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See detailLearning-Assisted User Clustering in Cell-Free Massive MIMO-NOMA Networks
Le; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Dobre, Octavia A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(12), 12872-12887

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC ... [more ▼]

The superior spectral efficiency (SE) and user fairness feature of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems are achieved by exploiting user clustering (UC) more efficiently. However, a random UC certainly results in a suboptimal solution while an exhaustive search method comes at the cost of high complexity, especially for systems of medium-to-large size. To address this problem, we develop two efficient unsupervised machine learning based UC algorithms, namely k-means++ and improved k-means++, to effectively cluster users into disjoint clusters in cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CFmMIMO) system. Adopting full-pilot zero-forcing at access points (APs) to comprehensively assess the system performance, we formulate the sum SE optimization problem taking into account power constraints at APs, necessary conditions for implementing successive interference cancellation, and required SE constraints at user equipments. The formulated optimization problem is highly non-convex, and thus, it is difficult to obtain the global optimal solution. Therefore, we develop a simple yet efficient iterative algorithm for its solution. In addition, the performance of collocated massive MIMO-NOMA (COmMIMO-NOMA) system is also characterized. Numerical results are provided to show the superior performance of the proposed UC algorithms compared to baseline schemes. The effectiveness of applying NOMA in CFmMIMO and COmMIMO systems is also validated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of maternal child- and self-oriented pain-related injustice appraisals upon maternal attention to child pain, attention to anger, and pain-attending behavior
Baert, Fleur; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Sanchez-Lopez, Alvaro et al

in British Journal of Pain (2021)

Objectives The current study investigated the role of maternal child- and self-oriented injustice appraisals about child pain in understanding maternal attention for child pain and adult anger cues and ... [more ▼]

Objectives The current study investigated the role of maternal child- and self-oriented injustice appraisals about child pain in understanding maternal attention for child pain and adult anger cues and pain-attending behavior. Methods Forty-four children underwent a painful cold pressor task (CPT) while their mother observed. Eye tracking was used to measure maternal attention to child pain and adult anger cues. Initial attention allocation and attentional maintenance were indexed by probability of first fixation and gaze duration, respectively. Maternal pain-attending behaviors toward the child were videotaped and coded after CPT completion. Mothers also rated the intensity of pain and anger cues used in the free-viewing tasks. All analyses controlled for maternal catastrophizing about child pain. Results Neither child-oriented nor self-oriented injustice was associated with maternal attentional bias toward child pain. Regarding attention toward self-relevant anger cues, differential associations were observed for self- and child-oriented injustice appraisals, with maternal self-oriented injustice being associated with a greater probability of first fixating on anger and with higher anger ratings, whereas maternal child-oriented injustice was associated with enhanced attentional maintenance toward anger. Neither type of maternal injustice appraisals was associated with maternal pain-attending behavior, which was only associated with maternal catastrophizing. Conclusions The current study sheds light on potential differential mechanisms through which maternal self- vs. child-oriented injustice appraisals may exert their impact on parent and child pain-related outcomes. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCOVID-19 Crisis Management in Luxembourg: Insights from an Epidemionomic Approach
Burzynski; Machado, Joel; Aalto, Atte UL et al

in Economics and Human Biology (2021), 43

We develop an epidemionomic model that jointly analyzes the health and economic responses to the COVID-19 crisis and to the related containment and public health policy measures implemented in Luxembourg ... [more ▼]

We develop an epidemionomic model that jointly analyzes the health and economic responses to the COVID-19 crisis and to the related containment and public health policy measures implemented in Luxembourg. The model has been used to produce nowcasts and forecasts at various stages of the crisis. We focus here on two key moments in time, namely the deconfinement period following the first lockdown, and the onset of the second wave. In May 2020, we predicted a high risk of a second wave that was mainly explained by the resumption of social life, low participation in large-scale testing, and reduction in teleworking practices. Simulations conducted 5 months later reveal that managing the second wave with moderately coercive measures has been epidemiologically and economically effective. Assuming a massive third (or fourth) wave will not materialize in 2021, the real GDP loss due to the second wave will be smaller than 0.4 percentage points in 2020 and 2021. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom deformation theory of wheeled props to classification of Kontsevich formality maps
Andersson, Assar UL; Merkulov, Sergei UL

in International Mathematical Research Notices (2021), rnab012

We study homotopy theory of the wheeled prop controlling Poisson structures on arbitrary formal graded finite-dimensional manifolds and prove, in particular, that Grothendieck-Teichmueller group acts on ... [more ▼]

We study homotopy theory of the wheeled prop controlling Poisson structures on arbitrary formal graded finite-dimensional manifolds and prove, in particular, that Grothendieck-Teichmueller group acts on that wheeled prop faithfully and homotopy non-trivially. Next we apply this homotopy theory to the study of the deformation complex of an arbitrary Maxim Kontsevich formality map and compute the full cohomology group of that deformation complex in terms of the cohomology of a certain graph complex introduced earlier by Maxim Kontsevich in [K1] and studied by Thomas Willwacher in [W1]. [less ▲]

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See detailCybersecurity is Gaining Momentum – NIS 2.0 Is on its Way
Schmitz, Sandra UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), (4), 580-585

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See detailAn overview of generic tools for information-theoretic secrecy performance analysis over wiretap fading channels
Kong, Long UL; Ai, Yun; Lei, Lei UL et al

in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking volume (2021), (1), 194

Physical layer security (PLS) has been proposed to afford an extra layer of security on top of the conventional cryptographic techniques. Unlike the conventional complexity-based cryptographic techniques ... [more ▼]

Physical layer security (PLS) has been proposed to afford an extra layer of security on top of the conventional cryptographic techniques. Unlike the conventional complexity-based cryptographic techniques at the upper layers, physical layer security exploits the characteristics of wireless channels, e.g., fading, noise, interference, etc., to enhance wireless security. It is proved that secure transmission can benefit from fading channels. Accordingly, numerous researchers have explored what fading can offer for physical layer security, especially the investigation of physical layer security over wiretap fading channels. Therefore, this paper aims at reviewing the existing and ongoing research works on this topic. More specifically, we present a classification of research works in terms of the four categories of fading models: (i) small-scale, (ii) large-scale, (iii) composite, and (iv) cascaded. To elaborate these fading models with a generic and flexible tool, three promising candidates, including the mixture gamma (MG), mixture of Gaussian (MoG), and Fox’s H-function distributions, are comprehensively examined and compared. Their advantages and limitations are further demonstrated via security performance metrics, which are designed as vivid indicators to measure how perfect secrecy is ensured. Two clusters of secrecy metrics, namely (i) secrecy outage probability (SOP), and the lower bound of SOP; and (ii) the probability of nonzero secrecy capacity (PNZ), the intercept probability, average secrecy capacity (ASC), and ergodic secrecy capacity, are displayed and, respectively, deployed in passive and active eavesdropping scenarios. Apart from those, revisiting the secrecy enhancement techniques based on Wyner’s wiretap model, the on-off transmission scheme, jamming approach, antenna selection, and security region are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailBreast and prostate cancer risk: the interplay of polygenic risk, rare pathogenic germline variants, and family history
Hassanin, Emadeldin; May, Patrick UL; Aldisi, Rana et al

in Genetics in Medicine (2021)

Purpose Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), pathogenic or likely rare pathogenic germline variants (PV), and family history jointly influence breast and prostate cancer risk. Methods ... [more ▼]

Purpose Investigate to which extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), pathogenic or likely rare pathogenic germline variants (PV), and family history jointly influence breast and prostate cancer risk. Methods 200,643 individuals from the UK Biobank were stratified as follows: 1. Heterozygotes or non-heterozygotes of PV in moderate to high cancer risk genes, 2. PRS strata, 3. with or without a family history of cancer. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the odds ratio (OR) across groups and the cumulative incidence through life. Results Cumulative incidence by age 70 among non-heterozygotes across PRS strata ranged from 9% to 32% and from 9% to 35% for breast and prostate cancer, respectively. Among PV heterozygotes it ranged from 20% to 48% in moderate-risk genes and from 51% to 74% in high-risk genes for breast cancer, and it ranged from 30% to 59% in prostate cancer risk genes. Family history is always associated with an increased cancer OR. Conclusion PRS provides a meaningful risk gradient leading alone to a cancer risk comparable to PV in moderate risk genes while acting as risk modifier for high-risk genes. Including family history beside PV and PRS further improves cancer risk stratification. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy is Everyone Training Very Deep Neural Network with Skip Connections?
Oyedotun, Oyebade UL; Al Ismaeil, Kassem; Aouada, Djamila UL

in IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems (2021)

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See detailDeterminants of Self-Stigma in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Mixed Methods Scoping Review
Hanff, Anne-Marie UL; Leist, Anja UL; Fritz, Joëlle UL et al

in Journal of Parkinson's Disease (2021)

Background: Self-stigma in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) can substantially impact quality of life and possibilities for social participation. An integrative analysis of determinants of self-stigma ... [more ▼]

Background: Self-stigma in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) can substantially impact quality of life and possibilities for social participation. An integrative analysis of determinants of self-stigma has been lacking. Objective: We sought to explore which complementary insights from qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as from expert consultation, could be gained. Methods: An established mixed methods study design was employed to first conduct a mixed methods scoping review of published qualitative and quantitative literature, and then consult with experts to arrive at an exhaustive list of determinants of self-stigma after a thematic synthesis. Results: A total of 87 unique determinants of self-stigma were identified. Quantitative studies and expert consultations mainly identified personal determinants of people with self-stigma (e.g., age, anxiety, or apathy). In contrast, qualitative studies identified social situations associated with self-stigma (e.g., joint meals of people with typical PD with others). Notably, self-stigma of people with PD was found to be particularly salient in unfamiliar places, at the working place or in contact with people without PD. Across methods, cognitive impairment, tremor, and abnormal walk and unsteady gait, respectively, were associated with self-stigma. Conclusion: The mixed method study design yielded complementary insights, but also factors commonly associated with self-stigma across methods. Future prioritization exercises may gain further insights into self-stigma of people with PD. Facilitating social encounters by both addressing needs of affected people and raising knowledge and public awareness may improve quality of life in people with PD [less ▲]

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See detailParent Hamiltonians of Jastrow wavefunctions
Beau, Mathieu; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in SciPost Physics (2021)

We find the complete family of many-body quantum Hamiltonians with ground-state of Jastrow form involving the pairwise product of a pair function in an arbitrary spatial dimension. The parent Hamiltonian ... [more ▼]

We find the complete family of many-body quantum Hamiltonians with ground-state of Jastrow form involving the pairwise product of a pair function in an arbitrary spatial dimension. The parent Hamiltonian generally includes a two-body pairwise potential as well as a three-body potential. We thus generalize the Calogero-Marchioro construction for the three-dimensional case to an arbitrary spatial dimension. The resulting family of models is further extended to include a one-body term representing an external potential, which gives rise to an additional long-range two-body interaction. Using this framework, we provide the generalization to an arbitrary spatial dimension of well-known systems such as the Calogero-Sutherland and Calogero-Moser models. We also introduce novel models, generalizing the McGuire many-body quantum bright soliton solution to higher dimensions and considering ground-states which involve e.g., polynomial, Gaussian, exponential, and hyperbolic pair functions. Finally, we show how the pair function can be reverse-engineered to construct models with a given potential, such as a pair-wise Yukawa potential, and to identify models governed exclusively by three-body interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Euro: opportunity or (legal) challenge?
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

in Ianus: Diritto e Finanza (2021), (22), 27

In the euro area today, there are two ways in which the central bank provides money to its economy. The first consists in the issue of physical banknotes, while the second is expressed through the ... [more ▼]

In the euro area today, there are two ways in which the central bank provides money to its economy. The first consists in the issue of physical banknotes, while the second is expressed through the electronic accreditation of deposits on current accounts that credit institutions hold at the central bank. In the last five years, following both the increase in the digitalisation of the modern economy and the example of hegemonic economies (such as China), the possible introduction of a new form of currency to provide a safe and stable mean of payment to citizens of the euro area has had the power to create a growing interest towards such ambitious solutions. As a result, in the very near future we could experience a different way in which money works. We refer to the uncharted world of central bank digital currencies (CBDC). While projects for the creation of central bank digital currencies are booming all around the world, such interest is driven by various reasons that will be analysed in this paper, including the need to react to private initiatives for the creation of cryptocurrencies and stablecoins and, an increasing demand for fast and interconnected digital financial instruments and products. In the euro area, even if the debate for the creation of a Digital Euro has recently started, the ECB has proven to be already engaged in investigations, public consultations, and discussions with focus groups with the aim to provide European citizens, firms, and intermediaries with a “public” payment instrument suitable for a new digital era. In this framework, the role of a Eurosystem central bank digital currency will be analysed from a legal perspective. First, apart from the abovementioned reasons leading to the creation of a CBDC, it will be crucial to examine the structure and design of the Digital Euro, together with its objectives and the needs of its users. Consequently, while investigating on the legal framework which will permit the introduction of this digital currency, through a light review of similar models adopted (or in adoption) by other countries, we will seek to assess whether legal issues might hinder the realisation of this project or its actual implementation, especially concerning the impact on monetary policy, the international role of the euro and the banking sector. [less ▲]

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See detailEngaging in and creatively reproducing translanguaging practices with peers: a longitudinal study with three-year-olds in Luxembourg
Kirsch, Claudine UL; Mortini, Simone

in International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (2021)

The increasing societal and linguistic diversity in schools challenge traditional teaching approaches and call for pedagogies that cater to the growing number of multilingual pupils. Translanguaging ... [more ▼]

The increasing societal and linguistic diversity in schools challenge traditional teaching approaches and call for pedagogies that cater to the growing number of multilingual pupils. Translanguaging pedagogies can offer multilinguals a productive learning environment that helps them leverage their resources for learning. Translanguaging studies in early childhood education are still scant, especially those that involve emergent multilinguals, focus on adult–child and peer interactions, and examine children’s agency. The present paper from multilingual Luxembourg examines the engagement of two three-year-olds in adult-led and child-led activities in two early childhood education settings as well the ways in which they creatively reproduced translingual activities and strategies in peer interactions. The data of the qualitative study stem from 128 excerpts, video-recorded over the course of a year. The findings show that the children’s language use and active engagement depended on the pedagogy and the practitioners’ language-supportive strategies. In peer interactions, they creatively reproduced routine activities, thereby transforming formulaic speech, as well as the practitioners’ strategy use. The findings can guide curriculum developers and practitioners when implementing inclusive translanguaging practices in early childhood education. [less ▲]

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See detailEthnic Bias after Ethnic Conflict: Preferential Voting and the Serb Minority in Croatian Elections
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Mochtak, Michal UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in Ethnopolitics (2021)

In spite of growing interest in democratization and electoral competition after ethnic conflict, we know little about the impact of ethnic violence on voter choice in post-conflict societies. This article ... [more ▼]

In spite of growing interest in democratization and electoral competition after ethnic conflict, we know little about the impact of ethnic violence on voter choice in post-conflict societies. This article uses an original dataset of local-level electoral results, communities’ exposure to war violence, and candidates’ ethnicity derived from names in contemporary Croatia to uncover the relationship between local post-conflict ethnic distribution, ethnic violence, and the electorate’s ethnic bias. Our analysis points to the presence of ethnic bias that is determined by local interethnic balance and exposure to war violence – particularly for communities populated by the Serb minority. [less ▲]

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See detailLimits to Perception by Quantum Monitoring with Finite Efficiency
García-Pintos, Luis Pedro; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in Entropy (2021)

We formulate limits to perception under continuous quantum measurements by comparing the quantum states assigned by agents that have partial access to measurement outcomes. To this end, we provide bounds ... [more ▼]

We formulate limits to perception under continuous quantum measurements by comparing the quantum states assigned by agents that have partial access to measurement outcomes. To this end, we provide bounds on the trace distance and the relative entropy between the assigned state and the actual state of the system. These bounds are expressed solely in terms of the purity and von Neumann entropy of the state assigned by the agent, and are shown to characterize how an agent's perception of the system is altered by access to additional information We apply our results to Gaussian states and to the dynamics of a system embedded in an environment illustrated on a quantum Ising chain. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping and Validating a Short-Form Questionnaire for the Assessment of Seven Facets of Conscientiousness in Large-Scale Assessments
Franzen, Patrick UL; Arens, A. Katrin; Greiff, Samuel UL et al

in Journal of Personality Assessment (2021)

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no ... [more ▼]

Conscientiousness is the most important personality predictor of academic achievement. It consists of several lower order facets with differential relations to academic achievement. There is currently no short instrument assessing facets of conscientiousness in the educational context. Therefore, in the present multi-study report, we develop and validate a short-form questionnaire for the assessment of seven Conscientiousness facets, namely Industriousness, Perfectionism, Tidiness, Procrastination Refrainment, Control, Caution, and Task Planning. To this end, we examined multiple representative samples totaling N = 14,604 Grade 9 and 10 students from Luxembourg. The questionnaire was developed by adapting and shortening an existing scale using an exhaustive search algorithm. The algorithm was specified to select the best item combination based on model fit, reliability, and measurement invariance across the German and French language versions. The resulting instrument showed the expected factorial structure. The relations of the facets with personality constructs and academic achievement were in line with theoretical assumptions. Reliability was acceptable for all facets. Measurement invariance across language versions, gender, immigration status and cohort was established. We conclude that the presented questionnaire provides a short measurement of seven facets of Conscientiousness with valid and reliable scores. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Optimality of the Stationary Solution of Secrecy Rate Maximization for MIMO Wiretap Channel
Mukherjee, Anshu; Kumar, Vaibhav; Jorswieck, Eduard et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021)

To achieve perfect secrecy in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wiretap channel (WTC), we need to find its secrecy capacity and optimal signaling, which involves solving a difference of ... [more ▼]

To achieve perfect secrecy in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wiretap channel (WTC), we need to find its secrecy capacity and optimal signaling, which involves solving a difference of convex functions program known to be non-convex for the non-degraded case. To deal with this, a class of existing solutions have been developed but only local optimality is guaranteed by standard convergence analysis. Interestingly, our extensive numerical experiments have shown that these local optimization methods indeed achieve global optimality. In this paper, we provide an analytical proof for this observation. To achieve this, we show that the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions of the secrecy rate maximization problem admit a unique solution for both degraded and non-degraded cases. Motivated by this, we also propose a low-complexity algorithm to find a stationary point. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailInclusion in Physical Education in primary schools in Europe through the lens of an Erasmus+ partnership
Marron, Susan; Murphy, Frances; Pitsia, Vasiliki et al

in Education 3-13 (2021)

Using data from the Disentangling Inclusion in Primary Physical Education (DIPPE) Erasmus+ project, this study aimed at investigating teachers’ practices related to inclusion of children with additional ... [more ▼]

Using data from the Disentangling Inclusion in Primary Physical Education (DIPPE) Erasmus+ project, this study aimed at investigating teachers’ practices related to inclusion of children with additional needs (AN) in primary physical education (PE) and identifying supports that could enhance these practices. Responses from 1170 primary teachers across nine European countries to an online questionnaire were analysed. Although inclusion was regarded as important, only 30% of children with AN were reported as being always included and engaged in PE. Teachers considered guidance on children’s motor needs and video-based resources particularly useful in promoting inclusion. Implications of the findings within the DIPPE project and more broadly are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNot yet another digital identity
Rieger, Alexander UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Nature Human Behaviour (2021)

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See detailImpact of metallic potassium post-deposition treatment on epitaxial Cu(In, Ga)Se2
Martin Lanzoni, Evandro UL; Ramirez Sanchez, Omar UL; Phirke, Himanshu UL et al

in Thin Solid Films (2021)

Alkali post-deposition treatments (PDTs) of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) absorbers are known to improve the power conversion efficiency of the thin-film solar cell devices. The PDTs are usually carried out via ... [more ▼]

Alkali post-deposition treatments (PDTs) of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) absorbers are known to improve the power conversion efficiency of the thin-film solar cell devices. The PDTs are usually carried out via evaporation of alkali fluorides in a selenium atmosphere onto a hot substrate. In this work, an alkali metal dispenser was used to evaporate pure metallic potassium onto epitaxial CIGSe absorbers. Subsequently, the absorber layers were heated in-situ to monitor chemical reactions and diffusion into the bulk. Due to the absence of grain boundaries, fluorine, and selenium, the effect of K on CIGSe absorber properties can be directly monitored. We find that potassium effectively diffuses into the bulk of epitaxial CIGSe absorber layers. The diffusion depends on the Cucontent of the CIGSe absorbers, in which Cu-depleted films present higher diffusion rates of K. Photoluminescence (PL) imaging corroborates that K in the bulk of the CIGSe absorber increases the PL yield, suggesting a passivation of defects or an increase in doping. This work highlights that alkali PDTs are not limited by interface and grain boundary modifications but also changes the absorber bulk properties, which needs to be taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailRadial analysis and scaling of urban land use
Lemoy, Rémi UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Scientific Reports (2021), (22044),

We determine the functional form and scaling law of radial artificial land use profiles in 300 European functional urban areas (FUAs). These profiles, starting from a fully artificial surface in the city ... [more ▼]

We determine the functional form and scaling law of radial artificial land use profiles in 300 European functional urban areas (FUAs). These profiles, starting from a fully artificial surface in the city center, decrease exponentially, the faster the smaller the city. More precisely, the characteristic decrease distance scales like the square root of total population, meaning that the artificial surface of cities is proportional to their population. This also means that the amount of artificial land per capita is independent of city size, and that larger cities are not more or less parsimonious in terms of land use than smaller ones. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying the Presumption of Innocence to Policing with AI
Blount, Kelly UL

in International Review of Penal Law (2021), 92(1),

This paper argues that predictive policing, which relies upon former arrest records, hinders the future application of the presumption of innocence. This is established by positing that predictive ... [more ▼]

This paper argues that predictive policing, which relies upon former arrest records, hinders the future application of the presumption of innocence. This is established by positing that predictive policing is comparable to traditional criminal investigations in substance and scope. Police records generally do not clarify whether former charges result in dismissal or acquittal, or conversely, conviction. Therefore, police as state actors may unlawfully act in reliance on an individual’s former arrest record, despite a favourable disposition. Accordingly, it is argued that the presumption of innocence as a fair trial right may be effectively nullified by predictive policing. [less ▲]

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See detailGene-corrected p.A30P SNCA patient-derived isogenic neurons rescue neuronal branching and function
Barbuti, Peter A; Ohnmacht, Jochen UL; Santos, Bruno FR et al

in Scientific Reports (2021), 11

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by the degeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons and the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein. The p.A30P SNCA mutation generates the pathogenic form of the ... [more ▼]

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by the degeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons and the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein. The p.A30P SNCA mutation generates the pathogenic form of the alpha-synuclein protein causing an autosomal-dominant form of PD. There are limited studies assessing pathogenic SNCA mutations in patient-derived isogenic cell models. Here we provide a functional assessment of dopaminergic neurons derived from a patient harbouring the p.A30P SNCA mutation. Using two clonal gene-corrected isogenic cell lines we identified image-based phenotypes showing impaired neuritic processes. The pathological neurons displayed impaired neuronal activity, reduced mitochondrial respiration, an energy deficit, vulnerability to rotenone, and transcriptional alterations in lipid metabolism. Our data describes for the first time the mutation-only effect of the p.A30P SNCA mutation on neuronal function, supporting the use of isogenic cell lines in identifying image-based pathological phenotypes that can serve as an entry point for future disease-modifying compound screenings and drug discovery strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of Brexit on “bail-inable” liabilities under English law
Lupinu, Pier Mario UL

in Queen Mary Law Journal (2021), (1), 22

Several years have passed since 29 March 2017, the date when the United Kingdom (UK) triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This date has become well-known for paving the way to ... [more ▼]

Several years have passed since 29 March 2017, the date when the United Kingdom (UK) triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This date has become well-known for paving the way to multiple legal and political issues, most of which depend on the agreement setting the conditions for the future relations between the European Union (EU) and the UK. In reference to the resolution of a credit institution established in the EU in a state of imminent crisis, Brexit might negatively affect its shareholders and bondholders who were called upon to contribute by absorbing losses and recapitalising the bank through the bail-in instrument. In particular, when the bail-in converts or writes down liabilities previously established under English law. To date, the EU legal framework for the resolution of credit institutions envisages a provision for the direct recognition of liabilities governed under any of the EU Member States’ law. This means that, due to Brexit, English law liabilities are no longer directly recognised at the EU level. However, the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), one of the pillars of the EU legislation relating to resolution, leaves to each EU Member State the duty to require financial entities to include “resolution-proof” clauses in the contracts establishing such liabilities or, alternatively, to conclude a binding agreement with the relevant third country. This creates issues concerning both the recognition of English law liabilities established pre-BRRD and to post-BRRD liabilities not compliant with the contractual requirement. By analysing the EU and UK legal frameworks, this paper aims to address possible solutions to ease a future resolution procedure involving the use of the bail-in instrument towards English law liabilities. The purpose is to ease both the determination of the Minimum Requirement for own fund and Eligible Liabilities (MREL) and the resolution process for the relevant authority in charge of the resolution procedure, since an orderly bail-in of those problematic liabilities could improve the effectiveness of the instrument and the success of the whole resolution procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrospinning Ethanol–Water Solutions of Poly(Acrylic Acid): Nonlinear Viscosity Variations and Dynamic Taylor Cone Behavior
Vats, Shameek UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Macromolecular Materials and Engineering (2021)

Electrospinning of polymer solutions is a multifaceted process that depends on the careful balancing of many parameters to achieve a desired outcome, in many cases including mixtures of multiple solvents ... [more ▼]

Electrospinning of polymer solutions is a multifaceted process that depends on the careful balancing of many parameters to achieve a desired outcome, in many cases including mixtures of multiple solvents. A systematic study of how the solution viscosity 𝜼—a good probe of solvent–polymer interactions—and the electrospinnability change when poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures at varying mixing ratio is carried out. A pronounced maximum is found in 𝜼 at a water-to-ethanol molar ratio of about 2:1, where the solvent mixture deviates maximally from ideal mixing behavior and partial deprotonation of carboxyl groups by water coincides synergistically with dissolution of the uncharged protonated PAA fraction by ethanol. The PAA concentration is tuned as a function of water–ethanol ratio to obtain a common value of 𝜼 for all solvent mixtures that is suitable for electrospinning. For high PAA content, the Taylor cone grows in volume over time despite minimum solution flow rate, even experiencing surface gelation for ethanol-rich solutions. This is attributed to the hygroscopic nature of PAA, drawing excess water into the Taylor cone from the air during spinning. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork model and four-terminal transport in minimally twisted bilayer graphene
De Beule, Christophe UL; Dominguez, Fernando; Recher, Patrik

in Physical Review. B (2021), 104

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See detailEffects of topological band structure on thermoelectric transport of bismuthene
Gaffar, Muhammad; Wella, Sasfan Arman; Hasdeo, Eddwi Hesky UL

in Physical Review. B (2021), 104(20), 205105

Two-dimensional bismuth (Bi) layer, known as bismuthene, exhibits Z2 topological bulk states due to large spin-orbit coupling that inverts the bands. Using the tight-binding method, we calculate the band ... [more ▼]

Two-dimensional bismuth (Bi) layer, known as bismuthene, exhibits Z2 topological bulk states due to large spin-orbit coupling that inverts the bands. Using the tight-binding method, we calculate the band structure of buckled bismuthene to understand its topological and trivial phases. We determine the thermoelectric properties for some considered phases, incorporating the edge states contribution, by using the linearized Boltzmann transport equation with a constant relaxation time approximation. It is shown that the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, actually drops in undoped topological bismuthene due to the edge effects. Surprisingly, the topological edge states enhance ZT at large doping with the Fermi energy near the bottom of bulk bands when bismuthene is nearly metallic. [less ▲]

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See detailStable Electrospinning of Core-Functionalized Coaxial Fibers Enabled by the Minimum-Energy Interface Given by Partial Core− Sheath Miscibility
Vats, Shameek UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL; Anyfantakis, Emmanouil UL

in Langmuir (2021), 37(45), 1326513277

Core−sheath electrospinning is a powerful tool for producing composite fibers with one or multiple encapsulated functional materials, but many material combinations are difficult or even impossible to ... [more ▼]

Core−sheath electrospinning is a powerful tool for producing composite fibers with one or multiple encapsulated functional materials, but many material combinations are difficult or even impossible to spin together. We show that the key to success is to ensure a well-defined core−sheath interface while also maintaining a constant and minimal interfacial energy across this interface. Using a thermotropic liquid crystal as a model functional core and polyacrylic acid or styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer as a sheath polymer, we study the effects of using water, ethanol, or tetrahydrofuran as polymer solvent. We find that the ideal core and sheath materials are partially miscible, with their phase diagram exhibiting an inner miscibility gap. Complete immiscibility yields a relatively high interfacial tension that causes core breakup, even preventing the core from entering the fiber- producing jet, whereas the lack of a well-defined interface in the case of complete miscibility eliminates the core−sheath morphology, and it turns the core into a coagulation bath for the sheath solution, causing premature gelation in the Taylor cone. Moreover, to minimize Marangoni flows in the Taylor cone due to local interfacial tension variations, a small amount of the sheath solvent should be added to the core prior to spinning. Our findings resolve a long-standing confusion regarding guidelines for selecting core and sheath fluids in core−sheath electrospinning. These discoveries can be applied to many other material combinations than those studied here, enabling new functional composites of large interest and application potential. [less ▲]

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See detailDevice simulation of all-perovskite four-terminal tandem solar cells: towards 33% efficiency
Singh, Ajay UL; Gagliardi, Alessio

in EPJ Photovoltaics (2021), 12(4),

Inorganic–organic hybrid perovskites offer wide optical absorption, long charge carrier diffusion length, and high optical-to-electrical conversion, enabling more than 25% efficiency of single-junction ... [more ▼]

Inorganic–organic hybrid perovskites offer wide optical absorption, long charge carrier diffusion length, and high optical-to-electrical conversion, enabling more than 25% efficiency of single-junction perovskite solar cells. All-perovskite four-terminal (4T) tandem solar cells have gained great attention because of solution-processability and potentially high efficiency without a need for current-matching between subcells. To make the best use of a tandem architecture, the subcell bandgaps and thicknesses must be optimized. This study presents a drift-diffusion simulation model to find optimum device parameters for a 4T tandem cell exceeding 33% of efficiency. Optimized subcell bandgaps and thicknesses, contact workfunctions, charge transport layer doping and perovskite surface modification are investigated for all-perovskite 4T tandem solar cells. Also, using real material and device parameters, the impact of bulk and interface traps is investigated. It is observed that, despite high recombination losses, the 4T device can achieve very high efficiencies for a broad range of bandgap combinations. We obtained the best efficiency for top and bottom cell bandgaps close to 1.55 eV and 0.9 eV, respectively. The optimum thickness of the top and bottom cells are found to be about 250 nm and 450 nm, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated that doping in the hole transport layers in both the subcells can significantly improve tandem cell efficiency. The present study will provide the experimentalists an optimum device with optimized bandgaps, thicknesses, contact workfunctions, perovskite surface modification and doping in subcells, enabling high-efficiency all-perovskite 4T tandem solar cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCANMatch: A Fully Automated Tool for CAN Bus Reverse Engineering based on Frame Matching
Buscemi, Alessio UL; Turcanu, Ion; Castignani, German et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021)

Controller Area Network (CAN) is the most frequently used in-vehicle communication system in the automotive industry today. The communication inside the CAN bus is typically encoded using proprietary ... [more ▼]

Controller Area Network (CAN) is the most frequently used in-vehicle communication system in the automotive industry today. The communication inside the CAN bus is typically encoded using proprietary formats in order to prevent easy access to the information exchanged on the bus. However, it is still possible to decode this information through reverse engineering, performed either manually or via automated tools. Existing automated CAN bus reverse engineering methods are still time-consuming and require some manual effort, i.e., to inject diagnostic messages in order to trigger specific responses. In this paper, we propose CANMatch a fully automated CAN bus reverse engineering framework that does not require any manual effort and significantly decreases the execution time by exploiting the reuse of CAN frames across different vehicle models. We evaluate the proposed solution on a dataset of CAN logs, or traces, related to 479 vehicles from 29 different automotive manufacturers, demonstrating its improved performance with respect to the state of the art. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic Integration of Numerical Formats Examined with Frequency-tagged EEG
Marinova, Mila UL; Georges, Carrie UL; Guillaume, Mathieu et al

in Scientific Reports (2021)

How humans integrate and abstract numerical information across different formats is one of the most debated questions in human cognition. We addressed the neuronal signatures of the numerical integration ... [more ▼]

How humans integrate and abstract numerical information across different formats is one of the most debated questions in human cognition. We addressed the neuronal signatures of the numerical integration using an EEG technique tagged at the frequency of visual stimulation. In an oddball design, participants were stimulated with standard sequences of numbers (<5) depicted in single (digits, dots, number words) or mixed notation (dots – digits, number words – dots, digits – number words), presented at 10Hz. Periodically, a deviant stimulus (>5) was inserted at 1.25 Hz. We observed significant oddball amplitudes for all single notations, showing for the first time using this EEG technique, that the magnitude information is spontaneously and unintentionally abstracted, irrespectively of the numerical format. Significant amplitudes were also observed for digits – number words and number words – dots, but not for digits – dots, suggesting an automatic integration across some numerical formats. These results imply that direct and indirect neuro-cognitive links exist across the different numerical formats. [less ▲]

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See detailActive matter in infinite dimensions: Fokker–Planck equation and dynamical mean-field theory at low density
Manacorda, Alessandro UL

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2021)

We investigate the behavior of self-propelled particles in infinite space dimensions by comparing two powerful approaches in many-body dynamics: the Fokker-Planck equation and dynamical mean-field theory ... [more ▼]

We investigate the behavior of self-propelled particles in infinite space dimensions by comparing two powerful approaches in many-body dynamics: the Fokker-Planck equation and dynamical mean-field theory. The dynamics of the particles at low densities and infinite persistence time is solved in the steady-state with both methods, thereby proving the consistency of the two approaches in a paradigmatic out-of-equilibrium system. We obtain the analytic expression for the pair distribution function and the effective self-propulsion to first order in the density, confirming the results obtained in a previous paper and extending them to the case of a non-monotonous interaction potential. Furthermore, we obtain the transient behavior of active hard spheres when relaxing from equilibrium to the nonequilibrium steady-state. Our results show how collective dynamics is affected by interactions to first order in the density, and point out future directions for further analytical and numerical solutions of this problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAnisotropic Interlayer Force Field for Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: The Case of Molybdenum Disulfide
Wengen, Ouyang; Reut, Sofer; Xiang, Gao et al

in Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (2021)

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See detailSuper-Heisenberg scaling in Hamiltonian parameter estimation in the long-range Kitaev chain
Yang, Jing UL; Pang, Shengshi; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL et al

in Physical Review Research (2021)

In quantum metrology, nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of Hamiltonian parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling. Here, we consider the estimation of the interaction ... [more ▼]

In quantum metrology, nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of Hamiltonian parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling. Here, we consider the estimation of the interaction strength in linear systems with long-range interactions and using the Kitaev chains as a case study, we establish a transition from the Heisenberg to super-Heisenberg scaling in the quantum Fisher information by varying the interaction range. We further show that quantum control can improve the prefactor of the quantum Fisher information. Our results explore the advantage of optimal quantum control and long-range interactions in many-body quantum metrology. [less ▲]

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See detail21st century investment protection: Africa’s innovations in investment law reform
Garcia Olmedo, Javier UL

in IBA Arbitration Newsletter (2021)

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See detailHigher Education Organizations as Strategic Actors in Networks: Institutional and Relational Perspectives Meet Social Network Analysis
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Zapp, Mike UL; Marques, Marcelo et al

in Theory and Method in Higher Education Research (2021), 7

Informed by multiple disciplines, theories, and methods, higher education scholars have developed a robust and diverse literature in many countries. Yet, some important (organizational) sociological ... [more ▼]

Informed by multiple disciplines, theories, and methods, higher education scholars have developed a robust and diverse literature in many countries. Yet, some important (organizational) sociological perspectives, both more established and more recent, are insufficiently linked. In particular, we identify two theoretical strands—institutional and relational—that, when joined, help to explain contemporary developments in global higher education and yield new organizational insights. We review relevant literature from each perspective, both in their general formulations and with specific reference to contemporary higher education research. Within the broad institutional strand, we highlight Strategic Action Fields, organizational actorhood, and associational memberships. Within the relational strand, we focus on ties and relationships that are especially crucial as science has entered an age of (inter)national research collaboration. Across these theories, we discuss linkages between concepts, objects, and levels of analysis. We explore the methodological approach of social network analysis as it offers great potential to connect these strands and thus to advance contemporary higher education research in a collaborative era. [less ▲]

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See detailTherapeutic maps for a sensor-based evaluation of deep brain stimulation programming
Bremm, René Peter UL; Berthold; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering (2021)

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See detailANCHOR: locating android framework-specific crashing faults
Kong, Pingfan UL; Li, Li; Gao, Jun UL et al

in Automated Software Engineering (2021)

Android framework-specific app crashes are hard to debug. Indeed, the callback-based event-driven mechanism of Android challenges crash localization techniques that are developed for traditional Java ... [more ▼]

Android framework-specific app crashes are hard to debug. Indeed, the callback-based event-driven mechanism of Android challenges crash localization techniques that are developed for traditional Java programs. The key challenge stems from the fact that the buggy code location may not even be listed within the stack trace. For example, our empirical study on 500 framework-specific crashes from an open benchmark has revealed that 37 percent of the crash types are related to bugs that are outside the stack traces. Moreover, Android programs are a mixture of code and extra-code artifacts such as the Manifest file. The fact that any artifact can lead to failures in the app execution creates the need to position the localization target beyond the code realm. In this paper, we propose Anchor, a two-phase suspicious bug location suggestion tool. Anchor specializes in finding crash-inducing bugs outside the stack trace. Anchor is lightweight and source code independent since it only requires the crash message and the apk file to locate the fault. Experimental results, collected via cross-validation and in-the- wild dataset evaluation, show that Anchor is effective in locating Android framework-specific crashing faults. [less ▲]

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See detailAI-enabled Automation for Completeness Checking of Privacy Policies
Amaral Cejas, Orlando UL; Abualhaija, Sallam UL; Torre, Damiano et al

in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (2021)

Technological advances in information sharing have raised concerns about data protection. Privacy policies containprivacy-related requirements about how the personal data of individuals will be handled by ... [more ▼]

Technological advances in information sharing have raised concerns about data protection. Privacy policies containprivacy-related requirements about how the personal data of individuals will be handled by an organization or a software system (e.g.,a web service or an app). In Europe, privacy policies are subject to compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Aprerequisite for GDPR compliance checking is to verify whether the content of a privacy policy is complete according to the provisionsof GDPR. Incomplete privacy policies might result in large fines on violating organization as well as incomplete privacy-related softwarespecifications. Manual completeness checking is both time-consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we propose AI-based automationfor the completeness checking of privacy policies. Through systematic qualitative methods, we first build two artifacts to characterizethe privacy-related provisions of GDPR, namely a conceptual model and a set of completeness criteria. Then, we develop anautomated solution on top of these artifacts by leveraging a combination of natural language processing and supervised machinelearning. Specifically, we identify the GDPR-relevant information content in privacy policies and subsequently check them against thecompleteness criteria. To evaluate our approach, we collected 234 real privacy policies from the fund industry. Over a set of 48 unseenprivacy policies, our approach detected 300 of the total of 334 violations of some completeness criteria correctly, while producing 23false positives. The approach thus has a precision of 92.9% and recall of 89.8%. Compared to a baseline that applies keyword searchonly, our approach results in an improvement of 24.5% in precision and 38% in recall. [less ▲]

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See detailIs human face recognition lateralized to the right hemisphere due to neural competition with left‑lateralized visual word recognition? A critical review
Rossion, Bruno; Lochy, Aliette UL

in Brain Structure and Function (2021)

The right hemispheric lateralization of face recognition, which is well documented and appears to be specific to the human species, remains a scientific mystery. According to a long-standing view, the ... [more ▼]

The right hemispheric lateralization of face recognition, which is well documented and appears to be specific to the human species, remains a scientific mystery. According to a long-standing view, the evolution of language, which is typically substantiated in the left hemisphere, competes with the cortical space in that hemisphere available for visuospatial processes, including face recognition. Over the last decade, a specific hypothesis derived from this view according to which neural competition in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex with selective representations of letter strings causes right hemispheric lateralization of face recognition, has generated considerable interest and research in the scientific community. Here, a systematic review of studies performed in various populations (infants, children, literate and illiterate adults, left-handed adults) and methodologies (behavior, lesion studies, (intra)electroencephalography, neuroimaging) offers little if any support for this reading lateralized neural competition hypothesis. Specifically, right-lateralized face-selective neural activity already emerges at a few months of age, well before reading acquisition. Moreover, consistent evidence of face recognition performance and its right hemispheric lateralization being modulated by literacy level during development or at adulthood is lacking. Given the absence of solid alternative hypotheses and the key role of neural competition in the sensory–motor cortices for selectivity of representations, learning, and plasticity, a revised language-related neural competition hypothesis for the right hemispheric lateralization of face recognition should be further explored in future research, albeit with substantial conceptual clarification and advances in methodological rigor. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet service providers as law enforcers and adjudicators. A public role of private actors
Tosza, Stanislaw UL

in Computer Law & Security Review (2021), 43

Private actors have become increasingly involved in the law enforcement process in recent years, taking up more proactive roles and being increasingly engaged in choices between conflicting rights and ... [more ▼]

Private actors have become increasingly involved in the law enforcement process in recent years, taking up more proactive roles and being increasingly engaged in choices between conflicting rights and freedoms. The development and spread of information and communication technology (ICT) created a set of conditions in which the participation of private actors (service providers in this case) appears to be a necessity. These conditions include, for example, a lack of physical borders for ICT technologies, the speed and width of the spread of information on the Internet, as well as the growth of technological behemoths. The resulting reaction can be seen in various sectors, such as combatting illicit content online or gathering digital evidence. While executing these roles they may be compelled – de jure or de facto – to make value judgments which traditionally belong to the public authorities. At the same time the legal framework is either lacking or it does not fully cover the consequences of this fundamental paradigm shift, to the detriment of the authorities, private actors and persons concerned. The objective of this article is to examine the most important features of these developments and analyse resulting key legal problems. The author demonstrates that the legal landscape of cooperation between law enforcement and service providers must be rethought and offers a direction for this reflection. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel optofluidic concepts enabled by topological microfluidics
Sengupta, Anupam UL

in EPJ Web of Conferences (2021), 255(10002), 1-6

The coupling between flow and director orientation of liquid crystals (LCs) has been long utilized to devise wide-ranging applications spanning modern displays, medical and environmental solutions, and ... [more ▼]

The coupling between flow and director orientation of liquid crystals (LCs) has been long utilized to devise wide-ranging applications spanning modern displays, medical and environmental solutions, and bio-inspired designs and applications. LC-based optofluidic platforms offer a non-invasive handle to modulate light and material fields, both locally and dynamically. The flow-driven reorientation of the LC molecules can tailor distinct optical and mechanical responses in microfluidic confinements, and harness the coupling therein. Yet the synergy between traditional optofluidics with isotropic fluids and LC microfluidics remains at its infancy. Here, we discuss emerging optofluidic concepts based on Topological Microfluidics, leveraging microfluidic control of topological defects and defect landscapes. With a specific focus on the role of surface anchoring and microfluidic geometry, we present recent and ongoing works that harness flow-controlled director and defect configurations to modulate optical fields. The flow-induced optical attributes, and the corresponding feedback, is enhanced in the vicinity of the topological defects which geenerate distinct isotropic opto-material properties within an anisotropic matrix. By harnessing the rich interplay of confining geometry, anchoring and micro-scale nematodynamics, topological microfluidics offers a promising platform to ideate the next generation of optofluidic and optomechnical concepts. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Framework to Evaluate Cooperative Perception for Connected Vehicles
Hawlader, Faisal UL; Frank, Raphaël UL

in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference 2021 (2021)

Over the past few years, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have gained significant research attention. With the recent deployment of 5G networks in many metropolitan areas, new cooperative driving ... [more ▼]

Over the past few years, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have gained significant research attention. With the recent deployment of 5G networks in many metropolitan areas, new cooperative driving concepts are emerging. One of those is cooperative perception, where vehicles exchange sensory information via a V2X network to maximize their awareness horizon without the need for additional and potentially expensive sensors. The idea is to distribute the processing of the sensor information to find the best trade-off between data transmission and processing time. To experimentally evaluate the performance of cooperative perception schemes is time-consuming and costly due to the expensive hardware it involves. To the best of our knowledge there is to date no open- source simulation framework that allows to transfer realistic sensor data between multiple simulated vehicles via a V2X network. In this work-in-progress paper, we address this issue by proposing an extension of the well-known CARLA open- source simulator for automated driving research. We implement a basic communication channel on top of the existing client-server architecture of CARLA and show how sensor information can be exchanged. Transferring realistic sensor information between multiple vehicles opens up a wide range of experiments to test and evaluate novel approaches to collaborative driving in simulation. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Beamforming for Terahertz Joint Ultra-Massive MIMO Radar-Communications
Elbir, Ahmet M.; Mishra, Kumar Vjiay; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing (2021), 15(6), 1468-1483

In this paper, we investigate the hybrid beamforming problem in joint radar-communications at terahertz (THz) bands. In order to address the extremely high attenuation at THz, ultra-massive multiple-input ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the hybrid beamforming problem in joint radar-communications at terahertz (THz) bands. In order to address the extremely high attenuation at THz, ultra-massive multiple-input multiple-output (UM-MIMO) antenna systems have been proposed for THz communications to compensate propagation losses. Further, we propose a new group-of-subarrays (GoSA) UM-MIMO structure to reduce the hardware cost. We formulate the GoSA beamformer design as an optimization problem to provide a trade-off between the unconstrained communications beamformers and the desired radar beamformers. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional approaches in terms of spectral efficiency and hardware costs. [less ▲]

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See detailAI Crimes and Misdemeanors: Debating the Boundaries of Criminal Liability and Imputation
Moraiti, Anna UL

in Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal (2021), 92(1),

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See detailDownlink Transmit Design in Massive MIMO LEO Satellite Communications
Li, Ke-Xin; You, Li; Want, Jiaheng et al

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2021)

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication systems have attracted extensive attention due to their smaller pathloss, shorter round-trip delay and lower launch cost compared with geostationary ... [more ▼]

Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication systems have attracted extensive attention due to their smaller pathloss, shorter round-trip delay and lower launch cost compared with geostationary counterparts. In this paper, the downlink transmit design for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) LEO satellite communications is investigated. First, we establish the massive MIMO LEO satellite channel model where the satellite and user terminals (UTs) are both equipped with the uniform planar arrays. Then, the rank of transmit covariance matrix of each UT is shown to be no larger than one to maximize ergodic sum rate, which reveals the optimality of single-stream precoding for each UT. The minorization-maximization algorithm is used to compute the precoding vectors. To reduce the computation complexity, an upper bound of ergodic sum rate is resorted to produce a simplified transmit design, where the rank of optimal transmit covariance matrix of each UT is also shown to not exceed one. To tackle the simplified precoder design, we derive the structure of precoding vectors, and formulate a Lagrange multiplier optimization (LMO) problem building on the structure. Then, a low-complexity algorithm is devised to solve the LMO, which takes much less computation effort. Simulation results verify the performance of proposed approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between Physical Activity and Mental Health in Iranian Adolescents during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Accelerometer-Based Study
Ghorbani, Saeed; Afshari, Mostafa; Eckelt, Melanie et al

in Children (2021), 8

Using self-reported questionnaires, several studies found that social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the level of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents ... [more ▼]

Using self-reported questionnaires, several studies found that social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the level of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents. Since the objectivity of self-reported PA is limited in several ways, we used modern accelerometers in this study to assess the PA levels of male and female adolescents during the pandemic-related lockdown. Moreover, the association of PA with mental health of the adolescents were analyzed. A total of 136 students (76 girls, mean age of 16.28 ± 0.97 years) from various schools in Iran wore the accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X-BT) for seven consecutive days. Mental health was measured through the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 of Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). Descriptive statistics and independent t-tests were used to analyze the PA levels of male and female students, and linear regressions were computed to examine whether PA predicts mental health status. On average, the daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 18.47 min, which is clearly below the WHO guideline of at least 60 min of MVPA per day. Only 4% of adolescents showed MVPA for more than 30 min per day. Male students were significantly more active than their female peers (p = 0.015). As expected, MVPA was negatively associated with mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and stress. However, the majority of adolescents reported symptoms of mild-to-moderate mental health disorders. These results emphasize the need for targeted strategies and offerings geared to young people’s needs and preferences to promote an adequate level of PA and good mental health during and after the ongoing pandemic. [less ▲]

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See detail“I Felt so Old This Morning.” Short-Term Variations in Subjective Age and the Role of Trait Subjective Age: Evidence from the ILSE/EMIL Ecological Momentary Assessment Data
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Weiss, David; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(3), 373-382

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept in previous research, recent studies employing experimental designs and daily assessments suggest that subjective age can vary after experimental manipulations or between days. However, less is known about whether subjective age varies over even shorter time frames such as within moments on a given day, how such short-term variability differs by age and its association with trait subjective age. We examined these questions with data obtained from 123 young–old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old–old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over 7 consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Within-person variability in subjective age amounted to an average of about 3 years from one moment to the next and did not differ between age groups. However, those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis and that state and trait components of subjective age are related. Further research should investigate the contextual predictors of variability in subjective age and the links between trait and state concepts and developmental outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailPoster: Commercial 5G Performance: A V2X Experiment
Frank, Raphaël UL; Hawlader, Faisal UL

in Proceedings of the 13th Vehicular Networking Conference 2021 (2021)

This poster paper presents the results of a 4G/5G measurements campaign conducted in Luxembourg City in August 2021. We test the performance of both network technologies while stationary and on the move ... [more ▼]

This poster paper presents the results of a 4G/5G measurements campaign conducted in Luxembourg City in August 2021. We test the performance of both network technologies while stationary and on the move. We report the results for download and upload throughputs, as well as the Round-trip Time (RTT). We briefly discuss the results in the context of Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) applications. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Health Effects of Workforce Involvement and Transitions for Europeans 50–75 Years of Age: Heterogeneity by Financial Difficulties and Gender
Settels, Jason UL

in Canadian Journal on Aging (2021)

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. Concerns about economic growth and labour force shortages have led many European nations to enact policies aimed at ... [more ▼]

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. Concerns about economic growth and labour force shortages have led many European nations to enact policies aimed at prolonging working life. Understanding how paid work among late-middle-aged and senior adults is associated with health is therefore important. Using a sample of persons who were 50–75 years of age in 2015 from waves six (2015) and seven (2017) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 38,884), this study shows how a comprehensive set of six workforce involvement/transitions patterns are associated with health. The results show benefits of paid work, especially among respondents having financial difficulties. There is further heterogeneity by gender. The more fragmented employment histories of 50–75-year-old women are associated with stable paid work being of less benefit for addressing financial difficulties and with their health being especially vulnerable to unemployment while they are undergoing financial troubles. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 Allows Monitoring of Variants of Concern through Wastewater
Herold, Malte; Fouquier d'herouël, Aymeric UL; May, Patrick UL et al

in Water (2021), 13(21 3018),

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has shown to be an effective tool for epidemiological surveillance. More specifically, RNA levels determined with RT-qPCR have been shown to track with the infection ... [more ▼]

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has shown to be an effective tool for epidemiological surveillance. More specifically, RNA levels determined with RT-qPCR have been shown to track with the infection dynamics within the population. However, the surveillance of individual lineages circulating in the population based on genomic sequencing of wastewater samples is challenging, as the genetic material constitutes a mixture of different viral haplotypes. Here, we identify specific signature mutations from individual SARS-CoV-2 lineages in wastewater samples to estimate lineages circulating in Luxembourg. We compare circulating lineages and mutations to those detected in clinical samples amongst infected individuals. We show that especially for dominant lineages, the allele frequencies of signature mutations correspond to the occurrence of particular lineages in the population. In addition, we provide evidence that regional clusters can also be discerned. We focused on the time period between November 2020 and March 2021 in which several variants of concern emerged and specifically traced the lineage B.1.1.7, which became dominant in Luxembourg during that time. During the subsequent time points, we were able to reconstruct short haplotypes, highlighting the co-occurrence of several signature mutations. Our results highlight the potential of genomic surveillance in wastewater samples based on amplicon short-read data. By extension, our work provides the basis for the early detection of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Socioeconomic gradient in child health and noncognitive skills: Evidence from the Czech Republic
Borga, Liyousew UL; Munich, Daniel; Kukla, Lubomir

in Economics and Human Biology (2021)

We investigate the presence of a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in children's health and noncognitive skill development, and its evolution with child age using cohort data from the Czech Republic. We ... [more ▼]

We investigate the presence of a socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in children's health and noncognitive skill development, and its evolution with child age using cohort data from the Czech Republic. We show that family SES are positively associated with better child health. These effects start to emerge at age 3 and are persistent for all subsequent ages. We find a modest strengthening of the gradient as the children grow older. Similarly, at the lowest distribution of average family income, children lag in their noncognitive skills. We find evidence that children enter school with substantial differences in noncognitive skill endowments based on family SES. This correlation persists when controlling for poor health at birth, the roles of specific and chronic health problems, housing conditions, and partner characteristics. Maternal health status explains some of the association between family income and child noncognitive skills. We account for the endogeniety of SES and non-linearities in measures. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology and Phase Transitions: A First Analytical Step towards the Definition of Sufficient Conditions
di Cairano, Loris UL; Gori, Matteo UL; Pettini, Marco

in Entropy (2021), 23(11),

Different arguments led to supposing that the deep origin of phase transitions has to be identified with suitable topological changes of potential related submanifolds of configuration space of a physical ... [more ▼]

Different arguments led to supposing that the deep origin of phase transitions has to be identified with suitable topological changes of potential related submanifolds of configuration space of a physical system. An important step forward for this approach was achieved with two theorems stating that, for a wide class of physical systems, phase transitions should necessarily stem from topological changes of energy level submanifolds of the phase space. However, the sufficiency conditions are still a wide open question. In this study, a first important step forward was performed in this direction; in fact, a differential equation was worked out which describes how entropy varies as a function of total energy, and this variation is driven by the total energy dependence of a topology-related quantity of the relevant submanifolds of the phase space. Hence, general conditions can be in principle defined for topology-driven loss of differentiability of the entropy [less ▲]

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See detailRoadmap on organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite semiconductors and devices
Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Olthof, Selina et al

in APL Materials (2021)

Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite ... [more ▼]

Metal halide perovskites are the first solution processed semiconductors that can compete in their functionality with conventional semiconductors, such as silicon. Over the past several years, perovskite semiconductors have reported breakthroughs in various optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting and memory devices, and so on. Until now, perovskite semiconductors face challenges regarding their stability, reproducibility, and toxicity. In this Roadmap, we combine the expertise of chemistry, physics, and device engineering from leading experts in the perovskite research community to focus on the fundamental material properties, the fabrication methods, characterization and photophysical properties, perovskite devices, and current challenges in this field. We develop a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art and offer readers an informed perspective of where this field is heading and what challenges we have to overcome to get to successful commercialization. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies implicates distinct disease subgroups
Kaivola, Karri; Shah, Zalak; Chia, Ruth et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2021), awab402

The APOE locus is strongly associated with risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In particular, the role of the APOE ε4 allele as a putative driver of α-synuclein ... [more ▼]

The APOE locus is strongly associated with risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In particular, the role of the APOE ε4 allele as a putative driver of α-synuclein pathology is a topic of intense debate. Here, we performed a comprehensive evaluation in 2,466 DLB cases versus 2,928 neurologically healthy, aged controls. Using an APOE-stratified genome-wide association study approach, we found that GBA is associated with risk for DLB in patients without APOE ε4 (p = 6.58 x 10−9, OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.25–5.17), but not with DLB with APOE ε4 (p = 0.034, OR = 1.87, 95%, 95% CI = 1.05–3.37). We then divided 495 neuropathologically examined DLB cases into three groups based on the extent of concomitant Alzheimer’s disease co-pathology: pure DLB (n = 88), DLB with intermediate Alzheimer’s disease co-pathology (DLB + iAD, n = 66), and DLB with high Alzheimer’s disease co-pathology (DLB + AD, n = 341). In each group, we tested the association of the APOE ε4 against the 2,928 neurologically healthy controls. Our examination found that APOE ε4 was associated with DLB + AD (p = 1.29x10−32, OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 3.35–5.39) and DLB + iAD (p = 0.0011, OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.40–3.83), but not with pure DLB (p = 0.31, OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43–1.30). In conclusion, though deep clinical data were not available for these samples, our findings do not support the notion that APOE ε4 is an independent driver of α-synuclein pathology in pure DLB, but rather implicate GBA as the main risk gene for the pure DLB subgroup. [less ▲]

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See detailJudicial review of EU soft law: a revolutionary step which has not fully happened (Case note on BT v. Balgarska Narodna Banka, C-501/18)
Hubkova, Pavlina UL

in Revista General de Derecho Europeo (2021), (55),

In the judgment in case BT v Balgarska Narodna Banka, the Court of Justice of the EU declared, for the first time, invalid a part of a legally non-binding EU act – a recommendation adopted by the European ... [more ▼]

In the judgment in case BT v Balgarska Narodna Banka, the Court of Justice of the EU declared, for the first time, invalid a part of a legally non-binding EU act – a recommendation adopted by the European Banking Authority and addressed to the Bulgarian National Bank. It also confirmed that the referring court deciding upon damages has a duty to take such a recommendation into consideration. Moreover, the individuals in the national proceedings should have a right to rely upon the content of the recommendation even if they are not addressees of such an act. However, when assessed in more detail, the case points out to several interesting aspects related to EU soft law that have not been properly discussed yet. [less ▲]

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See detailContesting war memories: Parties and voters in contemporary Southeast Europe
Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Mochtak, Michal UL

in Party Politics (2021)

Over the past four decades, there has been a proliferation of interest in the causes, consequences, and dynamics of contestation over collective memories across a variety of fields. Unfortunately ... [more ▼]

Over the past four decades, there has been a proliferation of interest in the causes, consequences, and dynamics of contestation over collective memories across a variety of fields. Unfortunately, collective memories—particularly those of traumatic experiences of violence such as wars and revolutions—have been largely absent from party politics research. Using data collected in an expert survey on the policy positions and ideological orientations of all relevant political parties, as well as an extensive survey of more than ten thousand voters in the six post-conflict countries of Southeast Europe, we demonstrate that collective memories of war are not only subjects of historiographical contestation but are also significant sources of ideological and policy differentiation among political parties, as well as one of the strongest determinants of voter choice. Our analysis shows that collective memories are politically contested and that party politics research would benefit from taking them seriously. [less ▲]

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See detailEU Law and the ECT as Distinct and Separate Legal Regimes: A Case Comment on Eskosol v Italy, Decision on Request for Immediate Termination and Jurisdictional Objection Based on the Inapplicability of the ECT to Intra-EU Disputes, 7 May 2019
Happold, Matthew UL

in ICSID Review (2021), 36(2), 278-285

This case comment examines the decision of the tribunal in Eskosol v Italy rejecting the respondent’s jurisdictional objections based on the inapplicability of the Energy Charter Treaty to intra-EU ... [more ▼]

This case comment examines the decision of the tribunal in Eskosol v Italy rejecting the respondent’s jurisdictional objections based on the inapplicability of the Energy Charter Treaty to intra-EU disputes. In particular, it examines the tribunal's construction of a division between EU law and the ECT, emphasizing the separate and distinct characters of the two regimes, with the twin ambitions of making intra-EU arbitration under the ECT less objectionable from an EU law perspective while maintaining the autonomy of ECT arbitral tribunals. Whether the tribunal's first objective is feasible, however, is doubted and the extent to which intra-EU arbitration under the ECT has a future questioned. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal Assessment of Physical Activity, Fitness, Body Composition, Immunological Biomarkers, and Psychological Parameters During the First Year After Diagnosis in Women With Non-Metastatic Breast Cancer: The BEGYN Study Protocol
Zemlin, Cosima; Stuhlert, Caroline; Schleicher, Julia Theresa et al

in Frontiers in Oncology (2021), 11

Background: Moderate physical activity is associated with an improved prognosis and psychosocial outcome in breast cancer patients. Although exercise and physical activity are associated with multiple ... [more ▼]

Background: Moderate physical activity is associated with an improved prognosis and psychosocial outcome in breast cancer patients. Although exercise and physical activity are associated with multiple physiological and psychological effects, many of the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The BEGYN study (Influence of physical activity in breast cancer patients on physiological and psychological parameters and on biomarkers) aims at identifying potential associations between the extent of physical activity, fitness, body composition, immunological biomarkers, psycho-emotional parameters, and the course of treatment during the first year after diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: The prospective observational BEGYN study will include 110 non-metastatic breast cancer patients. The patients will be assessed during a base line visit prior to the initiation of the antineoplastic therapy and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The physical activity will be measured using a fitness tracker and a self-assessment diary during the entire study. Each visit will include the assessment of (i) cardiorespiratory fitness measured by spiroergometry, (ii) body composition, (iii) psycho-emotional parameters (quality of life, mental health, fatigue, depression, distress, anxiety, well-being), and (iv) extensive blood tests including routine laboratory, vitamin D, selenium and immunologically relevant biomarkers (e.g., leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine profiles). Discussion: Whereas most studies investigating the influence of physical activity in breast cancer patients focus on specific activities for three months or less, the BEGYN study will quantify the daily physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness of breast cancer patients based on objective measurements in the context of the oncological therapy for 12 months after diagnosis. The study will reveal potential associations between exercise, immune status and physical as well as psycho-emotional outcome and the clinical course of the disease. Moreover, complementary therapies such as Vit D and Selenium supplementation and parameters investigating the motivation of the patients are part of the study. Due to this holistic approach, the BEGYN study will guide towards confirmatory studies on the role of physical activity in breast cancer patients to develop individualized counselling regarding the recommended type and extent of exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailThroughput Enhancement in FD- and SWIPT-enabled IoT Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channel
Nguyen, Nhat Tan; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021)

Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and full-duplex (FD) communications have emerged as prominent technologies in overcoming the limited energy resources in Internet-of-Things ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) and full-duplex (FD) communications have emerged as prominent technologies in overcoming the limited energy resources in Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks and improving their spectral efficiency (SE). The article investigates the outage and throughput performance for a decode-and-forward (DF) relay SWIPT system, which consists of one source, multiple relays, and one destination. The relay nodes in this system can harvest energy from the source’s signal and operate in FD mode. A suboptimal, low-complexity, yet efficient relay selection scheme is also proposed. Specifically, a single relay is selected to convey information from a source to a destination so that it achieves the best channel from the source to the relays. An analysis of outage probability (OP) and throughput performed on two relaying strategies, termed static power splitting-based relaying (SPSR) and optimal dynamic power splitting-based relaying (ODPSR), is presented. Notably, we considered independent and non-identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels, which pose new challenges in obtaining analytical expressions. In this context, we derived exact closed-form expressions of the OP and throughput of both SPSR and ODPSR schemes. We also obtained the optimal power splitting ratio of ODPSR for maximizing the achievable capacity at the destination. Finally, we present extensive numerical and simulation results to confirm our analytical findings. Both simulation and analytical results show the superiority of ODPSR over SPSR. [less ▲]

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See detailNear surface defects: Cause of deficit between internal and external open-circuit voltage in solar cells
Sood, Mohit UL; Urbanaik, Aleksander; Kameni Boumenou, Christian UL et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2021)

Interface recombination in a complex multilayered thin-film solar structure causes a disparity between the internal open-circuit voltage (VOC,in), measured by photoluminescence, and the external open ... [more ▼]

Interface recombination in a complex multilayered thin-film solar structure causes a disparity between the internal open-circuit voltage (VOC,in), measured by photoluminescence, and the external open-circuit voltage (VOC,ex), that is, a VOC deficit. Aspirations to reach higher VOC,ex values require a comprehensive knowledge of the connection between VOC deficit and interface recombination. Here, a near-surface defect model is developed for copper indium di-selenide solar cells grown under Cu-excess conditions. These cell show the typical signatures of interface recombination: a strong disparity between VOC,in and VOC,ex, and extrapolation of the temperature dependent q·VOC,ex to a value below the bandgap energy. Yet, these cells do not suffer from reduced interface bandgap or from Fermi-level pinning. The model presented is based on experimental analysis of admittance and deep-level transient spectroscopy, which show the signature of an acceptor defect. Numerical simulations using the near-surface defects model show the signatures of interface recombination without the need for a reduced interface bandgap or Fermi-level pinning. These findings demonstrate that the VOC,in measurements alone can be inconclusive and might conceal the information on interface recombination pathways, establishing the need for complementary techniques like temperature dependent current–voltage measurements to identify the cause of interface recombination in the devices. [less ▲]

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See detailEvasion Attack STeganography: Turning Vulnerability Of Machine Learning ToAdversarial Attacks Into A Real-world Application
Ghamizi, Salah UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Papadakis, Mike UL et al

in Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision 2021 (2021)

Evasion Attacks have been commonly seen as a weakness of Deep Neural Networks. In this paper, we flip the paradigm and envision this vulnerability as a useful application. We propose EAST, a new ... [more ▼]

Evasion Attacks have been commonly seen as a weakness of Deep Neural Networks. In this paper, we flip the paradigm and envision this vulnerability as a useful application. We propose EAST, a new steganography and watermarking technique based on multi-label targeted evasion attacks. Our results confirm that our embedding is elusive; it not only passes unnoticed by humans, steganalysis methods, and machine-learning detectors. In addition, our embedding is resilient to soft and aggressive image tampering (87% recovery rate under jpeg compression). EAST outperforms existing deep-learning-based steganography approaches with images that are 70% denser and 73% more robust and supports multiple datasets and architectures. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Firms Withdrawing From Basic Research? An Analysis of Firm-level Publication Behaviour in Germany
Krieger, Bastian UL; Blind, Knut; Gruber, Sonia et al

in Scientometrics (2021), 126

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See detailPerformance assessment of the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG-6
Francis, Olivier UL

in Journal of Geodesy (2021), 95:116

The new-generation relative gravimeter Scintrex CG6 is put on the test bench: Its performance is compared to its predecessor, the Scintrex-CG5. A CG5 Scintrex and a CG6 Scintrex were both submitted to the ... [more ▼]

The new-generation relative gravimeter Scintrex CG6 is put on the test bench: Its performance is compared to its predecessor, the Scintrex-CG5. A CG5 Scintrex and a CG6 Scintrex were both submitted to the same rigorous tests, which have been developed in recent years to highlight some defects of the CG5. The results show that the CG6 always performs better than the CG5. For instance, the instrumental drift is 5 times smaller for the CG6 than for the CG5. In the tidal bands, the noise level of the CG6 is 3 times lower than of the one of the CG5. We confirmed the tilt susceptibility of the CG5 and found that the CG6 is barely affected by long duration tilts before taking measurements. Unlike the CG5, the CG6 measurements are not influenced by external temperature variations. Overall, the CG6 provides more precise and stable gravity measurements compared to the CG5. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging High-Frequency Components for Deepfake Detection
Mejri, Nesryne UL; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos UL; Aouada, Djamila UL

in IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (2021)

In the past years, RGB-based deepfake detection has shown notable progress thanks to the development of effective deep neural networks. However, the performance of deepfake detectors remains primarily ... [more ▼]

In the past years, RGB-based deepfake detection has shown notable progress thanks to the development of effective deep neural networks. However, the performance of deepfake detectors remains primarily dependent on the quality of the forged content and the level of artifacts introduced by the forgery method. To detect these artifacts, it is often necessary to separate and analyze the frequency components of an image. In this context, we propose to utilize the high-frequency components of color images by introducing an end-to-end trainable module that (a) extracts features from high-frequency components and (b) fuses them with the features of the RGB input. The module not only exploits the high-frequency anomalies present in manipulated images but also can be used with most RGB-based deepfake detectors. Experimental results show that the proposed approach boosts the performance of state-of-the-art networks, such as XceptionNet and EfficientNet, on a challenging deepfake dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailMendelian randomization study of smoking, alcohol, and coffee drinking in relation to Parkinso's disease
Domenighetti, Cloe; Sugier, Pierre Emmanuel; Sreelatha, Ashwin Ashok Kumar et al

in Journal of Parkinson's Disease (2021)

Background:Previous studies showed that lifestyle behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee) are inversely associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The prodromal phase of PD raises the possibility ... [more ▼]

Background:Previous studies showed that lifestyle behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee) are inversely associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The prodromal phase of PD raises the possibility that these associations may be explained by reverse causation. Objective:To examine associations of lifestyle behaviors with PD using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) and the potential for survival and incidence-prevalence biases. Methods:We used summary statistics from publicly available studies to estimate the association of genetic polymorphisms with lifestyle behaviors, and from Courage-PD (7,369 cases, 7,018 controls; European ancestry) to estimate the association of these variants with PD. We used the inverse-variance weighted method to compute odds ratios (ORIVW) of PD and 95%confidence intervals (CI). Significance was determined using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold (p = 0.017). Results:We found a significant inverse association between smoking initiation and PD (ORIVW per 1-SD increase in the prevalence of ever smoking = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.60–0.93, p = 0.009) without significant directional pleiotropy. Associations in participants ≤67 years old and cases with disease duration ≤7 years were of a similar size. No significant associations were observed for alcohol and coffee drinking. In reverse MR, genetic liability toward PD was not associated with smoking or coffee drinking but was positively associated with alcohol drinking. Conclusion:Our findings are in favor of an inverse association between smoking and PD that is not explained by reverse causation, confounding, and survival or incidence-prevalence biases. Genetic liability toward PD was positively associated with alcohol drinking. Conclusions on the association of alcohol and coffee drinking with PD are hampered by insufficient statistical power. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Identities and Verifiable Credentials
Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021), 63(5), 603-613

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their ... [more ▼]

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their physical credentials, and sometimes, they can decide to whom their credentials are disclosed. These familiar privileges inspired a new type of digital credential called a verifiable credential (VC). Similar to physical credentials, individuals can store their verifiable credentials in a so-called digital wallet on their mobile phone, on another edge device, or in the cloud, and they can use verifiable credentials for identification, authentication, and authorization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Moderating Role of Attention Control in the Relationship Between Pain Catastrophizing and Negatively-Biased Pain Memories in Youth With Chronic Pain
Wauters, Aline; Noel, Melanie; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in Journal of Pain (2021), 22(10), 1303-1314

The present study examined the role of attention control in understanding the development of negatively-biased pain memories as well as its moderating role in the relationship between pain catastrophizing ... [more ▼]

The present study examined the role of attention control in understanding the development of negatively-biased pain memories as well as its moderating role in the relationship between pain catastrophizing and negatively-biased pain memories. Youth with chronic pain (N = 105) performed a cold pressor task (CPT) and completed self-report measures of state/trait pain catastrophizing and attention control, with the latter comprising both attention focusing and attention shifting. Two weeks after the CPT, youth's pain-related memories were elicited via telephone allowing to compute pain and anxiety memory bias indices (ie, recalling pain intensity or pain-related anxiety, respectively, as higher than initially reported). Results indicated no main effects of attention control and pain catastrophizing on pain memories. However, both components of attention control (ie, attention focusing and attention shifting) moderated the impact of pain catastrophizing on youth's memory bias, with opposite interaction effects. Specifically, whereas high levels of attention shifting buffered the influence of high pain catastrophizing on the development of pain memory bias, high levels of attention focusing strengthened the influence of high pain catastrophizing on the development of anxiety memory bias. Interaction effects were confined to trait catastrophizing (ie, not state catastrophizing). Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PERSPECTIVE: This article investigates the role of attention control in the development of negatively-biased pain memories in children with chronic pain. Findings underscore the importance of targeting differential components of attention control and can inform intervention efforts to minimize the development of negatively biased pain memories in youth with chronic pain. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Learning to Predict the Feasibility of Priority-Based Ethernet Network Configurations
Mai, Tieu Long UL; Navet, Nicolas UL

in ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems (2021), 5(4), 126

Machine learning has been recently applied in real-time systems to predict whether Ethernet network configurations are feasible in terms of meeting deadline constraints without executing conventional ... [more ▼]

Machine learning has been recently applied in real-time systems to predict whether Ethernet network configurations are feasible in terms of meeting deadline constraints without executing conventional schedulability analysis. However, the existing prediction techniques require domain expertise to choose the relevant input features and do not perform consistently when topologies or traffic patterns differ significantly from the ones in the training data. To overcome these problems, we propose a Graph Neural Network (GNN) prediction model that synthesizes relevant features directly from the raw data. This deep learning model possesses the ability to exploit relations among flows, links, and queues in switched Ethernet networks, and generalizes to unseen topologies and traffic patterns. We also explore the use of ensembles of GNNs and show that it enhances the robustness of the predictions. An evaluation on heterogeneous testing sets comprising realistic automotive networks, shows that ensembles of 32 GNN models features a prediction accuracy ranging from 79.3% to 90% for Ethernet networks using priorities as the Quality-of-Service mechanism. The use of ensemble models provides a speedup factor ranging from 77 to 1715 compared to schedulability analysis, which allows a far more extensive design space exploration. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the Z2xZ2-graded sine-Gordon equation integrable?
Bruce, Andrew UL

in Nuclear Physics B (2021), 971

We examine the question of the integrability of the recently defined Z2xZ2-graded sine-Gordon model, which is a natural generalisation of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. We do this via ... [more ▼]

We examine the question of the integrability of the recently defined Z2xZ2-graded sine-Gordon model, which is a natural generalisation of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. We do this via appropriate auto-Bäcklund transformations, construction of conserved spinor-valued currents and a pair of infinite sets of conservation laws. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Forms of Morphisms of Colored Supermanifolds
Covolo, Tiffany; Kwok, Stephen; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Journal of Geometry and Physics (2021), 168

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See detailAnalysis of the geometrical imperfections of a dry-stacked masonry block based on Miscanthus
Pereira Dias, Patrick; Jesuino Kammer, Vanessa; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Construction and Building Materials (2021)

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See detailNB-IoT Random Access for Non-Terrestrial Networks: Preamble Detection and Uplink Synchronization
Chougrani, Houcine UL; Kisseleff, Steven UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021)

The satellite component is recognized as a promising solution to complement and extend the coverage of future Internet of things (IoT) terrestrial networks (TNs). In this context, a study item to ... [more ▼]

The satellite component is recognized as a promising solution to complement and extend the coverage of future Internet of things (IoT) terrestrial networks (TNs). In this context, a study item to integrate satellites into narrowband-IoT (NBIoT) systems has been approved within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization body. However, as NBIoT systems were initially conceived for TNs, their basic design principles and operation might require some key modifications when incorporating the satellite component. These changes in NB-IoT systems, therefore, need to be carefully implemented in order to guarantee a seamless integration of both TN and non-terrestrial network (NTN) for a global coverage. This paper addresses this adaptation for the random access (RA) step in NBIoT systems, which is in fact the most challenging aspect in the NTN context, for it deals with multi-user time-frequency synchronization and timing advance for data scheduling. In particular, we propose an RA technique which is robust to typical satellite channel impairments, including long delays, significant Doppler effects, and wide beams, without requiring any modification to the current NB-IoT RA waveform. Performance evaluations demonstrate the proposal’s capability of addressing different NTN configurations recently defined by 3GPP for the 5G new radio system. [less ▲]

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See detailIntelligent Autonomous Agents and Trust in Virtual Reality
Sun, Ningyuan UL; Botev, Jean UL

in Computers in Human Behavior Reports (2021)

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See detailExplicar los impactos de la globalización en las zonas transfronterizas a través de la calidad de la democracia. Un marco interregional comparativo
Koff, Harlan UL; Mejía Idarraga, Santiago

in Estudios Políticos (2021), 62

Globalisation has significantly affected the ability of States to govern flows. Important questions which have recently emerged in international relations ask: how has globalisation affected border ... [more ▼]

Globalisation has significantly affected the ability of States to govern flows. Important questions which have recently emerged in international relations ask: how has globalisation affected border regions and what explains these impacts? Employing a comparative, cross-regional research design, this article proposes two originalresponses to these questions: first, it questions whether border communities benefit or suffer from globalization and, in doing so, it addresses the impacts of globalization on border communities. Second, an attempt is made to explain these impacts by studying the democratic quality of border integration processes. Thus, globalization is examined as a system in which the benefits are distributed or concentrated according to the quality of the integration processes. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailOn pyramids, prisms, and scalable reading
Fickers, Andreas UL; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Journal of Digital History (2021), 1(1),

Since Robert Darnton’s 1999 essay sketched a broad vision of what could become historical scholarship, many scholars have tried to put into practice new ways to publish in the digital era. Inspired by the ... [more ▼]

Since Robert Darnton’s 1999 essay sketched a broad vision of what could become historical scholarship, many scholars have tried to put into practice new ways to publish in the digital era. Inspired by the concept of digital hermeneutics, the Journal of Digital History – a joint venture between the C2DH and De Gruyter Publishing group – proposes to put Darnton’s vision into reality by offering a multi-layered publication platform for data-driven scholarship in the field of digital history. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Cole, Mark David UL

in UFITA - Archiv für Medienrecht und Medienwissenschaft (2021), 85(2021), 3-5

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See detailAnalysis of residual stress relaxation of aluminum alloys EN AW 6061/-82 T6 under cyclic loading
Repplinger, Christian UL; Sellen, Stephan UL; Kedziora, Slawomir UL et al

in Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures (2021)

Stress relaxation describes the reduction of stress under static or cyclic loading at a constant strain level. Several processes induce intentionally residual stresses, for example, autofrettage of thick ... [more ▼]

Stress relaxation describes the reduction of stress under static or cyclic loading at a constant strain level. Several processes induce intentionally residual stresses, for example, autofrettage of thick-walled pressurized tubes to improve their fatigue life. This well-known process induces residual compressive stresses at the critical inner surface by using a single static but controlled over- loading internal pressure. Relaxation of residual stresses due to cyclic loading in service would endanger the effectiveness of autofrettage and could finally lead to unexpected fatigue failure. In this study, strain-controlled experiments up to 500,000 load cycles and amending nonlinear finite element simulations were done for the aluminum alloys EN AW 6061 T6 and EN AW 6082 T6 to study potential cyclic stress relaxation in four-point bending tests after con- trolled single static plasticization for residual stress generation. This analysis identifies almost stable residual stresses for both materials under different cyclic strain-controlled load levels. [less ▲]

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See detailCan perioperative psychological interventions decrease the risk of post-surgical pain and disability? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Nadinda, Putu G; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Peters, Madelon L

in Pain (2021)

Many patients experience pain after surgery. Psychological factors such as emotion and cognition are shown to be associated with the development of acute and chronic post-surgical pain. Therefore, the ... [more ▼]

Many patients experience pain after surgery. Psychological factors such as emotion and cognition are shown to be associated with the development of acute and chronic post-surgical pain. Therefore, the question arises whether targeting these psychological factors can reduce negative post-surgical outcomes. The aim of the current review is to investigate the efficacy of perioperative psychological interventions in reducing (sub)acute and chronic post-surgical pain and disability in adults. Randomized controlled trials were identified through four databases (Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL). The outcomes of interest were (sub)acute (i.e., within 3 months after surgery) and chronic (> 3 months after surgery) pain and disability. After screening, 21 studies were included in the final analyses. It was found that psychological interventions significantly reduced (sub)acute pain (d = -0.26, 95% CI [-0.48 to -0.04]), and disability (d = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.84 to -0.03]), as well as chronic post-surgical pain (d = -0.33, 95% CI [-0.61 to -0.06]), and disability (d = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.68 to -0.18]). Additionally, interventions delivered after surgery and interventions delivered by a psychologist tended to be more effective than interventions delivered before surgery and interventions delivered by another healthcare provider. Furthermore, the current review points to the need for more research to determine which specific type of intervention may be most beneficial for surgical patients. Finally, the current review identified that research in this domain has concerns regarding bias in missing outcomes data due to withdrawal and drop out. [less ▲]

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See detailCase study on augmented reality, digital and physical modelling with mathematical learning disabilities students in an elementary school in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education (2021), 28(3), 125-132

This paper reports on a case study of two elementary school students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) (ages 10 and 11) using augmented reality (AR), digital and physical modelling in ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on a case study of two elementary school students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) (ages 10 and 11) using augmented reality (AR), digital and physical modelling in mathematics class. MLD students worked on modelling geometric shapes (cubes, cuboids, squared pyramids, and octahedrons) and forms (polygons) by combining real-world objects with AR and creating a copy of geometric shapes or missing parts with a 3D printing device. The study focused on the development of process skills and mathematical concepts, tried to identify changes in the visual-spatial memory, and documented the learning behaviour in class. Further, we collected data through task-based interviews with both students. Based on our findings, we present settings and manipulatives which are likely to foster process skills and mathematical concepts in geometry tasks suitable for MLD elementary school students. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating Usability and User Experience of Individually Verifiable Internet Voting Schemes
Marky, Karola; Zollinger, Marie-Laure UL; Roenne, Peter et al

in ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (2021), 28(5), 1-36

Internet voting can afford more inclusive and inexpensive elections. The flip side is that the integrity of the election can be compromised by adversarial attacks and malfunctioning voting infrastructure ... [more ▼]

Internet voting can afford more inclusive and inexpensive elections. The flip side is that the integrity of the election can be compromised by adversarial attacks and malfunctioning voting infrastructure. Individual verifiability aims to protect against such risks by letting voters verify that their votes are correctly registered in the electronic ballot box. Therefore, voters need to carry out additional tasks making human factors crucial for security. In this article, we establish a categorization of individually verifiable Internet voting schemes based on voter interactions. For each category in our proposed categorization, we evaluate a voting scheme in a user study with a total of 100 participants. In our study, we assessed usability, user experience, trust, and further qualitative data to gain deeper insights into voting schemes. Based on our results, we conclude with recommendations for developers and policymakers to inform the choices and design of individually verifiable Internet voting schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-seizure activity of African medicinal plants: The identification of bioactive alkaloids from the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra using an in vivo zebrafish model
Chipiti, Talent; Viljoen M., Alvaro; Cordero Maldonado, Maria Lorena UL et al

in Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2021), 28(279),

Epilepsy is one of the major chronic diseases that does not have a cure to date. Adverse drug reactions have been reported from the use of available anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) which are also effective in ... [more ▼]

Epilepsy is one of the major chronic diseases that does not have a cure to date. Adverse drug reactions have been reported from the use of available anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) which are also effective in only two-thirds of the patients. Accordingly, the identification of scaffolds with promising anti-seizure activity remains an important first step towards the development of new anti-epileptic therapies, with improved efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Herbal medicines are widely used in developing countries, including in the treatment of epilepsy but with little scientific evidence to validate this use. In the search for new epilepsy treatment options, the zebrafish has emerged as a chemoconvulsant-based model for epilepsy, mainly because of the many advantages that zebrafish larvae offer making them highly suitable for high-throughput drug screening. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeking 'truth' after devastating, multi-layered conflict: The complex case of transitional justice in South Sudan
Owiso, Owiso UL

in Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies (2021)

In August 2015, the Government of South Sudan and other parties to the country’s civil conflict signed a peace agreement, the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan ... [more ▼]

In August 2015, the Government of South Sudan and other parties to the country’s civil conflict signed a peace agreement, the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan, aimed at ending the civil conflict that broke out on 15 December 2013. After this agreement failed to hold, South Sudan descended into a second wave of civil conflict. A recommitment to the agreement was secured through regional efforts on 12 September 2018. Dubbed the Revitalised Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan, the agreement provides a transitional justice architecture which includes a truth commission, a hybrid court and a reparations authority. This paper examines the potential of the proposed Commission for Truth, Reconciliation and Healing to contribute towards sustainable transitional justice solutions in South Sudan, based on contemporary standards and practice of transitional justice. Through historical, descriptive and analytical approaches, the paper grapples with South Sudan’s complex truth-seeking journey following years of multi-layered conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Digital Humanities Classroom as a “Node”. From Toolbox to Mindset?
Armaselu, Florentina UL

in DH Benelux Journal (2021), 3(Autumn 2021), 103-115

The paper describes a framework for digital pedagogy and evaluation that combines different approaches – theoretical, application-oriented and project-based –, underpinned by a view of the digital ... [more ▼]

The paper describes a framework for digital pedagogy and evaluation that combines different approaches – theoretical, application-oriented and project-based –, underpinned by a view of the digital humanities classroom metaphorically defined as a “node”. The metaphor encompasses the hybrid character of digital humanities teaching, as a crossing or convergence of paths, which involves the use of various categories of study materials, themes, examples, methodologies and skills, as well as exchange, circulation of ideas and connection with other disciplines. It is assumed that the application of this type of hybrid approach in the course design, together with the coverage of a variety of tools to be studied in class, might foster a reflective mindset, enabling the students to contextualise the digital technologies within different humanities areas, beyond the acquisition of technical skills and knowledge of computational methods and tools usually referred to as the toolbox-based education paradigm. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated STEAM Approach in Outdoor Trails with Elementary School Pre-service Teachers in Luxemburg
Haas, Ben; Kreis, Yves UL; Lavicza, Zsolt

in Journal of Educational Technology and Society (2021), 24(4), 205-219

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was impossible to carry out on-campus teaching and examinations as planned for the first-year elementary school Bachelor’s degree teacher training courses during the summer ... [more ▼]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic it was impossible to carry out on-campus teaching and examinations as planned for the first-year elementary school Bachelor’s degree teacher training courses during the summer term of 2019/2020. Therefore, we moved our on-campus STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) related courses to schooling at home. For their course examination, students designed outdoor trails in groups with the educational technology MathCityMap based on an integrated STEAM approach. Hence, they combined STEAM with real-world situations (e.g., monuments, marketplaces, playgrounds). The tasks within the trails required the use of technologies such as augmented reality (AR), digital modelling (e.g., GeoGebra 3D Graphing Calculator), and GPS. Analogue measuring tools (e.g., triangle ruler) were also used in the task designs. We collected data from 21 trails with 259 tasks from 49 pre-service teachers to analyse the effects on professional growth in STEAM education. Through hierarchical cluster analysis we identified three different clusters with patterns regarding STEAM in outdoor trails. This paper will describe a pedagogical framework for the integrated STEAM approach to designing and evaluating outdoor trails. Furthermore, we will explain patterns pre-service teachers developed during this professional development. [less ▲]

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See detailA new brain organoid model to study Parkinson’s Disease
Bolognin, Silvia UL; Smits, Lisa UL; Nickels, Sarah Louise UL et al

in Biomedical Science and Engineering (2021)

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See detailNanopore Single-Molecule Sequencing for Mitochondrial DNA Methylation Analysis: Investigating Parkin-Associated Parkinsonism as a Proof of Concept
Lüth, Theresa; Wasner, Kobi UL; Klein, Christine et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2021)

Objective: To establish a workflow for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) CpG methylation using Nanopore whole-genome sequencing and perform first pilot experiments on affected Parkin biallelic mutation carriers ... [more ▼]

Objective: To establish a workflow for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) CpG methylation using Nanopore whole-genome sequencing and perform first pilot experiments on affected Parkin biallelic mutation carriers (Parkin-PD) and healthy controls. Background: Mitochondria, including mtDNA, are established key players in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Mutations in Parkin, essential for degradation of damaged mitochondria, cause early-onset PD. However, mtDNA methylation and its implication in PD is understudied. Herein, we establish a workflow using Nanopore sequencing to directly detect mtDNA CpG methylation and compare mtDNA methylation between Parkin-related PD and healthy individuals. Methods: To obtain mtDNA, whole-genome Nanopore sequencing was performed on blood-derived from five Parkin-PD and three control subjects. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived midbrain neurons from four of these patients with PD and the three control subjects were investigated. The workflow was validated, using methylated and unmethylated 897 bp synthetic DNA samples at different dilution ratios (0, 50, 100% methylation) and mtDNA without methylation. MtDNA CpG methylation frequency (MF) was detected using Nanopolish and Megalodon. Results: Across all blood-derived samples, we obtained a mean coverage of 250.3X (SD ± 80.5X) and across all neuron-derived samples 830X (SD ± 465X) of the mitochondrial genome. We detected overall low-level CpG methylation from the blood-derived DNA (mean MF ± SD = 0.029 ± 0.041) and neuron-derived DNA (mean MF ± SD = 0.019 ± 0.035). Validation of the workflow, using synthetic DNA samples showed that highly methylated DNA molecules were prone to lower Guppy Phred quality scores and thereby more likely to fail Guppy base-calling. CpG methylation in blood- and neuron-derived DNA was significantly lower in Parkin-PD compared to controls (Mann-Whitney U-test p < 0.05). Conclusion: Nanopore sequencing is a useful method to investigate mtDNA methylation architecture, including Guppy-failed reads is of importance when investigating highly methylated sites. We present a mtDNA methylation workflow and suggest methylation variability across different tissues and between Parkin-PD patients and controls as an initial model to investigate. [less ▲]

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See detailDistinct gene-set burden patterns underlie common generalized and focal epilepsies
Koko, Mahmoud; Krause, Roland UL; Sander, Thomas et al

in EBioMedicine (2021), 72

Background Analyses of few gene-sets in epilepsy showed a potential to unravel key disease associations. We set out to investigate the burden of ultra-rare variants (URVs) in a comprehensive range of ... [more ▼]

Background Analyses of few gene-sets in epilepsy showed a potential to unravel key disease associations. We set out to investigate the burden of ultra-rare variants (URVs) in a comprehensive range of biologically informed gene-sets presumed to be implicated in epileptogenesis. Methods The burden of 12 URV types in 92 gene-sets was compared between cases and controls using whole exome sequencing data from individuals of European descent with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE, n = 1,003), genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE, n = 3,064), or non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE, n = 3,522), collected by the Epi25 Collaborative, compared to 3,962 ancestry-matched controls. Findings Missense URVs in highly constrained regions were enriched in neuron-specific and developmental genes, whereas genes not expressed in brain were not affected. GGE featured a higher burden in gene-sets derived from inhibitory vs. excitatory neurons or associated receptors, whereas the opposite was found for NAFE, and DEE featured a burden in both. Top-ranked susceptibility genes from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-sets derived from generalized vs. focal epilepsies revealed specific enrichment patterns of URVs in GGE vs. NAFE. Interpretation Missense URVs affecting highly constrained sites differentially impact genes expressed in inhibitory vs. excitatory pathways in generalized vs. focal epilepsies. The excess of URVs in top-ranked GWAS risk-genes suggests a convergence of rare deleterious and common risk-variants in the pathogenesis of generalized and focal epilepsies. [less ▲]

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See detailUhlmann fidelity and fidelity susceptibility for integrable spin chains at finite temperature: exact results
Białończyk, Michał; Gomez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in New Journal of Physics (2021)

We derive the exact expression for the Uhlmann fidelity between arbitrary thermal Gibbs states of the quantum XY model in a transverse field with finite system size. Using it, we conduct a thorough ... [more ▼]

We derive the exact expression for the Uhlmann fidelity between arbitrary thermal Gibbs states of the quantum XY model in a transverse field with finite system size. Using it, we conduct a thorough analysis of the fidelity susceptibility of thermal states for the Ising model in a transverse field.We compare the exact results with a common approximation that considers only the positive-parity subspace, which is shown to be valid only at high temperatures. The proper inclusion of the odd parity subspace leads to the enhancement of maximal fidelity susceptibility in the intermediate range of temperatures. We show that this enhancement persists in the thermodynamic limit and scales quadratically with the system size. The correct low-temperature behavior is captured by an approximation involving the two lowest many-body energy eigenstates, from which simple expressions are obtained for the thermal susceptibility and specific heat. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental evaluation of RF waveform designs for Wireless Power Transfer using Software Defined Radio
Gautam, Sumit UL; Kumar, Sumit UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest ... [more ▼]

The possibility to harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency (RF) sources has intrigued humankind for the past several decades. In this context, there has been a tremendously growing research interest in the field of wireless power transfer (WPT) using the RF range of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the aspect of real-time energy harvesting (EH) via different types of waveform designs such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), square, triangular, sinusoidal, and sawtooth. We make use of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) and a Powercast P21XXCSR-EVB EH module to carry out the experiments on a practical device to assess performance. Specifically, we are interested in obtaining some insights based on the comparison between the aforementioned waveform designs from the perspectives of the separation distance between the USRP and P21XXCSR-EVB EH module, and power emission via USRP. In this vein, we perform additional subsequent experiments after reporting the practical effectiveness of the OFDM waveform, which also follows our intuitive analysis. Correspondingly, we study the effect on WPT with variable USRP transmit power, the separation distance between the USRP and EH antennas, number of OFDM sub-carriers, and multipath setting. As an application of OFDM, the effectiveness of fifth generation-new radio (5G-NR) and long-term evolution (LTE) waveforms are also tested for the WPT mechanism. The demonstration of the EH is provided in terms of the above-mentioned investigation metrics while seeking the best waveform to support WPT. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite-Alphabet Symbol-Level Multiuser Precoding for Massive MU-MIMO Downlink
Haqiqatnejad, Alireza UL; Kayhan, Farbod; Shahram, ShahbazPanahi et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2021), 69

We propose a finite-alphabet symbol-level precoding technique for massive multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) downlink systems which are equipped with finite-resolution digital-to-analog ... [more ▼]

We propose a finite-alphabet symbol-level precoding technique for massive multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) downlink systems which are equipped with finite-resolution digital-to-analog converters (DACs) of any precision. Using the idea of constructive interference (CI), we adopt a max-min fair design criterion which aims to maximize the minimum instantaneous received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) among the user equipments (UEs) while ensuring a CI constraint for each UE under the restriction that the output of the precoder is a vector with finite-alphabet discrete elements. Due to this latter constraint, the design problem is an NP-hard quadratic program with discrete variables, and hence, is difficult to solve. In this paper, we tackle this difficulty by reformulating the problem in several steps into an equivalent continuous-domain biconvex form, including equivalent representations for discrete and binary constraints. Our final biconvex reformulation is obtained via an exact penalty approach and can efficiently be solved using a standard cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the proposed finite-alphabet precoding design for DACs with different resolutions, where it is shown that employing low-resolution DACs can lead to higher power efficiencies. In particular, we focus on a setup with one-bit DACs and show through simulation results that compared to the existing schemes, the proposed design can achieve SNR gains of up to 2 dB. We further provide analytic and numerical analyses of complexity and show that our proposed algorithm is computationally efficient as it typically needs only a few tens of iterations to converge. [less ▲]

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See detailTaking the Complex Dynamics of Human–Environment–Technology Systems Seriously: A Case Study in Doctoral Education at the University of Luxembourg
König, Ariane UL; Ravetz, Jerome; Raber, Bo Manuel UL et al

in Frontiers in Sustainability (2021), 2

Our existential sustainability challenges involve human–environment–technology systems that are complex, dynamic and tightly coupled. But at universities, knowledge, in teaching and research, is mostly ... [more ▼]

Our existential sustainability challenges involve human–environment–technology systems that are complex, dynamic and tightly coupled. But at universities, knowledge, in teaching and research, is mostly organized into discrete parcels, the disciplines. These are further divided into the categories of natural sciences, social science and the humanities. This paper addresses the question of how in their training of researchers, universities can equip them to better understand their roles and also to act as change agents. It describes a doctoral school course in transferable skills that is offered across faculties. The unique aim of the course is to provide a space for reflection on different research paradigms and the way they differ in their framing the role of a scientific researcher in pluralist societies that face existential challenges. The course introduces diverse more recent approaches to scientific inquiry that harness the potential of democratizing science in our networked knowledge society, including critical interdisciplinarity, post-normal science, citizen science and transformative sustainability science, that complement normal disciplinary research practices. [less ▲]

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