period, the west of the Holy Roman Empire was a territorially fragmented landscape: Besides a few larger principalities, a multitude of smaller and smallest largely ... [more ▼]

At the beginning of the early modern period, the west of the Holy Roman Empire was a territorially fragmented landscape: Besides a few larger principalities, a multitude of smaller and smallest largely independent territories existed. But in the regional context, the relationships proved to be even more complex; they were characterised by overlapping feudal rights and high court districts, by joint dominions of two, three or more seigneurs, by disputed territories and many other forms of dependencies. A cartographic recording of these complex and multidimensional spatial structures was not possible by the means of the time. The rise of an increasingly scientific cartography from the mid-15th century onwards allowed the princes of larger territories to use cartographic representations as instruments of power: on the one hand, as a basis for the political and administrative development of their territories, on the other hand, as a medium for the dissemination of territorial claims and for the representation of dominion. The analysis of selected maps shows the various strategies used to construct the fragmentary possessions as closed territories. For this purpose, borders in the form of lines were defined on maps from the middle of the 16th century onwards, although linear frontiers between two territories mostly did not exist at that time. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving Long-Term Retention through Personalized Recall Testing and Immediate Feedback
Atashpendar, Aryobarzan UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL

in Proceedings of the 2023 11th International Conference on Information and Education Technology (ICIET) (2023, March)

Tests have been shown to improve the long-term retention of students, referred to as the "testing effect". Different question formats, such as multiple choice and recall, have varying properties. While ... [more ▼]

Tests have been shown to improve the long-term retention of students, referred to as the "testing effect". Different question formats, such as multiple choice and recall, have varying properties. While recall questions induce a longer retention than multiple choice ones, they are harder for students since answers must be actively retrieved from memory. Moreover, regular testing inherently increases the teacher's workload, particularly since feedback on each test is paramount for an effective bearing on the student's understanding and learning. This work introduces BEACON Q, a digital quiz application combining different question formats and progressively adapting their difficulty to each student’s level. The level is derived from past answers as well as ratings provided by the students which constitute their perceived understanding of each topic. BEACON Q delivers immediate feedback through detailed explanations, without requiring manual assessment by the teacher. Tests are scheduled for periods of time, thus giving the students the flexibility to choose an appropriate time to take the test. An initial evaluation of BEACON Q has been performed in the context of three different computer science classes at our university. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional heterogeneity and individual characteristics in the development of a European tax policy: historical insights from Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

in Danescu, Elena; Dima, Alina Mihaela (Eds.) Fostering recovery through metaverse business modelling - An interdisciplinary analysis of the new paradigm shift (2023, March)

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing above the EU average. Its strong fiscal position is well illustrated by a longstanding AAA credit rating, a significant accumulation of government financial assets, and a distinct fiscal approach. In this light, this paper aims to investigate the specific features of the tax system in Luxembourg from a multidisciplinary perspective by analysing historical sources and exploring the development of these particularities over time, their impact on the socioeconomic context and their repercussions for the European integration process, especially in the design and completion of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). [less ▲]

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See detailRecursive UE Localization for a Multi-RIS-Assisted Wireless System in an Obstacle-Dense Environment
Zhao, Sibo; Liu, Yuan UL; Wu, Linlong UL et al

in 2023 17th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) (2023, March)

Accurate user equipment (UE) localization in an obstacle-dense environment is quite challenging due to the insufficiency of line-of-sight (LoS) links. However, the reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS ... [more ▼]

Accurate user equipment (UE) localization in an obstacle-dense environment is quite challenging due to the insufficiency of line-of-sight (LoS) links. However, the reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) has the potential for offering alternative RIS-assisted LoS links to refine the localization results. In this paper, a recursive localization scheme is proposed based on an iterative RIS selection strategy, with the help of prior knowledge of the propagation environment. And numerical results based on a geometry-based channel simulator in a typical composite urban environment exhibit the improvement of localization accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailInternships in Times of Crisis: Collaborative Production of Instructional Videos at a Distance
Reuter, Robert UL; Reeff, Alain; Busana, Gilbert UL

in Willemse, Martijn (Ed.) EAPRIL 2022 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (2023, March)

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences (BScE) at the University of Luxembourg offers a thorough and demanding teacher training program that combines academic and practical knowledge. As in many other ... [more ▼]

The Bachelor in Educational Sciences (BScE) at the University of Luxembourg offers a thorough and demanding teacher training program that combines academic and practical knowledge. As in many other initial teacher training programs, internships are a key part of each semester in the BScE. In the face of the COVID-19 health crisis, this essential part of our teacher training program could not be maintained. Indeed, the schools were closed, and the pupils were taught at a distance by their teachers. We therefore had to quickly innovate and set up alternative learning activities that best met the objectives of the internships. We thus asked our students to design and produce educational videos, in dyads, for the country's schools. The aim was to enable our students to develop the necessary skills to produce such learning resources and to make them available to schools via the Internet. We will describe, analyse, and evaluate the solution we had to urgently put in place and the videos that were produced as a result. We will also discuss possible lessons learned that might lead to adaptations in our training program. [less ▲]

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See detailUser Requirement Analysis for a Real-Time NLP-Based Open Information Retrieval Meeting Assistant
Alcaraz, Benoît UL; Hosseini Kivanani, Nina UL; Najjar, Amro et al

in Alcaraz, Benoît; Hosseini Kivanani, Nina; Najjar, Amro (Eds.) et al Advances in Information Retrieval (2023, March)

Meetings are recurrent organizational tasks intended to drive progress in an interdisciplinary and collaborative manner. They are, however, prone to inefficiency due to factors such as differing knowledge ... [more ▼]

Meetings are recurrent organizational tasks intended to drive progress in an interdisciplinary and collaborative manner. They are, however, prone to inefficiency due to factors such as differing knowledge among participants. The research goal of this paper is to design a recommendation-based meeting assistant that can improve the efficiency of meetings by helping to contextualize the information being discussed and reduce distractions for listeners. Following a Wizard-of-Oz setup, we gathered user feedback by thematically analyzing focus group discussions and identifying this kind of system’s key challenges and requirements. The findings point to shortcomings in contextualization and raise concerns about distracting listeners from the main content. Based on the findings, we have developed a set of design recommendations that address context, interactivity and personalization issues. These recommendations could be useful for developing a meeting assistant that is tailored to the needs of meeting participants, thereby helping to optimize the meeting experience. [less ▲]

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See detailTable ronde : L'historiographie de l'histoire des relations internationales en Belgique 1950-1970
Briamont, Thomas; Brüll, Christoph UL; Sierens, Vivien

Scientific Conference (2023, February 17)

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See detailInvestigation of OpenFOAM-XDEM momentum coupling results for AWJC Nozzle using preCICE
Adhav, Prasad UL; Besseron, Xavier UL; Peters, Bernhard UL

Scientific Conference (2023, February 14)

The high-speed water jet is the momentum source in an Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Nozzle. This momentum is transferred to the abrasive particles & the air within the nozzle. This leads to turbulent ... [more ▼]

The high-speed water jet is the momentum source in an Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Nozzle. This momentum is transferred to the abrasive particles & the air within the nozzle. This leads to turbulent & complex particle-laden flow in the nozzle. These flow conditions can influence particle impacts on the nozzle, thus influencing erosion. Hence it is imperative that this complex particle-laden flow is captured correctly. The momentum exchange can be directly from the water jet to the particles or indirectly through the airflow. In this work, we investigate these fluid-particle momentum exchanges. Our prototype uses preCICE for volumetric coupling of XDEM (for the particle motion), & OpenFOAM (for the fluid). XDEM uses fluid flow conditions to compute the forces acting on particles. XDEM computes the particle momentum source that is injected into the fluid solver. The results of the coupled simulation align with literature & can be extended to include the FEM component for erosion predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailExplorers presenter
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2023, February 01)

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See detailWhich Factors Play a Role in CoCo Issuance? Evidence from European Banks
Wolff, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2023, February)

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See detailExploring the Embodied Experience of Walking Meetings through Bodystorming – Implications for Design
Jacob, Melodie; Damen, Ida; Lallemand, Carine UL

in TEI'23 Seventeenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction (2023, February)

Walking meetings are a promising way to reduce unhealthy sedentary behavior at the office. Some aspects of walking meetings are however hard to assess using traditional research approaches that do not ... [more ▼]

Walking meetings are a promising way to reduce unhealthy sedentary behavior at the office. Some aspects of walking meetings are however hard to assess using traditional research approaches that do not account well for the embodied experience of walking meetings. We conducted a series of 16 bodystorming sessions, featuring unusual walking meeting situations to engage participants (N=45) in a reflective experience. After each bodystorming, participants completed three tasks: a body map, an empathy map, and a rating of workload using the NASA-TLX scale. These embodied explorations provide insights on key themes related to walking meetings: material and tools, physical and mental demand, connection with the environment, social dynamics, and privacy. We discuss the role of technology and opportunities for technology-mediated walking meetings. We draw implications for the design of walking meeting technologies or services to account for embodied experiences, and the individual, social, and environmental factors at play. [less ▲]

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See detailBringing Movement to Digital Tasks at the Office: Designing an Acceptably Active Interface Interaction for Sending Emails
Keller, Philip; van den Heuvel, Roy; Lallemand, Carine UL

in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction TEI'23 (2023, February)

While working on a computer typically involves sitting for prolonged periods of time, sedentary work routines are associated with numerous health issues. To address this societal concern, existing ... [more ▼]

While working on a computer typically involves sitting for prolonged periods of time, sedentary work routines are associated with numerous health issues. To address this societal concern, existing solutions trigger physical activity as a break from work, rather than a part of it. In this research, we explore a vision for physically active ways of working, by transforming mundane digital tasks into physically active ones. As a research artifact and design exemplar, we present A2-I2, an innovative tangible system for sending emails. After loading their email onto a physical “letter” token, office workers must walk to a physical mailbox located in the office space. Understanding what design qualities influence the experience and acceptability of such systems is a necessary step toward the design of acceptably active interface interactions. We report on a preliminary user test with 8 participants. With this project, we aim to inspire future tangible and embodied systems addressing the timely issue of sedentary behavior at work. [less ▲]

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See detailEMN Inform "Transition of unaccompanied minors to adulthood"
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Scientific Conference (2023, January 31)

This presentation shares the main results of the EMN Inform Transition of unaccompanied minors to adulthood" indicating what are the challenges that unaccompanied minors confront when they reach adulthood ... [more ▼]

This presentation shares the main results of the EMN Inform Transition of unaccompanied minors to adulthood" indicating what are the challenges that unaccompanied minors confront when they reach adulthood and how Member States respond to this situation. [less ▲]

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See detailBreakthrough of directional statistics in space science
Palmirotta, Guendalina UL

Scientific Conference (2023, January 24)

It should be no surprise that already back in the 17-18th centuries important foundations of modern statistical theory were formulated to address astronomical problems, the astronomers were the ... [more ▼]

It should be no surprise that already back in the 17-18th centuries important foundations of modern statistical theory were formulated to address astronomical problems, the astronomers were the statisticians. For instance the 'almost coincidence' in the orbits of the planets in our Solar System with the ecliptic has intrigued the scientists for a long time. Even D. Bernoulli (in the 1730's) wondered if this fact could happen 'by chance'. In a statistical framework, one could think of using a uniformity test on the sphere. Testing isotropy or, equivalently, testing uniformity on the unit hypersphere is one of the oldest as well as most fundamental problems in directional statistics and it is still much considered nowadays. Furthermore with the increasing astronomical data, innovative modern directional statistical theories and models have been proposed to deal with space science issues such as tracking space objects. In this talk, we will provide a review of the many old and recent developments of directional statistics animated by interesting applications in space science. This is a joint work with Christophe Ley. [less ▲]

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See detailTerminal-Aware Multi-Connectivity Scheduler for Uplink Multi-Layer Non-Terrestrial Networks
Dazhi, Michael UL; Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (2023, January 12)

This paper introduces the concept of multi-connectivity (MC) to the multi-orbit non-terrestrial networks (NTNs), where user terminals can be served by more than one satellite to achieve higher peak ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces the concept of multi-connectivity (MC) to the multi-orbit non-terrestrial networks (NTNs), where user terminals can be served by more than one satellite to achieve higher peak throughput. MC is a technique initially introduced by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for terrestrial communications in 4G and 5G, it has shown much gain in the terrestrial domain and this paper explores areas where this concept can benefit the satellite domain. MC can increase throughput, but this entails increased power consumption at user terminal for uplink transmissions. The energy efficiency of uplink communications can be improved by designing efficient scheduling schemes, and to this end, we developed a terminal aware multi-connectivity scheduling algorithm. This proposed algorithm uses the available radio resources and propagation information to intelligently define a dynamic resource allocation pattern, that optimally routes traffic so as to maximize uplink data rate while minimizing the energy consumption at the UT. The algorithm operates with the terminal differentiating multi-layer NTN resource scheduling architecture, which has a softwarized dispatcher at the network layer that classifies and differentiates the packets based on terminal type. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with round robin and joint carrier schedulers in terms of uplink data rate and energy efficiency. We also provide architectural design of implementable schedulers for multi-orbital satellite networks that can operate with different classes of terminals. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ugly Truth of Realistic Perception in Vehicular Simulations
Hawlader, Faisal UL; Frank, Raphaël UL

Poster (2023, January 08)

Automated vehicles use sensors to perceive the environment, and studies have shown the limitations of these sensors. The onboard sensors may not detect objects when other participants occlude the Field of ... [more ▼]

Automated vehicles use sensors to perceive the environment, and studies have shown the limitations of these sensors. The onboard sensors may not detect objects when other participants occlude the Field of View (FoV). Thus, sensor efficiency must be tested to ensure its reliability. Simulation is an excellent test option due to the complexity associated with practical experiments. However, emerging simulation frameworks still have various limitations, especially when it comes to large-scale evaluation. This work investigates realistic perception simulation options for autonomous vehicles. We report the perception accuracy for different traffic scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailNew results in finite mixture modeling
Schiltz, Jang UL; Noel, Cédric

Scientific Conference (2023, January 05)

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See detailFederated Learning as a Solution for Problems Related to Intergovernmental Data Sharing
Sprenkamp, Kilian; Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Eckhardt, Sven et al

in Proceedings of the 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2023, January 03)

To address global problems, intergovernmental collaboration is needed. Modern solutions to these problems often include data-driven methods like artificial intelligence (AI), which require large amounts ... [more ▼]

To address global problems, intergovernmental collaboration is needed. Modern solutions to these problems often include data-driven methods like artificial intelligence (AI), which require large amounts of data to perform well. However, data sharing between governments is limited. A possible solution is federated learning (FL), a decentralised AI method created to utilise personal information on edge devices. Instead of sharing data, governments can build their own models and just share the model parameters with a centralised server aggregating all parameters, resulting in a superior overall model. By conducting a structured literature review, we show how major intergovernmental data sharing challenges like disincentives, legal and ethical issues as well as technical constraints can be solved through FL. Enhanced AI while maintaining privacy through FL thus allows governments to collaboratively address global problems, which will positively impact governments and citizens. [less ▲]

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See detailFederated Learning for Credit Risk Assessment
Lee, Chul Min UL; Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL et al

in Proceedings of the 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2023, January 03)

Credit risk assessment is a standard procedure for financial institutions (FIs) when estimating their credit risk exposure. It involves the gathering and processing quantitative and qualitative datasets ... [more ▼]

Credit risk assessment is a standard procedure for financial institutions (FIs) when estimating their credit risk exposure. It involves the gathering and processing quantitative and qualitative datasets to estimate whether an individual or entity will be able to make future required payments. To ensure effective processing of this data, FIs increasingly use machine learning methods. Large FIs often have more powerful models as they can access larger datasets. In this paper, we present a Federated Learning prototype that allows smaller FIs to compete by training in a cooperative fashion a machine learning model which combines key data derived from several smaller datasets. We test our prototype on an historical mortgage dataset and empirically demonstrate the benefits of Federated Learning for smaller FIs. We conclude that smaller FIs can expect a significant performance increase in their credit risk assessment models by using collaborative machine learning. [less ▲]

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See detailVehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication for Real-Time Object Detection in Autonomous Driving
Hawlader, Faisal UL; Robinet, François UL; Frank, Raphaël UL

in 18th Wireless On-demand Network systems and Services Conference (WONS-23) (2023, January)

Environmental perception is a key element of autonomous driving because the information receive from the perception module influences core driving decisions. An outstanding challenge in real-time ... [more ▼]

Environmental perception is a key element of autonomous driving because the information receive from the perception module influences core driving decisions. An outstanding challenge in real-time perception for autonomous driving lies in finding the best trade-off between detection quality and latency. Major constraints on both computation and power have to be taken into account for real-time perception in autonomous vehicles. Larger object detection models tend to produce the best results, but are also slower at runtime. Since the most accurate detectors cannot run in real-time locally, we investigate the possibility of offloading computation to edge and cloud platforms, which are less resource-constrained. We create a synthetic dataset to train an object detection model and evaluate different offloading strategies. Using real hardware and network simulations, we compare different trade-offs between prediction quality and end-to-end delay. Since sending raw frames over the network implies additional transmission delays, we also explore the use of JPEG compression at varying qualities and measure its impact on prediction metrics. We show that models with adequate compression can be run in real-time on the cloud while outperforming local detection performance. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Standard errors
Wolff, Christian UL

Scientific Conference (2023, January)

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See detailAstute Approach to Handling Memory Layouts of Regular Data Structures
Šmelko, Adam; Kruliš, Martin; Kratochvil, Miroslav UL et al

in Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing (2023, January)

Programmers of high-performance applications face many challenging aspects of contemporary hardware architectures. One of the critical aspects is the efficiency of memory operations which is affected not ... [more ▼]

Programmers of high-performance applications face many challenging aspects of contemporary hardware architectures. One of the critical aspects is the efficiency of memory operations which is affected not only by the hardware parameters such as memory throughput or cache latency but also by the data-access patterns, which may influence the utilization of the hardware, such as re-usability of the cached data or coalesced data transactions. Therefore, a performance of an algorithm can be highly impacted by the layout of its data structures or the order of data processing which may translate into a more or less optimal sequence of memory operations. These effects are even more pronounced on highly-parallel platforms, such as GPUs, which often employ specific execution models (lock-step) or memory models (shared memory). In this work, we propose a modern, astute approach for managing and implementing memory layouts with first-class structures that is very efficient and straightforward. This approach was implemented in Noarr, a GPU-ready portable C++ library that utilizes generic programming, functional design, and compile-time computations to allow the programmer to specify and compose data structure layouts declaratively while minimizing the indexing and coding overhead. We describe the main principles on code examples and present a performance evaluation that verifies our claims regarding its efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Hamiltonian Reduction for Quantum Annealing on SatCom Beam Placement Problem
Dinh, Thinh Q.; Dau, Son Hoang; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Rome, Italy, May 2023 (2023)

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See detailTwo-tier User Association and Resource Allocation Design for Integrated Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
Nguyen, Kha Hung UL; Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in ICC Workshop on Mega-Constellations in the 6G Era (6gsatcomnet), Rome, Italy, May 2023. (2023)

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See detailDisentangling Online Manipulation Strategies from the Perspective of Digital Inequalities
Sanchez Chamorro, Lorena UL

in Extended Abstracts of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2023)

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See detailLarge-Scale Beam Placement and Resource Allocation Design for MEO-Constellation SATCOM
Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Abdu, Tedros Salih et al

in ICC Workshop on Mega-Constellations in the 6G Era (6gsatcomnet), Rome, Italy, May 2023. (2023)

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See detailEfficient Hessian-based DNN Optimization via Chain-Rule Approximation
Temperoni, Alessandro UL; Dalle Lucca Tosi, Mauro UL; Theobald, Martin UL

in Proceedings of the 6th Joint International Conference on Data Science Management of Data (10th ACM IKDD CODS and 28th COMAD) (2023)

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See detailDemand-aware Flexible Handover Strategy for LEO Constellation
Abdu, Tedros Salih; Lagunas, Eva UL; Ha, Vu Nguyen UL et al

in ICC Workshop on Mega-Constellations in the 6G Era (6gsatcomnet), Rome, Italy, May 2023. (2023)

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See detailDeep Learning-Based Device-Free Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abdullah, Osamah; Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

Scientific Conference (2023)

Location-based services are witnessing a rise in popularity owing to their key features of delivering personalized digital experience. The recent developments in wireless sensing techniques make the ... [more ▼]

Location-based services are witnessing a rise in popularity owing to their key features of delivering personalized digital experience. The recent developments in wireless sensing techniques make the realization of device-free localization (DFL) feasible within wireless sensor network (WSN) architectures. The DFL is an emerging technology that utilizes radio signal information for detecting and positioning a passive movable target without attached devices. However, determining the characteristics of the massive raw signals and extracting meaningful discriminative features relevant to the localization are highly intricate tasks due to the different patterns associated with different locations. To overcome these issues, deep learning (DL) techniques can be utilized here owing to their remarkable performance gains in similar practical problems. In this direction, we propose a DFL framework consists of multiple convolutional neural network (CNN) layers along with deep autoencoders based on the restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) to construct a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN) for features recognition and extracting. Each CNN layer has stochastic pooling to sample down the feature map and reduced the dimensions of the required data without losing important information. This dimensionality reduction can alleviate the heavy computation while ensuring precise localization. The proposed framework is validated using real experimental dataset. The results show that the proposed model is able to achieve a high accuracy of 98% with reduced data dimensions and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). [less ▲]

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See detailSchedulability Analysis of CAN and CAN FD Authentication
Ikumapayi, Omolade; Olufowobi, Habeeb; Daily, Jeremy et al

Scientific Conference (2023)

Ensuring the data integrity of messages transmitted over the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus and other vehicular networks is achieved through the implementation of cryptographic authentication protocols ... [more ▼]

Ensuring the data integrity of messages transmitted over the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus and other vehicular networks is achieved through the implementation of cryptographic authentication protocols. However, these protocols raise concerns about a significant increase in response time due to the restrictions on CAN frame size and bandwidth. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact on response time of CAN and CAN Flexible Data-rate (CAN FD) messages with the implementation of cryptographic message authentication codes (MACs) and the periodic transmission of these codes. Our evaluation is based on a randomized schedulability experiment to provide insights into the overhead incurred by adding authentication to the frame payloads. [less ▲]

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See detailLa responsabilité civile du fait des lycanthropes
Calcio, Mathilde UL

in Calcio, Mathilde (Ed.) Horreur et Droit (2023)

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See detailBlockly2Hooks: Smart Contracts for Everyone with the XRP Ledger and Google Blockly
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Shbair, Wazen UL; Scheidt de Cristo, Flaviene UL et al

Scientific Conference (2023)

Recent technologies such as inter-ledger payments, non-fungible tokens, and smart contracts are all fruited from the ongoing development of Distributed Ledger Technologies. The foreseen trend is that they ... [more ▼]

Recent technologies such as inter-ledger payments, non-fungible tokens, and smart contracts are all fruited from the ongoing development of Distributed Ledger Technologies. The foreseen trend is that they will play an increasingly visible role in daily life, which will have to be backed by appropriate operational resources. For example, due to increasing demand, smart contracts could soon face a shortage of knowledgeable users and tools to handle them in practice. Widespread smart contract adoption is currently limited by security, usability and costs aspects. Because of a steep learning curve, the handling of smart contracts is currently performed by specialised developers mainly, and most of the research effort is focusing on smart contract security, while other aspects like usability being somewhat neglected. Specific tools would lower the entry barrier, enabling interested non-experts to create smart contracts. In this paper we designed and developed Blockly2Hooks, a solution towards filling this gap even in challenging scenarios such as when the smart contracts are written in an advanced language like C. With the XRP Ledger as a concrete working case, Blockly2Hooks helps interested non-experts from the community to learn smart contracts easily and adopt the technology, through leveraging well-proven teaching methodologies like Visual Programming Languages, and more specifically, the Blockly Visual Programming library from Google. The platform was developed and tested and the results are promising to make learning smart contract development smoother. [less ▲]

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See detailChildren’s perspectives on their learning experiences during the pandemic
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in Developmental and Adolescent Health (2023), 2(4),

The present paper is based on two online surveys of the mix-method projects COVID-Kids I and II which investigated children’s school experiences, emotional responses, and subjective well-being during the ... [more ▼]

The present paper is based on two online surveys of the mix-method projects COVID-Kids I and II which investigated children’s school experiences, emotional responses, and subjective well-being during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. The data of the 2020 questionnaire stem from 1,773 children aged 6-16 from Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland (Kirsch et al., 2021) and those of the second questionnaire from 502 children of the same age group in Luxembourg (Kirsch et al., 2022). The presentation will examine some of the participants’ challenges with home schooling as well as selected outcomes and conclude with a few implications. [less ▲]

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See detailLEO-to-User Assignment and Resource Allocation for Uplink Transmit Power Minimization
Nguyen, Kha Hung UL; Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in International ITG 26th Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA), Braunschweig, Germany, 27 Feb - 03 Mar 2023. (2023)

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See detailTowards assimilating SAR data into an anisotropic model of an underground aquifer
Salehian Ghamsari, Sona UL; van Dam, Tonie UL; Hale, Jack UL

Scientific Conference (2023)

In this study, we aim to shed light on the feasibility of assimilating synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data into a partial differential equation-based model of a poroelastic homogeneous aquifer with ... [more ▼]

In this study, we aim to shed light on the feasibility of assimilating synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data into a partial differential equation-based model of a poroelastic homogeneous aquifer with anisotropic hydraulic conductivity (AHC). Although other authors [1] have considered the problem of assimilating SAR data into a poroelastic model that uses an inhomogeneous isotropic random field model for hydraulic conductivity, to the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to consider assimilating SAR data into a poroelastic model with AHC. Our study is inspired by the work of [2] where an aquifer test is performed on the Anderson Junction aquifer in southwestern Utah. Due to the inherent preferential direction of the fractured sandstone at the Anderson Junction site, the ratio of hydraulic conductivity along the principal axes can be on the order of 24 to 1. We build an anisotropically conductive poroelastic finite element model of the Anderson Junction site that can predict the coupled fluid flow and mechanical displacements. Our results show that the effective elastic response of the aquifer on the Earth’s surface has an anisotropic nature driven by the underlying anisotropy in the fluid problem, even when the elasticity problem is assumed to be isotropic. We interpret these results in the context of using SAR data to improve the characterization of aquifer systems, like the Anderson Junction site, with strongly anisotropic behavior. The Doctoral Training Unit Data-driven computational modelling and applications (DRIVEN) is funded by the Luxembourg National Research Fund under the PRIDE programme (PRIDE17/12252781). [1] Amal Alghamdi. Bayesian inverse problems for quasi-static poroelasticity with application to ground water aquifer characterization from geodetic data. PhD thesis, 2020. https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/86231. [2] Victor M. Heilweil and Paul A. Hsieh. Determining Anisotropic Transmissivity Using a Simplified Papadopulos Method. Groundwater, 44(5):749–753, 2006. 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2006.00210.x [less ▲]

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See detailUEyes: Understanding Visual Saliency across User Interface Types
Jiang, Yue; Leiva, Luis A. UL; Houssel, Paul Robert Balthazar UL et al

in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (2023)

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See detailApplying the TPACK model to HCI Education: Relationships between Perceived Instructional Quality and Teacher Knowledge
Sacre, Margault UL; Lallemand, Carine UL

in EduCHI 2023: 5th Annual Symposium on HCI Education (2023)

Instructional quality in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education is crucial to ensure that students acquire the necessary skills to understand the complexity of socio-technical systems and design ... [more ▼]

Instructional quality in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education is crucial to ensure that students acquire the necessary skills to understand the complexity of socio-technical systems and design interfaces and interactions accordingly. Previous empirical evidence suggests that teaching quality is determined by teacher knowledge – domain-specific, pedagogical, and technological knowledge. Through a survey of N=54 HCI instructors, this paper reports on teacher knowledge and investigates its relationship with their perceived teaching quality at different levels of HCI education. Findings show that HCI instructors rated their domain-specific and technological knowledge rather high, while the components of pedagogical knowledge were rated lower. Yet, pedagogical knowledge was related to instructional quality, specifically the degree of cognitive activation provided to students. We contribute by documenting and discussing the strengths and weaknesses of HCI instructors’ knowledge and teaching quality. We draw implications for instructors, institutions and the HCI education community. [less ▲]

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See detailYou Can Dance! Generating Music-Conditioned Dances on Real 3D Scans.
Dupont, Elona UL; Singh, Inder Pal UL; Fuentes, Laura et al

Scientific Conference (2023)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (1 UL)
See detailLes tribulations de l’article 145 CPC en droit de l’Union
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Pierre-Maurice, Sylvie (Ed.) La requête préventive probatoire de l'article 145 CPC : Essor, dangers et difficultés (2023)

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See detailResults - TRB
Bigi, Federico UL

Scientific Conference (2023)

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See detailSustainability assessment of a novel reusable and demountable steel-concrete composite floor system
Fodor, Jovan; Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in ECPPM 2022 - eWork and eBusiness in Architecture, Engineering and Construction 2022 (2023)

Raw materials extraction, production of components, transportation and reverse logistics activities that run in the construction sector are constantly depleting the available global resources ... [more ▼]

Raw materials extraction, production of components, transportation and reverse logistics activities that run in the construction sector are constantly depleting the available global resources. Sustainability of the construction industry and its ability to adopt to the principles of circular economy is under question. This paper addresses these questions through the introduction of a novel reusable steel-concrete composite floor system. Its reuse potential is evaluated through comparative BIM-based Life Cycle Analysis with contemporary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailFormal Verification of Ecosystem Restoration Requirements Using UML and Alloy
de Jesus Sousa, Tiago Alexandre UL; Ries, Benoit UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL

in de Jesus Sousa, Tiago Alexandre; Ries, Benoit; Guelfi, Nicolas (Eds.) Formal Verification of Ecosystem Restoration Requirements Using UML and Alloy (2023)

United Nations have declared the current decade (2021-2030) as the ”UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration” to join R&D forces to fight against the ongoing environmental crisis. Given the ongoing degradation ... [more ▼]

United Nations have declared the current decade (2021-2030) as the ”UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration” to join R&D forces to fight against the ongoing environmental crisis. Given the ongoing degradation of earth ecosystems and the related crucial services that they offer to the human society, ecosystem restoration has become a major society-critical issue. It is required to develop rigorously software applications managing ecosystem restoration. Reliable models of ecosystems and restoration goals are necessary. This paper proposes a rigorous approach for ecosystem requirements modeling using formal methods from a model-driven software engineering point of view. The authors describe the main concepts at stake with a metamodel in UML and introduce a formalization of this metamodel in Alloy. The formal model is executed with Alloy Analyzer, and safety and liveness properties are checked against it. This approach helps ensuring that ecosystem specifications are reliable and that the specified ecosystem meets the desired restoration goals, seen in our approach as liveness and safety properties. The concepts and activities of the approach are illustrated with CRESTO, a real-world running example of a restored Costa Rican ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailSoK: Secure E-Voting with Everlasting Privacy
Haines, Thomas; Mueller, Johannes UL; Mosaheb, Rafieh UL et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (2023)

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting ... [more ▼]

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting) protocols have been proposed to address this challenge, striving for everlasting privacy. This property guarantees that even computationally unbounded adversaries cannot break privacy of past elections. The broad interest in secure e-voting with everlasting privacy has spawned a large variety of protocols over the last three decades. These protocols differ in many aspects, in particular the precise security properties they aim for, the threat scenarios they consider, and the privacy-preserving techniques they employ. Unfortunately, these differences are often opaque, making analysis and comparison cumbersome. In order to overcome this non-transparent state of affairs, we systematically analyze all e-voting protocols designed to provide everlasting privacy. First, we illustrate the relations and dependencies between all these different protocols. Next, we analyze in depth which protocols do provide secure and efficient approaches to e-voting with everlasting privacy under realistic assumptions, and which ones do not. Eventually, based on our extensive and detailed treatment, we identify which research problems in this field have already been solved, and which ones are still open. Altogether, our work offers a well-founded reference point for conducting research on secure e-voting with everlasting privacy as well as for future-proofing privacy in real-world electronic elections. [less ▲]

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See detailDécroissance : de quoi parle-t-on ?
Hiez, David UL; VANHONNAEKER, Lukas; DUFOUR, Pascale

Scientific Conference (2023)

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See detailScalable Coercion-Resistant E-Voting under Weaker Trust Assumptions
Haines, Thomas; Mueller, Johannes UL; Querejeta-Azurmendi, Inigo

in Proceedings of ACM SAC Conference (SAC'23) (2023)

Electronic voting (e-voting) is regularly used in many countries and organizations for legally binding elections. In order to conduct such elections securely, numerous e-voting systems have been proposed ... [more ▼]

Electronic voting (e-voting) is regularly used in many countries and organizations for legally binding elections. In order to conduct such elections securely, numerous e-voting systems have been proposed over the last few decades. Notably, some of these systems were designed to provide coercion-resistance. This property protects against potential adversaries trying to swing an election by coercing voters. Despite the multitude of existing coercion-resistant e-voting systems, to date, only few of them can handle large-scale Internet elections efficiently. One of these systems, VoteAgain (USENIX Security 2020), was originally claimed secure under similar trust assumptions to state-of-the-art e-voting systems without coercion-resistance. In this work, we review VoteAgain's security properties. We discover that, unlike originally claimed, VoteAgain is no more secure than a trivial voting system with a completely trusted election authority. In order to mitigate this issue, we propose a variant of VoteAgain which effectively mitigates trust on the election authorities and, at the same time, preserves VoteAgain's usability and efficiency. Altogether, our findings bring the state of science one step closer to the goal of scalable coercion-resistant e-voting being secure under reasonable trust assumptions. [less ▲]

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See detailXRP-NDN overlay: Improving the Communication Efficiency of Consensus-Validation based Blockchains with an NDN Overlay
Trestioreanu, Lucian Andrei UL; Shbair, Wazen UL; Scheidt de Cristo, Flaviene UL et al

Scientific Conference (2023)

With growing adoption of Distributed Ledger Technologies, their networks must scale while maintaining efficient communication for the underlying consensus and replication mechanisms. New content ... [more ▼]

With growing adoption of Distributed Ledger Technologies, their networks must scale while maintaining efficient communication for the underlying consensus and replication mechanisms. New content distribution concepts like Named Data Networking create opportunities to achieve this goal. We present and evaluate XRP-NDN overlay, a solution to increase communication efficiency for consensus-validation blockchains like XRP Ledger. We send consensus messages over different communication models and show that the chosen model lowers the number of messages at node level to minimum, while maintaining or improving performance by leveraging overlay advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailATM: Black-box Test Case Minimization based on Test Code Similarity and Evolutionary Search
Pan, Rongqi; Ghaleb, Taher; Briand, Lionel UL

in IEEE/ACM International Conference on Software Engineering (2023)

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See detailLUX-ASR: Building an ASR system for the Luxembourgish language
Gilles, Peter UL; Hosseini Kivanani, Nina UL; Hillah, Léopold Edem Ayité UL

in IEEE, Spoken Language Technology (Ed.) Proceedings - 2022 IEEE Spoken Language Technology Workshop (SLT) (2023)

We present a first system for automatic speech recognition (ASR) for the low-resource language Luxembourgish. By applying transfer-learning, we were able to fine-tune Meta’s wav2vec2-xls-r-300m checkpoint ... [more ▼]

We present a first system for automatic speech recognition (ASR) for the low-resource language Luxembourgish. By applying transfer-learning, we were able to fine-tune Meta’s wav2vec2-xls-r-300m checkpoint with 35 hours of labeled Luxembourgish speech data. The best word error rate received lies at 14.47. [less ▲]

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See detailBeam Splash Mitigation for NGSO Spectrum Coexistence between Feeder and User Downlink
Lagunas, Eva UL; Perez-Neira, Ana; Grotz, Joel et al

in International ITG 26th Workshop on Smart Antennas (WSA), Braunschweig, Germany, 27 Feb - 03 Mar 2023. (2023)

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See detailEliciting Meaningful Collaboration Metrics: Design Implications for Self-Tracking Technologies at Work
Lushnikova, Alina UL; Bongard, Kerstin UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2023 (2023)

As the workplace collaboration software market is booming, there is an opportunity to design tools to support reflection and self-regulation of collaboration practices. Building on approaches from ... [more ▼]

As the workplace collaboration software market is booming, there is an opportunity to design tools to support reflection and self-regulation of collaboration practices. Building on approaches from personal informatics (PI), we aim to understand and promote the use of data to enable employees to explore their work practices, specifically collaboration. Focused on the preparation stage of PI (deciding to track and tools selection), we invited office workers (N=15, knowledge workers in academia) to identify meaningful aspects of their collaboration experience and report them in a logbook for two weeks. We then conducted semi-structured interviews with participants to identify and reflect on metrics related to collaboration experience. We contribute new insights into employees’ motivations and envisioned metrics reflecting their collaboration, including the personal, social, and organizational considerations for collecting and sharing this data. We derive design implications for self-tracking technologies for collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning and managing an online, personalised research writing course for postgraduates
Deroey, Katrien UL; Skipp, Jennifer

in McDiarmid, Carole (Ed.) Exploring pedagogical approaches in EAP teaching (2023)

This paper describes and evaluates a multidisciplinary, online research writing course for PhD students. First, we explain our course rationale and set-up. The core principles are personalised, self ... [more ▼]

This paper describes and evaluates a multidisciplinary, online research writing course for PhD students. First, we explain our course rationale and set-up. The core principles are personalised, self-regulated and peer learning, and the optimal use of class time. This is achieved through the following components: an e-coursebook developed in-house; tasks preparing students for the workshops; workshops; writing and reflection; peer review; and individual consultations. Next, we review participants’ feedback from course evaluation surveys. Many students liked the online format although most would prefer the peer review and discussion of theory to happen ‘offline’. A key finding for course efficacy is that students greatly valued working with their own examples in the workshops. They saw this and independent learning tasks as the greatest drivers of their writing development. They also benefited from multidisciplinary peer review. As regards the writing and reflection, all students chose to write on their own and the writing reflection tool was deemed ineffective. We furthermore discuss our (teachers’) perceptions of the affordances and challenges of this course format. On the one hand, it allows workshops to be devoted to collaborative tasks, reflection and data-driven learning. On the other hand, preparing such workshops is very time-consuming, while the multiple components and regular task submissions carry a heavy administrative burden. The paper concludes with how lessons learnt have been implemented into the current course configuration. [less ▲]

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See detailInk and Paper in the Camp. Ego-Documents of Luxembourger Conscripts in the Soviet Captivity
Ganschow, Inna UL

in Janz, Nina; Scuto, Denis (Eds.) The Impact of War Experiences in Europe (2023)

In the paper by Inna Ganschow, the camp experience in the Soviet Union as a result of forced conscription will be treated, specifically in its artistic processing: secretly written diaries and letters by ... [more ▼]

In the paper by Inna Ganschow, the camp experience in the Soviet Union as a result of forced conscription will be treated, specifically in its artistic processing: secretly written diaries and letters by Luxembourg Wehrmacht soldiers. Contemporary historical research today calls them ego documents – private, handwritten texts of a personal nature. The range of texts to be examined in the lecture ranges from the smuggled out notes and letters that their released comrades took with them to Luxembourg, through diaries, speeches and self-made dictionaries to poems, short stories and drawings, some of which were in the camp and some immediately after the return from Tambov and other camps in the Soviet Union. The focus is on the question of dealing with the thesis of the Auschwitz concentration camp survivor Viktor Frankl, psychiatrist and neurologist from Vienna, that the meaning of camp life - logotherapy - can have a self-healing effect and increase the self-healing powers, which increases the chances of survival. [less ▲]

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See detailStacked-Cascode Current Steering Architecture for Gallium Nitride Variable-Gain LNAs
Gonzalez Rios, Jorge Luis UL; Vazquez, Diego; Moreno, Robson et al

in IEEE 14th Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems (LASCAS 2023) (2023)

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See detailConnecting culture to geometry - problem based learning across subjects
Ulbrich, Eva; Hosic, Rusmir; Haas, Ben et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 16)

Symbols are used to visualise and understand abstract mathematical concepts. According to Duval (1999), visualisations are the core of understanding mathematics and creating a visualisation involves ... [more ▼]

Symbols are used to visualise and understand abstract mathematical concepts. According to Duval (1999), visualisations are the core of understanding mathematics and creating a visualisation involves reasoning and construction. This is also common in culture, for example, in religions where internalisation and externalisation are used for reflection (Vicini, 2017) that might be a visualisation such as geometric art. We want to create learning situations for problem based learning useful for various subjects (i.e., mathematics, history, culture, arts) in primary school based on geometrical shapes. Geometrical shapes are among symbols used in human beliefs (e.g., the cross in Christianity, the star of David in Judaism or the wheel of law in Buddhism) and can be found on buildings and several school books. Visualisations, e.g. in Islam, can be based on polygons, stars or rosettas (Abdullahi & Embi, 2013). Lesson plans combining cultural subjects such as history or art with mathematics are not common, but we believe there is a visible connection with geometric art. Therefore, we aim to find out whether teachers from subjects with a cultural background are interested in such lesson plans and which attributes they should have to combine the subject, geometry and technology in a maker-centred learning experience (Michael & Jones, 2020). We plan on a qualitative approach, first introducing an activity and then interviewing primary school children and their teachers for their perceptions and learnings. For a first orientation of attributes and teacher needs, we created an activity to develop bookmarks in 2D and 3D using chequered paper and the 3D modelling software TinkerCAD for over 50 primary school students. The lesson plan and comments of the student's teachers hinting towards attributes will be presented, and future steps will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Improving Slant Wet delays for Tracking Severe Weather Events: An evaluation During Two Storms in Europe
Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Duman, Huseyin et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 14)

Climate change has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of weather events with intense precipitation and, subsequently, a greater susceptibility of communities around the world to flash ... [more ▼]

Climate change has led to an increase in the frequency and severity of weather events with intense precipitation and, subsequently, a greater susceptibility of communities around the world to flash flooding. Networks of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations enable the measurement of integrated water vapor along slant pathways, providing three-dimensional (3D) water vapor distributions at low-cost and in real-time. This makes these data a valuable complementary source of information for tracking storm events and predicting their paths. However, it is well established that residual modelling errors and multipath (MP) effects at GNSS stations do impact incoming signals, especially at low elevations and during storms when the atmospheric conditions change rapidly. Until now, the bulk of GNSS products for meteorology are estimates of the more conventional zenith total delays and horizontal gradients, but these products may not be most appropriate for determining 3D distributions of water vapor during convective storm events. In this study we investigate the impact of residual-phase-corrected and multipath-corrected slant wet delay (SWD) estimates on tracking extreme weather events using two events in Europe that led to flooding, damage to property and loss of life. We employed Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with integer ambiguity resolution to generate station-specific MP correction maps. The spatial stacking was carried out in congruent cells with an optimal resolution in elevation and azimuth at the local horizon but with decreasing azimuth resolution as the elevation angle increases. This permits an approximately equal number of observations allocated to each cell. In our analysis we recovered the one-way SWD by adding GNSS post-fit phase residuals, representing the non-isotropic component of the SWD, i.e., the higher-order inhomogeneity. Using the derived MP maps in a final step, the one-way SWD were improved to employ them for the analysis of the weather event. Moreover, we validated the SWD between ground-based water-vapor radiometry and GNSS-derived SWD for different elevation angles. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal fluctuations in the SWD as measured by GNSS closely mirrored the moisture field from the ERA5 re-analysis associated with this severe weather event [less ▲]

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See detailSmart charging of EVs: Would you share your data for money?
Marxen, Hanna UL; Ansarin, Mohammad

Scientific Conference (2022, December 11)

Many governments worldwide aim to eventually replace most combustion engines on the roads with electric vehicles (EVs). But this change causes an additional load on the electrical grid, especially if many ... [more ▼]

Many governments worldwide aim to eventually replace most combustion engines on the roads with electric vehicles (EVs). But this change causes an additional load on the electrical grid, especially if many EVs are charged simultaneously at peak times. Smart charging is a solution to better distribute the load throughout the day or night, while considering consumer preferences. For home charging, the idea is for EV users to always plug in their EVs when they are at home, and for the energy supplier to then decide when to charge which EV. By using (sensitive) consumer data, such as charging history, location of the smartphone and calendar information, the energy supplier can plan and optimize the charging of the EVs even better. In a survey, we seek to understand which of these data consumers are willing to share for smart charging, and what factors, such as privacy concerns and data sharing habits, influence this decision. Furthermore, in an experiment within the survey, we investigate whether consumers are more willing to share data if they receive monetary incentives. Our research design is based on the theoretical framework of Barth and de Jong (2017). 20 participants took part in the pretest, after which we adjusted the survey. We then shared the survey through various channels. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-Performance Computing for the simulation of particles with the Discrete Element Method
Besseron, Xavier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, December 09)

In this talk, we will give an overview of the main techniques used for the parallelization of numerical simulations on High-Performance Computing platforms, and provide a particular focus on the Discrete ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we will give an overview of the main techniques used for the parallelization of numerical simulations on High-Performance Computing platforms, and provide a particular focus on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), a numerical method for the simulation of the motion of granular materials. We will cover the main parallelization paradigms and their implementations (shared memory with OpenMP and distributed memory with MPI), present the performance bottlenecks and introduce load-balancing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detail“When publics co-produce history in museums: skills, methodologies and impact of participation”
Cauvin, Thomas UL

Scientific Conference (2022, December 07)

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See detailRate Splitting Multiple Access for Cognitive Radio GEO-LEO Co-Existing Satellite Networks
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Ali, Zain; Lagunas, Eva et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 07)

Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication has drawn particular attention recently due to its high data rate services and low round-trip latency. It is low-cost to launch and can provide global ... [more ▼]

Low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication has drawn particular attention recently due to its high data rate services and low round-trip latency. It is low-cost to launch and can provide global coverage. However, the spectrum scarcity might be one of the critical challenges in the growth of LEO satellites, impacting severe restrictions on the development of ground-space integrated networks. To address this issue, we propose rate splitting multiple access (RSMA) for cognitive radio (CR) enabled nongeostationary orbit (GEO)-LEO coexisting satellite network. In particular, this work aims to maximize the system's sum rate by simultaneously optimizing the power allocation and subcarrier beam assignment of LEO satellite communication while restricting the interference temperature to GEO satellite users. The problem of sum rate maximization is formulated as non-convex and a Global optimal solution is challenging to obtain. Therefore, we first employ the successive convex approximation technique to reduce the complexity and make the problem more tractable. Then for the power allocation, we exploit Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) condition and adopt an efficient algorithm based on the greedy approach for subcarrier beam assignment. We also propose two suboptimal schemes with fixed power allocation and random subcarrier beam assignment. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool tracking in Luxembourg: the longitudinal impact of student characteristics and school composition
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Ottenbacher, Martha UL; Alieva, Aigul et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 05)

Research question: The current study aimed to investigate the influence of student and school level factors on school tracking in secondary education. We were especially interested in the association ... [more ▼]

Research question: The current study aimed to investigate the influence of student and school level factors on school tracking in secondary education. We were especially interested in the association between student characteristics and school composition in Grade 3 and school track in Grade 9. Data source: Data were collected as part of the Luxembourg school monitoring programme “Épreuves Standardisées” (ÉpStan; Fischbach et al., 2014). The study cohort include all students enrolled in the Luxembourg public education system in Grade 3 in November 2013 combined with data from the same students in Grade 9 in November 2017-2019 for students following advanced or regular educational pathways, completed with data from November 2020 and 2021 for students that repeated once or twice (N≈3600). Theoretical approach: The study draws upon theoretical frameworks and empirical findings (e.g., Boudon, 1974; Bourdieu, 1984), that have demonstrated students´ socio-demographic characteristics are associated with (dis)advantages for specific groups of students in education systems as well as more recent work focusing on school composition (e.g., Baumert et al., 2006), especially as tracked school systems are known to be prone to social segregation (e.g., Hadjar & Gross, 2016). To date, most research on school segregation in tracked education systems such as Luxembourg has focused on individual student´s characteristics. However, with increasing heterogeneity of student cohorts and known differences in educational opportunities related to the social and ethnic composition of the school’s student body (e.g., Thrupp et al., 2002), the current research extents the existing literature by considering both individual (including prior academic achievement and socio-demographic characteristics) and school level factors (mean academic level and percentage of students from lower socio-economic and migration background) in predicting school track placement. Main findings: Results of a multilevel random effect logistic regression analysis in which we estimated marginal effects on the probability to be placed in the highest, middle or lowest track in Luxembourg show that even after controlling for student´s academic achievement, track placement is affected by the gender and socio-economic background of the student, whereby boys and students from low SES families have less chance to be placed in the highest track. The association with socio-economic background is not only visible on the student level but also on school level, whereby students attending primary schools with a higher percentage of low SES families have less chance to be orientated to the higher track compared to the middle track, regardless of the student´ individual academic performance. [less ▲]

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See detailGEO Payload Power Minimization: Joint Precoding and Beam Hopping Design
Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Nguyen, Ti Ti; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference GLOBECOM 2022 (2022, December 05)

This paper aims to determine linear precoding (LP) vectors, beam hopping (BH), and discrete DVB-S2X transmission rates jointly for the GEO satellite communication systems to minimize the payload power ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to determine linear precoding (LP) vectors, beam hopping (BH), and discrete DVB-S2X transmission rates jointly for the GEO satellite communication systems to minimize the payload power consumption and satisfy ground users’ demands within a time window. Regarding constraint on the maximum number of illuminated beams per time slot, the technical requirement is formulated as a sparse optimization problem in which the hardware-related beam illumination energy is modeled in a sparsity form of the LP vectors. To cope with this problem, the compressed sensing method is employed to transform the sparsity parts into the quadratic form of precoders. Then, an iterative window-based algorithm is developed to update the LP vectors sequentially to an efficient solution. Additionally, two other two-phase frameworks are also proposed for comparison purposes. In the first phase, these methods aim to determine the MODCOD transmission schemes for users to meet their demands by using a heuristic approach or DNN tool. In the second phase, the LP vectors of each time slot will be optimized separately based on the determined MODCOD schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailCODEBERT-NT: code naturalness via CodeBERT
Khanfir, Ahmed UL; Jimenez, Matthieu UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in 22nd IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS'22) (2022, December 05)

Much of recent software-engineering research has investigated the naturalness of code, the fact that code, in small code snippets, is repetitive and can be predicted using statistical language models like ... [more ▼]

Much of recent software-engineering research has investigated the naturalness of code, the fact that code, in small code snippets, is repetitive and can be predicted using statistical language models like n-gram. Although powerful, training such models on large code corpus can be tedious, time consuming and sensitive to code patterns (and practices) encountered during training. Consequently, these models are often trained on a small corpus and thus only estimate the language naturalness relative to a specific style of programming or type of project. To overcome these issues, we investigate the use of pre-trained generative language models to infer code naturalness. Pre-trained models are often built on big data, are easy to use in an out-of-the-box way and include powerful learning associations mechanisms. Our key idea is to quantify code naturalness through its predictability, by using state-of-the-art generative pre-trained language models. Thus, we suggest to infer naturalness by masking (omitting) code tokens, one at a time, of code-sequences, and checking the models’ability to predict them. We explore three different predictability metrics; a) measuring the number of exact matches of the predictions, b) computing the embedding similarity between the original and predicted code, i.e., similarity at the vector space, and c) computing the confidence of the model when doing the token completion task regardless of the outcome. We implement this workflow, named CODEBERT-NT, and evaluate its capability to prioritize buggy lines over non-buggy ones when ranking code based on its naturalness. Our results, on 2,510 buggy versions of 40 projects from the SmartShark dataset, show that CODEBERT-NT outperforms both, random-uniform and complexity-based ranking techniques, and yields comparable results to the n-gram models. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Beam Pattern Selection and Resource Allocation for NOMA-Based LEO Satellite Systems
Wang, Anyue UL; Lei, Lei; Hu, Xin et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 04)

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See detailDynamic Beam-Layout Design for MEO High Throughput Satellite Systems
Chaker, Haythem UL; Chougrani, Houcine UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December 04)

We propose a traffic-oriented beam-layout optimization framework for a medium Earth orbit (MEO) high throughput satellite (HTS) system. The designed beam-layout plans have the objective of dynamic traffic ... [more ▼]

We propose a traffic-oriented beam-layout optimization framework for a medium Earth orbit (MEO) high throughput satellite (HTS) system. The designed beam-layout plans have the objective of dynamic traffic load balancing with minimal radio resource management. We model and evaluate the high directivity and the high reconfigurability capabilities of next-generation HTS systems that are equipped with a processing power on board. The resulting payload flexibility is compared numerically against the on-ground counterpart. Adequate key performance indicators, such as the Jain’s fairness index, the load distribution gap and optimization convergence time, are used to benchmark the system against state-of-the-art solutions. Results show that a dynamic HTS in MEO is capable of efficiently attaining high quality load balancing performance under realistic spatiotemporally varying traffic demands. [less ▲]

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See detailFaster and Cheaper Energy Demand Forecasting at Scale
Bernier, Fabien UL; Jimenez, Matthieu UL; Cordy, Maxime UL et al

in Has it Trained Yet? Workshop at the Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (2022, December 02)

Energy demand forecasting is one of the most challenging tasks for grids operators. Many approaches have been suggested over the years to tackle it. Yet, those still remain too expensive to train in terms ... [more ▼]

Energy demand forecasting is one of the most challenging tasks for grids operators. Many approaches have been suggested over the years to tackle it. Yet, those still remain too expensive to train in terms of both time and computational resources, hindering their adoption as customers behaviors are continuously evolving. We introduce Transplit, a new lightweight transformer-based model, which significantly decreases this cost by exploiting the seasonality property and learning typical days of power demand. We show that Transplit can be run efficiently on CPU and is several hundred times faster than state-of-the-art predictive models, while performing as well. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Legality of EU Sanctions under International Investment Agreements
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

Scientific Conference (2022, December 02)

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See detailInterpretation and distinction between labour exploitation in the context of trafficking in human beings and particularly exploitative working conditions under the Employers Sanctions Directive
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL

Scientific Conference (2022, December 01)

This presentation presents the findings of the EMN Luxembourg inform entitled Interpretation and distinction between labour exploitation in the context of trafficking in human beings and particularly ... [more ▼]

This presentation presents the findings of the EMN Luxembourg inform entitled Interpretation and distinction between labour exploitation in the context of trafficking in human beings and particularly exploitative working conditions under the Employers Sanctions Directive and the conclusions of the Benelux thematic day entitled "Human Trafficking" on 11 October 2022 that took place under the Luxembourgish presidency of the Benelux. [less ▲]

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See detailLost in legal data visualization? A legal scholar’s view on the ECB dedicated section in EUR-Lex
Allemand, Frederic UL

in European Central Bank (Ed.) ESCB Legal Conference 2022 (2022, December)

Legal data visualisation and legal knowledge visualisation are increasingly attracting the attention of the legal community, given their alleged positive impact on legal teaching, access to and ... [more ▼]

Legal data visualisation and legal knowledge visualisation are increasingly attracting the attention of the legal community, given their alleged positive impact on legal teaching, access to and understanding of the law by citizens and/or litigants, or the production of new legal products or services (e.g. Stanford Legal Design Lab). On the other hand, very few legal research studies are based on and integrate into their analysis the visualization of legal data, legal information, or of legal knowledge. Even fewer studies examine the impact of these tools on legal research methodology. Legal scholars are no less skilled and familiar with the use of IT tools, from preparing their lectures (e.g. ppt presentations) to consulting online databases or using expert systems to review articles. Is the lack of interest in legal data visualisation tools an expression of any technological difficulty? To use Friedrich Lachmayer's metaphor, "Legal informatics, which includes the visualisation of legal data, is about building a bridge between law and informatics. But in the design of visualisation tools, informatics scholars expect too much from legal scholars, then the latter give up and the bridge collapses. Or does the problem stem from a specific feature of the law, namely the ontological formalism of legal norms, which would prevent the dissemination of these tools - or render them useless? Rather than exploring this issue from a theoretical perspective, this study will examine the relevance of legal data visualization tools through the analysis of a concrete case, namely the updating that the present author is to carry out of the "Euro" section, published in the French Répertoire Dalloz. This section, originally written in 2002 by Professor Jean-Victor Louis, analyses the monetary law of the Union. In addition to updating the references to the relevant legal acts and instruments in force, this new version should also highlight changes to the content of the lex monetae and related legislation (protection of banknotes and coins, anti-counterfeiting measures, conversion and rounding procedures, etc.). As part of the updating process, the research methodology will be based on the visualisation tools made available by EUR-lex. The study will therefore examine the extent to which these tools have supported the research and facilitated the identification of new insights. Or, on the contrary, to what extent they proved to be inappropriate or insufficient and, if so, for what reasons? [less ▲]

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See detailDRIVE-B5G: A Flexible and Scalable Platform Testbed for B5G-V2X Networks
Djaidja, Taki Eddine Toufik; Brik, Bouziane; Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL et al

in DRIVE-B5G: A Flexible and Scalable Platform Testbed for B5G-V2X Networks (2022, December)

Unlike previous mobile networks, 5G and beyond (B5G) networks are expected to be the key enabler of various vertical industries such as eHealth, intelligent transportation, and Industrial IoT verticals ... [more ▼]

Unlike previous mobile networks, 5G and beyond (B5G) networks are expected to be the key enabler of various vertical industries such as eHealth, intelligent transportation, and Industrial IoT verticals. To support that, B5G networks enable to sharing of common physical resources (radio, computation, network) among different tenants, thanks to network slicing concept and network softwarization technologies, including Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV). Therefore, new research challenges related to B5G networks have emerged, such as resources management and orchestration, service chaining, security, and QoS management. However, there is a lack of a realistic platform enabling researchers to design and validate their solutions effectively, since B5G networks are still in their early stages. In this paper, we first discuss the different methods for deploying realistic B5G platforms for the V2X vertical, including the key B5G technologies. Then, we describe DRIVE-B5G, a novel platform that serves as an end-to-end test-bed to emulate a vehicular network environment, allowing researchers to provide proof of concept, validate, and evaluate their research approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailLightweight Permutation-Based Cryptography for the Ultra-Low-Power Internet of Things
Alsahli, Malik Ruzayq M UL; Borgognoni, Alex UL; Cardoso Dos Santos, Luan UL et al

in Bella, Giampaolo; Doinea, Mihai; Janicke, Helge (Eds.) Innovative Security Solutions for Information Technology and Communications, 15th International Conference, SECITC 2022, Virtual Event, December 8-9, 2022, Revised Selected Papers (2022, December)

The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology is currently undertaking a process to evaluate and eventually standardize one or more "lightweight" algorithms for authenticated encryption and ... [more ▼]

The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology is currently undertaking a process to evaluate and eventually standardize one or more "lightweight" algorithms for authenticated encryption and hashing that are suitable for resource-restricted devices. In addition to security, this process takes into account the efficiency of the candidate algorithms in various hardware environments (e.g. FPGAs, ASICs) and software platforms (e.g. 8, 16, 32-bit microcontrollers). However, while there exist numerous detailed benchmarking results for 8-bit AVR and 32-bit ARM/RISC-V/ESP32 microcontrollers, relatively little is known about the candidates' efficiency on 16-bit platforms. In order to fill this gap, we present a performance evaluation of the final-round candidates Ascon, Schwaemm, TinyJambu, and Xoodyak on the MSP430 series of ultra-low-power 16-bit microcontrollers from Texas Instruments. All four algorithms were explicitly designed to achieve high performance in software and have further in common that the underlying primitive is a permutation. We discuss how these permutations can be implemented efficiently in Assembly language and analyze how basic design decisions impact their execution time on the MSP430 architecture. Our results show that, overall, Schwaemm is the fastest algorithm across various lengths of data and associated data, respectively. Xoodyak has benefits when a large amount of associated data is to be authenticated, whereas TinyJambu is very efficient for the authentication of short messages. [less ▲]

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See detailLes nouvelles infractions de droit pénal sexuel : le voyeurisme, la diffusion non consentie de contenus à caractère sexuel, l’approche d’un mineur à des fins sexuelles et l’outrage public aux bonnes moeurs
Delhaise, Elise UL

in Delhaise, Elise; Colette-Basecqz, Nathalie; Henrion, Thomas (Eds.) et al Actualités en matière de droit pénal sexuel (2022, December)

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See detailEdge Computing enabled Intrusion Detection for C-V2X Networks using Federated Learning
Selamnia, Aymene; Brik, Bouziane; Senouci, Sidi-Mohammed et al

in The 2022 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2022, December)

Intrusion detection systems (IDS) have already demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting various attacks in cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) networks, especially when using machine learning (ML ... [more ▼]

Intrusion detection systems (IDS) have already demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting various attacks in cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) networks, especially when using machine learning (ML) techniques. However, it has been shown that generating ML-based models in a centralized way consumes a massive quantity of network resources, such as CPU/memory and bandwidth, which may represent a critical issue in such networks. To avoid this problem, the new concept of Federated Learning (FL) emerged to build ML-based models in a distributed and collaborative way. In such an approach, the set of nodes, e.g., vehicles or gNodeB, collaborate to create a global ML model trained across these multiple decentralized nodes, each one with its respective data samples that are not shared with any other nodes. In this way, FL enables, on the one hand, data privacy since sharing data with a central location is not always feasible and, on the other hand, network overhead reduction. This paper designs a new IDS for C-V2X networks based on FL. It leverages edge computing to not only build a prediction model in a distributed way but also to enable low-latency intrusion detection. Moreover, we build our FL-based IDS on top of the well-known CIC-IDS2018 dataset, which includes the main network attacks. Noting that, we first perform feature engineering on the dataset using the ANOVA method to consider only the most informative features. Simulation results show the efficiency of our system compared to the existing solutions in terms of attack detection accuracy while reducing network resource consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailPower Allocation for Space-Terrestrial Cooperation Systems with Statistical CSI
Chien, Trinh-Van; Lagunas, Eva UL; Hoang, Tiep M. et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailDeveloping a DEM-Coupled OpenFOAM solver for multiphysics simulation of additive manufacturing process
Aminnia, Navid UL; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio UL; Peters, Bernhard UL

in Scipedia.com (2022, December)

Powder-based additive manufacturing technologies, specifically selective laser melting, are challenging to model due to the complex, interrelated physical phenomena that are present on multiple spatial ... [more ▼]

Powder-based additive manufacturing technologies, specifically selective laser melting, are challenging to model due to the complex, interrelated physical phenomena that are present on multiple spatial scales, during the process. A key element of such models will be the detailed simulation of flow and heat transfer throughout the melt pool that is formed when the powder particles melt. Due to the high temperature gradients that are rised inside the melt pool, Marangoni force plays a key role in governing the flows inside the melt pool and deciding its shape and dimensions[1]. On the other hand the mass and heat transfer between the melt and the powder also has a signifacnt role in shaping the melt pool at the edges. In this study we modified an OpenFOAM solver(icoReactingMultiphaseInterFoam) cou- pled with an in-house developed DEM code known as eXtended Discrete Element Method or XDEM which models the dynamics and thermodynamics of the particles[2]. By adding the Marangoni force to the momentum equation and also defining a laser model as a boundary Condition for Liquid-Gas Interface, the solver is capable of modeling selective laser melting process from the moment of particle melting to the completion of the so- solidified track. The coupled solver was validated with an ice-packed bed melting case and was used to simulate a multi-track selective laser melting process. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Linear Precoding and DFT Beamforming Design for Massive MIMO Satellite Communication
Ha, Vu Nguyen UL; Abdullah, Zaid UL; Eappen, Geoffrey UL et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference GLOBECOM 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailCoexistence of eMBB and URLLC in Open Radio Access Networks: A Distributed Learning Framework
Al-Senwi, Madyan Abdullah Othman UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (IEEE Globecom), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Dec. 2022 (2022, December)

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See detailDRIVE-B5G: A Flexible and Scalable Platform Testbed for B5G-V2X Networks
Djaidja, Taki Eddine Toufik; Brik, Bouziane; Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL et al

in DRIVE-B5G: A Flexible and Scalable Platform Testbed for B5G-V2X Networks (2022, December)

Unlike previous mobile networks, 5G and beyond (B5G) networks are expected to be the key enabler of various vertical industries such as eHealth, intelligent transportation, and Industrial IoT verticals ... [more ▼]

Unlike previous mobile networks, 5G and beyond (B5G) networks are expected to be the key enabler of various vertical industries such as eHealth, intelligent transportation, and Industrial IoT verticals. To support that, B5G networks enable to sharing of common physical resources (radio, computation, network) among different tenants, thanks to network slicing concept and network softwarization technologies, including Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV). Therefore, new research challenges related to B5G networks have emerged, such as resources management and orchestration, service chaining, security, and QoS management. However, there is a lack of a realistic platform enabling researchers to design and validate their solutions effectively, since B5G networks are still in their early stages. In this paper, we first discuss the different methods for deploying realistic B5G platforms for the V2X vertical, including the key B5G technologies. Then, we describe DRIVE-B5G, a novel platform that serves as an end-to-end test-bed to emulate a vehicular network environment, allowing researchers to provide proof of concept, validate, and evaluate their research approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do Competition Authorities need Artificial Intelligence?
Lorenzoni, Isabella UL

in Yearbook of Antitrust and Regulatory Studies (2022, December), 15(26), 33-55

Recent technological developments are transforming the way antitrust is enforced as well as the way market players are infringing competition law. As a result, enforcers are starting to equip themselves ... [more ▼]

Recent technological developments are transforming the way antitrust is enforced as well as the way market players are infringing competition law. As a result, enforcers are starting to equip themselves with sophisticated digital investigation tools. This paper explores this interest in building an Artificial Intelligence (AI) arsenal for the fight against algorithmic infringements. What are the key factors motivating regulators to develop their own technological tools to enforce competition law? Building on interviews with a number of competition authorities, this paper finds that changes in digital markets, the need for enforcers to reverse- engineer companies’ algorithms in order to better understand their implications for competition law, the need to enhance efficiency and keep pace with the fast evolution of the digital economy, and, finally, the decrease in leniency applications, are all reasons for which competition authorities should strive for more innovative and alternative means to boost their ex officio investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning-Based Joint Channel Prediction and Antenna Selection for Massive MIMO with Partial CSI
He, Ke UL; Vu, Thang Xuan UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE GLOBECOM 2022 proceedings (2022, December)

This paper investigates the massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system in practical deployment scenarios, in which, to balance the economic and energy efficiency with the system performance, the ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system in practical deployment scenarios, in which, to balance the economic and energy efficiency with the system performance, the number of radio frequency (RF) chains is smaller than the number of antennas. The base station employs antenna selection (AS) to fully harness the spatial multiplexing gain. Conventional AS techniques require full channel state information (CSI), which is time-consuming as the antennas cannot be simultaneously connected to the RF chains during the channel estimation process. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel joint channel prediction and AS (JCPAS) framework to reduce the CSI acquisition time and improve the system performance under temporally correlated channels. Our proposed JCPAS framework is a fully probabilistic model driven by deep unsupervised learning. The proposed framework is able to predict the current full CSI, while requiring only a historical window of partial observations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed JCPAS can significantly improve the system performance under temporally correlated channels, especially for very large-scale systems with highly correlated channels. [less ▲]

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See detailEdge Computing-enabled Intrusion Detection for C-V2X Networks using Federated Learning
Selamnia, Aymene; Brik, Bouziane; Senouci, Sidi-Mohammed et al

in The 2022 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2022, December)

Intrusion detection systems (IDS) have already demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting various attacks in cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) networks, especially when using machine learning (ML ... [more ▼]

Intrusion detection systems (IDS) have already demonstrated their effectiveness in detecting various attacks in cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) networks, especially when using machine learning (ML) techniques. However, it has been shown that generating ML-based models in a centralized way consumes a massive quantity of network resources, such as CPU/memory and bandwidth, which may represent a critical issue in such networks. To avoid this problem, the new concept of Federated Learning (FL) emerged to build ML-based models in a distributed and collaborative way. In such an approach, the set of nodes, e.g., vehicles or gNodeB, collaborate to create a global ML model trained across these multiple decentralized nodes, each one with its respective data samples that are not shared with any other nodes. In this way, FL enables, on the one hand, data privacy since sharing data with a central location is not always feasible and, on the other hand, network overhead reduction. This paper designs a new IDS for C-V2X networks based on FL. It leverages edge computing to not only build a prediction model in a distributed way but also to enable low-latency intrusion detection. Moreover, we build our FL-based IDS on top of the well-known CIC-IDS2018 dataset, which includes the main network attacks. Noting that, we first perform feature engineering on the dataset using the ANOVA method to consider only the most informative features. Simulation results show the efficiency of our system compared to the existing solutions in terms of attack detection accuracy while reducing network resource consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Active-Passive Reconfigurable IntelligentSurface-Assisted UAV Communications
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Nguyen, V.-Dinh; Wu, Qingqing et al

Poster (2022, December)

We consider a novel hybrid active-passive reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) air-ground communications system. Unlike the conventional passive RIS, the hybrid ... [more ▼]

We consider a novel hybrid active-passive reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) air-ground communications system. Unlike the conventional passive RIS, the hybrid RIS is equipped with a few active elements to not only reflect but also amplify the incident signals for significant performance improvement. Towards a fairness design, our goal is to maximize the minimum rate among users through jointly optimizing the location and power allocation of the UAV and the RIS reflecting/amplifying coefficients. The formulated optimization problem is nonconvex and challenging, which is efficiently solved via block coordinate descend and successive convex approximation. Our numerical results show that a hybrid RIS requires only 4 active elements and a power budget of 0 dBm to achieve an improvement of 52.08% in the minimum rate, while that achieved by a conventional passive RIS with the same total number of elements is only 18.06%. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing Computational and Communication Resources for MEC Network Empowered UAV-RIS Communication
Mahmood, Asad UL; Xuan VU, Thang; Khan, Wali Ullah UL et al

Scientific Conference (2022, December)

With the technological evolution and new applications, user equipment (UEs) has become a vital part of our lives. However, limited computational capabilities and finite battery life bottleneck the ... [more ▼]

With the technological evolution and new applications, user equipment (UEs) has become a vital part of our lives. However, limited computational capabilities and finite battery life bottleneck the performance of computationally demanding applications. A practical solution to enhance the quality of experience (QoE) is to offload the extensive computation to the mobile edge cloud (MEC). Moreover, the network’s performance can be further improved by deploying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) integrated with intelligent reflective surfaces (IRS): an effective alternative to massive antenna systems to enhance the signal quality and suppress interference. In this work, the MEC network architecture is assisted by UAV-IRS to provide computational services to the UEs. To do so, a cost minimization problem in terms of computing time and hovering energy consumption is formulated. Furthermore, to achieve an efficient solution to a formulated challenging problem, the original optimization problem is decoupled into sub-problems using the block-coordinate decent method. Moreover, numerical results are compared to baseline schemes to determine the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal allocation of local computational resources results in minimizing tasks’ computational time and hovering energy consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailXAI: Using Smart Photobooth for Explaining History of Art
Najjar, Amro UL; Hosseini Kivanani, Nina UL; Tchappi Haman, Igor UL et al

in XAI: Using Smart Photobooth for Explaining History of Art (2022, December)

The rise of Artificial Intelligence has led to advancements in daily life, including applications in industries, telemedicine, farming, and smart cities. It is necessary to have human-AI synergies to ... [more ▼]

The rise of Artificial Intelligence has led to advancements in daily life, including applications in industries, telemedicine, farming, and smart cities. It is necessary to have human-AI synergies to guarantee user engagement and provide interactive expert knowledge, despite AI’s success in "less technical" fields. In this article, the possible synergies between humans and AI to explain the development of art history and artistic style transfer are discussed. This study is part of the "Smart Photobooth" project that is able to automatically transform a user’s picture into a well-known artistic style as an interactive approach to introduce the fundamentals of the history of art to the common people and provide them with a concise explanation of the various art painting styles. This study investigates human-AI synergies by combining the explanation produced by an explainable AI mechanism with a human expert’s insights to provide reasons for school students and a larger audience. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (3 UL)