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See detail«Een Eco-grafie van de cultroman»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in ALW-Cahier (1995)

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See detailInP/InGaAs Photodetector Based on a High Electron Mobility Transistor Layer Structure: Its Response at 1.3 µm wavelength
Horstmann, M.; Marso, Michel UL; Fox, A. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (1995), 67(1995), 106-108

We report on the investigation of the room-temperature optoelectronic behavior of a metal–semiconductor–metal two-dimensional electron gas photodiode based on the two-dimensional electron gas of a high ... [more ▼]

We report on the investigation of the room-temperature optoelectronic behavior of a metal–semiconductor–metal two-dimensional electron gas photodiode based on the two-dimensional electron gas of a high electron mobility transistor structure. The photodetector is fabricated in the InP/InGaAs material system, without use of Al-containing layers. Optoelectronic measurements on a device with a finger spacing of 3 mm show a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the pulse response of <60 ps, which is the resolution limit of our measurement equipment. Low-temperature measurements at 40 K with electro-optical sampling at a wavelength of 890 nm show a FWHM of 1 ps. [less ▲]

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See detailPestalozzi für den Schulgebrauch
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Schweizerische Lehrerinnen- und Lehrer-Zeitung (1995), 140(23-24), 15-15

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See detailDie Kleist-Sammlung in der Amerika-Gedenkbibliothek, Berlin
Amann, Wilhelm UL

in Beiträge zur Kleist-Forschung (1995), 9

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See detailHormonal induction of an immediate-early gene response in myogenic cell lines--a paradigm for heart growth.
Maass, A.; Grohe, C.; Kubisch, C. et al

in European heart journal (1995), 16 Suppl C

Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by growth of myocardial cells without proliferation. Many endo- paracrine stimuli such as angiotensin II, endothelin, alpha 1-adrenergic agonists, and insulin have ... [more ▼]

Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by growth of myocardial cells without proliferation. Many endo- paracrine stimuli such as angiotensin II, endothelin, alpha 1-adrenergic agonists, and insulin have been shown to be able to induce cardiac hypertrophy either in vivo or in vitro. We have used the myoblast model of differentiation and proliferation to determine nuclear signal transduction mechanisms in muscle and (by analogy) cardiac growth. The first nuclear event known to occur when a growth stimulus acts upon a cell is induction of a family of immediate-early genes. Our group focused on the role of one of these genes, the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). We have shown that this gene is induced in isolated adult cardiac myocytes in the presence of endothelin. An anti-sense oligonucleotide complementary to the first six codons of the Egr-1 mRNA abolishes the stimulation of protein synthesis induced by endothelin. In the present study we further characterized paracrine growth stimuli in the myogenic cell line Sol8, which was used as a paradigm to further investigate mechanisms of paracrine growth induction. We demonstrated that a variety of candidate endo- paracrine stimuli for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy induced the Egr-1 messenger RNA in the myogenic cell line Sol8. Among these are endothelin, insulin, basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB). We conclude: (1) In analogy to the myocardium, these growth factors act upon myoblasts. (2) This line appears to be a suitable model for the molecular characterization of Egr-1 target genes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe biological cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy.
Neyses, Ludwig UL; Pelzer, T.

in European heart journal (1995), 16 Suppl N

Cardiac hypertrophy, one of the major risk factors in hypertension, is associated with a high incidence of congestive heart failure and sudden death. Despite efforts over the last 20 years, the underlying ... [more ▼]

Cardiac hypertrophy, one of the major risk factors in hypertension, is associated with a high incidence of congestive heart failure and sudden death. Despite efforts over the last 20 years, the underlying molecular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy are still poorly understood, thus making it difficult to develop new therapeutic strategies. A growing body of evidence suggests that cardiac hypertrophy results from mechanical stress that triggers paracrine and autocrine signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, whereas hypertrophy leads to isoform switches in some contractile proteins, increased protein synthesis is largely based on increased translational capacity. Cardiac growth under physiological as well as pathological conditions is regulated by several recently identified transcription factors. Among the factors that are capable of transmitting hypertrophic stimuli to the nucleus is the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). Whereas female gender is already an established cardioprotective factor in clinical trials, some very recent data indicate that oestrogens and the nuclear oestrogen receptor may directly modulate gene expression in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Future pharmacological interventions could be directed towards modifying the nuclear signal transduction cascade involving multiple protein kinases and phosphatases. [less ▲]

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See detailÄrgerbewältigungstraining
Steffgen, Georges UL; Schwenkmezger, Peter

in Psychologie und Sport (1995), 2(3), 89-95

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See detailCHALLENGING TIMES FOR BIOINFORMATICS
CASARI, G.; ANDRADE, M. A.; BORK, P. et al

in Nature (1995), 376(6542), 647-648

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See detailOn the institutional determinants of economic development. Lessons from a stochastic neoclassical growth model
Klump, Rainer UL

in Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftswissenschaften / Review of Economics (1995)

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See detailStructure of the human APO-1 gene
Behrmann, Iris UL; Walczak, H.; Krammer, P. H.

in European Journal of Immunology (1995), 24(12), 3057-62

APO-1/Fas (CD95) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family characterized by cysteine-rich extracellular domains. Cross-linking of APO ... [more ▼]

APO-1/Fas (CD95) is a type 1 transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family characterized by cysteine-rich extracellular domains. Cross-linking of APO-1 mediates apoptosis in a variety of cells. In the present study we report the isolation and characterization of the human APO-1 gene spanning approximately 25 kb of human chromosome 10. The gene consists of nine exons (25 bp to > 1.44 kb) separated by eight introns (152 bp to approximately 12 kb). The boundaries of exon 2 to 5 encoding the extracellular region do not match the boundaries of the three APO-1 protein subdomains. Exon structure and functional protein domains correspond for exon 6 encoding the transmembrane region and for exon 9 encoding the "death domain". By a polymerase chain reaction-based approach we localized major transcriptional start sites in human spleen cells 77 and 73 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon of the human APO-1 gene. Minor initiation sites were found at positions -128, -111, -91, and -74. The 5' flanking sequence of the human APO-1 gene is GC rich, contains a high number of CpG dinucleotides and lacks a consensus TATA box. Consensus binding sites for the transcription factors Sp1, AP-1, AP-2, GAF, NF-kappa B, and NF-AT were found. The elucidation of the human APO-1 gene structure will facilitate the study of its involvement in various diseases such as in autoimmunity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Spectrum Efficiency of a Base-Station Antenna Array System for Spatially Selective Transmission
Zetterberg, Per; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (1995), 44(3), 651660

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See detailSecond-order elasticity of liquid crystals within their nematic state at high frequencies
Krüger, Jan-Kristian UL; Grammes, C.; Jiménez, R. et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1995), 51(3), 2115-2128

Within this work we present Brillouin and ultrasonic investigations performed on the liquid crystals p-methoxybenzylidene p-(n-butylaniline) (MBBA), p-azoxyanisol (PAA), 4-cyano-4-n-alkylbiphenyles (nCB ... [more ▼]

Within this work we present Brillouin and ultrasonic investigations performed on the liquid crystals p-methoxybenzylidene p-(n-butylaniline) (MBBA), p-azoxyanisol (PAA), 4-cyano-4-n-alkylbiphenyles (nCB), and 4-n-pentoxybenzylidene-4'-n-octoaniline (5O.8). Special attention has been paid to the evolution of a significant splitting of the two longitudinal polarized acoustic modes within the nematic phase. Angle-resolving Brillouin spectroscopy allowed the determination of the complete stiffness tensors and hence a discussion of the propagation of quasitransverse polarized acoustic modes in the nematic state of liquid crystals. We analyze the behavior of the eigenvectors of the relevant acoustic modes and discuss their significance for the propagation of quasishear modes. For 5O.8 we report an acoustic instability within its nematic state. We confirm the existence of a universal thermal relaxation mechanism of weak activation energy for the nematic state of classical liquid crystals. The observed hypersonic anisotropy is discussed in terms of that relaxation mechanism and is compared with that of glass-forming liquid crystals. [less ▲]

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See detailVon Mäusen und Menschen In: “Genetische Determinierung: Schicksal aus den Genen?”
Balling, Rudi UL

in GSF-Mensch und Umwelt (1995), (10), 17-23

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See detailS.A.S. : un exemple à suivre ?
Corbisier, Isabelle UL; Nicaise, Pierre

in Le droit des affaires = Het ondernemingsrecht (1994), (33), 43-80

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See detailMorele opvoeding en morele ontwikkeling; inleiding op het thema.
Biesta, Gert UL; Wardekker, W.; Zwart-Woudstra, H.

in Comenius (1994), 14(1), 5-11

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See detail[Transgenic mice--biological fundamentals, practices and applications].
Balling, Rudi UL

in DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift (1994), 101(3), 94-5

The transfer of genes into the germline of mice has become a standard technique of modern biomedical research. In addition to direct microinjection of DNA into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse eggs ... [more ▼]

The transfer of genes into the germline of mice has become a standard technique of modern biomedical research. In addition to direct microinjection of DNA into the pronuclei of fertilized mouse eggs, genes can now also be inactivated via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells (gene targeting). In the future it will be possible to inactivate any cloned gene via homologous recombination in ES-cells and establish corresponding mouse mutants. [less ▲]

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See detailDossier Dewey. Het ontwerp van een transactionele handelingspsychologie.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Psychologie & maatschappij (1994), 18(2), 123-140

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See detailExpression and function of Pax 1 during development of the pectoral girdle.
Timmons, P. M.; Wallin, J.; Rigby, P. W. et al

in Development (1994), 120(10), 2773-85

Pax 1 is a member of the paired-box containing gene family. Expression has previously been observed in the developing sclerotomes and later in the anlagen of the intervertebral discs. Analysis of Pax 1 ... [more ▼]

Pax 1 is a member of the paired-box containing gene family. Expression has previously been observed in the developing sclerotomes and later in the anlagen of the intervertebral discs. Analysis of Pax 1-deficient undulated mice revealed an important role for this gene in the development of the axial skeleton, in which Pax 1 apparently functions as a mediator of notochordal signals during sclerotome differentiation. Here we demonstrate that Pax 1 is also transiently expressed in the developing limb buds. A comparative phenotypic analysis of different undulated alleles shows that this expression is of functional significance. In mice that are mutant for the Pax 1 gene severe developmental abnormalities are found in the pectoral girdle. These include fusions of skeletal elements which would normally remain separate, and failures in the differentiation of blastemas into cartilaginous structures. Although Pax 1 is also expressed in the developing hindlimb buds and Wolffian ridge, no malformations could be detected in the corresponding regions of Pax 1 mutant mice. These findings show that, in addition to its role in the developing vertebral column, Pax 1 has an important function in the development of parts of the appendicular skeleton. [less ▲]

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See detailMitogenic signals control translation of the early growth response gene-1 in myogenic cells.
Maass, A.; Grohe, C.; Oberdorf, S. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (1994), 202(3), 1337-46

Muscle is a major site of expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). To investigate its role in muscle proliferation and/or differentiation we studied the effect of a variety of growth ... [more ▼]

Muscle is a major site of expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). To investigate its role in muscle proliferation and/or differentiation we studied the effect of a variety of growth factors on cultured mouse muscle Sol8 cells. Three groups of responses could be distinguished: 1. AII, endothelin, phenylephrine, and PMA induced Egr-1 mRNA accumulation, but the message remained untranslated. These factors induced neither differentiation nor proliferation. 2. Insulin induced differentiation. It stimulated Egr-1 mRNA accumulation, but no translation into the Egr-1 protein was seen. 3. bFGF, PDGF BB, and FCS strongly induced DNA- and protein synthesis (i.e. proliferation) and Egr-1 mRNA accumulation. Only under these conditions was the message translated into protein. We conclude: 1. AII, endothelin, phenylephrine, and PMA elicit a nuclear response in Sol8 muscle cells which may lead to reprogramming of genes unrelated to differentiation or proliferation. 2. Differentiation induces a translational block of the Egr-1 mRNA which is only relieved by mitotic stimuli. 3. These results strongly suggest a pivotal role of Egr-1 in muscle proliferation and define translational control as a new mechanism of Egr-1 regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPHD - AN AUTOMATIC MAIL SERVER FOR PROTEIN SECONDARY STRUCTURE PREDICTION
ROST, B.; SANDER, C.; Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Computer Applications in the Biosciences [=CABIOS] (1994), 10(1), 53-60

By the middle of 1993, > 30000 protein sequences had been listed. For 1000 of these, the three-dimensional (tertiary) structure has been experimentally solved. Another 7000 can be modelled by homology ... [more ▼]

By the middle of 1993, > 30000 protein sequences had been listed. For 1000 of these, the three-dimensional (tertiary) structure has been experimentally solved. Another 7000 can be modelled by homology. For the remaining 21000 sequences, secondary structure prediction provides a rough estimate of structural features. Predictions in three states range between 35% (random) and 88% (homology modelling) overall accuracy. Using information about evolutionary conservation as contained in multiple sequence alignments, the secondary structure of 4700 protein sequences was predicted by the automatic e-mail sewer PHD, For proteins with at least one known homologue, the method has an expected overall three-state accuracy of 71.4% for proteins with at least one known homologue (evaluated on 126 unique protein chains). [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelated mutations and residue contacts in proteins
Göbel, U.; Sander, C.; Schneider, Reinhard UL et al

in Proteins (1994), 18

The maintenance of protein function and structure constrains the evolution of amino acid sequences. This fact can be exploited to interpret correlated mutations observed in a sequence family as an ... [more ▼]

The maintenance of protein function and structure constrains the evolution of amino acid sequences. This fact can be exploited to interpret correlated mutations observed in a sequence family as an indication of probable physical contact in three dimensions. Here we present a simple and general method to analyze correlations in mutational behavior between different positions in a multiple sequence alignment. We then use these correlations to predict contact maps for each of 11 protein families and compare the result with the contacts determined by crystallography. For the most strongly correlated residue pairs predicted to be in contact, the prediction accuracy ranges from 37 to 68% and the improvement ratio relative to a random prediction from 1.4 to 5.1. Predicted contact maps can be used as input for the calculation of protein tertiary structure, either from sequence information alone or in combination with experimental information. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of atmospheric pressure loading using Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements
van Dam, Tonie UL; Herring, T. A.

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1994), 99(B3), 4505-4518

Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates ... [more ▼]

Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with ∼60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations. [less ▲]

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See detailGute Noten. Der Schüler Kleist in den Aufzeichnungen des Carl Eduard Albanus
Amann, Wilhelm UL

in Brandenburger Kleist-Blätter (1994), 7

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See detailInstitutionelle Unsicherheit und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung
Klump, Rainer UL; Reichel, Richard

in Jahrbucher für Nationalokonomie und Statistik (1994)

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See detailFremdenfeindliche Gewalt: Tätertypen, Eskalationsprozesse und Erklärungsansätze
Willems, Helmut UL; Eckert, Roland

in Politisches Lernen (1994), (1-2), 11-25

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See detailThe undulated mouse and the development of the vertebral column. Is there a human PAX-1 homologue?
Balling, Rudi UL

in Clinical Dysmorphology (1994), 3(3), 185-91

The mouse is a very useful system for the analysis of vertebral column development, particularly as a model for human skeletal diseases. A large number of mutant mouse strains exist with specific ... [more ▼]

The mouse is a very useful system for the analysis of vertebral column development, particularly as a model for human skeletal diseases. A large number of mutant mouse strains exist with specific inherited skeletal defects. Undulated (un) is one of these mutants showing abnormalities of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The gene responsible for un has been identified as the Pax-1 gene, a member of the Pax-gene family. A human disease homologue to un is not known so far. In order to facilitate identification of a potential human PAX-1 disease, an overview is given describing what is currently known about the pathological and molecular analysis of un. It is hoped that this will help medical geneticists and dysmorphologists to identify a potential human disease, which corresponds to a mutation in the PAX-1 gene. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of nisoldipine on endothelin-1- and angiotensin II-induced immediate/early gene expression and protein synthesis in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Grohe, C.; Nouskas, J.; Vetter, H. et al

in Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology (1994), 24(1), 13-6

The cellular mechanisms by which dihydropyridine-type calcium antagonists lead to regression of hypertension-related cardiac hypertrophy have not been clarified. We previously showed that angiotensin II ... [more ▼]

The cellular mechanisms by which dihydropyridine-type calcium antagonists lead to regression of hypertension-related cardiac hypertrophy have not been clarified. We previously showed that angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) induce protein synthesis in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes, probably through protein kinase C (PKC) as second messenger and the gene product of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) as third messenger. We now show that the dihydropyridine derivative nisoldipine inhibits AII- and ET-1-induced protein synthesis at low concentrations (IC50 7.5 nM for 0.1 microM ET). Induction of c-fos and Egr-1 mRNA by AII and ET was completely blocked by nisoldipine. Therefore, nisoldipine may influence the signal transduction pathway, i.e., through PKC. These results provide a potential pressure-independent mechanism by which nisoldipine may influence development of cardiac hypertrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailPragmatism as a pedagogy of communicative action.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Studies in Philosophy & Education (1994), 13

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See detailMouse genetics and the development of vertebral column development
Balling, Rudi UL; Koseki, H; Wallin, J et al

in Proceedings Greenwood Genetics Center (1994), (13), 58-60

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See detailFunctional differences between L- and T-plastin isoforms.
Arpin, M.; Friederich, Evelyne UL; Algrain, M. et al

in The Journal of cell biology (1994), 127(6 Pt 2), 1995-2008

Fimbrins/plastins are a family of highly conserved actin-bundling proteins. They are present in all eukaryotic cells including yeast, but each isoform displays a remarkable tissue specificity. T-plastin ... [more ▼]

Fimbrins/plastins are a family of highly conserved actin-bundling proteins. They are present in all eukaryotic cells including yeast, but each isoform displays a remarkable tissue specificity. T-plastin is normally found in epithelial and mesenchymal cells while L-plastin is present in hematopoietic cells. However, L-plastin has been also found in tumor cells of non-hematopoietic origin (Lin, C.-S., R. H. Aebersold, S. B. Kent, M. Varma, and J. Leavitt. 1988. Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4659-4668; Lin, C.-S., R. H. Aebersold, and J. Leavitt. 1990. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10: 1818-1821). To learn more about the biological significance of their tissue specificity, we have overproduced the T- and L-plastin isoforms in a fibroblast-like cell line, CV-1, and in a polarized epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. In CV-1 cells, overproduction of T- and L-plastins induces cell rounding and a concomitant reorganization of actin stress fibers into geodesic structures. L-plastin remains associated with microfilaments while T-plastin is almost completely extracted after treatment of the cells with non-ionic detergent. In LLC-PK1 cells, T-plastin induces shape changes in microvilli and remains associated with microvillar actin filaments after detergent extraction while L-plastin has no effect on these structures and is completely extracted. The effect of T-plastin on the organization of microvilli differs from that of villin, another actin-bundling protein. Our experiments indicate that these two isoforms play differing roles in actin filament organization, and do so in a cell type-specific fashion. Thus it is likely that these plastin isoforms play fundamentally different roles in cell function. [less ▲]

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See detailTeststatistische Überprüfung der Impact of Event-Skala: Befunde zu Reliabilität und Stabilität.
Ferring, Dieter UL; Filipp, Sigrun-Heide

in Focus Diagnostica (1994), 40(4)

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See detailRelationship between different approaches to the relativistic two body problem
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Journal of Physics : A Mathematical & General (1994)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (2 UL)
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See detailOn some aspects of a relativistic problem
del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Canadian Journal of Physics (1994)

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See detail«Nos w nos z humorem»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Humor Europejski (1994)

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See detailDetection of atmospheric pressure loading using the Global Positioning System
van Dam, Tonie UL; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, M.

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1994), 99(B12), 23939-23950

Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in ... [more ▼]

Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65°), with a signal RMS of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with ∼65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum. [less ▲]

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See detailInstrumental Variable Approach to Array Processing in Spatially Correlated Noise Fields
Stoica, Petre; Viberg, Mats; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (1994)

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See detailLe projet de dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier luxembourgeois
Scuto, Denis UL

in Matériaux pour l'histoire de notre temps (1994), (34), 47-49

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See detailObservations sous Cass., 20 janvier 1994 (n° 6653)
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés Civiles et Commerciales (1994), (4), 408-409

Commentaire de l'une des rares décisions précisant que la règle stipulant l'irrecevabilité de l'action en justice d'une société demeurée en défaut de procéder au dépôt de son acte constitutif au greffe du ... [more ▼]

Commentaire de l'une des rares décisions précisant que la règle stipulant l'irrecevabilité de l'action en justice d'une société demeurée en défaut de procéder au dépôt de son acte constitutif au greffe du tribunal compétent n'est pas d'ordre public [less ▲]

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See detailGeschichte und gegenwärtiger Trend der Pestalozzi-Forschung in der Schweiz
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Finnish Journal of Education (1994), 25(3), 321-324

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See detailStadtlogistik - Interessen „statt Logistik“?
Hatzfeld, Ulrich; Hesse, Markus UL

in Internationales Verkehrswesen (1994), 46(11), 646-653

The paper was one of the early attempts to address and conceptualise inner-city distribution logistics (aka city logistics), that is, the attempt to introduce collaborative modes of goods delivery in ... [more ▼]

The paper was one of the early attempts to address and conceptualise inner-city distribution logistics (aka city logistics), that is, the attempt to introduce collaborative modes of goods delivery in urban areas. Different from classical transport studies and engineering approaches, this paper particularly emphasises the role of individual (stakeholder) interests, which represent a major determinant of (and often barrier to) any such collaborative policy schemes. Given the recent calls for introducing a renewed city logistics in the context of e-commerce and the associated rise of last-mile deliveries, it might be wise to include a related perspective on single and collective rationalities, aims and objectives. This was the main reason to bury the 25 yrs-old paper from the archives. [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphorus Redistribution During the Formation of Buried CoSi2 Layers by Ion Beam Synthesis,
Schüppen, A.; Jebasinski, R.; Mantl, S. et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (1994), 84

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See detailOvergrown PBT's: Calculations and Measurements
Schüppen, A.; Marso, Michel UL; Lüth, H.

in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (1994), 41(1994), 751-760

The device parameters of overgrown silicon permeable base transistors (PBT’s) have been systematically investigated by two dimensional drift diffusion simulations and analytical calculations. Hence some ... [more ▼]

The device parameters of overgrown silicon permeable base transistors (PBT’s) have been systematically investigated by two dimensional drift diffusion simulations and analytical calculations. Hence some design rules arise for optimizing the high frequency performance of PBT’s. The calculations indicate the source-drain distance as the essential PBT parameter, which should be kept below 200 nm in order to expect unity current- gain frequencies fT over 50 GHz. In addition, PBT’s with buried monocrystalline CoSiz -gates have been fabricated by high dose cobalt ion implantation through a grid-like mask into MOS-compatible n -type Si(lO0). Measurements revealed a transconductance of 70 mS/mm and a fT value of 6 GHz. The comparison between measured and simulated output characteristics shows good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailNichts als Ärger. Zur Modifikation von Ärgerreaktionen im Leistungssport
Steffgen, Georges UL

in Leistungssport (1994), 24(3), 27-30

Ein Fußballspieler, der aufgrund seiner "Wut im Bauch" ein Revanchefoul begeht, oder ein anderer, der aufgrund seines Ärgers das Siegestor erzielt, sind Beispiele für höchst unterschiedliche Auswirkungen ... [more ▼]

Ein Fußballspieler, der aufgrund seiner "Wut im Bauch" ein Revanchefoul begeht, oder ein anderer, der aufgrund seines Ärgers das Siegestor erzielt, sind Beispiele für höchst unterschiedliche Auswirkungen der Emotion Ärger. Im Kontext leistungssportlichen Handelns wird von Sportlern, Trainern, Betreuern und Sportwissenschaftlern die leistungsfördernde Wirkung von Ärgererleben heftig diskutiert. Um die Kontroversen zu entschärfen, wird in diesem Beitrag eine psychologische Sichtweise zum Thema "Ärger" dargelegt. Die Gründe für eine Veränderung von Ärgerreaktionen, ein theoretischer Erklärungsansatz sowie ein Modifikationsprogramm des Ärgers werden hierzu vorgestellt. Ziel ist es, ein differenzierteres Bild der Veränderungsnotwendigkeiten und -möglichkeiten von Ärgerreaktionen aufzuzeigen. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of apoptosis in the immune system
Krammer, P. H.; Behrmann, Iris UL; Daniel, P. T. et al

in Current Opinion in Immunology (1994), 6(2), 279-89

Apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes is involved in all fundamental processes in the immune system. It is a mechanism to regulate the course of an immune response and to establish immunological memory as well ... [more ▼]

Apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes is involved in all fundamental processes in the immune system. It is a mechanism to regulate the course of an immune response and to establish immunological memory as well as central and peripheral tolerance. Apoptosis in lymphocytes is regulated by gene products that induce or block this process. Elucidating the molecular basis for sensitivity and resistance towards induction of apoptosis is the key to the understanding of the development of the immune system, basic immune reactions and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, AIDS and cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of c-Jun and suppresion of CREB transmission factor proteins in axotomized neurons of substantia nigra and covariation with tyrosine hydroxilase
Brecht, S; Gass, P; Anton, Fernand UL et al

in Molecular and cellular neuroscience (1994), 5(5), 431-441

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See detailNADPH-diaphorase reactivity in articular afferents of a normal and inflamed knee joint in the cat.
Bscheidl, Christoph; Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Heppelmann, Bernd

in Brain Research (1994), 668

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See detailPouvoir princier et peuplement : aux origines de la ville de Luxembourg
Margue, Michel UL

in Château Gaillard (1994), 16

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See detailREDEFINING THE GOALS OF PROTEIN SECONDARY STRUCTURE PREDICTION
ROST, B.; SANDER, C.; Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Journal of Molecular Biology (1994), 235(1), 13-26

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See detailDifferentiation-specific isoform mRNA expression of the calmodulin-dependent plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase.
Hammes, A.; Oberdorf, S.; Strehler, E. E. et al

in FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (1994), 8(6), 428-35

The functional significance of the isoform diversity of the calmodulin-dependent plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) is largely unknown. To determine whether the mRNA synthesis of different isoforms of ... [more ▼]

The functional significance of the isoform diversity of the calmodulin-dependent plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) is largely unknown. To determine whether the mRNA synthesis of different isoforms of the enzyme is regulated in a differentiation-specific manner, we investigated the expression of isoform-specific mRNAs in muscle and neuronal cells during differentiation by reverse transcription PCR. In the rat, the ubiquitous PMCA splicing variants 1b and 4b formed the typical PMCA isoform pattern of L6 myoblasts, the heart-derived cell line H9c2(2-1), two different fibroblast cell lines (FR and NRK-49F), smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. In addition to these two enzymes, novel expression of the splicing variants 1c, 1d, and 4a was induced during myogenic differentiation of L6 and H9c2(2-1) cells. A similar isoform subtype switch could be detected during differentiation of the neuronal PC-12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). The isoform-specific mRNAs 1c, 1d, and 4a were not expressed in cells other than myocytes and neurons, and therefore may be specific for excitable cells. The mRNA for isoform 1d was heart- and skeletal muscle-specific. To determine whether expression of a differentiation-specific PMCA mRNA pattern is under control of a myogenic determination factor, myogenin was constitutively expressed in rat fibroblasts. These cells converted to multinucleated myotubes, which displayed the PMCA isoform-specific mRNAs 1c, 1d, and 4a, typical of differentiated muscle cells. We conclude that: 1) the distribution of the various PMCA isoform-specific mRNAs and their splicing variants is cell type- and development-specific; 2) expression of the myogenic determination factor myogenin is sufficient to direct alternative splicing generating muscle-specific PMCA mRNA species; and 3) PMCA isoforms and/or splicing variants may play a role in determining functions of terminally differentiated muscle and neuronal cells and possibly during the differentiation process itself. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations - A propos de la réaction de M.O. Ralet à notre étude parue au n° 6634 (n° 6657)
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés Civiles et Commerciales (1994), (4), 469-473

Observations d'I. Corbisier en réponse à une réaction de O. Ralet à propos d'une étude précédemment publiée par la première citée et portant plus spécialement sur l'administrateur personne morale et le ... [more ▼]

Observations d'I. Corbisier en réponse à une réaction de O. Ralet à propos d'une étude précédemment publiée par la première citée et portant plus spécialement sur l'administrateur personne morale et le mandataire substitué (art. 1994 du Code civil) [less ▲]

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See detailDreimodale Faktorenanalyse von Wertkonzepten: Ein Methodenvorschlag für interkulturelle Vergleiche
Schneider, Johann F.; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Gruppendynamik (1994), 25

The present paper shows the usefulness of various methods of three-mode factor analysis for the cross-cultural comparisons of value concepts. Data were obtained from 300 German and 300 American students ... [more ▼]

The present paper shows the usefulness of various methods of three-mode factor analysis for the cross-cultural comparisons of value concepts. Data were obtained from 300 German and 300 American students, using theindividual and Organizational Values SYMLOG rating form. The comparative structural analyses of the saqtples made it apparent that the SYMLOG rating forms .· used did not yield the expectect correspondence to' the theoretical three-dimensional value space. The reasons and corisequenc'es of these' findings for further studies in this field are discussed. The methodological approach outlined in this paper can supplement the criteria formulated Bales et aL (1987) for adaptation of SYMLOG rating items to particular populations and cultural contexts and it provides more adequate procedures for data analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailTHE HSSP DATABASE OF PROTEIN-STRUCTURE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENTS
SANDER, C.; Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Nucleic Acids Research (1994), 22(17), 3597-3599

HSSP (homology-derived structures of proteins) is a derived database merging structural (2-D and 3-D) and sequence information (1-D). For each protein of known 3D structure from the Protein Data Bank, the ... [more ▼]

HSSP (homology-derived structures of proteins) is a derived database merging structural (2-D and 3-D) and sequence information (1-D). For each protein of known 3D structure from the Protein Data Bank, the database has a file with all sequence homologues, properly aligned to the PDB protein. Homologues are very likely to have the same 3D structure as the PDB protein to which they have been aligned. As a result, the database is not only a database of sequence aligned sequence families, but it is also a database of implied secondary and tertiary structures. [less ▲]

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See detailToeplitz quantization of Kähler manifolds and gl(N), N to infinity, limits
Bordemann, Martin UL; Meinrenken, Eckhard; Schlichenmaier, Martin UL

in Communications in Mathematical Physics (1994), 165

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See detailThe role of Pax-1 in axial skeleton development.
Wallin, J.; Wilting, J.; Koseki, H. et al

in Development (1994), 120(5), 1109-21

Previous studies have identified a single amino-acid substitution in the transcriptional regulator Pax-1 as the cause of the mouse skeletal mutant undulated (un). To evaluate the role of Pax-1 in the ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have identified a single amino-acid substitution in the transcriptional regulator Pax-1 as the cause of the mouse skeletal mutant undulated (un). To evaluate the role of Pax-1 in the formation of the axial skeleton we have studied Pax-1 protein expression in early sclerotome cells and during subsequent embryonic development, and we have characterized the phenotype of three different Pax-1 mouse mutants, un, undulated-extensive (unex) and Undulated short-tail (Uns). In the Uns mutation the whole Pax-1 locus is deleted, resulting in the complete absence of Pax-1 protein in these mice. The other two genotypes are interpreted as hypomorphs. We conclude that Pax-1 is necessary for normal vertebral column formation along the entire axis, although the severity of the phenotype is strongest in the lumbar region and the tail. Pax-1-deficient mice lack vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The proximal part of the ribs and the rib homologues are also missing or severely malformed, whereas neural arches are nearly normal. Pax-1 is thus required for the development of the ventral parts of vertebrae. Embryonic analyses reveal that although sclerotomes are formed in mutant embryos, abnormalities can be detected from day 10.5 p.c. onwards. The phenotypic analyses also suggest that the notochord still influences vertebral body formation some days after the sclerotomes are formed. Furthermore, the notochord diameter is larger in mutant embryos from day 12 p.c., due to increased cell proliferation. In the strongly affected genotypes the notochord persists as a rod-like structure and the nucleus pulposus is never properly formed. Since the notochord is Pax-1-negative these findings suggest a bidirectional interaction between notochord and paraxial mesoderm. The availability of these Pax-1 mutant alleles permitted us to define an early role for Pax-1 in sclerotome patterning as well as a late role in intervertebral disc development. Our observations suggest that Pax-1 function is required for essential steps in ventral sclerotome differentiation, i.e. for the transition from the mesenchymal stage to the onset of chondrogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial steps of myogenesis in somites are independent of influence from axial structures.
Bober, E.; Brand-Saberi, B.; Ebensperger, C. et al

in Development (1994), 120(11), 3073-82

Formation of paraxial muscles in vertebrate embryos depends upon interactions between early somites and the neural tube and notochord. Removal of both axial structures results in a complete loss of ... [more ▼]

Formation of paraxial muscles in vertebrate embryos depends upon interactions between early somites and the neural tube and notochord. Removal of both axial structures results in a complete loss of epaxial myotomal muscle, whereas hypaxial and limb muscles develop normally. We report that chicken embryos, after surgical removal of the neural tube at the level of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm, start to develop myotomal cells that express transcripts for the muscle-specific regulators MyoD and myogenin. These cells also make desmin, indicating that the initial steps of axial skeletal muscle formation can occur in the absence of the neural tube. However, a few days following the extirpation, the expression of MyoD and myogenin transcripts gradually disappears, and becomes almost undetectable after 4 days. From these observations we conclude that the neural tube is not required for the generation of the skeletal muscle cell lineage, but may support the survival or maitenance of further differentiation of the myotomal cell compartment. Notochord transplanted medially or laterally to the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm leads to a ventralization of axial structures but does not entirely prevent the early appearance of myoblasts expressing MyoD transcripts. However, the additional notochord inhibits subsequent development and maturation of myotomes. Taken together, our data suggest that neural tube promotes, and notochord inhibits, the process of myogenesis in axial muscles at a developmental step following the initial expression of myogenic bHLH regulators. [less ▲]

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See detailTesticular self-examination: Attitudes and practices among young men in Europe
Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Burckhardt, Ruth et al

in Preventive Medicine (1994), 23

BACKGROUND: Testicular self examination (TSE) is recommended for the early detection of testicular cancer. Evidence from North America suggests there is only limited public awareness of its importance ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Testicular self examination (TSE) is recommended for the early detection of testicular cancer. Evidence from North America suggests there is only limited public awareness of its importance among the young male population. Compliance with regular TSE is found in only a small minority of young men. Attitudes toward and practice of TSE have rarely been studied outside North America. METHOD: Attitudes to TSE were evaluated by questionnaire in a sample of 16,486 students. Frequency of TSE practice was reported by the 7,304 men in the sample. The data were collected as part of the European Health Behavior Survey, an international study on health beliefs and health behavior. RESULTS: Eighty-seven percent of men reported never having practiced TSE. Regular practice (monthly) was reported by only 3% of the sample, with another 10% reporting occasional TSE. Significant differences emerged between countries, ranging from 76% of German men to 98% of Icelandic men reporting no TSE. Men rated TSE as less important to health than women. Attitude toward TSE among men was a significant predictor of TSE practice. CONCLUSION: Both the low levels of TSE and the low ratings of the importance of TSE suggest that young men in Europe are unaware of the value of this comparatively simple method of early detection of cancer. If a highly educated population group in the "at risk" age category is not carrying out the recommendations, it is unlikely that there are higher levels of compliance in other groups. These results suggest an important role for health education in the early detection of testicular cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailErnst Martin: Johann Kettiger und Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. Zur Wirkungsgeschichte Pestalozzis
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Paedagogica Historica (1994), XXX(2), 671-682

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See detailEducation as Practical Intersubjectivity. Towards a critical-pragmatic understanding of education.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Educational Theory (1994), 44(3), 299-317

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See detailObservations sous Anvers, 3 mars 1992 (n° 6629)
Corbisier, Isabelle UL

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés Civiles et Commerciales (1993), (4), 315-319

Application des principes de la responsabilité aquilienne aux administrateurs d'une ASBL (association sans but lucratif)

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See detailThe genetic map around the tail kinks (tk) locus on mouse chromosome 9.
Imai, K.; Nass, S. J.; Olowson, M. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1993), 4(10), 560-4

Tail kinks (tk) is a classical mouse skeletal mutation, located on Chromosome (Chr) 9. As the first step for the positional cloning of the tk gene, we have established a genetic map of a region ... [more ▼]

Tail kinks (tk) is a classical mouse skeletal mutation, located on Chromosome (Chr) 9. As the first step for the positional cloning of the tk gene, we have established a genetic map of a region surrounding the tk locus by generating a backcross segregating for tk. From this backcross, 1004 progeny were analyzed for the coat-color phenotype of the proximally located dilute (d) gene and for the distally flanking microsatellite marker, D9Mit12. Fifty-six recombinants between d and tk and 75 recombinants between tk and D9Mit12 were identified, completing a panel of 130 recombinants including one double recombinant. This panel allowed us to map five microsatellite loci as well as d and Mod-1 with respect to tk. We show that one of the microsatellite markers mapped, D9Mit9, does not recombine at all with tk in our backcross. This indicates that the D9Mit9 locus will serve as a good starting point for a chromosomal walk to the tk gene. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilization of drug sales data for the epidemiology of chronic diseases: the example of diabetes
Papoz, L.; De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1993), 4

An indirect method for estimating the prevalence rates of chronic diseases that are treated by specific drugs was proposed in 1988 to European countries in the framework of a European Community concerted ... [more ▼]

An indirect method for estimating the prevalence rates of chronic diseases that are treated by specific drugs was proposed in 1988 to European countries in the framework of a European Community concerted action on diabetes epidemiology. Data on consumption of antidiabetic drugs were collected at the national level in nine countries and at a regional level in two. Using official drug sales data and recent demographic data, we estimated the diabetes prevalence rates in each country or region. The estimated diabetes prevalence in Europe varied from 1.6% in Northern Ireland to 4.7% in Malta. In four countries that already had diabetes prevalence data, the estimation through drug consumption provided figures 3-20% lower than those from field surveys. This study showed a large variety of prescribing habits for diabetic patients in Europe (for example, the proportion of insulin-treated patients varies from 13% to 36%) and underscores the need for a consensus on antidiabetic treatments based on valid clinical research. The proposed approach does not replace field surveys but provides an inexpensive and practical marker of disease frequency and therapeutic attitudes over space and time. [less ▲]

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See detailDegenerations of generalized Krichever-Novikov algebras on tori
Schlichenmaier, Martin UL

in Journal of Mathematical Physics (1993), 34

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See detailSchottky Barriers and Ohmic Contacts on InGaAs, Properties of Lattice-matched and strained InGaAs
Kordoš, P.; Marso, Michel UL

in EMS Datareviews (1993), (INSPEC IEE London), 131-155

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See detailSubmicrometer Silicon Permeable Base Transistors with Buried CoSi2 Gates
Schüppen, A.; Vescan, L.; Marso, Michel UL et al

in Electronics Letters (1993), 29(1993), 215-217

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See detailKondratieff-Zyklen, Gibson-Paradoxon und Klassischer Goldstandard
Klump, Rainer UL

in Vierteljahresschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1993)

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See detailEpithelial factors: modulation of the airway smooth muscle tone
Bertrand, C.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (1993), 7(6), 261-73

The airway epithelium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. This epithelial layer is not only a physical barrier but also a target responding to a variety of inflammatory mediators. These ... [more ▼]

The airway epithelium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. This epithelial layer is not only a physical barrier but also a target responding to a variety of inflammatory mediators. These cells can respond by releasing contracting and relaxing factors to modulate airway responsiveness. They can also metabolize some of the inflammatory mediators. Epithelial damage is a consistent feature of some respiratory conditions, but whether or not such damage contributes to airway disease is for the moment unknown. This review summarizes the literature on the known and proposed roles of the epithelium in the modulation of the airway smooth muscle tone. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Règles Uniformes de la CCI pour les garanties sur demande
Prüm, André UL; Mattout, Jean-Pierre

in Banque & droit (1993)

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See detailEstimate of the radial orbit error by complex demodulation
Francis, Olivier UL; Berge, M.

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth (1993), 98(B9), 16083-16094

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See detailUmstrukturierung des Tourismus auf Rügen - Chance oder Risiko für die Region?
Helfer, Malte UL

in Greifswalder Beiträge zur Regional-, Freizeit- und Tourismusforschung (1993), 4

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See detailPREDICTION OF PROTEIN-STRUCTURE BY EVALUATION OF SEQUENCE-STRUCTURE FITNESS - ALIGNING SEQUENCES TO CONTACT PROFILES DERIVED FROM 3-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES
OUZOUNIS, C.; SANDER, C.; SCHARF, M. et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (1993), 232(3), 805-825

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See detailA new Pax gene, Pax-9, maps to mouse chromosome 12.
Wallin, J.; Mizutani, Y.; Imai, K. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1993), 4(7), 354-8

Members of the Pax gene family have recently been shown to play important roles in mouse embryogenesis. Of eight so far characterized Pax genes, three have been associated with mouse developmental mutants ... [more ▼]

Members of the Pax gene family have recently been shown to play important roles in mouse embryogenesis. Of eight so far characterized Pax genes, three have been associated with mouse developmental mutants. Here we report the cloning of a new Pax gene, Pax-9. Most of the DNA sequence encoding the highly conserved paired domain has been determined and compared with previously known paired domains. This comparison classifies Pax-9 as a member of the same subgroup as Pax-1/undulated. By analysis of the segregation of a Pax-9 restriction fragment length polymorphism and a large number of simple sequence length polymorphisms in an interspecific C57BL/6 x Mus musculus mollosinus backcross, Pax-9 was mapped close to the D12Nds1 locus on the proximal part of Chromosome (Chr) 12. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Sequence Similarity to Structural Homology of Proteins
Sander, C.; Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Computation of Biomolecular Structures, Achievements, Problems and Perspectives (1993)

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See detailInduction of immediate-early genes by angiotensin II and endothelin-1 in adult rat cardiomyocytes.
Neyses, Ludwig UL; Nouskas, J.; Luyken, J. et al

in Journal of hypertension (1993), 11(9), 927-34

OBJECTIVE: Few molecular signals for induction of myocardial hypertrophy have been identified. This study was carried out to investigate the action of angiotensin II and endothelin on the growth- and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Few molecular signals for induction of myocardial hypertrophy have been identified. This study was carried out to investigate the action of angiotensin II and endothelin on the growth- and differentiation-related genes Egr-1 (early growth response gene 1) and c-fos in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Cardiac myocytes from male Wistar-Kyoto rats were isolated and incubated with angiotensin II and endothelin-1 in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. RNA was isolated and blotted, and densitometric analysis was performed. All experiments were repeated at least three times. RESULTS: Endothelin-1 (10(-7) mmol/l) induced a 20-25-fold rise in Egr-1 messenger RNA within 15 min. This effect was dose-dependent. c-fos was induced 10-20-fold within 15 min with similar dose-response characteristics. Angiotensin II also induced Egr-1 and c-fos with kinetics similar to endothelin but a cofactor from fetal calf serum was needed for full c-fos expression. The protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also induced Egr-1. CONCLUSIONS: The results identify Egr-1 and c-fos as target genes for the action of endothelin and angiotensin II in the adult myocardium suggesting that induction of the genes may be part of the signal transduction pathway for angiotensin II and endothelin in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailThe genetics of skeletal development.
Balling, Rudi UL; Ebensperger, C.; Hoffmann, I. et al

in Annales de Génétique (1993), 36(1), 56-62

A genetic analysis of biologic processes has provided substantial advances in developmental biology. Whereas the genetic analysis of Drosophila is a potent system, recently developed tools have enabled a ... [more ▼]

A genetic analysis of biologic processes has provided substantial advances in developmental biology. Whereas the genetic analysis of Drosophila is a potent system, recently developed tools have enabled a genetic analysis of the development of vertebrates. For these studies, numerous mouse mutants are available and many more will be introduced in the near future. Mutations involving the skeleton are easy to detect. This article reports the phenotype and molecular analysis of two mutant mouse strains with skeletal abnormalities, undulated (un) and Danforth's short tail (Sd). The role of the corresponding genes in skeletal development of these two mutants and the basis for their genetic interaction are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of the recent epidemiological data on the worldwide incidence of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus
Karvonen, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Libman, J. et al

in Diabetologia (1993), 36

Nearly 70 registries from more than 40 countries have collected and published incidence data of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus up to the end of the 1980s. The majority of incidence ... [more ▼]

Nearly 70 registries from more than 40 countries have collected and published incidence data of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus up to the end of the 1980s. The majority of incidence data comes from regions of high incidence i.e. from Europe and North America. All these published data facilitate the descriptive comparison of incidence and variation of the occurrence of Type 1 diabetes roughly throughout the northern hemisphere. The aim of this paper is to review and compare the most recent epidemiology data on the incidence of Type 1 diabetes among children under the age of 15 years. A clear difference in incidence appeared between northern and southern hemisphere with no countries below the equator having an incidence greater than 15.0 per 100,000. In contrast above the equator the disease is common. Between continents the variation in incidence showed that the lowest incidences were found in Asia, followed by Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), South and North America, and the highest rates were in Europe. The incidence varied from 0.6 per 100,000 in Korea and Mexico to 35.3 per 100,000 in Finland showing prominent worldwide variation in incidence of Type 1 diabetes. The largest intracontinental variation in incidence appeared in Europe, varying from the highest in Finland to the lowest (4.6 per 100,000) in northern Greece. The highest incidence in the world was in northern Europe, but within the continent scale there were some striking exceptions from the overall level of incidence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailUSA im Zeichen der Wende? Klima, Umwelt, Raum, Verkehr.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Kommune - Forum für Politik, Ökonomie und Kultur (1993), 11(3), 41-45

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See detailVerhaltensmedizin. Ein psychobiologischer Ansatz zur Behandlung körperlicher Krankheiten
Florin, Irmela; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Vögele, Claus UL

in Verhaltensmodifikation und Verhaltensmedizin (1993), 1/2

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See detailReprésentations induites dans les groupes et algèbres de Lie exponentiels
Molitor-Braun, Carine UL

in Travaux Mathématiques (1993), 5

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See detailPROGRESS IN PROTEIN-STRUCTURE PREDICTION
ROST, B.; Schneider, Reinhard UL; SANDER, C.

in Trends in Biochemical Sciences - Regular Edition (1993), 18(4), 120-123

Prediction of protein secondary structure is an old problem and progress has been slow. Recently, spectacular success has been claimed in the blind prediction of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP ... [more ▼]

Prediction of protein secondary structure is an old problem and progress has been slow. Recently, spectacular success has been claimed in the blind prediction of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. When predictions in this and other test cases are assessed critically, some claims of prediction success turn out to be exaggerated, but a kernel of real progress remains: protein structure prediction can be improved substantially when a family of related sequences is available. Enough so that molecular biologists equipped with a new amino acid sequence and a multiple sequence alignment in hand may be tempted to test the new prediction methods. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric load response of the oceans determined using Geosat data
van Dam, Tonie UL; Wahr, John

in Geophysical Journal International (1993), 113(1), 1-16

Approximately one year's worth of altimeter-derived sea-surface heights are compared with global sea-level pressure fields to verify the open ocean inverted barometer response (-1 cm mb-1). When pressure ... [more ▼]

Approximately one year's worth of altimeter-derived sea-surface heights are compared with global sea-level pressure fields to verify the open ocean inverted barometer response (-1 cm mb-1). When pressure is fit to the sea-surface height along individual altimeter tracks, the response is found to be only 60–70 per cent of the theoretical response or approximately -0.6 to -0.7 cm mb-1. Fits at fixed geographic locations show a clear dependence on latitude. There is a steady decrease in the absolute value o the regression coefficient between 70° and 20°, and then an abrupt increase again closer to the equator. A simple error analysis demonstrates that errors in the pressure data would reduce the along-track regression values, as is observed, and could produce a similar latitude dependence. But, the errors are unlikely to be large enough to explain the entire departure from inverted barometer. We estimate that pressure errors are apt to perturb the along-track track results by no more than about 0.1-0.2 cm mb-1. The possibility that the remaining disagreement is due to a global coherence between wind- and pressure-driven sea-surface height variability is considered. Winds driven by the pressure gradients of synoptic storms induce a sea-surface height response that is opposite in direction to that caused by the pressure cell. the wind-driven response is estimated for a stationary storm over a homogeneous barotropic ocean and for a moving storm over a two-layer baroclinic ocean by modeling the pressure cell as an idealized Gaussian distribution. the model results indicate that the wind-induced sea-surface height depends on both the radius and the translational velocity of the pressure cell. But, the winds associated with storms moving at average speeds of 10 ms-1 are apt to lower the theoretical pressure response in the model by only approximately 0.1 cm mb-1. the surface stress associated with those winds has the same latitudinal trend between 70° and 20° as the regression coefficients. But, the response of the ocean to that stress does not appear to exhibit the same trend. Nevertheless, the abrupt change in the regression coefficients near the equator suggests the apparent non-inverted barometer response may reflect a real change in sea-surface height related to atmospheric forcing (though the results near the equator are not as well defined as those at higher latitudes). [less ▲]

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See detailFremdenfeindliche Gewalt
Willems, Helmut UL; Eckert, Roland

in Neue Justiz : Zeitschrift für Rechtsentwicklung und Rechtsprechung (1993), 47(11), 481-485

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See detailGap junction protein connexin40 is preferentially expressed in vascular endothelium and conductive bundles of rat myocardium and is increased under hypertensive conditions.
Bastide, B.; Neyses, Ludwig UL; Ganten, D. et al

in Circulation Research (1993), 73(6), 1138-49

Gap junction channels consisting of connexin protein mediate electrical coupling between cardiac cells. Expression of two connexins, connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43), has been studied in ... [more ▼]

Gap junction channels consisting of connexin protein mediate electrical coupling between cardiac cells. Expression of two connexins, connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43), has been studied in ventricular myocytes from normal and hypertensive rats. Polyclonal affinity-purified rabbit antibodies to Cx43 and Cx40 have been used for immunohistochemical analysis on frozen sections from rat heart. These studies revealed coexpression of Cx43 and Cx40 in ventricular myocytes. In addition, Cx40 is preferentially expressed in three distinct regions: first, in the endothelial layer of the heart blood vessels but not in the smooth muscle layer of the arteries; second, in the ventricular conductive myocardium, particularly in the atrioventricular bundle and bundle branches, where Cx43 is not observed; and third, in the myocyte layers close to the ventricular cavities. These results suggest that Cx40 is preferentially expressed in the fast conducting areas of myocardial tissue. Expression of both Cx40 and Cx43 was also found in immunoblots from normal and hypertensive rat myocardiocytes. Under hypertensive conditions (ie, in spontaneous hypertensive rats and in transgenic rats that exhibit hypertension due to expression of an exogenous renin gene), we found a 3.1-fold increase in Cx40 expression, compared with normal myocardium. Furthermore, we detected a 3.3-fold decrease in Cx43 protein level in transgenic hypertensive rats. The coexpression of Cx40 and Cx43 proteins in rat myocytes, their spatial distribution, and the increased amount of Cx40 protein during cardiac hypertrophy suggest that Cx40 may be involved in mediating fast conduction under normal and pathological conditions. The increased expression of Cx40 in hypertrophic heart may be a compensatory mechanism to increase conduction velocity. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperosmotic stress induces immediate-early gene expression in ventricular adult cardiomyocytes.
Wollnik, B.; Kubisch, C.; Maass, A. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (1993), 194(2), 642-6

Mammalian cells possessing osmosensors have long been described in brain and kidney. The genetic basis of the response to hyperosmotic stress has been well characterized in prokaryotes. In contrast, the ... [more ▼]

Mammalian cells possessing osmosensors have long been described in brain and kidney. The genetic basis of the response to hyperosmotic stress has been well characterized in prokaryotes. In contrast, the genetic response of eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the effect of hypertonic NaCl and sucrose solutions on the transcriptional activation of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) egr-1 and c-fos in isolated ventricular adult rat cardiomyocytes. We observed that even small increases in osmolarity to 315 +/- 5 mosmol/l and 370 +/- 8 mosmol/l by hypertonic NaCl solution resulted in dose-dependent induction of egr-1 (4-and 5-fold) and c-fos (3-and 4-fold), respectively. Hypertonic sucrose solution had the same effect on egr-1 and c-fos mRNA levels while increased sucrose concentration under isotonic conditions had no effect. Cardiomyocytes exposed to hypertonic media did not significantly shrink as shown by a cell length measurement. We conclude that isolated adult cardiomyocytes possess an osmoreceptor mechanism which is able to sense even slight changes in osmolarity and to translate these into a transcriptional response of the myocardial IEG program. [less ▲]

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See detailInsulin autoantibodies and immune response to human insulin therapy in 24 type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children: superiority of radio binding assay over solid phase assay
De Beaufort, Carine UL; Sodoyez, J. C.; Koch, M. et al

in Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice (1993), 21(1), 19-24

To evaluate the immunization pattern against human insulin, 24 newly diagnosed diabetic children (12 females, 12 males; mean age: 7 ± 4 years) were treated from diagnosis onwards with semisynthetic human ... [more ▼]

To evaluate the immunization pattern against human insulin, 24 newly diagnosed diabetic children (12 females, 12 males; mean age: 7 ± 4 years) were treated from diagnosis onwards with semisynthetic human insulin (NOVO). Informed consent was obtained from all parents. Blood samples were taken before, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the start of therapy and, thereafter, at monthly intervals for 2 years. Insulin (auto) antibodies (I(A)A) were measured by radio binding assay (RBA) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IAA, determined by RBA, were detected in eight children. Using ELISA, IgM IA were not detected after onset of therapy. By contrast, IgG IA were found in 8 children after 2 weeks of treatment and in 12 after 1 month. Using RBA, all children had IA after 2 months of therapy, whereas with ELISA, IA remained undetectable during the study period in 8 out of 24 patients. These results confirm previous observations suggesting that the 2 methods are not interchangeable and yield different estimations of the insulin immune reaction, not only before but also after the start of insulin therapy. In addition, the detection of IA by RBA in all treated patients unambiguously demonstrates that human insulin is immunogenic in man. © 1993. [less ▲]

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See detailAn epithelial-dependent contracting factor induced by calcium influx in guinea-pig trachea
Bertrand, C.; Da Silva, A.; Landry, Y. et al

in Pulmonary Pharmacology (1993), 6(1), 69-76

The effects of epithelium removal were studied on the contraction induced by Ca2+ in K(+)-depolarizing solution, and by the calcium ionophore A 23187 in guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips. Epithelium ... [more ▼]

The effects of epithelium removal were studied on the contraction induced by Ca2+ in K(+)-depolarizing solution, and by the calcium ionophore A 23187 in guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips. Epithelium removal reduced the maximal response to Ca2+ in K(+)-depolarizing solution and caused a significant shift to the right of the Ca2+ concentration-response curves. The contraction induced by the calcium ionophore A 23187 (10(-6) M) was also markedly reduced by epithelium removal. These results suggest the occurrence of an epithelium-derived contracting factor. The effects of hexamethonium, atropine, spantide and thiorphan showed that acetylcholine and neurokinins play a minor role in the Ca(2+)-induced contraction. The epithelium-dependent potentiation of the calcium- and of the A 23187-induced contractions was inhibited by an antibody selective for rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP alpha). Therefore, CGRP-like immunoreactive material may be part of the epithelium-dependent contracting factor of guinea-pig trachea. Comparison of concentration-response curves for rCGRP alpha in epithelium-free and in intact guinea-pig tracheal strips suggests that an epithelium-dependent contracting factor may be mobilized by CGRP. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ventralizing effect of the notochord on somite differentiation in chick embryos.
Brand-Saberi, B.; Ebensperger, C.; Wilting, J. et al

in Anatomy & Embryology (1993), 188(3), 239-45

The dorso-ventral pattern formation of the somites becomes manifest by the formation of the epithelially organized dorsal dermomyotome and the mesenchymal ventrally situated sclerotome. While the ... [more ▼]

The dorso-ventral pattern formation of the somites becomes manifest by the formation of the epithelially organized dorsal dermomyotome and the mesenchymal ventrally situated sclerotome. While the dermomyotome gives rise to dermis and muscle, the sclerotome differentiates into cartilage and bone of the axial skeleton. The onset of muscle differentiation can be visualized by immunohistochemistry for proteins associated with muscle contractility, e.g. desmin. The sclerotome cells and the epithelial ventral half of the somite express Pax-1, a member of a gene family with a sequence similarity to Drosophila paired-box-containing genes. In the present study, changes of Pax-1 expression were studied after grafting an additional notochord into the paraxial mesoderm region. The influence of the notochord and the floor-plate on dermomyotome formation and myotome differentiation has also been investigated. The notochord is found to exert a ventralizing effect on the establishment of the dorso-ventral pattern in the somites. Notochord grafts lead to a suppression of the formation and differentiation of the dorsal somitic derivatives. Simultaneously, a widening of the Pax-1-expressing domain in the sclerotome can be observed. In contrast, grafted roof-plate and aorta do not interfere with dorso-ventral patterning of the somitic derivatives. [less ▲]

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See detailVillin-induced growth of microvilli is reversibly inhibited by cytochalasin D.
Friederich, Evelyne UL; Kreis, T. E.; Louvard, D.

in Journal of cell science (1993), 105 ( Pt 3)

Villin is an actin-binding protein that is associated with the cytoskeleton of brush border microvilli. In vitro, villin nucleates, caps or severs actin filaments in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In the ... [more ▼]

Villin is an actin-binding protein that is associated with the cytoskeleton of brush border microvilli. In vitro, villin nucleates, caps or severs actin filaments in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In the absence of Ca2+, villin organizes microfilaments into bundles. Transfection of a villin-specific cDNA into cultured cells that do not produce this protein results in the growth of long surface microvilli and the reorganization of the underlying actin cytoskeleton. Here we studied the effects of low concentrations of cytochalasin D on the induction of these plasma membrane-actin cytoskeleton specializations. Transfected cells were treated with concentrations of cytochalasin D that prevent the association of actin monomers with the fast-growing end of microfilaments in vitro. In villin-positive cells, cytochalasin D inhibited the growth of microvilli and promoted the formation of rodlet-like actin structures, which were randomly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The formation of these structures was dependent on large amounts of villin and on the integrity of an actin-binding site located at the carboxy terminus of villin, which is required for microfilament bundling in vitro and for the growth of microvilli in vivo. The effect of cytochalasin D was reversible. The observation of living cells by video-imaging revealed that when cytochalasin D was removed, rapid disassembly of actin rodlets occurred after a lag phase. The present data stress the important role of the plasma membrane in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and suggest that the extension of the microvillar plasma membrane is dependent on the elongation of microfilaments at their fast-growing end. Inhibition of microfilament elongation near the plasma membrane by cytochalasin D may result in the 'random' nucleation of actin filaments throughout the cytoplasm. On the basis of the present data, we propose that villin is involved in the assembly of the microvillar actin bundle by a mechanism that does not prevent monomer association with the preferred end of microfilaments. For instance, villin may stabilize actin filaments by lateral interactions. The functional importance of the carboxy-terminal F-actin binding site in such a mechanism is stressed by the fact that it is required for the formation of F-actin rodlets in cytochalasin D-treated cells. Finally, our data further emphasize the observations that the effects of cytochalasin D in living cells can be modulated by actin-binding proteins. [less ▲]

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