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See detailÜber die Ambivalenz des Teilens. Zur Rolle der Sharing Economy in Postwachstumsansätzen
Schulz, Christian UL

in Politische Ökologie (2020), 35(160), 66-71

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See detail“The internet and the European market” from a multidisciplinary perspective: a “round-doc” discussion
Schafer, Valerie UL; Fickers, Andreas UL; Howarth, David UL et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020), (2),

Received 24 February 2020 Accepted 28 February 2020 KEYWORDS EU Market; Internet; Digital Market; Governance; Digital Europe; Regulation ABSTRACT David Howarth, Francesca Musiani, Julia Pohle and Dwayne ... [more ▼]

Received 24 February 2020 Accepted 28 February 2020 KEYWORDS EU Market; Internet; Digital Market; Governance; Digital Europe; Regulation ABSTRACT David Howarth, Francesca Musiani, Julia Pohle and Dwayne Winseck were invited to discuss the main topic of this special issue, “The internet and the EU market.” This conversation at the crossroads of several research areas (communication studies, soci- ology, science and technology studies and political science) brought together leading experts who shared their experience, research and expertise on the internet, European integration, gov- ernance issues, etc. They referred to several topics that are addressed in the papers in this issue, such as the taxation of digital services, net neutrality and the openness of networks, as they discussed questions related to the realities and limits of the notion of “Digital Europe”, changing discourses on the EU’s digital economy, the concept of European governance and the turning points and key events in the relationship between the internet and the EU market since the 1990s. [less ▲]

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See detailA DEM modeling of biomass fast pyrolysis in a double auger reactor
Qi, Fenglei UL; Wright, Mark

in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (2020), 150

Thermochemical conversion of biomass via fast pyrolysis is a proven pathway to product low-carbon crude bio-oils. In this research, an extended discrete element method (DEM) is proposed for simulating ... [more ▼]

Thermochemical conversion of biomass via fast pyrolysis is a proven pathway to product low-carbon crude bio-oils. In this research, an extended discrete element method (DEM) is proposed for simulating biomass fast pyrolysis reacting granular flows in a double auger reactor, in which particle hydrodynamics and interparticle heat transfer processes are involved and coupled with chemical reactions in solid particles. An adaptive time step algorithm is proposed to achieve a stable coupling between the integration of reaction ordinary differential equations and the DEM solver, and the algorithm is proven computationally efficient. A multi-component fast pyrolysis kinetics is adopted and its modeling accuracy is assessed by carrying out simulations of benchmark biomass pyrolysis experiments and comparing the prediction results with experimental data. The predicted product yields of bio-oil, char and non-condensable gas from the simulation of the biomass fast pyrolysis in the auger reactor are in satisfactory agreement with experimental measurements. The decomposition rates of biomass components in the reactor are revealed from the simulation and the pyrolysis number Py is calculated from the decomposition rate of biomass and the heat transfer coefficient. The Py number illustrates that the biomass fast pyrolysis process is limited by the heat transfer process at particle size of 2 mm. [less ▲]

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See detailSevere metabolic alterations in liver cancer lead to ERK pathway activation and drug resistance
Nwosu, Zeribe Chike; Piorońska, Weronika; Battello, Nadia UL et al

in EBioMedicine (2020)

Background: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway regulates cell growth, and is hyper-activated and associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metabolic pathways ... [more ▼]

Background: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway regulates cell growth, and is hyper-activated and associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metabolic pathways are profoundly dysregulated in HCC. Whether an altered metabolic state is linked to activated ERK pathway and drug response in HCC is unaddressed. Methods: We deprived HCC cells of glutamine to induce metabolic alterations and performed various assays, including metabolomics (with 13C-glucose isotope tracing), microarray analysis, and cell proliferation assays. Glutamine-deprived cells were also treated with kinase inhibitors (e.g. Sorafenib, Erlotinib, U0126 amongst other MEK inhibitors). We performed bioinformatics analysis and stratification of HCC tumour microarrays to determine upregulated ERK gene signatures in patients. Findings: In a subset of HCC cells, the withdrawal of glutamine triggers a severe metabolic alteration and ERK phosphorylation (pERK). This is accompanied by resistance to the anti-proliferative effect of kinase inhibitors, despite pERK inhibition. High intracellular serine is a consistent feature of an altered metabolic state and contributes to pERK induction and the kinase inhibitor resistance. Blocking the ERK pathway facilitates cell proliferation by reprogramming metabolism, notably enhancing aerobic glycolysis. We have identified 24 highly expressed ERK gene signatures that their combined expression strongly indicates a dysregulated metabolic gene network in human HCC tissues. Interpretation: A severely compromised metabolism lead to ERK pathway induction, and primes some HCC cells to pro-survival phenotypes upon ERK pathway blockade. Our findings offer novel insights for understanding, predicting and overcoming drug resistance in liver cancer patients. [less ▲]

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See detailGuest Editorial Introduction of the Special Issue on Management of Future Motorway and Urban Traffic Systems
Ciuffo, Biagio; Roncoli, Claudio; Viti, Francesco UL

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2020), 21(4), 1631-1634

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See detailAssociative, idempotent, symmetric, and order-preserving operations on chains
Devillet, Jimmy UL; Teheux, Bruno UL

in Order: A Journal on the Theory of Ordered Sets and its Applications (2020), 37(1), 45-58

We characterize the associative, idempotent, symmetric, and order-preserving operations on (finite) chains in terms of properties of (the Hasse diagram of) their associated semilattice order. In ... [more ▼]

We characterize the associative, idempotent, symmetric, and order-preserving operations on (finite) chains in terms of properties of (the Hasse diagram of) their associated semilattice order. In particular, we prove that the number of associative, idempotent, symmetric, and order-preserving operations on an n-element chain is the nth Catalan number. [less ▲]

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See detailModel Checking MITL formulae on Timed Automata: a Logic-Based Approach
Menghi, Claudio UL; Bersani, Marcello; Rossi, Matteo et al

in ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (2020), 21(3),

Timed Automata (TA) is de facto a standard modelling formalism to represent systems when the interest is the analysis of their behaviour as time progresses. This modelling formalism is mostly used for ... [more ▼]

Timed Automata (TA) is de facto a standard modelling formalism to represent systems when the interest is the analysis of their behaviour as time progresses. This modelling formalism is mostly used for checking whether the behaviours of a system satisfy a set of properties of interest. Even if efficient model-checkers for Timed Automata exist, these tools are not easily configurable. First, they are not designed to easily allow adding new Timed Automata constructs, such as new synchronization mechanisms or communication procedures, but they assume a fixed set of Timed Automata constructs. Second, they usually do not support the Metric Interval Temporal Logic (MITL) and rely on a precise semantics for the logic in which the property of interest is specified which cannot be easily modified and customized. Finally, they do not easily allow using different solvers that may speed up verification in different contexts. This paper presents a novel technique to perform model checking of Metric Interval Temporal Logic (MITL) properties on TA. The technique relies on the translation of both the TA and the MITL formula into an intermediate Constraint LTL over clocks (CLTLoc) formula which is verified through an available decision procedure. The technique is flexible since the intermediate logic allows the encoding of new semantics as well as new TA constructs, by just adding new CLTLoc formulae. Furthermore, our technique is not bound to a specific solver as the intermediate CLTLoc formula can be verified using different procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailHarnessing Public Institutions for Labour Law Enforcement. Embedding a Transnational Labour Inspectorate within the ILO
Garcia Munoz Alhambra, Manuel Antonio UL; Ter Haar, Beryl; Kun, Attila

in International Organizations Law Review (2020), 17(1), 233260

The paper explores how to integrate a Transnational Labour Inspectorate (‘TLI’) dealing with transnational private instruments of Multinational Enterprises (‘MNEs’) into the International Labour ... [more ▼]

The paper explores how to integrate a Transnational Labour Inspectorate (‘TLI’) dealing with transnational private instruments of Multinational Enterprises (‘MNEs’) into the International Labour Organization (‘ILO’). After exploring monitoring initiatives with roots in public international organizations, we will argue that from an international law perspective on international legal personality such activities can be justified. Under the qualification of ‘subject normation’, as we dub these activities, we will argue that the ILO is the best situated locus to embed a system to inspect commitments MNEs voluntary adhere to in their CSR strategies, including Global Framework Agreements. Finally, we explain how the TLI as we envisage it could fit within the existing system of enforcement and compliance monitoring of the ILO. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Bus Holding Control Using Cooperative ITS
Laskaris, Georgios; Seredynski, Marcin; Viti, Francesco UL

in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems (2020), 21(4), 1767-1778

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See detailSOCIOECONOMIC PROFILES OF CROSS-BORDER COMMUTERS AT THE FRENCH BORDERS: common features and territorial specificities
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Borders in Perspective (2020), 3

This study proposes to shed light on the main aspects of the socio-professional profiles of cross-border commuters at the various French borders. Nearly 385,000 cross-border commuters were living in ... [more ▼]

This study proposes to shed light on the main aspects of the socio-professional profiles of cross-border commuters at the various French borders. Nearly 385,000 cross-border commuters were living in France in 2013. The destination countries of these cross-border commuters are very diverse (mainly Switzerland and Luxembourg). There is a relative territorial specificity of the socio-professional profiles according to the different areas of employment. Cross-border work is a regulatory factor in the different cross-border labor markets, allowing for a quantitative but also qualitative adjustment between reserves and man-power needs. This analysis will thus provide a better understanding of cross-border mobility and, above all, identify their different socioeconomic functions with regard to the countries of destination. For this purpose, we have made use of the 2013 INSEE population census data. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial : Analyzing cross-border Labor Markets
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Borders in Perspective (2020), 3

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See detailCROSS-BORDER LABOR MARKETS: dynamics and perspectives
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Borders in Perspective (2020), 3

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See detailGrundlagen und Stellenwert der COMT- und MAO-B-Inhibitoren in der Therapie des idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndroms.
Woitalla, Dirk; Krüger, Rejko UL; Lorenzl, Stefan et al

in Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie (2020)

Inhibitors of COMT and MAO-B are well established in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). MAO-B inhibitors are used as monotherapy as well as in combination with levodopa, whereas COMT ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of COMT and MAO-B are well established in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). MAO-B inhibitors are used as monotherapy as well as in combination with levodopa, whereas COMT inhibitors exert their effects only in conjungtion with levodopa. Both classes of compounds prolong the response duration of levodopa and optimise its clinical benefit. As a result, the ON-times are prolonged significantly. In the past, MAO-B inhibitors were also adminstered for neuroprotection; however, despite convincing scientific reasoning in support of neuroprotective effects, these could not be substantiated in clinical studies performed so far. [less ▲]

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See detailEine Doktorarbeit zu beginnen, ist (relativ) leicht...
Schommer, Christoph UL

in Luxemburger Wort (2020)

Vor einigen Wochen war es wieder soweit: Zwei Doktorandinnen hatten ihre wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten eingereicht, sich den Fragen einer internationalen Expertenkommission gestellt, und schließlich ihre ... [more ▼]

Vor einigen Wochen war es wieder soweit: Zwei Doktorandinnen hatten ihre wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten eingereicht, sich den Fragen einer internationalen Expertenkommission gestellt, und schließlich ihre Doktorarbeiten verteidigt. [less ▲]

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See detailBIM-Based End-of-Lifecycle Decision Making and Digital Deconstruction: Literature Review
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(7), 2670

This article is the second part of a two-part study, which explored the extent to which Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used for End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) scenario selection to minimise the ... [more ▼]

This article is the second part of a two-part study, which explored the extent to which Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used for End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) scenario selection to minimise the Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW). The conventional literature review presented here is based on the conceptual landscape that was obtained from the bibliometric and scientometric analysis in the first part of the study. Seven main academic research directions concerning the BIM-based EoL domain were found, including social and cultural factors, BIM-based Design for Deconstruction (DfD), BIM-based deconstruction, BIM-based EoL within LCA, BIM-aided waste management, Material and Component Banks (M/C Banks), off-site construction, interoperability and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The analysis highlights research gaps in the path of raw materials to reusable materials, i.e., from the deconstruction to M/C banks to DfD-based designs and then again to deconstruction. BIM-based EoL is suffering from a lack of a global framework. The existing solutions are based on local waste management policies and case-specific sustainability criteria selection. Another drawback of these ad hoc but well-developed BIM-based EoL prototypes is their use of specific proprietary BIM tools to support their framework. This disconnection between BIM tools and EoL tools is reportedly hindering the BIM-based EoL, while no IFC classes support the EoL phase information exchange. [less ▲]

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See detailCovid-19 : « And the world went digital… »
Sorlut, Pierre; Derian, Maxime UL

in D'Lëtzebuerger Land (2020)

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See detailTransboundary water diplomacy among small states: a giant dilemma for Central American regionalism
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen UL; Kauffer, Edith

in Water International (2020)

Water diplomacy aims to shift water disputes from zero-sum games into positive-sum cooperation models though actor-driven approaches. Small states are often viewed as facilitators of diplomacy through a ... [more ▼]

Water diplomacy aims to shift water disputes from zero-sum games into positive-sum cooperation models though actor-driven approaches. Small states are often viewed as facilitators of diplomacy through a commitment to regionalism and consensus, which highlights their influence in international affairs. Responding to the research question, ‘How do “non-decisions” lead to status quo in water diplomacy?’ this article discusses how regional water diplomacy based on influence is weakened by the domestic shortcomings of small states’ political systems, where authorities use non-decision-making to maintain a status quo that guarantees their legitimized power. [less ▲]

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See detailPuRSUE -from specification of robotic environments to synthesis of controllers
Bersani, Marcello M.; Soldo, Matteo; Menghi, Claudio UL et al

in Formal Aspects of Computing (2020)

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See detailGene family information facilitates variant interpretation and identification of disease-associated genes in neurodevelopmental disorders
Lal, Dennis; May, Patrick UL; Perez-Palma, Eduardo et al

in Genome Medicine (2020), 12(28),

Background: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs ... [more ▼]

Background: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). While orthologous gene conservation is commonly employed in variant annotation, approximately 80% of known disease-associated genes belong to gene families. The use of gene family information for disease gene discovery and variant interpretation has not yet been investigated on genome-wide scale. We empirically evaluate whether paralog conserved or non-conserved sites in human gene families are important in NDDs. Methods: Gene family information was collected from Ensembl. Paralog conserved sites were defined based on paralog sequence alignments. 10,068 NDD patients and 2,078 controls were statistically evaluated for de novo variant burden in gene families. Results: We demonstrate that disease-associated missense variants are enriched at paralog conserved sites across all disease groups and inheritance models tested. We developed a gene family de novo enrichment framework that identified 43 exome-wide enriched gene families including 98 de novo variant carrying genes in NDD patients of which 28 represent novel candidate genes for NDD which are brain expressed and under evolutionary constraint. Conclusion: This study represents the first method to incorporate gene-family information into a statistical framework to interpret variant data for NDDs and to discover newly NDD -associated genes. [less ▲]

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See detailSuicidality in adults with autism spectrum disorder: The role of depressive symptomatology, alexithymia, and antidepressants.
Pinto Costa, Andreia UL; Loor, Cathia; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (2020)

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of suicidality. However, the risk factors remain under-investigated. This study explored factors that increase suicidality risk in ASD ... [more ▼]

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of suicidality. However, the risk factors remain under-investigated. This study explored factors that increase suicidality risk in ASD. Through an online survey, 150 adults with ASD were compared to 189 control adults. Autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, alexithymia, and antidepressant intake were assessed on their contribution predicting suicidality. Among people with ASD, 63% scored above the cutoff for high suicidality risk. Increased autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant intake significantly predicted suicidality. Furthermore, among those with high levels of autistic traits, the risk of suicidality was increased if they also had high levels of alexithymia. These results highlight the importance of considering depression, antidepressants, and alexithymia to prevent suicidality in ASD. [less ▲]

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See detailHypoxia-Induced Adaptations of miRNomes and Proteomes in Melanoma Cells and Their Secreted Extracellular Vesicles
Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Lecha, Odile; Gaigneaux, Anthoula UL et al

in Cancers (2020)

Reduced levels of intratumoural oxygen are associated with hypoxia-induced pro-oncogenic events such as invasion, metabolic reprogramming, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, metastasis and resistance to ... [more ▼]

Reduced levels of intratumoural oxygen are associated with hypoxia-induced pro-oncogenic events such as invasion, metabolic reprogramming, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, metastasis and resistance to therapy, all favouring cancer progression. Small extracellular vesicles (EV) shuttle various cargos (proteins, miRNAs, DNA and others). Tumour-derived EVs can be taken up by neighbouring or distant cells in the tumour microenvironment, thus facilitating intercellular communication. The quantity of extracellular vesicle secretion and their composition can vary with changing microenvironmental conditions and disease states. Here, we investigated in melanoma cells the influence of hypoxia on the content and number of secreted EVs. Whole miRNome and proteome profiling revealed distinct expression patterns in normoxic or hypoxic growth conditions. Apart from the well-known miR-210, we identified miR-1290 as a novel hypoxia-associated microRNA, which was highly abundant in hypoxic EVs. On the other hand, miR-23a-5p and -23b-5p were consistently downregulated in hypoxic conditions, while the protein levels of the miR-23a/b-5p-predicted targetIPO11were concomitantly upregulated. Furthermore, hypoxic melanoma EVs exhibit a signature consisting of six proteins (AKR7A2, DDX39B, EIF3C, FARSA, PRMT5, VARS), which were significantly associated with a poor prognosis for melanoma patients, indicating that proteins and/or miRNAs secreted by cancer cells may be exploited as biomarkers. [less ▲]

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See detailLogistics: Situating flows in a spatial context
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geography Compass (2020), 7(3),

The origins of logistics lie in military and imperial methods of expansion and control of geographical space. It is principally associated with the more recent contexts of business management and ... [more ▼]

The origins of logistics lie in military and imperial methods of expansion and control of geographical space. It is principally associated with the more recent contexts of business management and engineering. Logistics systems are now the conveyor belts of the global system of trade, commerce and production, and its associated techniques and strategies aim at optimizing flows and throughput within discrete units (such as firms), in economic networks and across geographical space. Because flows are important determinants for the development of places, logistics has the power to structure territories. Therefore, it has raised considerable interest in the field of geography, not only with regard to cities and their dense agglomeration of people, buildings and infrastructure, but also in geopolitical terms as it fosters the exploration, control and surveillance of areas. The paper presents a critical account of logistics operations and their relevance for the making (and unmaking) of territories, related policy dimensions and future challenges for research. [less ▲]

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See detailFixMiner: Mining relevant fix patterns for automated program repair
Koyuncu, Anil UL; Liu, Kui UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2020)

Patching is a common activity in software development. It is generally performed on a source code base to address bugs or add new functionalities. In this context, given the recurrence of bugs across ... [more ▼]

Patching is a common activity in software development. It is generally performed on a source code base to address bugs or add new functionalities. In this context, given the recurrence of bugs across projects, the associated similar patches can be leveraged to extract generic fix actions. While the literature includes various approaches leveraging similarity among patches to guide program repair, these approaches often do not yield fix patterns that are tractable and reusable as actionable input to APR systems. In this paper, we propose a systematic and automated approach to mining relevant and actionable fix patterns based on an iterative clustering strategy applied to atomic changes within patches. The goal of FixMiner is thus to infer separate and reusable fix patterns that can be leveraged in other patch generation systems. Our technique, FixMiner, leverages Rich Edit Script which is a specialized tree structure of the edit scripts that captures the ASTlevel context of the code changes. FixMiner uses different tree representations of Rich Edit Scripts for each round of clustering to identify similar changes. These are abstract syntax trees, edit actions trees, and code context trees. We have evaluated FixMiner on thousands of software patches collected from open source projects. Preliminary results show that we are able to mine accurate patterns, efficiently exploiting change information in Rich Edit Scripts. We further integrated the mined patterns to an automated program repair prototype, PARFixMiner, with which we are able to correctly fix 26 bugs of the Defects4J benchmark. Beyond this quantitative performance, we show that the mined fix patterns are sufficiently relevant to produce patches with a high probability of correctness: 81% of PARFixMiner’s generated plausible patches are correct. [less ▲]

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See detailThe token’s secret: the two-faced financial incentive of the token economy
Drasch, Benedict J; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Manner-Romberg, Tobias et al

in Electronic Markets (2020)

Multi-sided platforms are omnipresent in today’s digital world. However, establishing a platform includes challenges: The platform utility usually increases with the number of participants. At an early ... [more ▼]

Multi-sided platforms are omnipresent in today’s digital world. However, establishing a platform includes challenges: The platform utility usually increases with the number of participants. At an early stage, potential participants expect the platform utility to be low and lack an incentive to join (i.e., “chicken and egg” problem). Blockchain-enabled utility tokens hold the promise to overcome this problem. They supposedly provide a suitable financial incentive for their owners to join the platform as soon as possible. In the first half of 2018, investors seemed to believe in the presumption and spent more than US$ 17.6 billion in token sales. To date, we know little about this financial incentive in the context of the token economy. For this purpose, we model the token value development and the associated incentives in a multi-sided blockchain-enabled platform. The resulting findings suggest that blockchain-enabled utility tokens can help to overcome the “chicken and egg” problem. However, these tokens lead to contradictory incentives for platform participants, and can even inhibit platform usage. The contribution of our work is twofold: First, we develop one of the first models for token value development. Second, our research contributes to a deeper understanding of the utility token’s financial incentive. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Alphabet Inc. plans Toronto's waterfront: New post-political modes of urban governance
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Urban Planning (2020), 5(1), 69-83

‘Smart cities’ has become a hegemonic concept in urban discourses, despite substantial criticism presented by scholarly research and activism. The aim of this research was to understand what happens when ... [more ▼]

‘Smart cities’ has become a hegemonic concept in urban discourses, despite substantial criticism presented by scholarly research and activism. The aim of this research was to understand what happens when one of the big digital corporations enters the field of real estate and land use development and urban planning, how existing institutions respond to this, and how modes of urban governance are affected. Alphabet Inc.’s plans for Toronto’s waterfront provided insights into these questions. Our investigations traced a complex web of place-making practices that involved all levels of government, the general public, and networks of actors throughout the private sector. Methodologically, the discourse was reconstructed with local fieldwork, interviews with key actors, participating in tours and public meetings, and secondary sources. It was found that Alphabet Inc.’s plan to build a world-class digital city contained some lessons for urban studies and urban planning practice. First, Alphabet Inc.’s plans, which unfolded amidst initiatives to expand the knowledge economy, confirmed concerns that the trajectory of neoliberal, market-driven land use and speculation along the waterfront remains unchanged. Second, digital infrastructures are potentially a Trojan Horse. Third, it was seen that municipalities and their modes of urban planning are vulnerable to the political economic manoeuvrings of large corporate power. Fourth, Alphabet Inc. operates as a post-political package driven by a new coalition of politics, where the smart city is sold as a neutral technology. The controversies surrounding the project, however, stirred a civic discourse that might signal a return of the political. [less ▲]

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See detailDifficulty-level modeling of ontology-based factual questions
Ellampallil Venugopal, Vinu UL; Kumar, P Sreenivasa

in Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability (2020)

Semantics-based knowledge representations such as ontologies are found to be very useful in automatically generating meaningful factual questions. Determining the difficulty-level of these system ... [more ▼]

Semantics-based knowledge representations such as ontologies are found to be very useful in automatically generating meaningful factual questions. Determining the difficulty-level of these system-generated questions is helpful to effectively utilize them in various educational and professional applications. The existing approach for for predicting the difficulty-level of factual questions utilizes only few naive features and, its accuracy (F-measure) is found to be close to only 50% while considering our benchmark set of 185 questions. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for this problem by identifying new features and by incorporating an educational theory, related to difficulty-level of a question, called Item Response Theory (IRT). In the IRT, knowledge proficiency of end users (learners) are considered for assigning difficulty-levels, because of the assumptions that a given question is perceived differently by learners of various proficiency levels. We have done a detailed study on the features/factors of a question statement which could possibly determine its difficulty-level for three learner categories (experts, intermediates, and beginners). We formulate ontology-based metrics for the same. We then train three logistic regression models to predict the difficulty-level corresponding to the three learner categories. The output of these models is interpreted using the IRT to find a question’s overall difficulty-level. The accuracy of the three models based on cross-validation is found to be in satisfactory range (67-84%). The proposed model (containing three classifiers) outperforms the existing model by more than 20% in precision, recall and F1-score measures. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust SINR-Constrained Symbol-Level Multiuser Precoding With Imperfect Channel Knowledge
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Kayhan, Farbod UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2020), 68(1), 1837-1852

In this paper, we address robust design of symbol-level precoding (SLP) for the downlink of multiuser multiple-input single-output wireless channels, when imperfect channel state information (CSI) is ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we address robust design of symbol-level precoding (SLP) for the downlink of multiuser multiple-input single-output wireless channels, when imperfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the transmitter. In particular, we consider a well known model for the CSI imperfection, namely, stochastic Gaussian-distributed uncertainty. Our design objective is to minimize the total (per-symbol) transmission power subject to constructive interference (CI) constraints as well as the users’ quality-of-service requirements in terms of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. Assuming stochastic channel uncertainties, we first define probabilistic CI constraints in order to achieve robustness to statistically known CSI errors. Since these probabilistic constraints are difficult to handle, we resort to their convex approximations in the form of tractable (deterministic) robust constraints. Three convex approximations are obtained based on different conservatism levels, among which one is introduced as a benchmark for comparison. We show that each of our proposed approximations is tighter than the other under specific robustness settings, while both of them always outperform the benchmark. Using the proposed CI constraints, we formulate the robust SLP optimization problem as a second-order cone program. Extensive simulation results are provided to validate our analytic discussions and to make comparisons with conventional block-level robust precoding schemes. We show that the robust design of symbol-level precoder leads to an improved performance in terms of energy efficiency at the cost of increasing the computational complexity by an order of the number of users in the large system limit, compared to its non-robust counterpart. [less ▲]

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See detailArchetypal Soft-Mode-Driven Antipolar Transition in Francisite Cu3Bi(SeO3)(2)O2Cl
Milesi-Brault, Cosme; Toulouse, Constance UL; Constable, Evan et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (2020), 124(9), 097603-6

Model materials are precious test cases for elementary theories and provide building blocks for the understanding of more complex cases. Here, we describe the lattice dynamics of the structural phase ... [more ▼]

Model materials are precious test cases for elementary theories and provide building blocks for the understanding of more complex cases. Here, we describe the lattice dynamics of the structural phase transition in francisite Cu3Bi(SeO3)(2)O2Cl at 115 K and show that it provides a rare archetype of a transition driven by a soft antipolar phonon mode. In the high-symmetry phase at high temperatures, the soft mode is found at (0,0,0.5) at the Brillouin zone boundary and is measured by inelastic x-ray scattering and thermal diffuse scattering. In the low-symmetry phase, this soft-mode is folded back onto the center of the Brillouin zone as a result of the doubling of the unit cell, and appears as a fully symmetric mode that can be tracked by Raman spectroscopy. On both sides of the transition, the mode energy squared follows a linear behavior over a large temperature range. First-principles calculations reveal that, surprisingly, the flat phonon band calculated for the high-symmetry phase seems incompatible with the displacive character found experimentally. We discuss this unusual behavior in the context of an ideal Kittel model of an antiferroelectric transition. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating the Use of Circulating MicroRNA Profiles for Lung Cancer Detection in Symptomatic Patients
Fehlmann, Tobias; Kahraman, Mustafa; Backes, Christina et al

in JAMA Oncology (2020)

Importance The overall low survival rate of patients with lung cancer calls for improved detection tools to enable better treatment options and improved patient outcomes. Multivariable molecular ... [more ▼]

Importance The overall low survival rate of patients with lung cancer calls for improved detection tools to enable better treatment options and improved patient outcomes. Multivariable molecular signatures, such as blood-borne microRNA (miRNA) signatures, may have high rates of sensitivity and specificity but require additional studies with large cohorts and standardized measurements to confirm the generalizability of miRNA signatures. Objective To investigate the use of blood-borne miRNAs as potential circulating markers for detecting lung cancer in an extended cohort of symptomatic patients and control participants. Design, Setting, and Participants This multicenter, cohort study included patients from case-control and cohort studies (TREND and COSYCONET) with 3102 patients being enrolled by convenience sampling between March 3, 2009, and March 19, 2018. For the cohort study TREND, population sampling was performed. Clinical diagnoses were obtained for 3046 patients (606 patients with non–small cell and small cell lung cancer, 593 patients with nontumor lung diseases, 883 patients with diseases not affecting the lung, and 964 unaffected control participants). No samples were removed because of experimental issues. The collected data were analyzed between April 2018 and November 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures Sensitivity and specificity of liquid biopsy using miRNA signatures for detection of lung cancer. Results A total of 3102 patients with a mean (SD) age of 61.1 (16.2) years were enrolled. Data on the sex of the participants were available for 2856 participants; 1727 (60.5%) were men. Genome-wide miRNA profiles of blood samples from 3046 individuals were evaluated by machine-learning methods. Three classification scenarios were investigated by splitting the samples equally into training and validation sets. First, a 15-miRNA signature from the training set was used to distinguish patients diagnosed with lung cancer from all other individuals in the validation set with an accuracy of 91.4% (95% CI, 91.0%-91.9%), a sensitivity of 82.8% (95% CI, 81.5%-84.1%), and a specificity of 93.5% (95% CI, 93.2%-93.8%). Second, a 14-miRNA signature from the training set was used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from patients with nontumor lung diseases in the validation set with an accuracy of 92.5% (95% CI, 92.1%-92.9%), sensitivity of 96.4% (95% CI, 95.9%-96.9%), and specificity of 88.6% (95% CI, 88.1%-89.2%). Third, a 14-miRNA signature from the training set was used to distinguish patients with early-stage lung cancer from all individuals without lung cancer in the validation set with an accuracy of 95.9% (95% CI, 95.7%-96.2%), sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI, 74.5%-78.0%), and specificity of 97.5% (95% CI, 97.2%-97.7%). Conclusions and Relevance The findings of the study suggest that the identified patterns of miRNAs may be used as a component of a minimally invasive lung cancer test, complementing imaging, sputum cytology, and biopsy tests. [less ▲]

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See detailA RAN Resource Slicing Mechanism for Multiplexing of eMBB and URLLC Services in OFDMA based 5G Wireless Networks
Korrai, Praveenkumar UL; Lagunas, Eva UL; Sharma, Shree Krishna UL et al

in IEEE Access (2020)

Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC) are the two main expected services in the next generation of wireless networks. Accommodation of these two ... [more ▼]

Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC) are the two main expected services in the next generation of wireless networks. Accommodation of these two services on the same wireless infrastructure leads to a challenging resource allocation problem due to their heterogeneous specifications. To address this problem, slicing has emerged as an architecture that enables a logical network with specific radio access functionality to each of the supported services on the same network infrastructure. The allocation of radio resources to each slice according to their requirements is a fundamental part of the network slicing that is usually executed at the radio access network (RAN). In this work, we formulate the RAN resource allocation problem as a sum-rate maximization problem subject to the orthogonality constraint (i.e., service isolation), latency-related constraint and minimum rate constraint while maintaining the reliability constraint with the incorporation of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). However, the formulated problem is not mathematically tractable due to the presence of a step-wise function associated with the AMC and a binary assignment variable. Therefore, to solve the proposed optimization problem, first, we relax the mathematical intractability of AMC by using an approximation of the non-linear AMC achievable throughput, and next, the binary constraint is relaxed to a box constraint by using the penalized reformulation of the problem. The result of the above two-step procedure provides a close-to-optimal solution to the original optimization problem. Furthermore, to ease the complexity of the optimization-based scheduling algorithm, a low-complexity heuristic scheduling scheme is proposed for the efficient multiplexing of URLLC and eMBB services. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed optimization and heuristic schemes is illustrated through extensive numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailPostprandial hyperglycemia stimulates neuroglial plasticity in hypothalamic POMC neurons after a balanced meal
Nuzzaci, Danaé; Cansell, Céline; Liénard, Fabienne et al

in Cell Reports (2020), 30

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See detailDeveloping multilingual practices in early childhood education through a professional development in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Mortini, Simone UL et al

in International Multilingual Research Journal (2020), 4

This paper investigates seven early education practitioners’ attitudes towards multilingual activities and translanguaging as well as their actual practices in Luxembourg. They took part in a professional ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates seven early education practitioners’ attitudes towards multilingual activities and translanguaging as well as their actual practices in Luxembourg. They took part in a professional development comprising a course, coaching, and regular meetings to deepen their understanding of multilingualism and language learning, and enable them to implement activities in multiple languages. The findings, drawn from questionnaires, observations, and interviews, show that all practitioners opened up towards multilingual activities and translanguaging, increased activities in such languages, and translanguaged frequently. The practitioners analyzed their beliefs and practices, connected theory and practice, constructed new knowledge, developed positive attitudes and changed their practice. This study is the first one to investigate the attitudes and practices of professionals in formal and non-formal education settings as well as the effect of professional development in Luxembourg. It also addresses the research gap regarding professional development on multilingualism in early childhood. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Rate Fairness in Multi-Pair Wireless-Powered Relaying System
Bui, Van-Phuc; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Nguyen, Hieu et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2020), 24(03), 603-607

This letter considers a multi-pair decode-andforward relay network where a power-splitting (PS) protocol is adopted at the energy-constrained relay to provide simultaneous wireless information and energy ... [more ▼]

This letter considers a multi-pair decode-andforward relay network where a power-splitting (PS) protocol is adopted at the energy-constrained relay to provide simultaneous wireless information and energy harvesting (EH). To achieve higher efficiency of EH, we propose a new PS-based EH architecture at the relay by incorporating an alternating current (AC) computing logic, which is employed to directly use the wirelessly harvestedACenergyforcomputationalblocks.Underanonlinear EHcircuit,ourgoalistomaximizethefairnessofend-to-endrate amonguserpairssubjecttopowerconstraints,resultinginanonconvex problem. We propose an iterative algorithm to achieve a suboptimal and efficient solution to this challenging problem by leveraging the inner approximation framework. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional direct current computing and other baseline schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailOpinion Statement ECJ-TF 3/2019 on the ECJ Decision of 22 November 2018 in Sofina (Case C-575/17) on Withholding Taxes, Losses, and Territoriality
Haslehner, Werner UL; Garcia Prats, Alfredo; Heydt, Volker et al

in European Taxation (2020), 60(2/3), 91-97

This CFE Opinion Statement, submitted to the EU Institutions on 10 October 2019, comments on the Decision in Sofina (Case C-575/17), in respect of which the Fifth Chamber of the ECJ delivered its decision ... [more ▼]

This CFE Opinion Statement, submitted to the EU Institutions on 10 October 2019, comments on the Decision in Sofina (Case C-575/17), in respect of which the Fifth Chamber of the ECJ delivered its decision on 22 November 2018. The Court held that the imposition of French dividend withholding tax violated the freedom of capital movement in light of the non- resident’s overall loss situation. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Formierung des neuen Sozialbürgers. Eine exemplarische Untersuchung von Subjektivierungswirkungen der Hartz IV-Reform ..
Traue, Boris UL; Hirseland, Andreas; Herma, Holger et al

in Zeitschrift für Diskursforschung / Journal for Discourse Studies (2020), 2(7), 163-189

This paper traces how the endeavour to influence welfare state addressees’ sense of self through ›activating‹ labor market policies is reflected in the biographical action and account of self of a long ... [more ▼]

This paper traces how the endeavour to influence welfare state addressees’ sense of self through ›activating‹ labor market policies is reflected in the biographical action and account of self of a long-term unemployment benefits recipient. It is based on a qualitative longitudinal case study using a combination of discourse, institutional and biographical analysis (›subjectivation analysis‹). The exem- plary case study explores the shift away from the type of the social democratic welfare citizen towards the type of the liberal ›enterprising‹ subject demanded by the interpellations of the activating welfare state. The analysis demonstrates the methodological potential of subjectivation analysis by proving that while the subjects addressed by such interpellations do make the institutional demands and require- ments their own, this form of appropriation does not conform to the aims of active labour market pol- icy; it remains selective and can lead to a ›de-moralisation‹ of the individual’s relationship with the state, a loss of societal solidarity, and to social withdrawal. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and evaluation of a harmonized whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for flutamide in rats and its extrapolation to humans
Sharma, Raju Prasad; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta et al

in Environmental Research Journal (2020)

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See detailOne money, two markets? EMU at twenty and European financial market integration
Howarth, David UL; Quaglia, Lucia

in Journal of European Integration (2020), 42(3), 433-448

This contribution combines neo-functionalism and historical institutionalism to understand the implications of differentiated integration in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and Banking Union (BU) for ... [more ▼]

This contribution combines neo-functionalism and historical institutionalism to understand the implications of differentiated integration in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and Banking Union (BU) for the single market in financial services in the European Union (EU). From the 1980s, the relaunch of the Single Market and monetary integration in the EU were presented by the supporters of EMU as mutually reinforcing, as in the logic of the Commission’s Report ‘One Market, One Money’. Initially, EMU appeared to reinforce financial integration, especially in the Euro Area banking sector, even though EMU was a case of differentiated integration in the EU. Subsequently, the incomplete EMU triggered the sovereign debt crisis, which undermined financial market integration and was addressed through the establishment of BU, which reinforced differentiated integration. Both EMU and BU have negative implications for the ‘singleness’ of the single market in financial services, potentially resulting in ‘One Money, Two Markets’. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to ‘Economic and Monetary Union at Twenty: A Stocktaking of a Tumultuous Second decade’
Howarth, David UL; Verdun, Amy

in Journal of European Integration (2020), 42(3), 287-293

This contribution discusses the two main asymmetries of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) as they developed over the past two decades since the launch of the Single Currency. From the outset, EMU ... [more ▼]

This contribution discusses the two main asymmetries of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) as they developed over the past two decades since the launch of the Single Currency. From the outset, EMU involved asymmetric degrees of integration in the area of ‘economic’ union (less centralised governance) versus ‘monetary’ union (more supranational governance). With the outbreak of the Sovereign Debt Crisis in 2010, the regime-shaping relevance of a second asymmetry emerged: one roughly between the member states of the Euro Area ‘core’ and those in the ‘periphery’. Each of the two asymmetries have created a range of challenges—institutional, policy and political — that undermine the stability and sustainability of the EMU project. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Tactile Internet in Beyond 5G Era: Recent Advances, Current Issues and Future Directions
Sharma, Shree Krishna UL; Woungang, Isaac; Anpalagan, Alagan et al

in IEEE Access (2020)

Tactile Internet (TI) is envisioned to create a paradigm shift from the content-oriented communications to steer/control-based communications by enabling real-time transmission of haptic information (i.e ... [more ▼]

Tactile Internet (TI) is envisioned to create a paradigm shift from the content-oriented communications to steer/control-based communications by enabling real-time transmission of haptic information (i.e., touch, actuation, motion, vibration, surface texture) over Internet in addition to the conventional audiovisual and data traffics. This emerging TI technology, also considered as the next evolution phase of Internet of Things (IoT), is expected to create numerous opportunities for technology markets in a wide variety of applications ranging from teleoperation systems and Augmented/Virtual Reality (AR/VR) to automotive safety and eHealthcare towards addressing the complex problems of human society. However, the realization of TI over wireless media in the upcoming Fifth Generation (5G) and beyond networks creates various non-conventional communication challenges and stringent requirements in terms of ultra-low latency, ultra-high reliability, high data-rate connectivity, resource allocation, multiple access and quality-latency-rate tradeoff. To this end, this paper aims to provide a holistic view on wireless TI along with a thorough review of the existing state-of-the-art, to identify and analyze the involved technical issues, to highlight potential solutions and to propose future research directions. First, starting with the vision of TI and recent advances and a review of related survey/overview articles, we present a generalized framework for wireless TI in the Beyond 5G Era including a TI architecture, the main technical requirements, the key application areas and potential enabling technologies. Subsequently, we provide a comprehensive review of the existing TI works by broadly categorizing them into three main paradigms; namely, haptic communications, wireless AR/VR, and autonomous, intelligent and cooperative mobility systems. Next, potential enabling technologies across physical/Medium Access Control (MAC) and network layers are identified and discussed in detail. Also, security and privacy issues of TI applications are discussed along with some promising enablers. Finally, we present some open research challenges and recommend promising future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailVolumes of quasifuchsian manifolds
Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

in Journal of Differential Geometry (2020)

Quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds, or more generally convex co-compact hyperbolic manifolds, have infinite volume, but they have a well-defined ``renormalized'' volume. We outline some relations between ... [more ▼]

Quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds, or more generally convex co-compact hyperbolic manifolds, have infinite volume, but they have a well-defined ``renormalized'' volume. We outline some relations between this renormalized volume and the volume, or more precisely the ``dual volume'', of the convex core. On one hand, there are striking similarities between them, for instance in their variational formulas. On the other, object related to them tend to be within bounded distance. Those analogies and proximities lead to several questions. Both the renormalized volume and the dual volume can be used for instance to bound the volume of the convex core in terms of the Weil-Petersson distance between the conformal metrics at infinity. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining Curriculum for European Thoracic Surgeons: A Joint Initiative of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Respiratory Society
Massard, Gilbert UL; Tabin, Nathalie; Konge, Lars et al

in European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (2020)

Because of the differing definitions of the margins of thoracic surgery as a specialty and the variability in the training curricula among European countries, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons ... [more ▼]

Because of the differing definitions of the margins of thoracic surgery as a specialty and the variability in the training curricula among European countries, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons formed a task force to elaborate a consensual proposal. The first step comprised creating a harmonized syllabus that was completed and published in 2018. This publication presents a proposal for a curriculum upon which the task force and the external expert reviewers have agreed. The curriculum was developed by the task force: each module and item describe the expected level of knowledge, skills and attitudes to be attained by the participants; learning opportunities, assessment tools and minimal clinical exposures have been defined as well. Competence in terms of non-technical skills has been defined for each module according to the CanMEDS (http://www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/canmeds/canmeds-framework-e) glossary. The different modules were subsequently submitted to an internal and an external review process and re-edited accordingly before final validation. The authors hope that this document will serve as a roadmap for both thoracic surgical trainees and mentors. It should further guide continuous professional development. However, evolving scientific and technological advances are expected to modify the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders in the future and hence will mandate periodical revisions of the document. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a BIM-based web tool as Material and Component bank for a sustainable construction industry
Jayasinghe, Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Sustainability (2020)

The construction industry consumes an enormous amount of global resources and produces more waste than any other sector. The need to move toward sustainable development in construction requires ... [more ▼]

The construction industry consumes an enormous amount of global resources and produces more waste than any other sector. The need to move toward sustainable development in construction requires significant changes in construction and demolition (C&D) waste management. The estimation of waste, recycling materials and reusable components could be vital in waste management, achieving huge efficiency in the construction industry. Moreover, a typical building comprises of an extensive amount of materials and components with various characteristics. This study proposes a Building Information Modelling (BIM) based system to allow the circular economy by storing information of the materials and components of buildings and by effectively managing the recycling of materials and reuse of components. A tool which serves as Material and Component (M&C) bank is developed with PHP and MYSQL by making use of a web browser able to extract the materials and component information of a building through the BIM model. This information is vital for several uses such as quantification of C&D waste and assessing for the design for deconstruction. It can also be used to obtain the information of reusable condition of the components and instructions for the reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Improvised Dispositif: Invisible Urban Planning in the Refugee Camp
Oesch, Lucas UL

in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2020), 44(2), 349-365

How does a refugee camp urbanize? Up to now, camps have been considered as either urban assemblages made by dwellers’ improvised tactics or spaces governed by disjointed urban planning policies. I ... [more ▼]

How does a refugee camp urbanize? Up to now, camps have been considered as either urban assemblages made by dwellers’ improvised tactics or spaces governed by disjointed urban planning policies. I demonstrate that there is another side to the urbanism of the refugee camp. A form of coherent institutional urban planning exists as well. It takes the shape of an improvised dispositif (apparatus). One of its main effects is to render the very process of urban planning invisible. I investigate this type of urbanism on the basis of fieldwork conducted in the Al‐Hussein Palestinian refugee camp in Amman, Jordan. I argue that this improvised dispositif of urban planning—of which state and non‐state institutions are part—is the result of a balancing act that ensures the temporary character of the camp, while allowing the implementation of a form of urban development that leads toward a material homogenization between the camp and the surrounding urban space. It does this by rendering its own processes invisible and being officially referred to as ‘improvement’. By emphasizing the key features of heterogeneity, invention and provisionality, I explain that the notion of a dispositif, coined by Foucault (1980), allows us to examine how institutions improvise away from more conventional urban planning. My analysis also complements Jeffrey's examination (2013) of institutional improvisation in the production of space, by showing that improvisation can be a form of strategic elaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailAktuelle Entwicklungen im Steuerrecht in der Informationstechnologie 2018/2019 - Teil 2
Schmittmann, Jens; Sinnig, Julia UL

in Kommunikation und Recht (2020), 23(3), 183-189

Teil zwei des Beitrags knüpft an Teil eins in K&R 2020 xxx an und fasst die wesentlichen Entwicklungen in Legislative und Judikative im deutschen Steuerrecht zusammen, soweit sich Bezüge zur ... [more ▼]

Teil zwei des Beitrags knüpft an Teil eins in K&R 2020 xxx an und fasst die wesentlichen Entwicklungen in Legislative und Judikative im deutschen Steuerrecht zusammen, soweit sich Bezüge zur Informationstechnologie und dem Informationstechnologierecht ergeben. Er knüpft an die Beiträge des Verfassers Prof. Dr. Jens M. Schmittmann in den Vorjahren, sowie dem Beitrag beider Verfasser im vergangenen Jahr und den Vorträgen der Verfasser in Bremen anlässlich der DSRI Herbstakademie 2019 an. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective Throughput Analysis of α-η-κ-μ Fading Channels
Ai, Yun; Mathur, Aashish; Kong, Long UL et al

in IEEE Access (2020)

The α-η-κ-µ fading model is a very useful instrument to accurately describe various radio wave propagation scenarios. In this paper, we study the effective throughput performance of communication systems ... [more ▼]

The α-η-κ-µ fading model is a very useful instrument to accurately describe various radio wave propagation scenarios. In this paper, we study the effective throughput performance of communication systems over the α-η-κ-µ fading channels. Novel and exact expressions for the effective throughput over α-η-κ-µ channels are derived, and the effective throughput of multiple-input single-output (MISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems over some widely used small-scale fading models are presented based on the derived results. To obtain more understandings on the impact of physical channel characteristics and system configuration on the effective throughput, closed-form expressions for the asymptotic effective throughput at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes are also obtained. The results reveal the underlying connections between different physical channel parameters (e.g., scattering level, phase correlation, channel nonlinearity, multipath clustering, and channel imbalance) and the effective throughput. It is found that the effective throughput improves with the increase of channel nonlinearity and number of multipath clusters, and the high-SNR slope is only dependent on the channel nonlinearity and the number of multipath clusters present in the physical channel. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint temporal and contemporaneous aggregation of random-coefficient AR(1) processes with infinite variance
Pilipauskaite, Vytauté UL; Skorniakov, Viktor; Surgailis, Donatas

in Advances in Applied Probability (2020), 52(1), 237-265

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See detailAre the Machines Taking Over?: Benefits and Challenges of Using Algorithms in (Short) Scale Construction
Dörendahl, Jan UL; Greiff, Samuel UL

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2020)

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See detailMulti-oriented props and homotopy algebras with branes
Merkulov, Sergei UL

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2020), 110

We introduce a new category of differential graded {\em multi-oriented}\, props whose representations (called homotopy algebras with branes) in a graded vector space require a choice of a collection of $k ... [more ▼]

We introduce a new category of differential graded {\em multi-oriented}\, props whose representations (called homotopy algebras with branes) in a graded vector space require a choice of a collection of $k$ linear subspaces in that space, $k$ being the number of extra directions (if $k=0$ this structure recovers an ordinary prop); symplectic vector spaces equipped with $k$ Lagrangian subspaces play a distinguished role in this theory. Manin triples is a classical example of an algebraic structure (concretely, a Lie bialgebra structure) given in terms of a vector space and its subspace; in the context of this paper Manin triples are precisely symplectic Lagrangian representations of the {\em 2-oriented} generalization of the classical operad of Lie algebras. In a sense, the theory of multi-oriented props provides us with a far reaching strong homotopy generalization of Manin triples type constructions. [less ▲]

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See detailCybermenaces, enjeux et sécurité : entretien avec Stéphane Bortzmeyer et Mohsen Souissi (Afnic)
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2020), 2019/4

Si les cyberattaques récentes au Moyen-Orient, menées via les noms de domaine, ont eu un vaste écho médiatique fin février 2019, tandis que la revue Défense et Sécurité Internationale consacrait un ... [more ▼]

Si les cyberattaques récentes au Moyen-Orient, menées via les noms de domaine, ont eu un vaste écho médiatique fin février 2019, tandis que la revue Défense et Sécurité Internationale consacrait un dossier spécial à la techno-guérilla, les menaces qui pèsent sur les réseaux informatiques ne sont pas nouvelles. L’Afnic – Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération –, gestionnaire historique du .fr, fait partie des acteurs français confrontés au quotidien aux enjeux de sécurité des réseaux Internet et veille notamment à la sécurité des noms de domaine et au bon fonctionnement du .fr, en terme de disponibilité mais aussi d’intégrité. Mohsen Souissi, alors Responsable des Sécurité des Sys- tèmes d’information (RSSI) à l’Afnic, qu’il a intégrée en 2000 et où il était précédemment responsable Recherche et développement (R&D) de 2007 à 2016, et Stéphane Bortzmeyer, auteur de Cyberstructure (C&F Éditions, 2018) et ingénieur à l’Afnic depuis seize ans, après avoir été administrateur pour plusieurs systèmes et réseaux universitaires et de centres de recherche, reviennent sur les cybermenaces et les enjeux de sécurité auxquels ils sont confrontés. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferences Between Students’ and Teachers' Fairness Perceptions: Exploring the Potential of a Self-Administered Questionnaire to Improve Teachers' Assessment Practices
Sonnleitner, Philipp UL; Kovacs, Carrie

in Frontiers in Education (2020), 5(17),

The ability to assess learning outcomes is vital to effective teaching. Without understanding what students have learned, it is impossible to tailor information, tasks or feedback adequately to their ... [more ▼]

The ability to assess learning outcomes is vital to effective teaching. Without understanding what students have learned, it is impossible to tailor information, tasks or feedback adequately to their individual needs. Thus, assessment literacy has been increasingly recognized as a core teacher competency in educational research, with many empirical studies investigating teachers’ abilities, knowledge and subjective views in relation to classroom assessment. In contrast, relatively few studies have focused on students’ perspectives of assessment. This is surprising, since gathering students’ feedback on their teachers’ assessment practices seems a logical step toward improving those practices. To help fill this gap, we present an explorative study using the recently developed Fairness Barometer as a tool to help identify specific strengths and weaknesses in individual teachers’ assessment methods. Viewing assessment through the lens of classroom justice theory, the Fairness Barometer asks students and teachers to rate aspects of procedural and informational justice in their own (teachers’) assessment practices. We examined the resulting fairness discrepancy profiles for 10 Austrian secondary school classes (177 students). Results showed wide variation in profile pattern, evidence that both students and teachers can differentiate between different aspects of assessment fairness. Further exploration of the resulting discrepancy-profiles revealed certain problem types, with some teachers differing from their students’ perception in almost every rated aspect, some showing specific assessment-related behaviors that require improvement (e.g., explaining grading criteria of oral exams), and others demonstrating almost identical responses as their students to the addressed fairness aspects. Results clearly indicate the potential of the Fairness Barometer to be used for teacher training and teacher self-development within the domain of teacher assessment literacy. [less ▲]

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See detailA Pathway to Keep All Lifelong Learners Up to Date: The ERS Continuing Professional Development Programme
Farr, Amy; Aliberti, Stefano; Loukides, Stelios et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2020)

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See detailThe Impact of Forced Answering and Reactance on Answering Behavior in Online Surveys
Sischka, Philipp UL; Décieux, Jean Philippe; Mergener, Alexandra et al

in Social Science Computer Review (2020)

Forced answering (FA) is a frequent answer format in online surveys that forces respondents to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The underlying rationale is to decrease ... [more ▼]

Forced answering (FA) is a frequent answer format in online surveys that forces respondents to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The underlying rationale is to decrease the amount of missing data. Despite its popularity, empirical research on the impact of FA on respondents’ answering behavior is scarce and has generated mixed findings. In fact, some quasi-experimental studies showed that FA has detrimental consequences such as increased survey dropout rates and faking behavior. Notably, a theoretical psychological process driving these effects has hitherto not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was twofold: First, we sought to experimentally replicate detrimental effects of FA on online questionnaire data quality. Second, we tried to uncover an explanatory psychological mechanism. Specifically, we hypothesized that FA effects are mediated through reactance. Zero-order effects showed that FA increased state reactance and questionnaire dropout as well as reduced answer length in open-ended questions. Results of survival and mediation analyses corroborate negative FA effects on data quality and the proposed psychological process. [less ▲]

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See detailA comprehensive and comparative phenotypic analysis of the collaborative founder strains identifies new and known phenotypes
Kollmus, F; Fuchs, H; Lengger, C et al

in Mammalian Genome (2020)

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See detailImpact of Pile Punching on Adjacent Piles: Insights from a 3D Coupled SPH-FEM Analysis
Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL; Shang, Junlong

in Applied Mechanics (2020), 1(1), 47-58

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions, due to horizontal loads, thereby leading to hazardous outcomes ... [more ▼]

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions, due to horizontal loads, thereby leading to hazardous outcomes. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Finite Element Method (SPH-FEM) model, which was established to investigate pile punching and its impact on adjacent piles subjected to lateral loads. This approach handles the large distortions by avoiding mesh tangling and remeshing, contributing greatly high computational efficiency. The SPH-FEM model was validated against field measurements. The results of this study indicated that the soil type in which piles were embedded affected the interaction between piles during the pile punching. A comprehensive parametric study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil properties on the displacement of piles due to the punching of an adjacent pile. It was found that the interaction between piles was comparatively weak when the piles were driven in stiff clays; while the pile-soil interactions were much more significant in sandy soils and soft clays. [less ▲]

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See detailA Real-Time Approach for Chance-Constrained Motion Planning with Dynamic Obstacles
Castillo Lopez, Manuel UL; Ludivig, Philippe; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin et al

in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (2020), 5(2), 3620-3625

Uncertain dynamic obstacles, such as pedestrians or vehicles, pose a major challenge for optimal robot navigation with safety guarantees. Previous work on motion planning has followed two main strategies ... [more ▼]

Uncertain dynamic obstacles, such as pedestrians or vehicles, pose a major challenge for optimal robot navigation with safety guarantees. Previous work on motion planning has followed two main strategies to provide a safe bound on an obstacle's space: a polyhedron, such as a cuboid, or a nonlinear differentiable surface, such as an ellipsoid. The former approach relies on disjunctive programming, which has a relatively high computational cost that grows exponentially with the number of obstacles. The latter approach needs to be linearized locally to find a tractable evaluation of the chance constraints, which dramatically reduces the remaining free space and leads to over-conservative trajectories or even unfeasibility. In this work, we present a hybrid approach that eludes the pitfalls of both strategies while maintaining the original safety guarantees. The key idea consists in obtaining a safe differentiable approximation for the disjunctive chance constraints bounding the obstacles. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is free of chance constraint linearization and disjunctive programming, and therefore, it can be efficiently solved to meet fast real-time requirements with multiple obstacles. We validate our approach through mathematical proof, simulation and real experiments with an aerial robot using nonlinear model predictive control to avoid pedestrians. [less ▲]

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See detailThermoelectric properties of Mexican-hat band structures
Nurhuda, M; Nugraha, ART; Hanna, MY et al

in Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2020), 11(1), 015012

Materials with Mexican-hat electronic energy dispersions emerging from heterostructures, substrate effects, or spin–orbit couplings are believed to exhibit excellent thermoelectric properties due to its ... [more ▼]

Materials with Mexican-hat electronic energy dispersions emerging from heterostructures, substrate effects, or spin–orbit couplings are believed to exhibit excellent thermoelectric properties due to its van Hove singularity of density of states in two-dimension. However, within a constant relaxation time approximation, we disprove this belief and we find that the singularity effect is cancelled down by the group velocity contribution in the thermoelectric transport distribution. Nevertheless, the band parameters can still be optimised to reach thermoelectric figure of merit larger than 2 in a wide bandwidth, thus keeping the potential of materials with Mexican-hat bands for thermoelectric applications. [less ▲]

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See detailThermoelectric properties of Mexican-hat band structures
Nurhuda, M; Nugraha, ART; Hanna, MY et al

in Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2020), 11(1), 015012

Materials with Mexican-hat electronic energy dispersions emerging from heterostructures, substrate effects, or spin–orbit couplings are believed to exhibit excellent thermoelectric properties due to its ... [more ▼]

Materials with Mexican-hat electronic energy dispersions emerging from heterostructures, substrate effects, or spin–orbit couplings are believed to exhibit excellent thermoelectric properties due to its van Hove singularity of density of states in two-dimension. However, within a constant relaxation time approximation, we disprove this belief and we find that the singularity effect is cancelled down by the group velocity contribution in the thermoelectric transport distribution. Nevertheless, the band parameters can still be optimised to reach thermoelectric figure of merit larger than 2 in a wide bandwidth, thus keeping the potential of materials with Mexican-hat bands for thermoelectric applications. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a European health research and innovation cloud (HRIC)
Aarestrup, FM; Albeyatti, A; Armitage, WJ et al

in Genome Medicine (2020)

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See detailFrom the “project within the project” to the “city within the city”? Governance and Management Problems in Large Urban Development Projects Using the Example of the Science City Belval, Luxembourg
Leick, Annick UL; Hesse, Markus UL; Becker, Tom UL

in Raumforschung und Raumordnung (2020), 78(3), 1-17

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in ... [more ▼]

The paper explores the issue of new urban development areas from two specific perspectives: on the one hand, rather than concentrating on housing, we address the question of science and research, in particular university locations and science parks, as a central guiding principle for urban expansion. On the other hand, the paper focuses on the analysis of urban management and governance practices and, more specifically, the disjoining of large projects from their common urban planning context. Emphasis is put on the fact that such undertakings are defined as ‘projects’ and that they are subordinated to a specific management approach. Amid debates concerning large-scale urban development projects and urban governance, we develop the thesis that the risk for projects to unfold as a sort of ‘foreign matter’ in the urban realm increases as the degree to which they are subject to proven planning processes and regulatory practices diminishes. This argument will be empirically illustrated with Belval, the science city in the south of Luxembourg, which is developed ever since 2003 and whose progress is critically assessed here. The general conclusions include planning requirements for dealing with new large-scale development projects. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiome in Colorectal Cancer: How to Getfrom Meta-omics to Mechanism?
Ternes, Dominik UL; Karta, Jessica UL; Tsenkova, Mina UL et al

in Trends in Microbiology (2020)

Mounting evidence from metagenomic analyses suggests that a state of pathological microbial imbalance or dysbiosis is prevalent in the gut of patients with colorectal cancer. Several bacterial taxa have ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence from metagenomic analyses suggests that a state of pathological microbial imbalance or dysbiosis is prevalent in the gut of patients with colorectal cancer. Several bacterial taxa have been identified of which representative isolate cultures interact with human cancer cells in vitro and trigger disease path-ways in animal models. However, how the complex interrelationships in dysbiotic communities may be involved in cancer pathogenesis remains a crucial question.Here, we provide a survey of current knowledge of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer. Moving beyond observational studies, we outline new experimental approaches for gaining ecosystem-level mechanistic understanding of the gut microbiome’s role in cancer pathogenesis [less ▲]

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See detailExcess of singleton loss-of-function variants in Parkinson's disease contributes to genetic risk.
Bobbili, Dheeraj Reddy; Banda, Peter UL; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Journal of Medical Genetics (2020)

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex genetic architecture. Besides rare mutations in high-risk genes related to monogenic familial forms of PD, multiple ... [more ▼]

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex genetic architecture. Besides rare mutations in high-risk genes related to monogenic familial forms of PD, multiple variants associated with sporadic PD were discovered via association studies. Methods We studied the whole-exome sequencing data of 340 PD cases and 146 ethnically matched controls from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) and performed burden analysis for different rare variant classes. Disease prediction models were built based on clinical, non-clinical and genetic features, including both common and rare variants, and two machine learning methods. Results We observed a significant exome-wide burden of singleton loss-of-function variants (corrected p=0.037). Overall, no exome-wide burden of rare amino acid changing variants was detected. Finally, we built a disease prediction model combining singleton loss-of-function variants, a polygenic risk score based on common variants, and family history of PD as features and reached an area under the curve of 0.703 (95% CI 0.698 to 0.708). By incorporating a rare variant feature, our model increased the performance of the state-of-the-art classification model for the PPMI dataset, which reached an area under the curve of 0.639 based on common variants alone. Conclusion The main finding of this study is to highlight the contribution of singleton loss-of-function variants to the complex genetics of PD and that disease risk prediction models combining singleton and common variants can improve models built solely on common variants. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi-use, re-usable and resource-efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective thermodynamics of two interacting underdamped Brownian particles
Herpich, Tim UL; Shayanfard, Kamran; Esposito, Massimiliano UL

in Physical Review. E. (2020), 101

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silvia, Marielle; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi‐use, re‐usable and resource‐efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversity vs. Research Institute? The Dual Pillars of German Science Production, 1950–2010
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David UL et al

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2020), 58(3), 319-342

The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy ... [more ▼]

The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy differentiates these organizational forms functionally: universities specialize in advanced research-based teaching; institutes specialize intensely on research. Over the past decades this policy affected each sector differently: while universities suffered a lingering “legitimation crisis,” institutes enjoyed deepening “favored sponsorship”—financial and reputational advantages. Universities led the nation’s reestablishment of scientific prominence among the highly competitive European and global science systems after WWII. But sectoral analysis of contributions to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical and health journal publications (1950–2010) finds that Germany’s small to medium-sized independent research institutes have made significant, growing contributions, particularly in publishing in higher impact journals proportionally more than their size. Simultaneously—despite dual-pillar policy implications—the university sector continues to be absolutely and relatively successful; not eclipsed by the institutes. Universities have consistently produced two-thirds of the nation’s publications in the highest quality journals since at least 1980 and have increased publications at a logarithmic rate; higher than the international mean. Indeed, they led Germany into the global mega-science style of production. Contrary to assumed benefits of functional differentiation, our results indicate that relative to their size, each sector has produced approximately similar publication records. While institutes have succeeded, the larger university sector, despite much less funding growth, has remained fundamental to German science production. Considering these findings, we discuss the future utility of the dual-pillar policy. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation satellites in optical and loss spectra
Cudazzo, Pier Luigi UL; Reining, Lucia

in Physical Review. B (2020), 2

Coupling of excitations leads to intriguing effects on the spectra of materials. We propose a cumulant formulation for neutral electronic excitations which opens the way to describe effects such as double ... [more ▼]

Coupling of excitations leads to intriguing effects on the spectra of materials. We propose a cumulant formulation for neutral electronic excitations which opens the way to describe effects such as double plasmon satellites or exciton-exciton coupling. Our approach starts from the GW+Bethe-Salpeter approximation to many-body perturbation theory which is based on a quasiparticle picture, and it adds coupling of excitations through a consistent inclusion of dynamically screened interactions. This requires one to consider scattering contributions that are usually neglected. The result is formulated in a way that highlights essential physics, that can be implemented as a postprocessing tool in first-principles codes, and that suggests which kind of materials and measurements should exhibit strong effects. This is illustrated using a model. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization assisted redesigning a structure of a hydrogen valve: the redesign process and numerical evaluations
Cao, Thanh Binh UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL; Sellen, Stephan UL et al

in International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (2020)

This study introduced the redesign process of an automotive hydrogen valve. The process relied on the structural optimization approach, which used to build up the new valves having promising stiffness and ... [more ▼]

This study introduced the redesign process of an automotive hydrogen valve. The process relied on the structural optimization approach, which used to build up the new valves having promising stiffness and the lowest possible weights. To achieve the goals, the study was proposed to be taken place via the three main stages. These stages included topology optimization, lattice optimization, as well as numerical evaluations. The achieved results firstly indicated that the two newly designed valves possessed longer life and lower mass than the original valve. Especially, the topology optimized one could withstand more than 5E4 working cycles in the pre-treated condition before the first crack would be nucleated. The results also pointed out the influences of the pre-treatment pressure on the fatigue performance of the hydrogen valve. Within the examined ranges of the pressure, increasing the pressure’s magnitudes tended to shorten the fatigue life of the topology optimized valve. Additionally, the results highlighted the impact of the employed materials on the estimated fatigue life of such a non-treated structure. In the highlights, the considered steel valves could function normally far beyond 1.5E5 working cycles while the aluminum valves would have an initial crack formation prior to reaching 3E3 cycles. The results also suggested that further practical evidence is needed to not only confirm whether the selected printed aluminum is among the promising candidate materials of the hydrogen valve but also to support the described evaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailClassifications of quasitrivial semigroups
Devillet, Jimmy UL; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Teheux, Bruno UL

in Semigroup Forum (2020), 100(3), 743-764

We investigate classifications of quasitrivial semigroups defined by certain equivalence relations. The subclass of quasitrivial semigroups that preserve a given total ordering is also investigated. In ... [more ▼]

We investigate classifications of quasitrivial semigroups defined by certain equivalence relations. The subclass of quasitrivial semigroups that preserve a given total ordering is also investigated. In the special case of finite semigroups, we address and solve several related enumeration problems. [less ▲]

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See detailClassifications of quasitrivial semigroups
Devillet, Jimmy UL; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Teheux, Bruno UL

in Semigroup Forum (2020), 100(3), 743-764

We investigate classifications of quasitrivial semigroups defined by certain equivalence relations. The subclass of quasitrivial semigroups that preserve a given total ordering is also investigated. In ... [more ▼]

We investigate classifications of quasitrivial semigroups defined by certain equivalence relations. The subclass of quasitrivial semigroups that preserve a given total ordering is also investigated. In the special case of finite semigroups, we address and solve several related enumeration problems. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of pubic symphysis stiffness on pelvic load distribution during single leg stance
Ricci, Pierre-Louis; Maas, Stefan UL; Gerich, Torsten et al

in International Journal of Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering (2020)

This study focuses on the influence of the softening and stiffening of pubic symphysis on the load distribution within the bones of the pelvic ring under the physiological loadings of the single leg ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on the influence of the softening and stiffening of pubic symphysis on the load distribution within the bones of the pelvic ring under the physiological loadings of the single leg stance. Muscle forces and joint reaction forces were first determined by inverse dynamics and applied to a linear finite element model of the pelvis. With normal pubic symphysis stiffness, high Von Mises stresses are located on the anterior surface to the sacrum around the sacroiliac joint and on the superior ramus, both on the side of the weightbearing leg. Softening of the pubic symphysis redirects the load backward, decreases the stresses at the anterior pelvis, and increases them at the posterior pelvis. A stiffening of the pubic symphysis redirects the load forward, increases the load on the posterior pelvis, and decreases them at the anterior pelvis. This investigation highlights the significance of the pubic symphysis on the load distribution of the pelvis and in maintaining the integrity of the structures. Its role should not be neglected when analyzing the pelvis. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-principles calculations of charge carrier mobility and conductivity in bulk semiconductors and two-dimensional materials
Poncé, Samuel; Li, Wenbin; Reichardt, Sven UL et al

in Reports on Progress in Physics (2020), 83

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See detailLinks between Division Property and Other Cube Attack Variants
Hao, Yonglin; Jiao, Lin; Li, Chaoyun et al

in IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology (2020), (1),

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See detailFinding Bit-Based Division Property for Ciphers with Complex Linear Layers
Hu, Kai; Wang, Qingju UL; Wang, Meiqin

in IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology (2020), (1),

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See detailPhase field simulation of early-age fracture in cement-based materials (Top 10%)
Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Bui, Tinh Quoc

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2020)

In this paper, a new computational approach, which is based on a multi-physics coupling of the chemo-thermo-mechanical process, is developed for modeling failure mechanism in cement-based materials at ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new computational approach, which is based on a multi-physics coupling of the chemo-thermo-mechanical process, is developed for modeling failure mechanism in cement-based materials at early-age hydration. A new constitutive law describing mechanical behavior of young concrete is thus derived, taking into account the effects of several factors including thermal expansion, shrinkage, damage, and both basic and transient thermal creeps. A strongly coupled model describing the interaction between fracture and multi-physics problems of cement hydration is obtained. The present phase field model in terms of smeared crack approach is highly suitable for simulating crack, especially when considering the unilateral contact conditions at crack surfaces. The capability of the proposed model in modeling complex crack initiation and propagation under arbitrary boundary conditions is highlighted. Fracture phenomena at both macroscopic and mesoscopic scales are considered and analyzed. The effects of creep and microstructural heterogeneity in different length scale are investigated, showing the great potential of the developed approach. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking the Case for Evidence-based Standardization of Data Privacy and Data Protection Visual Indicators
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Journal of Open Access to Law (JOAL) (2020), 8(1),

Lately, icons have witnessed a growing wave of interest in the view of enhancing transparency and clarity of data processing practices in mandated disclosures. Although benefits in terms of ... [more ▼]

Lately, icons have witnessed a growing wave of interest in the view of enhancing transparency and clarity of data processing practices in mandated disclosures. Although benefits in terms of comprehensibility, noticeability, navigability of the information and user’s attention and memorization can be expected, they should also be supported by decisive empirical evidence about the efficacy of the icons in specific contexts. Misrepresentation, oversimplification, and improper salience of certain aspects over others are omnipresent risks that can drive data subjects to wrong conclusions. Cross-domain and international standardization of visual means also poses a serious challenge: if on the one hand developing standards is necessary to ensure widespread recognition and comprehension, each domain and application presents unique features that can be hardly established, and imposed, in a top-down manner. This article critically discusses the above issues and identifies relevant open questions for scientific research. It also provides concrete examples and practical suggestions for researchers and practitioners that aim to implement transparency-enhancing icons in the spirit of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporating trip chaining within online demand estimation
Cantelmo, Guido; Qurashi, Moeid; Prakash, Arun et al

in Transportation Research. Part B, Methodological (2020), 132

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See detailPhonon coupling and shallow defects in CuInS2
Lomuscio, Alberto UL; Sood, Mohit UL; Melchiorre, Michele UL et al

in Physical Review. B (2020), 101(8), 085119-

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See detailImpact of pile punching on adjacent piles: Insights 3 from a 3D coupled SPH-FEM analysis
Jayasinghe, Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Shang, Junlong

in Applied Mechniacs (2020)

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and the adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions due to horizontal loads, leading to hazardous outcomes. This ... [more ▼]

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and the adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions due to horizontal loads, leading to hazardous outcomes. This paper presents a 3D coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Finite. Element Method (SPH-FEM) model, which was established to investigate pile punching and its impact on adjacent piles subjected to lateral loads. This approach handles the large distortions by avoiding mesh tangling and remeshing, contributing greatly high computational efficiency. The SPH-FEM model was validated against field measurements. Results of this study indicated that the soil type in which piles were embedded affected the interaction between piles during the pile punching. A comprehensive parametric study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil properties on the displacement of piles due to the punching of an adjacent pile. It was found that the interaction between piles was comparatively weak when the piles were driven in stiff clays; while the pile-soil interactions were much more significant in sandy soils and soft clays. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of nature-based solutions for resource recovery in cities
Kisser, Johannes; Wirt, Maria; De Gusseme, Bart et al

in Blue-Green System (2020), 2(1)

Our modern cities are resource sinks designed on the current linear economic model which recovers very little of the original input. As the current model is not sustainable, a viable solution is to ... [more ▼]

Our modern cities are resource sinks designed on the current linear economic model which recovers very little of the original input. As the current model is not sustainable, a viable solution is to recover and reuse parts of the input. In this context, resource recovery using nature-based solutions (NBS) is gaining popularity worldwide. In this specific review, we focus on NBS as technologies that bring nature into cities and those that are derived from nature, using (micro)organisms as principal agents, provided they enable resource recovery. The findings presented in this work are based on an extensive literature review, as well as on original results of recent innovation projects across Europe. The case studies were collected by participants of the COST Action Circular City, which includes a portfolio of more than 92 projects. The present review article focuses on urban wastewater, industrial wastewater, municipal solid waste and gaseous effluents, the recoverable products (e.g., nutrients, nanoparticles, energy), as well as the implications of source-separation and circularity by design. The analysis also includes assessment of the maturity of different technologies (technology readiness level) and the barriers that need to be overcome to accelerate the transition to resilient, self-sustainable cities of the future. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Integrated Approach for Effective Injection Vulnerability Analysis of Web Applications through Security Slicing and Hybrid Constraint Solving
Thome, Julian UL; Shar, Lwin Khin UL; Bianculli, Domenico UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2020), 46(2), 163--195

Malicious users can attack Web applications by exploiting injection vulnerabilities in the source code. This work addresses the challenge of detecting injection vulnerabilities in the server-side code of ... [more ▼]

Malicious users can attack Web applications by exploiting injection vulnerabilities in the source code. This work addresses the challenge of detecting injection vulnerabilities in the server-side code of Java Web applications in a scalable and effective way. We propose an integrated approach that seamlessly combines security slicing with hybrid constraint solving; the latter orchestrates automata-based solving with meta-heuristic search. We use static analysis to extract minimal program slices relevant to security from Web programs and to generate attack conditions. We then apply hybrid constraint solving to determine the satisfiability of attack conditions and thus detect vulnerabilities. The experimental results, using a benchmark comprising a set of diverse and representative Web applications/services as well as security benchmark applications, show that our approach (implemented in the JOACO tool) is significantly more effective at detecting injection vulnerabilities than state-of-the-art approaches, achieving 98% recall, without producing any false alarm. We also compared the constraint solving module of our approach with state-of-the-art constraint solvers, using six different benchmark suites; our approach correctly solved the highest number of constraints (665 out of 672), without producing any incorrect result, and was the one with the least number of time-out/failing cases. In both scenarios, the execution time was practically acceptable, given the offline nature of vulnerability detection. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly exercise decision in american options with dividends, stochastic volatility, and jumps
Cosma, Antonio UL; Galluccio, Stefano; Pederzoli, Paola et al

in Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (2020), 55(1), 331-356

Using a fast numerical technique, we investigate a large database of investors' suboptimal nonexercise of short-maturity American call options on dividend-paying stocks listed on the Dow Jones. The ... [more ▼]

Using a fast numerical technique, we investigate a large database of investors' suboptimal nonexercise of short-maturity American call options on dividend-paying stocks listed on the Dow Jones. The correct modeling of the discrete dividend is essential for a correct calculation of the early exercise boundary, as confirmed by theoretical insights. Pricing with stochastic volatility and jumps instead of the Black--Scholes--Merton benchmark cuts the amount lost by investors through suboptimal exercise by one-quarter. The remaining three-quarters are largely unexplained by transaction fees and may be interpreted as an opportunity cost for the investors to monitor optimal exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailBankruptcy protection in airline markets: Does the impact vary in international and US domestic markets?
Mantin, Benny UL; Forsyth, Peter; Bock, Sebastian et al

in Transportation Research. Part A, General (2020), 132

We study the effects of Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on competitive product pricing in both domestic and international markets using data from the airline industry. We find a decline of about 5% in ... [more ▼]

We study the effects of Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on competitive product pricing in both domestic and international markets using data from the airline industry. We find a decline of about 5% in domestic markets and an even more significant drop in international markets. Further, in international markets the competing carriers respond by dropping their prices as well, whereas they slightly increase them domestically. By contrast, existing literature considers only domestic markets finding a more moderate fare drop of about 3% in domestic markets by the bankrupt carrier, with mixed results on the fare drop by competitors. [less ▲]

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See detailFibroblast mitochondria in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease display morphological changes and enhanced resistance to depolarization
Krüger, Rejko UL; Balling, Rudolf UL; Antony, Paul UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2020)

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Here, we established screenable phenotypes of mitochondrial morphology and function in primary fibroblasts derived from ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Here, we established screenable phenotypes of mitochondrial morphology and function in primary fibroblasts derived from patients with IPD. Upper arm punch skin biopsy was performed in 41 patients with mid-stage IPD and 21 age-matched healthy controls. At the single-cell level, the basal mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) was higher in patients with IPD than in controls. Similarly, under carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) stress, the remaining Ψm was increased in patients with IPD. Analysis of mitochondrial morphometric parameters revealed significantly decreased mitochondrial connectivity in patients with IPD, with 9 of 14 morphometric mitochondrial parameters differing from those in controls. Significant morphometric mitochondrial changes included the node degree, mean volume, skeleton size, perimeter, form factor, node count, erosion body count, endpoints, and mitochondria count (all P-values < 0.05). These functional data reveal that resistance to depolarization was increased by treatment with the protonophore FCCP in patients with IPD, whereas morphometric data revealed decreased mitochondrial connectivity and increased mitochondrial fragmentation. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic and Predictive Molecular Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer: Updates and Challenges
Koncina, Eric UL; Haan, Serge UL; Rauh, Stefan et al

in Cancers (2020)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death among cancer patients. This heterogeneous disease is characterized by alterations in multiple molecular pathways throughout its development. Mutations ... [more ▼]

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death among cancer patients. This heterogeneous disease is characterized by alterations in multiple molecular pathways throughout its development. Mutations in RAS, along with the mismatch repair gene deficiency, are currently routinely tested in clinics. Such biomarkers provide information for patient risk stratification and for the choice of the best treatment options. Nevertheless, reliable and powerful prognostic markers that can identify “high-risk” CRC patients, who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, in early stages, are currently missing. To bridge this gap, genomic information has increasingly gained interest as a potential method for determining the risk of recurrence. However, due to several limitations of gene-based signatures, these have not yet been clinically implemented. In this review, we describe the different molecular markers in clinical use for CRC, highlight new markers that might become indispensable over the next years, discuss recently developed gene expression-based tests and highlight the challenges in biomarker research. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Analysis of Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems: A Stochastic Geometry Approach
Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Di Renzo, Marco et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2020)

Cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) has emerged as an alternative deployment for conventional cellular massive MIMO networks. As revealed by its name, this topology considers no ... [more ▼]

Cell-free (CF) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) has emerged as an alternative deployment for conventional cellular massive MIMO networks. As revealed by its name, this topology considers no cells, while a large number of multi-antenna access points (APs) serves simultaneously a smaller number of users over the same time/frequency resources through time-division duplex (TDD) operation. Prior works relied on the strong assumption (quite idealized) that the APs are uniformly distributed, and actually, this randomness was considered during the simulation and not in the analysis. However, in practice, ongoing and future networks become denser and increasingly irregular. Having this in mind, we consider that the AP locations are modeled by means of a Poisson point process (PPP) which is a more realistic model for the spatial randomness than a grid or uniform deployment. In particular, by virtue of stochastic geometry tools, we derive both the downlink coverage probability and achievable rate. Notably, this is the only work providing the coverage probability and shedding light on this aspect of CF massive MIMO systems. Focusing on the extraction of interesting insights, we consider small-cells (SCs) as a benchmark for comparison. Among the findings, CF massive MIMO systems achieve both higher coverage and rate with comparison to SCs due to the properties of favorable propagation, channel hardening, and interference suppression. Especially, we showed for both architectures that increasing the AP density results in a higher coverage which saturates after a certain value and increasing the number of users decreases the achievable rate but CF massive MIMO systems take advantage of the aforementioned properties, and thus, outperform SCs. In general, the performance gap between CF massive MIMO systems and SCs is enhanced by increasing the AP density. Another interesting observation concerns that a higher path-loss exponent decreases the rate while the users closer to the APs affect more the performance in terms of the rate. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the best constants associated with n-distances
Kiss, Gergely; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Acta Mathematica Hungarica (2020), 161(1), 341-365

We pursue the investigation of the concept of n-distance, an n-variable version of the classical concept of distance recently introduced and investigated by Kiss, Marichal, and Teheux. We especially focus ... [more ▼]

We pursue the investigation of the concept of n-distance, an n-variable version of the classical concept of distance recently introduced and investigated by Kiss, Marichal, and Teheux. We especially focus on the challenging problem of computing the best constant associated with a given n-distance. In particular, we define and investigate the best constants related to partial simplex inequalities. We also introduce and discuss some subclasses of n-distances defined by considering some properties. Finally, we discuss an interesting link between the concepts of n-distance and multidistance. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Markovian out-of-equilibrium dynamics: A general numerical procedure to construct time-dependent memory kernels for coarse-grained observables
Meyer, Hugues UL; Pelagejcev, Philipp; Schilling, Tanja

in Europhysics Letters (2020), 128(4), 40001

We present a numerical method to compute non-equilibrium memory kernels based on experimental data or molecular dynamics simulations. The procedure uses a recasting of the non-stationary generalized ... [more ▼]

We present a numerical method to compute non-equilibrium memory kernels based on experimental data or molecular dynamics simulations. The procedure uses a recasting of the non-stationary generalized Langevin equation, in which we expand the memory kernel in a series that can be reconstructed iteratively. Each term in the series can be computed based solely on knowledge of the two-time auto-correlation function of the observable of interest. We discuss how to optimize this method in order to be the most numerically convenient. As a proof of principle, we test the method on the problem of crystallization from a super-cooled Lennard-Jones melt. We analyze the nucleation and growth dynamics of crystallites and observe that the memory kernel has a time extent that is about one order of magnitude larger than the typical timescale needed for a particle to be attached to the crystallite in the growth regime. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool-Class Co-Ethnic and Immigrant Density and Current Smoking among Immigrant Adolescents
Kern, Matthias Robert UL; Heinz, Andreas UL; Willems, Helmut UL

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020), 17(2),

Although the school-class is known to be an important setting for adolescent risk behavior, little is known about how the ethnic composition of a school-class impacts substance use among pupils with a ... [more ▼]

Although the school-class is known to be an important setting for adolescent risk behavior, little is known about how the ethnic composition of a school-class impacts substance use among pupils with a migration background. Moreover, the few existing studies do not distinguish between co-ethnic density (i.e., the share of immigrants belonging to one’s own ethnic group) and immigrant density (the share of all immigrants). This is all the more surprising since a high co-ethnic density can be expected to protect against substance use by increasing levels of social support and decreasing acculturative stress, whereas a high immigrant density can be expected to do the opposite by facilitating inter-ethnic conflict and identity threat. This study analyses how co-ethnic density and immigrant density are correlated with smoking among pupils of Portuguese origin in Luxembourg. A multi-level analysis is used to analyze data from the Luxembourg Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study (N = 4268 pupils from 283 classes). High levels of co-ethnic density reduced current smoking. In contrast, high levels of immigrant density increased it. Thus, in research on the health of migrants, the distinction between co-ethnic density and immigrant density should be taken into account, as both may have opposite effects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe community economies of Esch-sur-Alzette: rereading the economy of Luxembourg
Taylor Aiken, Gerald UL; Schulz, Christian UL; Schmid, Benedikt UL

in Voluntary Sector Review (2020)

This article outlines the community economies of Esch-sur-Alzette, the ‘second city’ of Luxembourg. ‘Community economies’ – an approach outlined by J.K. Gibson-Graham – draws attention to alternative ... [more ▼]

This article outlines the community economies of Esch-sur-Alzette, the ‘second city’ of Luxembourg. ‘Community economies’ – an approach outlined by J.K. Gibson-Graham – draws attention to alternative narratives of economic development and the representation of economic identity. Despite (the Grand Duchy of) Luxembourg’s reputation as a European Union centre, with substantial finance and tax activity, Esch-sur-Alzette is a post-industrial and multilingual melting pot. The alternative narrative here is of the multiple community-based organisations and movements in Esch-sur-Alzette: an energy cooperative, urban gardening, an upcycling clothing factory, a local food shop and restaurant, and vibrant civil society discussions and interventions in (inter)national politics. Civil society, while central to both understandings of grassroots environmental action and the community economies framework of Gibson-Graham, takes on quite a different flavour in Luxembourg. This article then takes the case of Luxembourg to reread the relationship of the state to the so-called third sector, in doing so defending the political possibilities of community economies. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring Cultural Identity in a Multicultural Context—the Special Case of Luxembourg
Bichler, Samantha; Albert, Isabelle UL; Barros Coimbra, Stephanie UL et al

in Human Arenas (2020), online first

In light of globalization and increased cultural diversity, the question of cultural identity becomes particularly salient in many societies today. Whereas most studies have concentrated on cultural ... [more ▼]

In light of globalization and increased cultural diversity, the question of cultural identity becomes particularly salient in many societies today. Whereas most studies have concentrated on cultural identity of immigrants, less is known about the identity constructions of non-immigrants and receiving country nationals living in a multicultural setting. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg with a foreign population of 48% provides an excellent example case here. The present study examined the cultural identity of two generations of native Luxembourgers, drawing on a content analysis of qualitative interviews with N = 18 participants belonging to nine family dyads, each composed of one (young) adult child and one parent. As Luxembourg’s cultural diversity has increased continuously in the last decades, we focussed here on similarities and differences between (young) adults and their parents in order to find out in how far age (i.e., different points in the individual life span) or generation (i.e., growing up in different times and historical contexts) might be highlighted in their cultural identity constructions. Five main domains pertaining to Luxembourger’s cultural identity were found through qualitative content analysis: ‘the Luxembourgish language’, ‘Belongingness to Luxembourg and the love for Luxembourg as a homeland’, ‘Europeanization and multiculturalism in Luxembourg’, ‘Representing Luxembourg as a native in international contexts’ and ‘Luxembourgish traditions and history’. While the older generation focused more on the feeling of belongingness to their home country, the younger generation made more specific links to Europe and multiculturalism. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMobility policy through the lens of policy mobility: The post-political case of introducing free transit in Luxembourg
Carr, Constance UL; Hesse, Markus UL

in Journal of Transport Geography (2020), 83

This viewpoint paper addresses the issue of fare-free public transport (FFPT) in the context of policy mobility, the strand of urban studies literature that examines how policy formulations developed in ... [more ▼]

This viewpoint paper addresses the issue of fare-free public transport (FFPT) in the context of policy mobility, the strand of urban studies literature that examines how policy formulations developed in one place tend to ‘travel’ and inform and inspire plans elsewhere as good or best practices. We argue that the promotion of policies may not reflect a serious attempt to solve a sustainability or socio-economic issue. Rather, the institutions in charge have different targets in mind. FFPT in Luxembourg is thus more a reflection of a post-political process where politics are severed from the political. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceptions of Society’s Necessary Standard of Living: Are Perceptions Determined by What People Have, or Do They Reflect a Social Consensus?
Gutfleisch, Tamara Rebecca UL; Andreß, Hans-Jürgen

in Social Indicators Research (2020)

Analyses of material deprivation usually use lists of goods and activities to assess an individual’s possessions and to compare it with the society’s standard of living. If the number of possessions falls ... [more ▼]

Analyses of material deprivation usually use lists of goods and activities to assess an individual’s possessions and to compare it with the society’s standard of living. If the number of possessions falls below a certain threshold, the individual is assumed to be materially deprived. Also state-guaranteed minimum income payments are often based on a basket of goods, which are assumed to represent a minimal living standard in the respective society. However, this approach rests on the assumption that a social consensus exists about what constitutes society’s necessary standard of living, which has never been tested in a theoretically and methodologically sound way. Our paper provides a model of the main determinants of standard of living perceptions in the public, develops a measurement model for a survey of necessary items, and tests whether these perceptions are expressions of a consensual normative standard or reflections of the respondent’s idiosyncratic individual living situation. We have used two waves of the GESIS Panel in 2016 to survey the current opinions about the necessary standard of living in the German population. Estimating cross-lagged auto-correlated structural equation models, we find that necessity evaluations are quite homogeneous across social groups but are influenced by individuals’ possessions, which vary within society and hence, challenge the social consensus assumption. Moreover, instead of using only the most necessary items, survey instruments should include both necessary and less necessary items to reflect the whole distribution of possible standard of living perceptions. Our results further suggest that analyses using single items should be avoided due to possible measurement errors. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimum Autofrettage Pressure of Hydrogen Valve Using Finite Element and Fatigue Analysis
Kedziora, Slawomir UL; Cao, Thanh Binh

in Engineering (2020), 12(01), 1--24

The presented article shows an estimation method of optimum autofrettage pressure taking into consideration subsequent cyclic loading. An autofrettage process is used in pressure vessel applications for ... [more ▼]

The presented article shows an estimation method of optimum autofrettage pressure taking into consideration subsequent cyclic loading. An autofrettage process is used in pressure vessel applications for strength improvement. The process relies on applying massive pressure that causes internal portions of the part to yield plastically, resulting in internal compressive residual stresses when pressure is released. Later applied working pressure (much lower than autofrettage pressure) creates stress reduced by the residual compressive stress improving the structural performance of the pressure vessels. The optimum autofrettage pressure is a load that maximizes the fatigue life of the structure at the working load. The estimation method of that pressure of a hydrogen valve is the subject of the presented work. Finite element and fatigue analyses were employed to investigate the presented problem. An automated model was developed to analyze the design for various autofrettage pressures. As the results of the procedure, the optimum autofrettage pressure is determined. The research has shown that the developed method can profitably investigate the complex parts giving the autofrettage load that maximizes the fatigue life. The findings suggest that the technique can be applied to a large group of products subjected to the autofrettage process. [less ▲]

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See detailData Redundancy Mitigation in V2X based Collective Perceptions
Huang, Hui UL; Li, Huiyun; Shao, Cuiping et al

in IEEE Access (2020), 8

Collective perception is a new paradigm to extend the limited horizon of individual vehicles. Incorporating with the recent vehicle-2-x (V2X) technology, connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) can ... [more ▼]

Collective perception is a new paradigm to extend the limited horizon of individual vehicles. Incorporating with the recent vehicle-2-x (V2X) technology, connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) can periodically share their sensory information, given that traffic management authorities and other road participants can benefit from these information enormously. Apart from the benefits, employing collective perception could result in a certain level of transmission redundancy, because the same object might fall in the visible region of multiple CAVs, hence wasting the already scarce network resources. In this paper, we analytically study the data redundancy issue in highway scenarios, showing that the redundant transmissions could result in heavy loads on the network under medium to dense traffic. We then propose a probabilistic data selection scheme to suppress redundant transmissions. The scheme allows CAVs adaptively adjust the transmission probability of each tracked objects based on the position, vehicular density and road geometry information. Simulation results confirm that our approach can reduce at most 60% communication overhead in the meanwhile maintain the system reliability at desired levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging Privileged Information to Limit Distraction in End-to-End Lane Following
Robinet, François UL; Demeules, Antoine; Frank, Raphaël UL et al

in 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC) (2020)

Convolutional Neural Networks have been successfully used to steer vehicles using only road-facing cameras. In this work, we investigate the use of Privileged Information for training an end-to-end lane ... [more ▼]

Convolutional Neural Networks have been successfully used to steer vehicles using only road-facing cameras. In this work, we investigate the use of Privileged Information for training an end-to-end lane following model. Starting from the prior assumption that such a model should spend a sizeable fraction of its focus on lane markings, we take advantage of lane geometry information available at training time to improve its performance. To this end, we constrain the class of learnable functions by imposing a prior stemming from a lane segmentation task. For each input frame, we compute the set of pixels that most contribute to the prediction of the model using the VisualBackProp method. These pixel-relevance heatmaps are then compared with ground truth lane segmentation masks. A Distraction Loss term is added to the objective to regularize the training process. We learn from real-world data collected using our experimental vehicle and compare the results to those obtained using the simple Mean Squared Error objective. We show that the presence of our regularizer benefits both the performance and the stability of the model across a variety of evaluation metrics. We use a pretrained lane segmentation model without fine-tuning to extract lane marking masks and show that valuable learning signals can be extracted even from imperfect privileged knowledge. This method can be implemented easily and very efficiently on top of an existing architecture, without requiring the addition of any trainable parameter. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention of Electrostatic Charge Generation in Filtration of Low-Conductivity Oils by Surface Modification of Modern Filter Media
Staudt, Johannes; Duchowski, Johan; Leyer, Stephan UL

in Tribology Transactions (2020)

The electrostatic charging behavior of filter elements operating in various hydraulic and lubricating fluids has been re-examined from the perspective of fundamental material properties of the two ... [more ▼]

The electrostatic charging behavior of filter elements operating in various hydraulic and lubricating fluids has been re-examined from the perspective of fundamental material properties of the two materials participating in the event. In contrast to the previously proposed mechanisms that focused predominantly on fluid and material conductivities, new evidence strongly suggests that the relative placement of the substrates in the triboelectric series must be taken into account. The positions occupied in the triboelectric series account for the donor/acceptor tendencies exhibited by the materials when brought close together in close proximity ( 10 nm). Nevertheless, this behavior is only an outward manifestation of the deeper underlying characteristics that include material surface energies and, looking even deeper, the associated electron work functions of the interacting materials. Herein we provide several examples of the enhanced understanding of the electrostatic charging/discharging (ESC/ESD) phenomena as they occur in the course of filtration of hydraulic and lubricating fluids through modern filter elements constructed of synthetic glass fiber and polymer materials. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Schwarz-Voronov embedding of Z_2^n - manifolds
Bruce, Andrew UL; Ibarguengoytia, Eduardo UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (2020), 16(002), 47

Detailed reference viewed: 176 (22 UL)