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See detailFederated Learning-based Scheme for Detecting Passive Mobile Attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge Computing
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Annals of Telecommunications (2021)

Detecting passive attacks is always considered difficult in vehicular networks. Passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless medium to collect beacons. These beacons can be exploited to track the ... [more ▼]

Detecting passive attacks is always considered difficult in vehicular networks. Passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless medium to collect beacons. These beacons can be exploited to track the positions of vehicles not only to violate their location privacy but also for criminal purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel federated learning-based scheme for detecting passive mobile attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge Computing. We first identify a set of strategies that can be used by attackers to efficiently track vehicles without being visually detected. We then build an efficient Machine Learning (ML) model to detect tracking attacks based only on the receiving beacons. Our scheme enables Federated Learning (FL) at the edge to ensure collaborative learning while preserving the privacy of vehicles. Moreover, FL clients use a semi-supervised learning approach to ensure accurate self-labeling. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme to detect passive mobile attackers quickly and with high accuracy. Indeed, only 20 received beacons are required to achieve 95\% accuracy. This accuracy can be achieved within 60 FL rounds using 5 FL clients in each FL round. The obtained results are also validated through simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure Transmission in Cell-Free Massive MIMO With RF Impairments and Low-Resolution ADCs/DACs
Zhang, Xianyu; Liang, Tao; An, Kang et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(9, Sept. 2021), 8937-8949

This paper considers the secure transmission in a cell-free massive MIMO system with imperfect radio frequency (RF) chains and low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the secure transmission in a cell-free massive MIMO system with imperfect radio frequency (RF) chains and low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) at both access points (APs) and legitimate users, where an active eavesdropper attempts to wiretap the confidential data. The Gaussian RF impairment model (GRFIM) and additive quantization noise model (AQNM) are used to evaluate the impacts of the RF impairments and low resolution ADCs/DACs, respectively. The analytical results of the linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation show that there is nonzero floor on the estimation error with respect to the RF impairments, ADC/DAC precision and the pilot power of the eavesdropper which is different from the conventional case with perfect transceiver. Then, a tractable closed-form expression for the ergodic secrecy rate is obtained with respect to key system parameters, such as the antenna number per AP, the AP number, user number, quality factors of the ADC/DAC and the RF chain, pilot signal power of the eavesdropper, etc. Moreover, a compensation algorithm between the imperfect RF components and the inexpensive coarse ADCs/DACs is also presented. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the achieved expressions and the devised algorithm, and show the effects of RF impairments and low resolution ADC/DAC on the secrecy performance. [less ▲]

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See detailMethylamine Gas Treatment Affords Improving Semitransparency, Efficiency, and Stability of CH3NH3PbBr3-Based Perovskite Solar Cells
Singh, Ajay UL; Matteocci, Fabio; Zhu, Hongwei et al

in Solar RRL (2021)

High bandgap semitransparent solar cells based on CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites are attractive for building integration, tandem cells, and electrochemical applications. The lack of control of the CH3NH3PbBr3 ... [more ▼]

High bandgap semitransparent solar cells based on CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites are attractive for building integration, tandem cells, and electrochemical applications. The lack of control of the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite growth limit the exploitation of CH3NH3PbBr3-based perovskite solar cells. Herein, a posttreatment is carried out after the initial CH3NH3PbBr3 crystallization based on methylamine gas that drastically enhances the perovskite quality leading to a highly crystalline film with improved average visible transmittance (AVT) close to 56%. Opaque devices showed outstanding results in terms of open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaching 1.54 V and 9.2%, respectively. These achievements are ascribed to a film with reduced morphological defects and better interface quality and reduced nonradiative pathways. For the first time, the fabrication of semitransparent CH3NH3PbBr3-based solar cells is demonstrated reaching a maximum PCE equal to 7.6%, an AVT of the full stack device of 52%, and an excellent light stability at maximum-power point tracking. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized Chern numbers based on open system Green's functions
Farias, Maria Belen UL; Groenendijk, Solofo; Schmidt, Thomas UL

in New Journal of Physics (2021), 23

We present an alternative approach to studying topology in open quantum systems, relying directly on Green's functions and avoiding the need to construct an effective non-Hermitian (nH) Hamiltonian. We ... [more ▼]

We present an alternative approach to studying topology in open quantum systems, relying directly on Green's functions and avoiding the need to construct an effective non-Hermitian (nH) Hamiltonian. We define an energy-dependent Chern number based on the eigenstates of the inverse Green's function matrix of the system which contains, within the self-energy, all the information about the influence of the environment, interactions, gain or losses. We explicitly calculate this topological invariant for a system consisting of a single 2D Dirac cone and find that it is half-integer quantized when certain assumptions about the self-energy are made. Away from these conditions, which cannot or are not usually considered within the formalism of nH Hamiltonians, we find that such a quantization is usually lost and the Chern number vanishes, and that in special cases, it can change to integer quantization. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailNew Field, Old Practices: Promises and Challenges of Public History
Cauvin, Thomas UL

in magazén | International Journal for Digital and Public Humanities (2021), 2(1), 13-44

lthough public history is becoming increasingly international, the field remains difficult to define and subject to some criticism. Based on sometimes long-established public practices, public history ... [more ▼]

lthough public history is becoming increasingly international, the field remains difficult to define and subject to some criticism. Based on sometimes long-established public practices, public history displays new approaches to audiences, collaboration and authority in history production. This article provides an overview of public history, its various definitions and historiography, and discusses some of the main criticisms of the field. Public history is compared to a tree of knowledge whose parts (roots, trunk, branches and leaves) represent the many collaborative and interconnected stages in the field. Defining public history as a systemic process (tree) demonstrates the need for collaboration between the different actors – may they be trained historians or not – and aim to focus on the role they play in the overall process. The future of international public history will involve balancing practice-based approaches with more theoretical discussions on the role of trained historians, audiences and different uses of the past. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeking Compatibility in Preventing Crime with Artificial Intelligence and Ensuring a Fair Trial
Blount, Kelly UL

in Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology (2021), 15(1), 25-51

The justice system is increasingly reliant on new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). In the field of criminal law this also extends to the methods utilized by police for preventing crime ... [more ▼]

The justice system is increasingly reliant on new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). In the field of criminal law this also extends to the methods utilized by police for preventing crime. Though policing is not explicitly covered by Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, this article will demonstrate that there can be adverse effects of policing on fair trial rights and make the analogy to criminal investigations as a recognized pre-trial process. Specifically, it will argue that policing that relies on AI to predict crime has direct effects on fair trial processes such as the equality of arms, the presumption of innocence, and the right to confront the evidence produced against a defendant. It will conclude by challenging the notion that AI is always an appropriate tool for legal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailImpairment of neuronal mitochondrial function by l-DOPA in the absence of oxygen-dependent auto-oxidation and oxidative cell damage
Hörmann, Philipp; Delcambre, Sylvie UL; Hanke, Jasmin et al

in Cell Death Discovery (2021)

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanin (l-DOPA or levodopa) is currently the most used drug to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). After crossing the blood–brain barrier, it is enzymatically converted to ... [more ▼]

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanin (l-DOPA or levodopa) is currently the most used drug to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). After crossing the blood–brain barrier, it is enzymatically converted to dopamine by neuronal cells and restores depleted endogenous neurotransmitter levels. l-DOPA is prone to auto-oxidation and reactive intermediates of its degradation including reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cellular damage. In this study, we investigated how oxygen tension effects l-DOPA stability. We applied oxygen tensions comparable to those in the mammalian brain and demonstrated that 2% oxygen almost completely stopped its auto-oxidation. l-DOPA even exerted a ROS scavenging function. Further mechanistic analysis indicated that l-DOPA reprogrammed mitochondrial metabolism and reduced oxidative phosphorylation, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, induced reductive glutamine metabolism, and depleted the NADH pool. These results shed new light on the cellular effects of l-DOPA and its neuro-toxicity under physiological oxygen levels that are very distinct to normoxic in vitro conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between large molecules pose a puzzle for reference quantum mechanical methods
Yasmine S. Al-Hamdani; Péter R. Nagy; Andrea Zen et al

in Nature Communications (2021)

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See detailAn Atomistic Study of the Thermoelectric Signatures of CNT Peapods
Rodríguez Méndez, Alvaro; Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Dianat, Arezoo et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and interfaces (2021), 125(25), 1372113731

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a great potential for applications in the development of high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their low-cost and for ... [more ▼]

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a great potential for applications in the development of high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their low-cost and for being environmentally friendly. Pristine nanotubes have, however, high electrical and thermal conductivities so that further nanoscale engineering is required to exploit them as TE materials. We investigate electron and phonon transport in CNT peapods to elucidate their potential advantage over pristine CNTs as basic TE elements. We show that the electron and phonon transport properties are sensitively modified by C60 encapsulation, when the CNT–C60 intermolecular interaction is strong enough to produce a periodic buckling of the CNT walls. Moreover, the phonon transmission is strongly suppressed at low and high frequencies, leading to a reduction of the phonon contribution to the overall thermal conductance. A similar effect has also been observed in the recently proposed phononic metamaterials. We obtain in general a larger TE figure of merit over a broad temperature range for the CNT peapod when compared with the pristine CNT, achieving an increase by a factor of 2.2 at 575 K. Our findings show an alternative route for the enhancement of the TE performance of CNT-based devices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe BIOMarkers in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis (BIOMAP) Glossary: developing a lingua franca to facilitate data harmonisation and cross-cohort analyses
Broderick, Conor; Christian, Nils; Apfelbacher, Christian et al

in British Journal of Dermatology (2021)

Dear Editor, BIOMAP (BIOMarkers in Atopic dermatitis and Psoriasis) is a large European consortium aiming to advance personalised medicine for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis by identifying biomarkers ... [more ▼]

Dear Editor, BIOMAP (BIOMarkers in Atopic dermatitis and Psoriasis) is a large European consortium aiming to advance personalised medicine for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis by identifying biomarkers which predict therapeutic response and disease progression. BIOMAP brings together clinicians, researchers, patient organisations and pharmaceutical industry partners and encompasses data from over 60 individual studies, including randomised clinical trials, population-based cohorts and deeply-phenotyped disease registries. The curation and harmonisation of data and bio-samples from these established studies will facilitate cross-cohort clinical and molecular analyses, increasing the potential to identify small effect estimates and to better stratify disease subtypes. This letter serves to disseminate BIOMAP's pathway to data harmonisation and will inform future collaborative research endeavours. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear Z2n-Manifolds and Linear Actions
Bruce, Andrew UL; Ibarguengoytia, Eduardo UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (2021), 17(060), 58

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See detailMeasuring the Anisotropy in Interfacial Tension of Nematic Liquid Crystals
Honaker, Lawrence; Sharma, Anjali UL; Schanen, Andy et al

in Crystals (2021), 11(6), 687

<jats:p>Liquid crystal (LC) phases typically show anisotropic alignment-dependent properties, such as viscosity and dielectric permittivity, so it stands to reason that LCs also have anisotropic ... [more ▼]

<jats:p>Liquid crystal (LC) phases typically show anisotropic alignment-dependent properties, such as viscosity and dielectric permittivity, so it stands to reason that LCs also have anisotropic interfacial tensions. Measuring the interfacial tension ? of an LC with conventional methods, such as pendant drops, can be challenging, however, especially when we need to know ? for different LC aligning conditions, as is the case when we seek ??, the interfacial tension anisotropy. Here, we present measurements of ?? of the common synthetic nematic LC compound 5CB against water using a microfluidic droplet aspiration technique. To ensure tangential and normal alignment, respectively, we add poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), respectively, as a stabilizer and measure ? for different concentrations of stabilizer. By fitting the Szyszkowski equation to the data, we can extrapolate to zero-stabilizer concentration, obtaining the ? of 5CB to pure water for each alignment. For normal alignment, we find ??=31.9?0.8 mN?m-1, on the order of 1 mN?m-1 greater than ?$_$=30.8?5 mN?m-1 for tangential alignment. This resonates with the empirical knowledge that 5CB aligns tangentially to an interface with pure water. The main uncertainty arises from the use of polymeric PVA as tangential-promoting stabilizer. Future improvements in accuracy may be expected if PVA can be replaced by a low molar mass stabilizer that ensures tangential alignment.</jats:p [less ▲]

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See detail#gemeinsamlesen: Raptexte online kommentieren und diskutieren. Unterrichtsmaterialien für den Deutschunterricht
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailSecure Vehicular Communications Through Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Ai, Yun; De Figueiredo, Felipe A.P; Kong, Long et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(7), 7272-7276

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is considered as a revolutionary technique to improve the wireless system performance by reconfiguring the radio wave propagation environment artificially ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is considered as a revolutionary technique to improve the wireless system performance by reconfiguring the radio wave propagation environment artificially. Motivated by the potential of RIS in vehicular networks, we analyze the secrecy outage performance of RIS-aided vehicular communications in this paper. More specifically, two vehicular communication scenarios are considered, i.e., a vehicular-to-vehicular (V2V) communication where the RIS acts as a relay and a vehicular-to-infrastructure (V2I) scenario where the RIS functions as the receiver. In both scenarios, a passive eavesdropper is present attempting to retrieve the transmitted information. Closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) are derived and verified. The results demonstrate the potential of improving secrecy with the aid of RIS under both V2V and V2I communications. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversal statistics of vortices in a newborn holographic superconductor: beyond the Kibble-Zurek mechanism
Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Li, Zhi-Hong et al

in JHEP (2021)

Traversing a continuous phase transition at a finite rate leads to the breakdown of adiabatic dynamics and the formation of topological defects, as predicted by the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM ... [more ▼]

Traversing a continuous phase transition at a finite rate leads to the breakdown of adiabatic dynamics and the formation of topological defects, as predicted by the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). We investigate universal signatures beyond the KZM, by characterizing the distribution of vortices generated in a thermal quench leading to the formation of a holographic superconductor. The full counting statistics of vortices is described by a binomial distribution, in which the mean value is dictated by the KZM and higher-order cumulants share the universal power-law scaling with the quench time. Extreme events associated with large fluctuations no longer exhibit a power-law behavior with the quench time and are characterized by a universal form of the Weibull distribution for different quench rates. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of Common Genetic Variants for Drug-Resistance to Specific Anti-Seizure Medications
Wolking, Stefan; Campbell, Ciarán; Stapleton, Caragh et al

in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2021), 12

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians ... [more ▼]

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians to make better-informed choices for their patients. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether the response to individual ASMs was associated with common genetic variation.Methods: A cohort of 3,649 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping. We conducted genome-wide association analyses (GWASs) on responders to specific ASMs or groups of functionally related ASMs, using non-responders as controls. We performed a polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses based on risk variants for epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders and ASM resistance itself to delineate the polygenic burden of ASM-specific drug resistance.Results: We identified several potential regions of interest but did not detect genome-wide significant loci for ASM-specific response. We did not find polygenic risk for epilepsy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and drug-resistance associated with drug response to specific ASMs or mechanistically related groups of ASMs.Significance: This study could not ascertain the predictive value of common genetic variants for ASM responder status. The identified suggestive loci will need replication in future studies of a larger scale. [less ▲]

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See detailCan citizen science complement official data sources that serve as evidence-base for policies and practice to improve water quality?
König, Ariane UL; Pickar, Karl Arthur UL; Stankiewicz, Jacek UL et al

in Statistical Journal of the IAOS (2021), 73(1), 189-204

Addressing environmental issues in policy making requires recognising these issues as part of a complex socio-ecological system. The evidence base for such policies and associated monitoring and ... [more ▼]

Addressing environmental issues in policy making requires recognising these issues as part of a complex socio-ecological system. The evidence base for such policies and associated monitoring and implementation measures, as well as related official indicators, statistics and environmental accounts are receiving increasing attention. This paper explores the potential of citizen science as a non-traditional source of data to complement the current data production process for evidence-based policy-making, using pollution of surface waters and its effect on associated ecosystems as an example. The paper develops a framework that helps to explore the official data production process in relation to different purposes of environmental policies. This highlights different challenges that the current official data production process sees itself confronted with in relation to the different purposes of the policies and associated monitoring regimes. These questions are explored with reference to the case of evidence-based policy making on water quality of surface freshwater in the EU, with a focus on Luxembourg. The analysis is based on extensive documentary analysis and literature review, as well as a series of interviews and participatory workshops with various stakeholders, and first results of a pilot project work with engaged citizen volunteers to solicit data on water quality with a focus on its nutrient content. On this basis, this paper argues that citizen science has the clear potential to meaningfully contribute both to the evidence base for policy and practice, as well as to an improved governance process. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la poussière à la lumière bleue. Émotions, récits, gestes de l'archive à l'ère numérique
Muller, Caroline; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2021), 12(12),

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity ... [more ▼]

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity has emerged between this book and the actual experience and practice of historical research because of the rise in digital technologies, which have prompted a dramatic change in historians’ relationship with archives. Based on the collective online book Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique (“The allure of the archives in the digital age” – https://www.gout-numerique.net/) and on a study day held in 2018 at the French National Archives, this paper aims to investigate the changing relationship of historians with archives: their emotional engagement, their relations with archivists and their practices when consulting paper, digitised or born-digital archives. From dusty shelves to blue light, the entire profession of historian has changed, often in discreet, implicit ways, such as the recent practice of taking photos at archival centers, a consequence of the widespread ownership and use of digital cameras. Do archives still elicit the same emotions when they are merely one snapshot among many on a hard disk, or when they are turned into data and published online in a corpus? If the emotion attached to archives is no longer the same, does this change the way in which we interpret them? How should we reflect on our own practices so that we can see past the algorithms that drive the search engines and software we now use? [less ▲]

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See detailElaiophylin Is a Potent Hsp90/ Cdc37 Protein Interface Inhibitor with K-Ras Nanocluster Selectivity
Siddiqui, Farid A.; Vukic, Vladimir; Salminen, Tiina A. et al

in Biomolecules (2021)

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic ... [more ▼]

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic explanation of its astonishing activity range. We recently showed that the related conglobatin A, a protein–protein interface inhibitor of the interaction between the N-terminus of Hsp90 and its cochaperone Cdc37, blocks cancer stem cell properties by selectively inhibiting K-Ras4B but not H-Ras. Here, we elaborated that elaiophylin likewise disrupts the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interaction, without affecting the ATP-pocket of Hsp90. Similarly to conglobatin A, elaiophylin decreased expression levels of the Hsp90 client HIF1 , a transcription factor with various downstream targets, including galectin-3. Galectin-3 is a nanocluster scaffold of K-Ras, which explains the K-Ras selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors. In agreement with this K-Ras targeting and the potent effect on other Hsp90 clients, we observed with elaiophylin treatment a submicromolar IC50 for MDA-MB-231 and MIAPaCa-2 3D spheroid formation. Finally, a strong inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells grown in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microtumor model was determined. These results suggest that several other macrodiolides may have the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interface as a target site. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Enhancement for Full-Duplex Relaying with Time-Switching-Based SWIPT in Wireless Sensors Networks
Tran, Phu Tin; Nguyen Nhat, ; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL et al

in Sensors (2021), 21(11), 3847

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency ... [more ▼]

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency. This paper studies the outage performance for a SWIPT-based decode-and-forward (DF) FD relaying network consisting of a single-antenna source S, a two-antenna relay R, and a multi-antenna destination D. Specifically, we propose four protocols, namely static time-switching factor with selection combining (STSF-SC), static time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (STSF-MRC), optimal dynamic time-switching factor with selection combining (ODTSF-SC), and optimal dynamic time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (ODTSF-MRC) to fully investigate the outage performance of the proposed system. In particular, the optimal time-switching factor from the ODTSF-SC and ODTSF-MRC methods is designed to maximize the total received data at the destination. In this context, we derive exact closed-formed expressions for all schemes in terms of the outage probability (OP). Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to corroborate the theoretical analysis’s correctness and the proposed schemes’ effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction. La participation politique en ligne au révélateur du pétitionnement électronique
Contamin, Jean-Gabriel; Kies, Raphaël UL; Paye, Olivier et al

in Participations (2021), 3(28), 7-45

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See detailQuand les e-pétitions influencent-elles la décision politique ? Une analyse du système de pétitions électroniques de la Chambre des députés du Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Seidenthal, Sven UL

in Participations (2021), 3(28), 177-202

Dans cet article, nous présentons l’une des premières analyses à étudier de manière systématique les facteurs expliquant le degré d’appropriation par un gouvernement des demandes exprimées dans les e ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous présentons l’une des premières analyses à étudier de manière systématique les facteurs expliquant le degré d’appropriation par un gouvernement des demandes exprimées dans les e-pétitions qui lui sont soumises. Cette analyse se base sur l’ensemble des e-pétitions ayant obtenu les 4 500 signatures requises pour donner lieu à un débat public à la Chambre des députés du Luxembourg. Les hypothèses testées pour expliquer les variations dans le niveau d’appropriation des e-pétitions par le gouvernement ont été : 1) la compatibilité avec l’agenda du gouvernement, 2) la compétence du gouvernement pour traiter les e-pétitions en question, 3) la nature consensuelle (ou non)de l’e-pétition, 4) le nombre de signatures en sa faveur, 5) sa visibilité médiatique, et 6) le statut de son initiateur. Conformément à nos attentes, nous avons observé que les probabilités qu’une e-pétition soit prise en considération par le gouvernement sont liées à essentiellement trois facteurs : 1) la compatibilité avec l’agenda du gouvernement, 2) la compétence du gouvernement et 3) l’accord du gouvernement avec les revendications des pétitionnaires. Les autres facteurs, tels que le soutien populaire ou médiatique de l’e-pétition, sa thématique ou bien les coûts de sa réalisation, apparaissent peu significatifs. [less ▲]

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See detailPrestigious Language, Pigeonholed Speakers: Stances towards the "Native English Speaker" in a Multilingual European Institution
Lovrits, Veronika UL; de Bres, Julia

in Journal of Sociolinguistics (2021), 25(3), 398-417

Critical sociolinguistics has demonstrated that the social construct of the “native speaker” has a strong impact on people’s lives, but research on “native speaker effects” in the workplace remains rare ... [more ▼]

Critical sociolinguistics has demonstrated that the social construct of the “native speaker” has a strong impact on people’s lives, but research on “native speaker effects” in the workplace remains rare. This article examines such effects from the perspective of four “native English speaker” trainees on temporary contracts in a multilingual European Union institution in Luxembourg. Applying the framework of sociolinguistic stance to interview data and drawings, we examine how the participants position themselves towards the “native English speaker” construct at work, and how they think others position them. According to our participants, “native English speaker” positioning confers privilege but restricts opportunities, demonstrating that the interest of a multilingual organisation in using the “native English speaker” as a resource does not automatically provide a powerful position to “native English speaking” workers. Our results featuring trainees in precarious labour conditions raise broader issues regarding the precaritisation of language work in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detail"[M]a défense, c’est mon éclat". Conjurer l’oubli face à la mort ? Figurations de l'oubli comme mort symbolique dans la correspondance staëlienne
Saintes, Laetitia UL

in Travaux et recherches de l'Institut Benjamin Constant (2021), 18

Cet article entend examiner au départ de la correspondance de Germaine de Staël, ainsi que de Dix années d'exil, toutes les occurrences de cette peur de l'oubli qui la touche dès qu'est ordonné son exil à ... [more ▼]

Cet article entend examiner au départ de la correspondance de Germaine de Staël, ainsi que de Dix années d'exil, toutes les occurrences de cette peur de l'oubli qui la touche dès qu'est ordonné son exil à quarante lieues de Paris. L'écrivaine clôt en effet nombre de ses lettres en demandant à ses correspondants de ne pas l'oublier, et évoque à de nombreuses reprises sa peur de ne plus être remémorée (de ses amis comme de l'opinion) si elle en venait à ne plus lutter publiquement contre la mesure d'exil qui la frappe. En ce sens, conjurer l'oubli revient chez elle à conjurer la mort symbolique qui serait la sienne dès lors qu'elle accepterait son sort d'exilée sans discussion ; le présent article envisage les modalités selon lesquelles se joue cette peur de l'oubli comme d'une mort symbolique. [less ▲]

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See detailDark solitons in a trapped gas of long-range interacting bosons
Beau, M.; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Frantzeskakis, D. J. et al

in Physical Review X (2021)

We consider the interplay of repulsive short-range and long-range interactions in the dynamics of dark solitons, as prototypical coherent nonlinear excitations in a trapped quasi-1D Bose gas. Upon ... [more ▼]

We consider the interplay of repulsive short-range and long-range interactions in the dynamics of dark solitons, as prototypical coherent nonlinear excitations in a trapped quasi-1D Bose gas. Upon examining the form of the ground state, both the existence of the solitary waves and their stability properties are explored and corroborated by direct numerical simulations. We find that single- and multiple-dark-soliton states can exist and are generically robust in the presence of long-range interactions. We analyze the modes of vibration of such excitations and find that their respective frequencies are significantly upshifted as the strength of the long-range interactions is increased. Indeed, we find that a prefactor of the long-range interactions considered comparable to the trap strength may upshift the dark soliton oscillation frequency by an order of magnitude, in comparison to the well established one of /√2 in a trap of frequency . [less ▲]

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See detailGlobale Warenketten und ungleiche Entwicklung
Hesse, Markus UL

in Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (2021)

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See detailMantis: flexible and consensus-driven genome annotation
Teixeira Queiros, Pedro UL; Delogu, Francesco UL; Hickl, Oskar UL et al

in GigaScience (2021), 10(6),

The rapid development of the (meta-)omics fields has produced an unprecedented amount of high-resolution and high-fidelity data. Through the use of these datasets we can infer the role of previously ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of the (meta-)omics fields has produced an unprecedented amount of high-resolution and high-fidelity data. Through the use of these datasets we can infer the role of previously functionally unannotated proteins from single organisms and consortia. In this context, protein function annotation can be described as the identification of regions of interest (i.e., domains) in protein sequences and the assignment of biological functions. Despite the existence of numerous tools, challenges remain in terms of speed, flexibility, and reproducibility. In the big data era, it is also increasingly important to cease limiting our findings to a single reference, coalescing knowledge from different data sources, and thus overcoming some limitations in overly relying on computationally generated data from single sources.We implemented a protein annotation tool, Mantis, which uses database identifiers intersection and text mining to integrate knowledge from multiple reference data sources into a single consensus-driven output. Mantis is flexible, allowing for the customization of reference data and execution parameters, and is reproducible across different research goals and user environments. We implemented a depth-first search algorithm for domain-specific annotation, which significantly improved annotation performance compared to sequence-wide annotation. The parallelized implementation of Mantis results in short runtimes while also outputting high coverage and high-quality protein function annotations.Mantis is a protein function annotation tool that produces high-quality consensus-driven protein annotations. It is easy to set up, customize, and use, scaling from single genomes to large metagenomes. Mantis is available under the MIT license at https://github.com/PedroMTQ/mantis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 on alternative and local food systems and the potential for the sustainability transition: Insights from 13 countries
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Nemes, Gusztav; Chiffoleau, Yuna et al

in Sustainable Production and Consumption (2021), 28(2021), 591599

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major stress test for the agri-food system. While most research has analysed the impact of the pandemic on mainstream food systems, this article examines how alternative ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major stress test for the agri-food system. While most research has analysed the impact of the pandemic on mainstream food systems, this article examines how alternative and local food systems (ALFS) in 13 countries responded in the first months of the crisis. Using pri- mary and secondary data and combining the Multi-Level Perspective with social innovation approaches, we highlight the innovations and adaptations that emerged in ALFS, and how these changes have cre- ated or supported the sustainability transition in production and consumption systems. In particular, we show how the combination of social and technological innovation, greater citizen involvement, and the increased interest of policy-makers and retailers have enabled ALFS to extend their scope and engage new actors in more sustainable practices. Finally, we make recommendations concerning how to support ALFS’ upscaling to embrace the opportunities arising from the crisis and strengthen the sustainability transition [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(2021), 217-220

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See detaileJMT Problem Corner: June 2021
Kreis, Yves UL; Haas, Ben; Lavicza, Zsolt

in The Electronic Journal of Mathematics & Technology (2021)

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See detailAuthoritarianism Beyond Disposition: A Literature Review of Research on Contextual Antecedents
Schnelle, Caroline; Baier, Dirk; Hadjar, Andreas UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021), 12

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or ... [more ▼]

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or whether it is impacted by time-sensitive, exterior conditions. Whereas certain individual authoritarian tendencies emerge as a rather stable personality trait, there is also empirical evidence for a dynamic influence of external factors. This review article provides a conceptual multilevel framework for the study of authoritarianism and offers an insight into the state-of-research on socialization and situational influences, with a particular focus on threat. Findings are discussed with regard to key theories of authoritarianism. [less ▲]

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See detailBoys don't cry (or do the dishes): Family size and the housework gender gap
Menta, Giorgia UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 186

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an ... [more ▼]

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an increasing function of family size and using an instrument to account for the endogeneity of fertility, we show that larger families have a different effect on boys and girls at age 16: girls in large families are significantly more likely to contribute to housework, with no effect for boys. We then show that childhood family size affects the housework gender gap between the cohort members and their partners at age 34. Women who grew up in larger families are more likely to carry out a greater share of household tasks in adulthood, as compared to women from smaller families. In addition, growing up in a large family makes cohort members more likely to sort into households with a wider housework gender gap as adults. We show that the persistent effect of family size is due to the adoption of behaviours in line with traditional gender roles: a lower likelihood of employment and shorter commutes for women, along with a higher employment probability for their partners. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat do alexithymia items measure? A discriminant content validity study of the Toronto-alexithymia-scale–20
Veirman, Elke; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Verleysen, Gregory et al

in PeerJ (2021), 29

Background Questions have been raised about whether items of alexithymia scales assess the construct alexithymia and its key features, and no other related constructs. This study assessed the ... [more ▼]

Background Questions have been raised about whether items of alexithymia scales assess the construct alexithymia and its key features, and no other related constructs. This study assessed the (discriminant) content validity of the most widely used alexithymia scale, i.e., the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Methods Participants (n = 81) rated to what extent TAS-20 items and items of related constructs were relevant for assessing the constructs ‘alexithymia’, ‘difficulty identifying feelings’, ‘difficulty describing feelings’, ‘externally-oriented thinking’, ‘limited imaginal capacity’, ‘anxiety’, ‘depression’, and ‘health anxiety’. Results Results revealed that, overall, the TAS-20 did only partly measure ‘alexithymia’. Only the subscales ‘difficulty identifying feelings’ and ‘difficulty describing feelings’ represented ‘alexithymia’ and their intended construct, although some content overlap between these subscales was found. In addition, some items assessed (health) anxiety equally well or even better. Conclusions Revision of the TAS-20 is recommended to adequately assess all key features of alexithymia. Findings with the TAS-20 need to be interpreted with caution in people suffering from medical conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEmulating the gut–liver axis: Dissecting the microbiome's effect on drug metabolism using multiorgan-on-chip models
Lucchetti, Mara UL; Kaminska, Mathilda; Kehinde Oluwasegun, Aina et al

in Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research (2021)

The homeostatic relationship between the gut, its microbiome, and the liver is crucial for the regulation of drug metabolism processes. Gut microbes are known to influence human health and disease by ... [more ▼]

The homeostatic relationship between the gut, its microbiome, and the liver is crucial for the regulation of drug metabolism processes. Gut microbes are known to influence human health and disease by enhancing food metabolism and providing a first line of defense against pathogens. In addition to this, the gut microbiome also plays a key role in the processing of exogenous pharmaceutical compounds. Modeling the highly variable luminal gut environment and understanding how gut microbes can modulate drug availability or induce liver toxicity remains a challenge. However, microfluidics-based technologies such as organ-on-chips could overcome current challenges in drug toxicity assessment assays because these technologies are able to better recapitulate complex human responses. Efforts are being made to create in vitro multiorgan platforms, tailored for an individual patient's microbial background. These platforms could be used as a tool to predict the effect of the gut microbiome on pharmacokinetics in a personalized way. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Secrecy-Reliability Performance Trade-off for NOMA-enabled 5G mmWave Networks
Solanki, Sourabh UL; Gurjar, Devendra S.; Sharma, Pankaj K. et al

in 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (IEEE PIMRC 2021) (2021)

The evolution of 5G wireless networks poses significant research challenges such as securing the user data, maintaining certain latency and reliability requirements etc. However, it can be challenging to ... [more ▼]

The evolution of 5G wireless networks poses significant research challenges such as securing the user data, maintaining certain latency and reliability requirements etc. However, it can be challenging to simultaneously meet these performance requisites, which may lead to resort to a trade-off among different metrics. This paper investigates the secrecy-reliability performance trade-off (SRPT) for non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based millimeter wave (mmWave) networks. Herein, we consider two end-users, namely primary and secondary, which are served by an mmWave base station using downlink NOMA. Besides, a passive eavesdropper lying in the vicinity of these end-users attempts to intercept their legitimate message signals. For this set-up, we derive the closed-form expressions of the outage probability (OP) of a targeted end-user and intercept probability (IP) of the eavesdropper to analyze the SRPT of the system. We further propose a low-complexity average channel state information (CSI)-based power allocation strategy to improve the reliability of a targeted user while maintaining its information secrecy. Moreover, we obtain the condition under which NOMA guarantees superior secrecy performance than that of orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme. We corroborate our theoretical analysis via simulation results presented in terms of IP and OP. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Ökonomisierung des Raums
Hesse, Markus UL

in disP : The Planning Review (2021), 57(1), 88-89

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See detailGoffin's Cockatoos (Cacatua goffiniana) Can Solve a Novel Problem After Conflicting Past Experiences
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; O'Hara, Mark; Carminito, Chelsea et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021)

Novel problems often partially overlap with familiar ones. Some features match the qualities of previous situations stored in long-term memory and therefore trigger their retrieval. Using relevant, while ... [more ▼]

Novel problems often partially overlap with familiar ones. Some features match the qualities of previous situations stored in long-term memory and therefore trigger their retrieval. Using relevant, while inhibiting irrelevant, memories to solve novel problems is a hallmark of behavioral flexibility in humans and has recently been demonstrated in great apes. This capacity has been proposed to promote technical innovativeness and thus warrants investigations of such a mechanism in other innovative species. Here, we show that proficient tool—users among Goffin's cockatoos—an innovative tool—using species—could use a relevant previous experience to solve a novel, partially overlapping problem, even despite a conflicting, potentially misleading, experience. This suggests that selecting relevant experiences over irrelevant experiences guides problem solving at least in some Goffin's cockatoos. Our result supports the hypothesis that flexible memory functions may promote technical innovations. [less ▲]

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See detailCan coupons counteract strategic consumer behavior?
Hermel, Dror; Aviv, Yossi; Mantin, Binyamin UL

in Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management (2021), 21(3), 262-273

In multi-period environments, the presence of strategic consumers induces monopolist retailers to inter-temporally compete with themselves. Targeting consumers with price-discount coupons is a proposed ... [more ▼]

In multi-period environments, the presence of strategic consumers induces monopolist retailers to inter-temporally compete with themselves. Targeting consumers with price-discount coupons is a proposed mechanism to overcome this inter-temporal competition. Targeting consumers with coupons can counteract strategic consumer behavior, but this mechanism cannot completely eradicate the negative implications imposed by the presence of such consumers. Additionally, the quality of information available (regarding the consumers’ valuations) may play an important role in the targeting decisions. Specifically, we illustrate how the retailer may absent completely from targeting efforts when the quality of information and the proportion of strategic consumers are sufficiently low. Lastly, we consider the optimal investment in information solicitation, demonstrating the trade-off between a low investment, which result in low quality of targeting capability, and a high investment which improves the effectiveness of the targeting efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure Energy Efficiency Maximization in Cognitive Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
Lu, Weixin; An, Kang; Liang, Tao et al

in IEEE Systems Journal (2021), 15(2), 2382-2385

This article investigates the secure energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in a cognitive satellite-terrestrial network with a capable eavesdropper. The objective is to maximize the secure EE for ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the secure energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in a cognitive satellite-terrestrial network with a capable eavesdropper. The objective is to maximize the secure EE for the primary satellite network while satisfying the allowable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio requirements of the secondary and primary users along within the transmit power limitation of both satellite and the terrestrial base station. Owing to the nonconvexity and intractability of the original optimization problem, a beamforming scheme and associated transformation algorithms are proposed by jointly applying the Taylor approximation, fraction programming, and alternating search to cope with the implementation difficulty. The key is to convert the original optimization problem into a simple convex framework and obtain the optimal solution step by step. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the feasibility and practicability of the proposed optimization algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe value of installed base information for spare part inventory control
van der Auweraer, Sarah UL; Zhu, Sha; Boute, Robert

in International Journal of Production Economics (2021)

This paper analyzes the value of different sources of installed base information for spare part demand forecasting and inventory control. The installed base is defined as the set of products (or machines ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the value of different sources of installed base information for spare part demand forecasting and inventory control. The installed base is defined as the set of products (or machines) in use where the part is installed. Information on the number of products still in use, the age of the products, the age of their parts, as well as the part reliability may indicate when a part will fail and trigger a demand for a new spare part. The current literature is unclear which of this installed base information adds most value – and should thus be collected – for inventory control purposes. For this reason, we evaluate the inventory performance of eight methods that include different sets of installed base information in their demand forecasts. Using a comparative simulation study we identify that knowing the size of the active installed base is most valuable, especially when the installed base changes over time. We also find that when a failure-based prediction model is used, it is important to work with the part age itself, rather than the machine age. When one is not able to collect information on the part age, a logistic regression on the machine age might be a valuable alternative to a failure-based prediction model. Our findings may support the prioritization of data collection for spare part demand forecasting and inventory control. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome and Wealth Volatility: Evidence from Italy and the U.S. in the Past Two Decades
Menta, Giorgia UL; Wolff, Edward; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19(2), 293-313

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective ... [more ▼]

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective for the same individuals in Italy and the U.S. over the last two decades. We find that in both countries wealth volatility reaches significantly higher values than income volatility, the effect being mostly driven by changes in the market value of real estate assets. We also show that there is more volatility in both dimensions in the U.S. and that the overall trend in both countries is increasing over time. We conclude by exploring volatility in consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailIs This Time Really Different? Flight-to-Safety and the COVID-19 Crisis
Löwen, Celina; Kchouri, Bilal UL; Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(5),

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See detailThe impact of mental and somatic stressors on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a diary study
Poppe, Louise; De Paepe; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in PeerJ (2021), 9

Background Adopting an active lifestyle is key in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, the majority of individuals with T2DM fails to do so. Additionally, individuals with T2DM ... [more ▼]

Background Adopting an active lifestyle is key in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, the majority of individuals with T2DM fails to do so. Additionally, individuals with T2DM are likely to experience mental (e.g., stress) and somatic (e.g., pain) stressors. Research investigating the link between these stressors and activity levels within this group is largely lacking. Therefore, current research aimed to investigate how daily fluctuations in mental and somatic stressors predict daily levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour among adults with T2DM. Methods Individuals with T2DM (N = 54) were instructed to complete a morning diary assessing mental and somatic stressors and to wear an accelerometer for 10 consecutive days. The associations between the mental and somatic stressors and participants’ levels of PA and sedentary behaviour were examined using (generalized) linear mixed effect models. Results Valid data were provided by 38 participants. We found no evidence that intra-individual increases in mental and somatic stressors detrimentally affected participants’ activity levels. Similarly, levels of sedentary behaviour nor levels of PA were predicted by inter-individual differences in the mental and somatic stressors. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of self-reflection in Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School - Educational implications in light of OECD frameworks
Chiba, Miwa UL

in Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (2021), 5(2), 8-21

This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both ... [more ▼]

This article focuses on the importance of reflective experiences in education. It firstly reviews and compares the Humboldtian Bildung and the Kyoto School, represented by Nishida Kitaro. Both philosophies emphasize the importance of reflective experiences in education, criticising the specific knowledge-skill-based instruction approach. In this sense, the two views are similar. However, this article further explains the significant difference in how the self is considered in relation to the world within each thought, and therefore, how each educational approach is different, namely as seen in the idea of negative education from the Kyoto School. In the latter section, this article develops the discussion of reflection in the process of learning provided in the OECD Education 2030 framework, which was initiated in 2015 and that is still ongoing. Criticising didactic learning as the sole approach for knowledge and skill acquisition, the OECD Education framework advocates instead for the importance of student self-reflection in relation to society to support a broader development of necessary competencies. By comparing the two schools of thought, the article reveals the underlying assumption of self in Western mainstream educational philosophy, and it argues for the importance of open-mindedness toward the other worldview. [less ▲]

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See detailOrthorectified Polar Format Algorithm for Generalized Spotlight SAR Imaging With DEM
Hu, Ruizhi UL; Rao, Bhavani Shankar Mysore Rama; Alaee-Kerahroodi, Mohammad et al

in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (2021)

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See detailNRAS mutant melanoma: Towards better therapies
Randic, Tijana UL; Kozar, Ines UL; Margue, Christiane UL et al

in Cancer Treatment Reviews (2021), 99

Genetic alterations affecting RAS proteins are commonly found in human cancers. Roughly a fourth of melanoma patients carry activating NRAS mutations, rendering this malignancy particularly challenging to ... [more ▼]

Genetic alterations affecting RAS proteins are commonly found in human cancers. Roughly a fourth of melanoma patients carry activating NRAS mutations, rendering this malignancy particularly challenging to treat. Although the development of targeted as well as immunotherapies led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival of non-NRASmut melanoma patients (e.g. BRAFmut), patients with NRASmut melanomas have an overall poorer prognosis due to the high aggressiveness of RASmut tumors, lack of efficient targeted therapies or rapidly emerging resistance to existing treatments. Understanding how NRAS-driven melanomas develop therapy resistance by maintaining cell cycle progression and survival is crucial to develop more effective and specific treatments for this group of melanoma patients. In this review, we provide an updated summary of currently available therapeutic options for NRASmut melanoma patients with a focus on combined inhibition of MAPK signaling and CDK4/6-driven cell cycle progression and mechanisms of the inevitably developing resistance to these treatments. We conclude with an outlook on the most promising novel therapeutic approaches for melanoma patients with constitutively active NRAS. [less ▲]

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See detailReforming the Institutions of Eurozone Governance
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Rehm, Moritz UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 159162

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See detailTug of War over Financial Assistance: Which Way Forward for Eurozone Stability Mechanisms?
Rehm, Moritz UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 173184

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See detailThe European Central Bank and the German Constitutional Court: Police Patrols and Fire Alarms
Howarth, David UL; Fontan, Clément

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2),

In May 2020, a ruling of the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) questioned the legality of the Bundesbank’s participation in the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) Public Sector Purchase Programme ... [more ▼]

In May 2020, a ruling of the German Federal Constitutional Court (FCC) questioned the legality of the Bundesbank’s participation in the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) Public Sector Purchase Programme. Applying elements of a principal-agent analysis, this article analyses how the FCC ruling presents us with a new understanding of the relationship between the ECB, other EU institutions and Eurozone member states. Existing principal-agent analyses of the ECB focus upon its relations with other EU-level institutions and point to the limited ex ante control mechanisms and efforts to reinforce ex post control mechanisms—notably European Parliament oversight. The FCC ruling and the ECB’s reaction demonstrate the relative importance of national level controls over the ECB agent. This article understands the role of private plaintiffs in Germany as a form of ‘fire alarm’ on ECB policymaking against the background of weak ex post controls at the EU-level. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration and mobility of third-country national labour workers to and inside Europe during the Covid-19 pandemic – a legal analysis
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Comparative Migration Studies (2021), 9(22), 17

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was ... [more ▼]

The Covid-19 pandemic took most EU Member States of the European Union by surprise, as they underestimated the rapid spread of the contagion across the continent. The response of the EU Member States was asymmetrical, individualistic and significantly slow. The first measures taken were to close down the internal borders. The European Union's response was even slower, and it was not until 17th March 2020 that the external borders were closed. These actions affected legal migration into the European Union from four perspectives: it affected 1) the mobility of those third-country nationals who were on a temporary stay in the EU Member States; 2) the entry of third-country nationals to do seasonal work; 3) legal migrants entering and staying; and 4) the status of the third-country nationals already residing in the EU Member States, especially those experiencing a loss of income. This article will deal with the EU Member States' measures to manage the immigration services, as a case study how Luxembourg dealt to avoid that temporary staying migrants and regular migrants fall into irregularity. Finally, we will focus on the vulnerability of third-country nationals with the rising risk of unemployment and the risk of being returned to their country of origin. The article will also analyse access to healthcare and unemployment benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailScrutiny or Complacency? Banking Union in the Bundestag and the Assemblée Nationale
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 219-229

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See detailAvoiding the Inappropriate: The European Commission and Sanctions under the Stability and Growth Pact
Sacher, Martin UL

in Politics and Governance (2021), 9(2), 163-172

Fiscal policy surveillance, including the possibility to impose financial sanctions, has been an important feature of Economic and Monetary Union since its inception. With the reform of fiscal rules in ... [more ▼]

Fiscal policy surveillance, including the possibility to impose financial sanctions, has been an important feature of Economic and Monetary Union since its inception. With the reform of fiscal rules in the aftermath of the financial and sovereign debt crisis, coercive provisions have been made stricter and the Commission has formally gained power vis‐à‐vis the Council. Nevertheless, sanctions under the Stability and Growth Pact for budgetary non‐compliance have so far not been imposed. This article asks why the Commission has until now refrained from proposing such sanctions. Using minimalist process‐tracing methods, three post‐crisis cases in which the imposition of fines was possible, are analysed. Applying an adaptation of normative institutionalism, it is argued that the mechanism entitled “normative‐strategic minimum enforcement” provides an explanation of why no sanctions are imposed in the cases studied: Given that the Commission does not perceive punitive action as appropriate, it strategically refrains from applying the enforcement provisions to their full extent. [less ▲]

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See detailPractitioners’ language-supporting strategies in multilingual ECE institutions in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL

in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal (2021), 29(3),

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction ... [more ▼]

Multilingual education is mandatory in early childhood education in several European countries. Scholars working in first, second, and foreign language learning have shown the effectiveness of interaction-promoting and language-modelling strategies for language development. In addition, teachers in bilingual contexts have been translanguaging to foster language learning. To this day, few research studies have examined these strategies in combination and their deployment in multilingual contexts. The present study takes place in multilingual Luxembourg where 64% of the four-year-olds do not speak Luxembourgish. It focuses on three practitioners who took part in a professional development course on multilingual pedagogies and presents their language-supporting strategies as well as their translanguaging practices. The findings show that the practitioners use a range of strategies in Luxembourgish, French and home languages, in daily conversations, routines and language and literacy activities to address children’s linguistic needs. [less ▲]

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See detailBrillouin light scattering during shearing of complex fluids
Lehr, Claudius Moritz UL; Astasheva, Olga UL; Baller, Jörg

in Optics Express (2021), 29(11), 16019-16031

A setup for the optical measurement of elastic properties during the flow of complex fluids is presented. Brillouin light scattering and rotational rheology are combined in order to simultaneously measure ... [more ▼]

A setup for the optical measurement of elastic properties during the flow of complex fluids is presented. Brillouin light scattering and rotational rheology are combined in order to simultaneously measure the high-frequency longitudinal elastic modulus in a classical rheometer along with the zero-shear viscosity. Brillouin light scattering allows for the contactless determination of local elastic properties. First measurements of a diluted polymer system suggest a homogeneous orientation of polymer molecules throughout the sample as soon as a critical shear rate has been reached at one spatial position. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective Floquet model for minimally twisted bilayer graphene
De Beule, Christophe UL; Dominguez, Fernando; Recher, Patrik

in Physical Review. B (2021), 103

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See detailPractices and experiences of distant education during the COVID-19 pandemic: The perspectives of six- to sixteen-year-olds from three high-income countries
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Neumann, Sascha et al

in International Journal of Educational Research Open (2021), 2(2), 11

The paper explores children’s perspectives of distance education, their learning experiences and school satisfac- tion in Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic ... [more ▼]

The paper explores children’s perspectives of distance education, their learning experiences and school satisfac- tion in Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data stem from an online questionnaire completed by 1773 primary and secondary school children aged 6–16. While the paper uses quantitative and qualitative data, it aligns with the qualitative research tradition and predominantly uses an inductive approach. The findings show that teachers offered varied types of distance education and that parents supported children. The children’s contact time with teachers and their time spent on schoolwork var- ied within and between countries. Their school satisfaction dropped in the three countries. The paper calls for training and development on distant education. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the role of rare genetic variants in drug-resistant, non-lesional focal epilepsy
Wolking, Stefan; Moreau, Claudia; McCormack, Mark et al

in Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology (2021), n/a(n/a),

Abstract Objective Resistance to antiseizure medications (ASMs) is one of the major concerns in the treatment of epilepsy. Despite the increasing number of ASMs available, the proportion of individuals ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective Resistance to antiseizure medications (ASMs) is one of the major concerns in the treatment of epilepsy. Despite the increasing number of ASMs available, the proportion of individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy remains unchanged. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of rare genetic variants in ASM resistance. Methods We performed exome sequencing of 1,128 individuals with non-familial non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) (762 non-responders, 366 responders) and were provided with 1,734 healthy controls. We undertook replication in a cohort of 350 individuals with NAFE (165 non-responders, 185 responders). We performed gene-based and gene-set-based kernel association tests to investigate potential enrichment of rare variants in relation to drug response status and to risk for NAFE. Results We found no gene or gene set that reached genome-wide significance. Yet, we identified several prospective candidate genes – among them DEPDC5, which showed a potential association with resistance to ASMs. We found some evidence for an enrichment of truncating variants in dominant familial NAFE genes in our cohort of non-familial NAFE and in association with drug-resistant NAFE. Interpretation Our study identifies potential candidate genes for ASM resistance. Our results corroborate the role of rare variants for non-familial NAFE and imply their involvement in drug-resistant epilepsy. Future large-scale genetic research studies are needed to substantiate these findings. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling for Three-Subset Division Property without Unknown Subset
Hao, Yonglin; Leander, Gregor; Meier, Willi et al

in Journal of Cryptology (2021), 34(3), 22

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 UL)
See detailInteractions between the regulation of homosexuality and transsexuality since the enactment of the Transsexual Act
de Silva, Adrian UL

in History | Sexuality | Law (2021)

Drawing upon Federal Constitutional Court decisions on relevant provisions of the Transsexual Act and legislation on same-sex partnerships, this contribution traces how the regulation of homosexuality and ... [more ▼]

Drawing upon Federal Constitutional Court decisions on relevant provisions of the Transsexual Act and legislation on same-sex partnerships, this contribution traces how the regulation of homosexuality and transsexuality impacted upon each other since the Transsexual Act was enacted in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1981. [less ▲]

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See detailShared genetic basis between genetic generalized epilepsy and background electroencephalographic oscillations
Stevelink, Remi; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Lin, Bochao D. et al

in Epilepsia (2021), 62(7), 1518-1527

Abstract Objective Paroxysmal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are the hallmark of epilepsies, but it is uncertain to what extent epilepsy and background EEG oscillations share ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective Paroxysmal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are the hallmark of epilepsies, but it is uncertain to what extent epilepsy and background EEG oscillations share neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we aimed to assess the genetic correlation between epilepsy and background EEG oscillations. Methods Confounding factors, including the heterogeneous etiology of epilepsies and medication effects, hamper studies on background brain activity in people with epilepsy. To overcome this limitation, we compared genetic data from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on epilepsy (n = 12 803 people with epilepsy and 24 218 controls) with that from a GWAS on background EEG (n = 8425 subjects without epilepsy), in which background EEG oscillation power was quantified in four different frequency bands: alpha, beta, delta, and theta. We replicated our findings in an independent epilepsy replication dataset (n = 4851 people with epilepsy and 20 428 controls). To assess the genetic overlap between these phenotypes, we performed genetic correlation analyses using linkage disequilibrium score regression, polygenic risk scores, and Mendelian randomization analyses. Results Our analyses show strong genetic correlations of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) with background EEG oscillations, primarily in the beta frequency band. Furthermore, we show that subjects with higher beta and theta polygenic risk scores have a significantly higher risk of having generalized epilepsy. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a causal effect of GGE genetic liability on beta oscillations. Significance Our results point to shared biological mechanisms underlying background EEG oscillations and the susceptibility for GGE, opening avenues to investigate the clinical utility of background EEG oscillations in the diagnostic workup of epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailMethyl-Induced Polarization Destabilizes the Noncovalent Interactions of N-Methylated Lysines
Sanim Rahman; Vered Wineman-Fisher; Peter Nagy et al

in Chemistry: A European Journal (2021)

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See detailActive engines: Thermodynamics moves forward
Fodor, Etienne UL; Cates, Michael E.

in Europhysics Letters (2021), 134

The study of thermal heat engines was pivotal to establishing the principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, with implications far wider than only engine optimization. For nonequilibrium systems, which by ... [more ▼]

The study of thermal heat engines was pivotal to establishing the principles of equilibrium thermodynamics, with implications far wider than only engine optimization. For nonequilibrium systems, which by definition dissipate energy even at rest, how to best convert such dissipation into useful work is still largely an outstanding question, with similar potential to illuminate general physical principles. We review recent theoretical progress in studying the performances of engines operating with active matter, where particles are driven by individual self-propulsion. We distinguish two main classes, either autonomous engines exploiting a particle current, or cyclic engines applying periodic transformation to the system, and present the strategies put forward so far for optimization. We delineate the limitations of previous studies, and propose some future perspectives, with a view to building a consistent thermodynamic framework far from equilibrium. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic and Relational Spaces in Science of Science: Deep Learning Models for Article Vectorisation
Kozlowski, Diego UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Pang, Jun UL et al

in Scientometrics (2021)

Over the last century, we observe a steady and exponentially growth of scientific publications globally. The overwhelming amount of available literature makes a holistic analysis of the research within a ... [more ▼]

Over the last century, we observe a steady and exponentially growth of scientific publications globally. The overwhelming amount of available literature makes a holistic analysis of the research within a field and between fields based on manual inspection impossible. Automatic techniques to support the process of literature review are required to find the epistemic and social patterns that are embedded in scientific publications. In computer sciences, new tools have been developed to deal with large volumes of data. In particular, deep learning techniques open the possibility of automated end-to-end models to project observations to a new, low-dimensional space where the most relevant information of each observation is highlighted. Using deep learning to build new representations of scientific publications is a growing but still emerging field of research. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential and limits of deep learning for gathering insights about scientific research articles. We focus on document-level embeddings based on the semantic and relational aspects of articles, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). We explore the different outcomes generated by those techniques. Our results show that using NLP we can encode a semantic space of articles, while with GNN we are able to build a relational space where the social practices of a research community are also encoded. [less ▲]

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See detailThree‑Dimensional Membrane Imaging with X‑ray Ptychography: Determination of Membrane Transport Properties for Membrane Distillation
Cramer, Kerstin UL; Prasianakis, Nikolaos; Niceno, Bojan et al

in Transport in Porous Medi (2021)

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See detailGastric interoception and gastric myoelectrical activity in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder
van Dyck, Zoé UL; Schulz, André UL; Blechert, Jens et al

in International Journal of Eating Disorders (2021), 54(7), 1106-1115

Objective: Identifying factors that control food intake is crucial to the understanding and treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating. In healthy individuals, stomach distension plays an ... [more ▼]

Objective: Identifying factors that control food intake is crucial to the understanding and treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating. In healthy individuals, stomach distension plays an important role in the development of satiation, but gastric sensations might be overridden in binge eating. The present study investigated the perception of gastric signals (i.e., gastric interoception) and gastric motility in patients experiencing binge eating episodes, i.e. bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: Twenty-nine patients with BN or BED (ED group) and 32 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls (HC group) participated in the study. The onset of satiation and stomach fullness were assessed using a novel 2-step water load test (WLT-II). Gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) was measured by electrogastrography (EGG) before and after ingestion of non-caloric water. Results: Individuals in the ED group drank significantly more water until reporting satiation during the WLT-II. The percentage of normal gastric myoelectrical power was significantly smaller in the ED group compared to HC, and negatively related to the number of objective binge-eating episodes per week in bulimic patients. Power in the bradygastria range was greater in ED than in HC subjects. Discussion: Patients with EDs have a delayed response to satiation compared to HC participants, together with abnormal GMA. Repeated binge eating episodes may induce disturbances to gastric motor function. [less ▲]

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See detailUnification of functional annotation descriptions using text mining
Teixeira Queiros, Pedro UL; Novikova, Polina UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

in Biological Chemistry (2021)

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference ... [more ▼]

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference data used, as such, choosing the appropriate sources is crucial. Unfortunately, no single reference data source can be universally considered the gold standard, thus using multiple references could potentially increase annotation quality and coverage. However, this comes with challenges, particularly due to the introduction of redundant and exclusive annotations. Through text mining it is possible to identify highly similar functional descriptions, thus strengthening the confidence of the final protein functional annotation and providing a redundancy-free output. Here we present UniFunc, a text mining approach that is able to detect similar functional descriptions with high precision. UniFunc was built as a small module and can be independently used or integrated into protein function annotation pipelines. By removing the need to individually analyse and compare annotation results, UniFunc streamlines the complementary use of multiple reference datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the diversity of the teacher workforce: Socio-political challenges to reducing inequalities in access to teacher education programs.
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

in Frontiers in Education (2021), 6

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio ... [more ▼]

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio-economic characteristics. However, this diversity is only to a limited extent reflected in the teacher population, even though teachers from different backgrounds can bring specific intercultural competencies, have more positive attitudes toward multicultural heterogeneity and act as role models. To facilitate the diversification of the teaching profession, it is imperative that the cohorts of students entering teacher education programs represent the diversity of societies, however studies have shown students with migration background or from families with lower socio-economic status are underrepresented in such programs. This study considered the demographic constellation of applicants for admission into the teacher education program in Luxembourg (2015-2019) and investigated to what extent the admission process (dis)advantages certain groups. Results revealed that although applications come from diverse backgrounds, proficiency in the country´s native languages poses a disadvantage for students with migration background. In addition, applicants coming from more privileged families stand a better chance of being admitted. Results are interpreted within the framework of social mobility and social reproduction. Implications for the admission to the teachers education program are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing Quantum Speed Limits with Ultracold Gases
Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in Physical Review Letters (2021)

Quantum speed limits (QSLs) rule the minimum time for a quantum state to evolve into a distinguishable state in an arbitrary physical process. These fundamental results constrain a notion of distance ... [more ▼]

Quantum speed limits (QSLs) rule the minimum time for a quantum state to evolve into a distinguishable state in an arbitrary physical process. These fundamental results constrain a notion of distance traveled by the quantum state, known as the Bures angle, in terms of the speed of evolution set by nonadiabatic energy fluctuations. I theoretically propose how to measure QSLs in an ultracold quantum gas confined in a timedependent harmonic trap. In this highly-dimensional system of continuous variables, quantum tomography is prohibited. Yet, QSLs can be probed whenever the dynamics is self-similar by measuring as a function of time the cloud size of the ultracold gas. This makes it possible to determine the Bures angle and energy fluctuations, as I discuss for various ultracold atomic systems. [less ▲]

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See detailMonolingual cringe and ideologies of English: Anglophone migrants to Luxembourg draw their experiences in a multilingual society
de Bres, Julia; Lovrits, Veronika UL

in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2021)

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language ... [more ▼]

This article uses reflective drawing to explore representations of multilingualism by Anglophone migrants in Luxembourg. Analysing twelve interviews in which participants drew and described their language experiences, we examine the language ideologies Anglophone migrants adopt in response to the ideologies of English they encounter. Participants adopt various ideologies, sometimes aligning with the ideology of global English, sometimes with counter-ideologies of resistance to it, and sometimes a mix of the two. Visual features indexing affective states include colour, gesture, facial expression, and composition. Monolingual cringe – expressed as shame, embarrassment and being ‘bad at languages’ – performs several functions for the participants. Sometimes it serves as an affective disclaimer, allowing them to lean on their privilege in a more socially acceptable way. Sometimes it appears to express genuine distress, in the form of searing linguistic insecurity. Sometimes it performs a distancing function, enabling them to oppose themselves to the stereotype of the monolingual English speaker. The affective intensity of the drawings suggests the ideology of global English does have costs for Anglophone migrants. Fundamentally, though, monolingual cringe reinforces privilege, allowing participants to apologise for their monolingualism even as they continue to benefit from it. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling seizures in the Human Phenotype Ontology according to contemporary ILAE concepts makes big phenotypic data tractable
Lewis-Smith, David; Galer, Peter D.; Balagura, Ganna et al

in Epilepsia (2021), n/a(n/a),

Abstract Objective The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective The clinical features of epilepsy determine how it is defined, which in turn guides management. Therefore, consideration of the fundamental clinical entities that comprise an epilepsy is essential in the study of causes, trajectories, and treatment responses. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is used widely in clinical and research genetics for concise communication and modeling of clinical features, allowing extracted data to be harmonized using logical inference. We sought to redesign the HPO seizure subontology to improve its consistency with current epileptological concepts, supporting the use of large clinical data sets in high-throughput clinical and research genomics. Methods We created a new HPO seizure subontology based on the 2017 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Operational Classification of Seizure Types, and integrated concepts of status epilepticus, febrile, reflex, and neonatal seizures at different levels of detail. We compared the HPO seizure subontology prior to, and following, our revision, according to the information that could be inferred about the seizures of 791 individuals from three independent cohorts: 2 previously published and 150 newly recruited individuals. Each cohort's data were provided in a different format and harmonized using the two versions of the HPO. Results The new seizure subontology increased the number of descriptive concepts for seizures 5-fold. The number of seizure descriptors that could be annotated to the cohort increased by 40 and the total amount of information about individuals' seizures increased by 38\%. The most important qualitative difference was the relationship of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure to generalized-onset and focal-onset seizures. Significance We have generated a detailed contemporary conceptual map for harmonization of clinical seizure data, implemented in the official 2020-12-07 HPO release and freely available at hpo.jax.org. This will help to overcome the phenotypic bottleneck in genomics, facilitate reuse of valuable data, and ultimately improve diagnostics and precision treatment of the epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailLiquid crystal elastomer shells with topological defect-defined actuation: Complex shape morphing, opening/closing, and unidirectional rotation
Sharma, Anjali UL; Stoffel, A. M.; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Journal of Applied Physics (2021), 129(17), 174701

We produce hollow sphere liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) actuators from a nematic precursor mixture, brought into the shape of a self-closing shell with tangential anchoring of the director field n(r ... [more ▼]

We produce hollow sphere liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) actuators from a nematic precursor mixture, brought into the shape of a self-closing shell with tangential anchoring of the director field n(r), using a solvent-assisted microfluidic technique. By separating the shell production from the polymerization and cross-linking, the precursor is allowed to approach its equilibrium n(r) configuration in the shell, spontaneously forming topological defects of total strength +2. However, the photopolymerization into an LCE induces a brief but strong distortion of the overall n(r) and the defect configuration, even changing the ground state shape in the case of thick shells. The resulting LCE shells show a rich capacity for reversible shape morphing upon heating and cooling, the exact actuation mode defined by n(r), and the final defect configuration stabilized at the end of polymerization. In regions with a single +1 defect, a reversal of curvature from concave to convex is found, punctured shells exhibit a strong shape change between a nearly closed sphere at low temperature and an open-ended spherocylinder at high temperature, and all shells rotate upon actuation when suspended in a fluid. As the rotation is stronger during relaxation than during actuation, thus breaking the symmetry, the net rotation is unidirectional. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Museum of American War Letters
Janz, Nina UL

in HSOZKULT - Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften (2021)

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See detailLes dimensions spatiales et socioprofessionnelles du travail frontalier aux frontières franco-suisse et franco-luxembourgeoise
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Géo-Regards: Revue Neuchâteloise de Géographie (2021), 13(2020), 147-177

This article analyzes the main spatial and socio-professional dimensions of cross-border workers at the different borders of France, particularly within the cross-border employment poles of Geneva, Basel ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes the main spatial and socio-professional dimensions of cross-border workers at the different borders of France, particularly within the cross-border employment poles of Geneva, Basel and Luxembourg. It is based on data from the French population census, supplemented by data from the countries where cross-border workers work. While cross-border workers have socio-demographic characteristics that are relatively common to the different cross-border employment centres (mostly men, relatively young, etc.), the article highlights the territorial specificity of socio-professional profiles according to the different cross-border spaces observed. Cross-border work thus constitutes a modality of territorial management of labor and skills. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum moment map and obstructions to the existence of closed Fedosov star products
Futaki, Akito; La Fuente-Gravy, Laurent UL

in Journal of Geometry and Physics (2021), 163

It is shown that the normalized trace of Fedosov star product for quantum moment map depends only on the path component in the cohomology class of the symplectic form and the cohomology class of the ... [more ▼]

It is shown that the normalized trace of Fedosov star product for quantum moment map depends only on the path component in the cohomology class of the symplectic form and the cohomology class of the closed formal 2-form required to define Fedosov connections (Theorem 1.3). As an application we obtain a family of obstructions to the existence of closed Fedosov star products naturally attached to symplectic manifolds (Theorem 1.5) and Kähler manifolds (Theorem 1.6). These obstructions are integral invariants depending only on the path component of the cohomology class of the symplectic form. Restricted to compact Kähler manifolds we re-discover an obstruction found earlier in La Fuente-Gravy (2019). [less ▲]

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See detailA holding control strategy for diverging bus lines
Laskaris, Georgios; Rinaldi, Marco; Cats, Oded et al

in Transportation Research. Part C, Emerging Technologies (2021)

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See detailThe Impact of SARS-COVID-19 Outbreak on European Cities Urban Mobility
Vitello, Piergiorgio UL; Connors, Richard UL; Viti, Francesco UL

in Frontiers in Future Transportation (2021)

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See detailCohort profile: DOLORisk Dundee: a longitudinal study of chronic neuropathic pain
Hébert, Harry L; Veluchamy, Abirami; Baskozos, Georgios et al

in BMJ Open (2021), 11(5),

Purpose: Neuropathic pain is a common disorder of the somatosensory system that affects 7%-10% of the general population. The disorder places a large social and economic burden on patients as well as ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Neuropathic pain is a common disorder of the somatosensory system that affects 7%-10% of the general population. The disorder places a large social and economic burden on patients as well as healthcare services. However, not everyone with a relevant underlying aetiology develops corresponding pain. DOLORisk Dundee, a European Union-funded cohort, part of the multicentre DOLORisk consortium, was set up to increase current understanding of this variation in onset. In particular, the cohort will allow exploration of psychosocial, clinical and genetic predictors of neuropathic pain onset. Participants: DOLORisk Dundee has been constructed by rephenotyping two pre-existing Scottish population cohorts for neuropathic pain using a standardised 'core' study protocol: Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) (n=5236) consisting of predominantly type 2 diabetics from the Tayside region, and Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS; n=20 221). Rephenotyping was conducted in two phases: a baseline postal survey and a combined postal and online follow-up survey. DOLORisk Dundee consists of 9155 participants (GoDARTS=1915; GS:SFHS=7240) who responded to the baseline survey, of which 6338 (69.2%; GoDARTS=1046; GS:SFHS=5292) also responded to the follow-up survey (18 months later). Findings to date: At baseline, the proportion of those with chronic neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions questionnaire score ≥3, duration ≥3 months) was 30.5% in GoDARTS and 14.2% in Generation Scotland. Electronic record linkage enables large scale genetic association studies to be conducted and risk models have been constructed for neuropathic pain. Future plans: The cohort is being maintained by an access committee, through which collaborations are encouraged. Details of how to do this will be available on the study website (http://dolorisk.eu/). Further follow-up surveys of the cohort are planned and funding applications are being prepared to this effect. This will be conducted in harmony with similar pain rephenotyping of UK Biobank. [less ▲]

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See detailLimitations of plastic bending resistance for composite beams deviated from strain-limitation
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun, Matthias et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2021), 180(106562),

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes between four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic moment resistance, it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limit on the strain. For standard composite beams with sagging moments and a high plastic neutral axis, plastic resistance and strain-limited resistance give similar results. For sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes critical. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering compression zone height for the next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

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See detailReading EUropean borderlands under the perspective of legal geography and spatial justice
Evrard, Estelle UL

in European Planning Studies (2021)

Recently, the notion of spatial justice has been discussed as a possible conceptual foundation for rethinking EU Cohesion Policy. While scholars have adopted a dual distributive and procedural ... [more ▼]

Recently, the notion of spatial justice has been discussed as a possible conceptual foundation for rethinking EU Cohesion Policy. While scholars have adopted a dual distributive and procedural understanding of spatial justice, the paper argues that, applied to cross-border areas, such a conceptualisation is challenged to explain how the border contributes to disparities. We argue that actively questioning the role of law is paramount for better examination of the dynamics within border areas. An understanding of spatial justice informed by legal geography allows examination of how law fosters and impedes movement across borders. The paper presents three recent examples where policy representatives from affected communities have fought to adapt legal provisions to cross-border spatiality. Whether such initiatives increased border communities’ capacities to shape their own development (i.e. European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation) or not yet (i.e. co-development at the Lorraine-Luxembourg border; European Cross-Border Mechanism), these examples show that analysing EUropean borderlands as a spatiolegal category helps understanding of how space and law constantly struggle with one another, and how spatial justice emerges from a movement out of this conflict. The paper concludes by discussing the practical and conceptual implications of combining legal geography and spatial justice for analysing EU Borderlands. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in a Brazilian sample during the COVID-19 outbreak
Ribeiro, Fabiana UL; Santos, Flávia; Anunciação, Luis et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2021), 18(9),

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See detailOptimization in VHTS Satellite System Design with Irregular Beam Coverage for Non-Uniform Traffic Distribution
Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Salas-Natera, Miguel A.; Martinez, Ramon et al

in Remote Sensing (2021), 13(13),

Very High Throughput Satellites (VHTS) have a pivotal role in complementing terrestrial networks to increase traffic demand. VHTS systems currently assume a uniform distribution of traffic in the service ... [more ▼]

Very High Throughput Satellites (VHTS) have a pivotal role in complementing terrestrial networks to increase traffic demand. VHTS systems currently assume a uniform distribution of traffic in the service area, but in a real system, traffic demands are not uniform and are dynamic. A possible solution is to use flexible payloads, but the cost of the design increases considerably. On the other hand, a fixed payload that uses irregular beam coverage depending on traffic demand allows maintaining the cost of a fixed payload while minimizing the error between offered and required capacity. This paper presents a proposal for optimizing irregular beams coverage and beam pattern, minimizing the costs per Gbps in orbit, the Normalized Coverage Error, and Offered Capacity Error per beam. We present the analysis and performance for the case study and compare it with a previous algorithm for a uniform coverage area. [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting DNN Safety Analysis and Retraining through Heatmap-based Unsupervised Learning
Fahmy, Hazem UL; Pastore, Fabrizio UL; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba et al

in IEEE Transactions on Reliability (2021), 70(4), 1641-1657

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the ... [more ▼]

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are increasingly im- portant in safety-critical systems, for example in their perception layer to analyze images. Unfortunately, there is a lack of methods to ensure the functional safety of DNN-based components. We observe three major challenges with existing practices regarding DNNs in safety-critical systems: (1) scenarios that are underrepresented in the test set may lead to serious safety violation risks, but may, however, remain unnoticed; (2) char- acterizing such high-risk scenarios is critical for safety analysis; (3) retraining DNNs to address these risks is poorly supported when causes of violations are difficult to determine. To address these problems in the context of DNNs analyzing images, we propose HUDD, an approach that automatically supports the identification of root causes for DNN errors. HUDD identifies root causes by applying a clustering algorithm to heatmaps capturing the relevance of every DNN neuron on the DNN outcome. Also, HUDD retrains DNNs with images that are automatically selected based on their relatedness to the identified image clusters. We evaluated HUDD with DNNs from the automotive domain. HUDD was able to identify all the distinct root causes of DNN errors, thus supporting safety analysis. Also, our retraining approach has shown to be more effective at improving DNN accuracy than existing approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailThe values of web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL; Winters, Jane

in International Journal of Digital Humanities (2021)

This article considers how the development, promotion and adoption of a set of core values for web archives, linked to principles of “good governance”, will help them to tackle the challenges of ... [more ▼]

This article considers how the development, promotion and adoption of a set of core values for web archives, linked to principles of “good governance”, will help them to tackle the challenges of sustainability, accountability and inclusiveness that are central to their long-term societal and cultural worth. It outlines the work that has already been done to address these questions, as web archiving begins to move out of its establishment phase, and then discusses seven key principles of good governance that might be adapted by and embedded within web archives: participation, consensus, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and efficiency, inclusivity and legality. The article concludes with a call to action for researchers and archivists to co-create the core values for web archives that will be required if they are to remain a vital part of our cultural heritage infrastructure. [less ▲]

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See detailEncoding Hidden Information onto Surfaces Using Polymerized Cholesteric Spherical Reflectors
Geng, Yong UL; Kizhakidathazhath, Rijeesh UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Advanced Functional Materials (2021)

The omnidirectional Bragg reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals molded into spheres turns them into narrow-band retroreflectors with distinct circular polarization. It is shown that these cholesteric ... [more ▼]

The omnidirectional Bragg reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals molded into spheres turns them into narrow-band retroreflectors with distinct circular polarization. It is shown that these cholesteric spherical reflectors (CSRs) can encode information onto surfaces for far-field optical read-out without false positives, as the selective retroreflectivity allows the background to be easily subtracted. In order to hide the encoding from detection by the human eye, the retroreflection band is tuned to the near-UV or IR spectra, allowing ubiquitous deployment of CSRs in human-populated environments. This opens diverse application opportunities, for instance, in supporting safe robotic navigation and in augmented reality. A key breakthrough is our ability to permanently embed CSRs in a binder such that undesired scattering and reflections are minimized. This is achieved by realizing CSRs as shells that are polymerized from the liquid crystalline state. The resulting shrinkage around an incompressible fluid deforms the thinnest region of each shell such that it ruptures at a well-defined point. This leaves a single small hole in every CSR that gives access to the interior, allowing complete embedding in the binder with optimized refractive index, minimizing visibility. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante n°23 - Mai 2021
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2021), 23

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See detailSmall States and the ‘Corona crisis’
Högenauer, Anna-Lena UL; Sarapuu, Külli; Trimikliniotis, Nicos

in Small States & Territories (2021), 4(1),

All papers are available open access on the journal's website.

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See detailThe International Legal Framework on Whistle-Blowers: What More Should Be Done?
Kafteranis, Dimitrios UL

in Seattle Journal for Social Justice (2021), 19(3),

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (4 UL)