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See detailDie kompakte Stadt
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geographische Revue (2001), 3(1), 85-88

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See detailReflexive Perspektivenwechsel im Umgang mit Heterogenität und ,Geschlecht’
Karl, Ute UL

in EWI-Report (2001), (24), 14-15

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See detailA single amino acid substitution (Trp(666)-->Ala) in the interbox1/2 region of the interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130 abrogates binding of JAK1, and dominantly impairs signal transduction
Haan, Claude UL; Hermanns, H. M.; Heinrich, P. C. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2001), 349(Pt 1), 261-6

gp130 is the common signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Here we describe, for the first time, a single amino acid substitution (Trp(666)-->Ala) in the membrane-proximal ... [more ▼]

gp130 is the common signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Here we describe, for the first time, a single amino acid substitution (Trp(666)-->Ala) in the membrane-proximal interbox1/2 region that abrogates activation of STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) transcription factors and the proliferative response of pro-B-cell transfectants. Moreover, association of the Janus kinase JAK1 is prevented. No signalling of heterodimeric IL-5 receptor (IL-5R)/gp130 chimaeras occurs in COS-7 cells, even when only a single cytoplasmic chain of a gp130 dimer contains the Trp(666)Ala mutation, indicating that it acts dominantly. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged to the cytoplasmic tail of alphaIIb or beta3 allows the expression of a fully functional integrin alphaIIb(beta3): effect of beta3GFP on alphaIIb(beta3) ligand binding.
Plançon, Sébastien UL; Morel-Kopp, M. C.; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth UL et al

in The Biochemical journal (2001), 357(Pt 2), 529-36

Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an autofluorescent tag, we report the first successful visualization of a beta3 integrin in a living cell. GFP fused in frame to the cytoplasmic tail of either ... [more ▼]

Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an autofluorescent tag, we report the first successful visualization of a beta3 integrin in a living cell. GFP fused in frame to the cytoplasmic tail of either alphaIIb or beta3 allowed normal expression, heterodimerization, processing and surface exposure of alphaIIbGFPbeta3 and alphaIIb(beta3)GFP receptors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Direct microscopic observation of the autofluorescent cells in suspension following antibody-induced alphaIIb(beta3) capping revealed an intense autofluorescent cap corresponding to unlabelled immunoclustered GFP-tagged alphaIIb(beta3). GFP-tagged alphaIIbbeta3 receptors mediated fibrinogen-dependent cell adhesion, were readily detectable in focal adhesions of unstained living cells and triggered p125(FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation similar to wild-type alphaIIb(beta3) (where FAK corresponds to focal adhesion kinase). However, GFP tagged to beta3, but not to alphaIIb, induced spontaneous CHO cell aggregation in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, as well as binding of the fibrinogen mimetic monoclonal antibody PAC1 in the absence of alphaIIb(beta3) receptor activation. Time-lapse imaging of living transfectants revealed a characteristic redistribution of GFP-tagged alphaIIb(beta3) during the early stages of cell attachment and spreading, starting with alphaIIb(beta3) clustering at the rim of the cell contact area, that gradually overlapped with the boundary of the attached cell, and, with the onset of cell spreading, to a reorganization of alphaIIb(beta3) in focal adhesions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (1) fusion of GFP to the cytoplasmic tail of either alphaIIb or beta3 integrin subunits allows normal cell surface expression of a functional receptor, and (2) structural modification of the beta3 integrin cytoplasmic tail, rather than the alphaIIb subunit, plays a major role in alphaIIb(beta3) affinity modulation. With the successful direct visualization of functional alphaIIb(beta3) receptors in living cells, the generation of autofluorescent integrins in transgenic animals will become possible, allowing new approaches to study the dynamics of integrin functions. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the small-angle neutron scattering of nanocrystalline ferromagnets using a micromagnetics model
Weissmüller, J.; Michels, Andreas UL; Barker, J. G. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2001), 63

In ferromagnets with a nonuniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline (nc-) or cold-worked (cw-) polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure ... [more ▼]

In ferromagnets with a nonuniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline (nc-) or cold-worked (cw-) polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure gives rise to strong elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The paper explores a method for analyzing field-dependent SANS data from such materials in terms of a model based on the theory of micromagnetics. Samples of cw Ni and of electrodeposited nc Ni and nc Co were characterized by x-ray scattering and magnetometry, and were investigated by SANS both with and without polarization of the neutron beam. The variation of the differential scattering cross section with the scattering vector and with the applied magnetic field is well described by the model. Also, experimental results for the exchange stiffness constant A and for the spin-wave stiffness constant D obtained from the analysis are found to agree with literature data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering on single-crystal specimens. The model supplies an “anisotropy field scattering function” that contains information on the magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy in the material, and on the characteristic length scales on which the anisotropy changes direction. The results suggest that the anisotropy may be strongly nonuniform in each crystallite, possibly due to twinning, and that some magnetic moments in the Ni samples are strongly pinned at defects. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat equation derivative formulas for vector bundles
Driver, Bruce K.; Thalmaier, Anton UL

in Journal of Functional Analysis (2001), 183(1), 42-108

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See detail«Le jardin des délices/supplices de Claude Simon »
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in C.R.I.N. (2001)

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See detailGüter- und Wirtschaftsverkehr: Merkmale, Entwicklungstendenzen und Probleme aus geographischer Sicht.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geographie und Schule (2001), 23(134), 8-10

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See detailFabrication of Laterally Displaced Porous Silicon Filters
Marso, Michel UL; Wolter, M.; Arens-Fischer, R. et al

in Thin Solid Films (2001), 382(2001), 218-221

Porous silicon superlattices have been used to manufacture laterally displaced dielectric filters with different optical properties on one substrate. Two different fabrication processes for two-colour ... [more ▼]

Porous silicon superlattices have been used to manufacture laterally displaced dielectric filters with different optical properties on one substrate. Two different fabrication processes for two-colour microfilter arrays are presented. Both methods overcome the problem of non-uniform optical properties of the well-known procedure where two filter stacks are grown one upon another, with subsequent partial removal of the upper filter by reactive ion etching. The novel methods give uniform optical properties of the two filter areas, profiting from the main property of the formation process of porous silicon: the formation of porous silicon occurs only at the porous silicon substrate interface. [less ▲]

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See detailEthylnitrosourea-induced mutation in mice leads to the expression of a novel protein in the eye and to dominant cataracts.
Graw, J.; Klopp, N.; Loster, J. et al

in Genetics (2001), 157(3), 1313-20

A novel ENU-induced mutation in the mouse leading to a nuclear and zonular opacity of the eye lens (Aey1) was mapped to chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit303 and D1Mit332. On the basis of the ... [more ▼]

A novel ENU-induced mutation in the mouse leading to a nuclear and zonular opacity of the eye lens (Aey1) was mapped to chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit303 and D1Mit332. On the basis of the chromosomal position, the gamma-crystallin encoding gene cluster (Cryg) and the betaA2-crystallin encoding gene Cryba2 were tested as candidate genes. An A --> T mutation destroys the start codon of the Cryge gene in the mutants; this mutation was confirmed by the absence of a restriction site for NcoI in the corresponding genomic fragment of homozygous mutants. The next in-frame start codon is 129 bp downstream; this predicted truncated gammaE-crystallin consists of 131 amino acids, resulting in a molecular mass of 14 kD. However, another open reading frame was observed just 19 bp downstream of the regular Cryge start codon, resulting in a protein of 119 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 13 kD. Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against gamma-crystallins or the novel Aey1-specific protein demonstrated the specific expression of the Aey1 protein in the cataractous lenses only; the truncated form of the gammaE-crystallin could not be detected. Therefore, it is concluded that the novel protein destroys the sensitive cellular structure of the eye lens. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychophysiological effects of relaxation training in children
Lohaus, Arnold; Klein-Hessling, Johannes; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in British Journal of Health Psychology (2001), 6

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and an imagery-based relaxation training on childrens' physiological and subjective responses in a randomized controlled trial ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and an imagery-based relaxation training on childrens' physiological and subjective responses in a randomized controlled trial. DESIGN: Sixty-four children aged 9 to 13 years were randomly allocated to either one of three experimental conditions: progressive muscle relaxation, imagery-based relaxation or a control condition (neutral story). There were five training sessions in each condition. METHOD: Heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), and skin temperature (ST) were measured continuously during a 5-minute baseline period, an 8-minute relaxation training period, and a 5-minute follow-up in each session. In addition, subjective ratings of mood and physical well-being were collected intermittently. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A physiological pattern indicating relaxation was most clearly associated with the imagery-based relaxation approach (decreases in HR and SCL), although ST remained unchanged. In contrast, progressive muscle relaxation led to an increase in HR during the training. The neutral story condition showed a similar trend as the imagery-based relaxation approach (although not reaching statistical significance). Furthermore, children's ratings of positive mood and physical wellbeing increased during baseline and training periods, but there were no differences between training conditions. The results indicate psychophysiological effects of relaxation instructions which, however, are not specific for systematic relaxation training. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of R. Tolmach Lakoff. The Language War
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in BELL. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literatures (2001), 10

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See detailMobilität und Verkehr in (Post-) Suburbia - ein Ausblick.
Hesse, Markus UL

in RaumPlanung (2001), (95), 65-69

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See detailAuf Aeneas' Spuren
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Fleck, Udo

in Archaeologie in Deutschland (2001), 2001(4), 58-63

Butrint an der Südküste Albaniens ist ein Mikrokosmos der Geschichte im östlichen Mittelmeerraum: Von der frühen griechischen Archaik bis zum Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts war die Stadt besiedelt, seit 1994 ... [more ▼]

Butrint an der Südküste Albaniens ist ein Mikrokosmos der Geschichte im östlichen Mittelmeerraum: Von der frühen griechischen Archaik bis zum Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts war die Stadt besiedelt, seit 1994 gräbt dort ein britisch-albanisches Archäologenteam und knüpft an italienische Kampagnen an, die der Zweite Weltkrieg unterbrochen hat. Diese Forschungen und vor allem die 1997 erfolgte Aufnahme Butrints in die UNESCO-Liste des Weltkulturerbes bewirkten, dass die einzigartige und bisher nahezu unberührte Kulturstätte verstärkt in den Blickpunkt der Öffentlichkeit rückt. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon genetic variation in ABCA1 is associated with altered lipoprotein levels and a modified risk for coronary artery disease
Clee, S. M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Engert, J. C. et al

in Circulation (2001), 103(9), 1198-1205

BACKGROUND: Low plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently identified the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) as the major ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Low plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently identified the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) as the major gene underlying the HDL deficiency associated with reduced cholesterol efflux. Mutations within the ABCA1 gene are associated with decreased HDL-C, increased triglycerides, and an increased risk of CAD. However, the extent to which common variation within this gene influences plasma lipid levels and CAD in the general population is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the phenotypic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of ABCA1. The R219K variant has a carrier frequency of 46% in Europeans. Carriers have a reduced severity of CAD, decreased focal (minimum obstruction diameter 1.81+/-0.35 versus 1.73+/-0.35 mm in noncarriers, P:=0.001) and diffuse atherosclerosis (mean segment diameter 2.77+/-0.37 versus 2.70+/-0.37 mm, P:=0.005), and fewer coronary events (50% versus 59%, P:=0.02). Atherosclerosis progresses more slowly in carriers of R219K than in noncarriers. Carriers have decreased triglyceride levels (1.42+/-0.49 versus 1.84+/-0.77 mmol/L, P:=0.001) and a trend toward increased HDL-C (0.91+/-0.22 versus 0.88+/-0.20 mmol/L, P:=0.12). Other single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region had milder effects on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that common variation in ABCA1 significantly influences plasma lipid levels and the severity of CAD. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Communication de la Commission européenne sur le commerce électronique et les services financiers
Prüm, André UL

in Revue de Droit Bancaire et Financier (2001), 1620-9435(2), 80

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See detailSeasonality of birth in patients with childhood type 1 diabetes in nineteen European regions
McKinney, P.A.; De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 67-74

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Differences in seasonality of birth patterns between the general population and the group who develop Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus indicate that environmental factors ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Differences in seasonality of birth patterns between the general population and the group who develop Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus indicate that environmental factors operating around the antenatal and perinatal period could be important. We investigated whether the same unsual patterns in seasonality of birth observed in children with Type I diabetes in Great Britain could also be found in other European populations. METHODS: Population-based incidence cohorts of children diagnosed with Type I diabetes under 15 years of age from 1989 onwards were analysed. Previously reported data sets from Great Britain were also included together with data on children diagnosed over an additional 5 year period (1988-1992). To assess the role of seasonality in diabetes, we used the method of Walter and Elwood to examine monthly birth figures for each country or region. RESULTS: Outside of Great Britain, no seasonality of birth was seen for any single or combination of European countries. Significant sinusoidal patterns were observed in Scotland, Yorkshire and Leicester, although the peak for Leicester appeared around autumn rather than spring. There was little evidence that sex or age at diagnosis played a part in differences in seasonal patterns, either overall or for any individual country. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found no uniform seasonal pattern of birth in childhood diabetes patients across European populations, either overall or according to sex and age. This study provides no consistent evidence that environmental factors, which vary from season to season, have any influence on the fetal or neonatal life to determine the onset of Type I diabetes. However, a study of seasonality that takes into account possible changes both over time and over geographical areas could provide more insights. [less ▲]

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See detailBestimmung des Kontaktpunktes für die Bewegung von elliptischen granularen Medien.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Dziugys, Algis

in ZAMM - Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik=Journal of Applied Mathematics & Mechanics (2001), suppl.4(0946-8463), 831-832

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See detailNumerical modelling of electrified particle layer formation on the surface of filtration fabric.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Dzuigys, A.

in Environmental Engineering (2001), 4

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See detailRéflexion des enseignants dans un palais des mirroirs: Reflets politiques et épistémologiques.
Fendler, Lynn UL; Ouhlen, Jöelle

in Recherche et Formation (2001), 38

In the first section, the paper examines the meanings of reflection in United States teacher education discourse by analyzing some of the contributing factors that make reflection seem like a desirable ... [more ▼]

In the first section, the paper examines the meanings of reflection in United States teacher education discourse by analyzing some of the contributing factors that make reflection seem like a desirable and reasonable practice for teachers. It traces the genealogy of reflection in teacher education by seeking the conditions of its emergence in discourse, and looking for the traditions, conventions and assumptions that buttress the appeal of reflection as an "academic virtue and source of privileged knowledge". After tracing the conditions for the emergence of reflection in teacher education discourse, the paper critiques the political consequences of some commonplace reflective practices. [less ▲]

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See detailUnbekanntere Seiten von Fremdenfeindlichkeit und wie man damit umgeht. Neue Forschungsbefunde und Praxisanregungen
Willems, Helmut UL; Wahl, Klaus

in kultuRRevolution (2001), (2), 6-8

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See detailReliability and commitment in Ronan Bennett's The Catastrophist
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in Arbeiten Aus Anglistik und Amerikanist [=AAA] (2001), 26

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See detailTrends in the incidence of childhood onset diabetes in Europe. 1989-1998
Green, A.; Patterson, C.C.; De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 3-8

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study the epidemiology of childhood-onset (Type I) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe, the EURODIAB collaborative group in 1988 established prospective, geographically ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study the epidemiology of childhood-onset (Type I) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe, the EURODIAB collaborative group in 1988 established prospective, geographically-defined registers of all children diagnosed with Type I diabetes under 15 years of age. This report is based on 24,423 children, registered by 36 centres, with complete participation during the period 1989-1998 and representing most European countries with a population coverage of approximately 20 million children. METHODS: Multiple sources of ascertainment were used to validate the level of ascertainment. Trends in Type I diabetes incidence during the period were analysed using Poisson regression with the results from the 36 centres pooled into nine regions. RESULTS: The standardised average annual incidence rate of Type I diabetes varied more than tenfold between centres. Overall, the annual increase in incidence was 3.2% (95%-CI: 2.7%, 3.7%), being highest for children in the 0-4-year age-group 4.8% (3.8%, 5.9%) and lowest for children in the 10-14-year age group 2.1 % (1.4%, 2.8%). However, the absolute increases in Type I diabetes were roughly similar in the three age-groups of 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years. Central Eastern Europe showed the highest increase whereas Sardinia and Northern Europe (except Finland) showed no evidence of an increase. For all age-groups relatively fewer cases had disease onset during the summer months, especially the 10-14-year age-group. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The extremely large range of incidence rates within Europe has been confirmed. The incidence rate is generally increasing but is more pronounced in some regions than in others. Seasonality at disease onset is apparent even in the youngest age-group. [less ▲]

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 6 juillet 2000
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; Kaplan, Charles

in Juris-Classeur périodique (2001)

Conditions de la renonciation de l’Etat à son immunité d’exécution.

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See detailLearning democracy in a world of difference.
Säfström, C.-A.; Biesta, Gert UL

in The School Field (2001), 12(5/6), 5-20

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See detailCompte-rendu SCHREIBER, Marion, Stille Rebellen. Der Uberfall auf den 20. Deportationszug nach Auschwitz
Majerus, Benoît UL

in Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent = Bijdragen tot de Eigentijdse Geschiedenis (2001), 9

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See detailA Simplified Approach to Computing Efficiency Bounds in Semiparametric Models
Severini, Thomas A.; Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Journal of Econometrics (2001), 102

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See detailStructural variations of the crust in the Southwestern Cape, deduced from seismic receiver functions
Harvey, J. D.; De Wit, M. J.; Stankiewicz, Jacek UL et al

in South African Journal of Geology (2001), 104(3), 231-242

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See detailOptimal Employment Subsidies to Heterogeneous Workers: Unemployment-Trap, Job-Additionality and Tax Rates
Picard, Pierre M UL

in Annales d’Economie et de Statistique = Annals of Economics and Statistics (2001), 62

Unemployment and welfare benefits generate unemployment traps. In this paper, we design the optimal employment subsidies that allow governments to reduce unemployment traps under constant budget deficit ... [more ▼]

Unemployment and welfare benefits generate unemployment traps. In this paper, we design the optimal employment subsidies that allow governments to reduce unemployment traps under constant budget deficit and without diminishing workers' welfare. We explore the effects of work incentives on the shape and on the properties of employment subsidies. We finally address the issues of self-help effect and job-additionality. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual precocity after immigration from developing countries to Belgium: Evidence of previous exposure to organochlorine pesticides
Krstevska-Konstantinova, M.; Charlier, C.; Craen, M. et al

in Human Reproduction (2001), 16(103), 1020-1026

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to ... [more ▼]

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to 5 years earlier from 22 developing countries, without any link to a particular ethnic or country background. The patients were either adopted (n = 28) or non-adopted (n = 12), the latter having normal weight and height at immigration and starting early puberty without evidence of earlier deprivation. This led to the hypothesis that the mechanism of precocious puberty might involve previous exposure to oestrogenic endocrine disrupters. A toxicological plasma screening for eight pesticides detected p,p′-DDE, which is derived from the organochlorine pesticide DDT. Median p,p′-DDE concentrations were respectively 1.20 and 1.04 ng/ml in foreign adopted (n = 15) and non-adopted (n = 11) girls with precocious puberty, while 13 out of 15 Belgian native girls with idiopathic or organic precocious puberty showed undetectable concentrations (<0.1 ng/ml). A possible relationship between transient exposure to endocrine disrupters and sexual precocity is suggested, and deserves further studies in immigrant children with non-advanced puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailModel selection for (auto-)regression with dependent data
Baraud, Yannick UL; Comte, F.; Viennet, G.

in ESAIM: Probability and Statistics (2001), 5

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See detailEmpirical evidence for the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectures for the modular Jacobians of genus 2 curves
Flynn, E. Victor; Leprévost, Franck UL; Schaefer, E. F. et al

in Mathematics of Computation (2001), 70(236), 1675-1697

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See detailDie Analogie von Menschheits- und Individualentwicklung. Attraktivität, Karriere und Zerfall eines Denkmodells
Andresen, Sabine; Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Vierteljahresschrift für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik (2001), 77(2), 145-172

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See detailSequence interpretation. Functional annotation of mouse genome sequences.
Nadeau, J. H.; Balling, Rudi UL; Barsh, G. et al

in Science (2001), 291(5507), 1251-5

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See detailEstrogen effects in the myocardium: inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA binding by estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta.
Pelzer, T.; Neumann, M.; de Jager, T. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2001), 286(5), 1153-7

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the inhibition of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. This effect was associated with a reduction of NF-kappaB activity. In the present study we have analyzed the functional mechanism of NF-kappaB inhibition in the myocardium by estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. Despite the previous finding that 17-beta-estradiol (10 nM) inhibited the staurosporine-induced binding of p65/p50 NF-kappaB complexes to their cognate DNA elements in cultured rat cardiac myocytes, myocyte extracts showed no change in expression or cellular localization of p65, p50, and IkappaB upon staurosporine or estradiol treatment. Addition of either estrogen receptor-alpha or estrogen receptor-beta as recombinant protein was sufficient to inhibit staurosporine-dependent p65/p50 DNA binding in cardiac myocytes. 17-beta-Estradiol inhibits staurosporine-induced p65/p50 DNA binding associated with apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes via estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. This is not associated with changes in p65, p50 and IkappaB expression or subcellular localization. Thus, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by estrogenic compounds might inhibit NF-kappaB dependent gene expression such as pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Dynamiques de l’emploi dans la Grande Région Saar-Lor-Lux
Belkacem, Rachid; Borsenberger, Monique; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL et al

in Bulletin du STATEC. Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (2001), 4

Cette contribution est le résultat d’un travail collectif de quatre chercheurs appartenant respectivement au Groupe de Recherche sur l’Education et l’Emploi (GREE, Nancy), Centre d’Etudes de Populations ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution est le résultat d’un travail collectif de quatre chercheurs appartenant respectivement au Groupe de Recherche sur l’Education et l’Emploi (GREE, Nancy), Centre d’Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio - Economiques (CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg), et Etablissement Public de la Métropole Lorraine (EPML, Pont-à-Mousson). Elle concerne une préoccupation commune, à savoir les dynamiques de l’emploi dans la Grande Région Saar-Lor-Lux. L’article met en œuvre une démarche pluridisciplinaire mêlant les apports de la géographie, de l’histoire, de la sociologie, du droit et de l’économie. Ces quatre chercheurs appartiennent à un réseau plus large d’acteurs et d’institutions des quatre pays concernés, dont l’objectif est la réalisation d’un ouvrage sur la Grande Région. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelations between the incidence of childhood onset type 1 diabetes in Europe and HLA genotypes
Ronningen, K.S.; Keiding, N.; Green, A. et al

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 51-59

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See detailA probabilistic model for appearance-based robot localization
Krose, B. J. A.; Vlassis, Nikos UL; Bunschoten, Roland et al

in Image and Vision Computing (2001), 19(6), 381-391

In this paper we present a method for an appearance-based modeling of the environment of a mobile robot. We describe the task (localization of the robot) in a probabilistic framework. Linear image ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present a method for an appearance-based modeling of the environment of a mobile robot. We describe the task (localization of the robot) in a probabilistic framework. Linear image features are extracted using a Principal Component Analysis. The appearance model is represented as a probability density function of the image feature vector given the location of the robot. We estimate this density model from the data with a kernel estimation method. We show how the parameters of the model influence the localization performance. We also study how many features and which features are needed for good localization. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'alimentation de la Sarre en électricité sous l'influence de la dérégulation du marché européen d'énergie
Helfer, Malte UL; Brücher, Wolfgang; Zwosta, Nicolai

in Revue Géographique de l'Est (2001), (1/2), 49-57

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See detailAn approach to simulate the motion of spherical and non-spherical fuel particles in combustions chambers.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Dziugys, Algis

in Granular Matter (2001), 3

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See detailKatja Vogt: Skepsis und Lebenspraxis. Das pyrrhonische Leben ohne Meinungen
Heidemann, Dietmar UL

in Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung (2001), 55

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See detailA Generalization of Weighted Subspace Fitting to Full Rank Models
Bengtsson, Mats; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2001), 49(5), 10021012

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See detailHuman umbilical cord blood monocyte-derived eosinophils produce superoxide but not nitric oxide
Zardini, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Inflammation Research (2001), 50(7), 357-61

Both N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine, and 1-O-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine induced superoxide release in umbilical cord eosinophils, while no response was observed with ... [more ▼]

Both N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine, and 1-O-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine induced superoxide release in umbilical cord eosinophils, while no response was observed with lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-4 and/or interferon-gamma. Furthermore, upon activation with different inflammatory stimuli, neither induction of nitric oxide synthesis nor expression of the constitutive and/or inducible nitric oxide synthase were observed in these eosinophils derived in vitro. Human umbilical cord derived eosinophils are able to produce superoxide as peripheral blood eosinophils. Whether human peripheral eosinophils are capable of NO synthesis is still the subject of considerable debate, nevertheless, our results suggest that these in vitro derived eosinophils are not capable of nitric oxide synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailA flexible and stable numerical method for the decomposition process of wood particles.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Bruch, Christian

in Chemosphere (2001), 42

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See detailActA and human zyxin harbour Arp2/3-independent actin-polymerization activity.
Fradelizi, J.; Noireaux, V.; Plastino, J. et al

in Nature Cell Biology (2001), 3(8), 699-707

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network that is composed of a variety of F-actin structures. To understand how these structures are produced, we tested the capacity of proteins to direct actin ... [more ▼]

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network that is composed of a variety of F-actin structures. To understand how these structures are produced, we tested the capacity of proteins to direct actin polymerization in a bead assay in vitro and in a mitochondrial-targeting assay in cells. We found that human zyxin and the related protein ActA of Listeria monocytogenes can generate new actin structures in a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-dependent (VASP) manner, but independently of the Arp2/3 complex. These results are consistent with the concept that there are multiple actin-polymerization machines in cells. With these simple tests it is possible to probe the specific function of proteins or identify novel molecules that act upon cellular actin polymerization. [less ▲]

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See detailOnderwijs en opvoeding en de terugkeer van de religie in een postmoderne samenleving.
Biesta, Gert UL; Nijnatten, C.; Miedema, S.

in Pedagogiek (2001), 21(2), 124-133

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See detailCharacterization of a mutation in the lens-specific MP70 encoding gene of the mouse leading to a dominant cataract.
Graw, J.; Loster, J.; Soewarto, D. et al

in Experimental Eye Research (2001), 73(6), 867-76

During an ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis screen, Aey5, a new mouse mutation exhibiting an autosomal dominant congenital cataract was isolated. The cataractous phenotype is visible at the eye opening and ... [more ▼]

During an ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis screen, Aey5, a new mouse mutation exhibiting an autosomal dominant congenital cataract was isolated. The cataractous phenotype is visible at the eye opening and progresses to a nuclear and zonular cataract at 2 months of age with no difference in onset or severity between heterozygous and homozygous mutants. Histological analysis revealed that fiber cell differentiation continues at the lens bow region, but the cell nuclei do not degrade normally and remain in the deeper cortex. Further, the lens nucleus has clefts of various sizes while the remainder of the eye was morphologically normal. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 3 between the markers D3Mit101 and D3Mit77 near the connexin encoding genes Gja5 and Gja8. Sequence analysis revealed no differences in the Gja5 gene, but identified a T-->C mutation at position 191 in the Gja8 gene, which was confirmed by an additional Mva 12691 restriction site in the genomic DNA of homozygous mutants. This mutation results in Val-->Ala substitution at codon 64 of connexin50 (Cx50) also known as lens membrane protein 70 (MP70). Aey5 represents the second dominant mouse cataract mutant affecting Cx50, a membrane protein preferentially expressed in the lens. Since both mutations affect similar regions in the first extracellular domain this region appears to be critically important for its function in lens transparency. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Chronic Disability Meets Acute Stress: Psychological and Functional Changes
Miller, A. Cate; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Johann-Murphy, Marjorie

in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Supplement (2001), 43(3), 214-216

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See detailReview of: B. Sowinski. Stilistik and G. Molinié. La stylistique
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in BELL. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literatures (2001), 10

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See detailEvaluation of the gamma-synuclein gene in German Parkinson's disease patients.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Schols, L.; Muller, T. et al

in Neuroscience Letters (2001), 310(2-3), 191-3

Mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene are responsible for an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) and alpha-synuclein was found to be the major component of Lewy bodies in PD ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene are responsible for an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) and alpha-synuclein was found to be the major component of Lewy bodies in PD. Because of the high homology to alpha-synuclein and the abundance in neuronal tissues, we investigated the gamma-synuclein gene in PD. We analyzed 262 German PD patients and 179 healthy German controls via two polymorphisms in the gamma-synuclein gene. No significant differences in the allelic or genotypic distributions of the investigated polymorphisms were observed between patients and controls. In addition no evidence for an increased risk of combined genotypes of polymorphisms in the gamma-synuclein and the alpha-synuclein gene was found. Therefore, our results do not support a major role of the gamma-synuclein gene in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping of a region within the N terminus of Jak1 involved in cytokine receptor interaction
Haan, Claude UL; Isharc, H.; Hermanns, H. M. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(40), 37451-8

Janus kinase 1 (Jak1) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that noncovalently associates with a variety of cytokine receptors. Here we show that the in vitro translated N-terminal domains of Jak1 are ... [more ▼]

Janus kinase 1 (Jak1) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that noncovalently associates with a variety of cytokine receptors. Here we show that the in vitro translated N-terminal domains of Jak1 are sufficient for binding to a biotinylated peptide comprising the membrane-proximal 73 amino acids of gp130, the signal-transducing receptor chain of interleukin-6-type cytokines. By the fold recognition approach amino acid residues 36-112 of Jak1 were predicted to adopt a beta-grasp fold, and a structural model was built using ubiquitin as a template. Substitution of Tyr(107) to alanine, a residue conserved among Jaks and involved in hydrophobic core interactions of the proposed beta-grasp domain, abrogated binding of full-length Jak1 to gp130 in COS-7 transfectants. By further mutagenesis we identified the loop 4 region of the Jak1 beta-grasp domain as essential for gp130 association and gp130-mediated signal transduction. In Jak1-deficient U4C cells reconstituted with the loop 4 Jak1 mutants L80A/Y81A and Delta(Tyr(81)-Ser(84)), the interferon-gamma, interferon-alpha, and interleukin-6 responses were similarly impaired. Thus, loop 4 of the beta-grasp domain plays a role in the association of Jak1 with both class I and II cytokine receptors. Taken together the structural model and the mutagenesis data provide further insight into the interaction of Janus kinases with cytokine receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailMit und ohne Netz - Fotovoltaik-Anlagen in Deutschland und Andalusien
Helfer, Malte UL

in Geographie Heute (2001), (6), 36-39

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See detailLuigi Peruzzi (1910-1993). Les Mémoires d’un antifasciste italien sauvés de l’oubli
Scuto, Denis UL

in Passerelles. Revue d'études interculturelles (2001), (13), 235-243

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See detailCharacterization of a new, dominant V124E mutation in the mouse alphaA-crystallin-encoding gene.
Graw, J.; Loster, J.; Soewarto, D. et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (2001), 42(12), 2909-15

PURPOSE: During an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screening, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. The purpose of the study was morphologic description, mapping of the mutant gene ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: During an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screening, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. The purpose of the study was morphologic description, mapping of the mutant gene, and characterization of the underlying molecular lesion in a particular mutant, Aey7. METHODS: Isolated lenses were photographed and histologic sections of the eye were analyzed according to standard procedures. Linkage analysis was performed with a set of microsatellite markers covering all autosomal chromosomes. cDNA was amplified after reverse transcription of lens mRNA. For PCR, cDNA or genomic DNA was used as a template. RESULTS: Nuclear opacity and posterior suture anomaly were visible at eye opening and progressed to a nuclear and zonular cataract at 2 months of age. The opacity as well as the microphthalmia was more pronounced in the homozygotes than in the heterozygotes. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 17 between the markers D17Mit133 and D17Mit180. This position made the alphaA-crystallin-encoding gene (Cryaa) an excellent candidate gene. Sequence analysis revealed a mutation of a T to an A at position 371 in the Cryaa cDNA. The mutation was confirmed by an additional MnlI restriction site in the genomic DNA of homozygous mutants leading to replacement of Val with Glu at codon 124 affecting the C-terminal region of the alphaA-crystallin. CONCLUSIONS: The Aey7 mutant represents the first dominant mouse cataract mutation affecting the Cryaa gene. The mutation leads to progressive opacification of the lens. Compared with the beta- and gamma-crystallin-encoding genes, mutations in the alpha-crystallin-encoding genes are rare. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of variables on pseudo-Boolean functions with applications to game theory and multicriteria decision making
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Discrete Applied Mathematics (2000), 107(1-3), 139-164

The power of players in a collective decision process is a central issue in game theory. For this reason, the concept of influence of players on a simple game has been introduced. More generally, the ... [more ▼]

The power of players in a collective decision process is a central issue in game theory. For this reason, the concept of influence of players on a simple game has been introduced. More generally, the influence of variables on Boolean functions has been defined and studied. We extend this concept to pseudo-Boolean functions, thus making it possible to appraise the degree of influence of any coalition of players in cooperative games. In the case of monotone games, we also point out the links with the concept of interaction among players. Although they do not have the same meaning at all, both influence and interaction functions coincide on singletons with the so-called Banzhaf power index. We also define the influence of variables on continuous extensions of pseudo-Boolean functions. In particular, the Lovász extension, also called discrete Choquet integral, is used in multicriteria decision making problems as an aggregation operator. In such problems, the degree of influence of decision criteria on the aggregation process can then be quite relevant information. We give the explicit form of this influence for the Choquet integral and its classical particular cases. [less ▲]

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See detailEntropy of discrete fuzzy measures
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems (2000), 8(6), 625-640

The concept of entropy of a discrete fuzzy measure has been recently introduced in two different ways. A first definition was proposed by Marichal in the aggregation framework, and a second one by Yager ... [more ▼]

The concept of entropy of a discrete fuzzy measure has been recently introduced in two different ways. A first definition was proposed by Marichal in the aggregation framework, and a second one by Yager in the framework of uncertain variables. We present a comparative study between these two proposals and point out their properties. We also propose a definition for the entropy of an ordinal fuzzy measure, that is, a fuzzy measure taking its values in an ordinal scale in the sense of measurement theory. [less ▲]

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See detailAn axiomatic approach of the discrete Choquet integral as a tool to aggregate interacting criteria
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems (2000), 8(6), 800-807

The most often used operator to aggregate criteria in decision making problems is the classical weighted arithmetic mean. In many problems however, the criteria considered interact, and a substitute to ... [more ▼]

The most often used operator to aggregate criteria in decision making problems is the classical weighted arithmetic mean. In many problems however, the criteria considered interact, and a substitute to the weighted arithmetic mean has to be adopted. We show that, under rather natural conditions, the discrete Choquet integral is an adequate aggregation operator that extends the weighted arithmetic mean by the taking into consideration of the interaction among criteria. The axiomatic that supports the Choquet integral is presented and an intuitive approach is proposed as well. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the associativity functional equation
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (2000), 114(3), 381-389

Let [a,b] be any bounded closed real interval. The class of all continuous, nondecreasing, associative functions M : [a,b]^2 --> [a,b] fulfilling the boundary conditions M(a,a)=a and M(b,b)=b is described.

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See detailOn Sugeno integral as an aggregation function
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (2000), 114(3), 347-365

The Sugeno integral, for a given fuzzy measure, is studied under the viewpoint of aggregation. In particular, we give some equivalent expressions of it. We also give an axiomatic characterization of the ... [more ▼]

The Sugeno integral, for a given fuzzy measure, is studied under the viewpoint of aggregation. In particular, we give some equivalent expressions of it. We also give an axiomatic characterization of the class of all the Sugeno integrals. Some particular subclasses, such as the weighted maximum and minimum functions are investigated as well. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of weights of interacting criteria from a reference set
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in European Journal of Operational Research (2000), 124(3), 641-650

In this paper, we present a model allowing to determine the weights related to interacting criteria. This is done on the basis of the knowledge of a partial ranking over a reference set of alternatives ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a model allowing to determine the weights related to interacting criteria. This is done on the basis of the knowledge of a partial ranking over a reference set of alternatives (prototypes), a partial ranking over the set of criteria, and a partial ranking over the set of interactions between pairs of criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailSteigert Selbstvertrauen die Leistung beim Bewegungslernen
Bund, Andreas UL

in dvs-Informationen (2000), 15

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See detailTranscriptional modulation of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL by the paired box transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR
Margue, Christiane UL; Bernasconi, Michele; Barr, Frederik et al

in Oncogene (2000), 19(25), 2921

The aberrant expression of the transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), solid tumors displaying muscle cell features, suggests that these proteins play an important ... [more ▼]

The aberrant expression of the transcription factors PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), solid tumors displaying muscle cell features, suggests that these proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of RMS. We could previously demonstrate that one of the oncogenic functions of PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR in RMS is protection from apoptosis. BCL-XL is a prominent anti-apoptotic protein present in normal skeletal muscle and RMS cells. In the present study, we establish that BCL-XL is transcriptionally modulated by PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR, since enhanced expression of both PAX proteins stimulates transcription of endogenous BCL-XL mRNA in a cell type specific manner. Further, we present evidence that both PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR can transcriptionally activate the Bcl-x gene promoter in cotransfection assays. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, an ATTA binding site for PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR could be localized in the upstream promoter region (position -42 to -39). Finally, ectopic overexpression of either PAX3, PAX3/FKHR or BCL-XL can rescue tumor cells from apoptosis induced by antisense treatment. These results suggest that at least part of the anti-apoptotic effect of PAX3 and PAX3/FKHR is mediated through direct transcriptional modulation of the prominent anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivalent representations of set functions
Grabisch, Michel; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Roubens, Marc

in Mathematics of Operations Research (2000), 25(2), 157-178

This paper introduces four alternative representations of a set function: the Möbius transformation, the co-Möbius transformation, and the interactions between elements of any subset of a given set as ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces four alternative representations of a set function: the Möbius transformation, the co-Möbius transformation, and the interactions between elements of any subset of a given set as extensions of Shapley and Banzhaf values. The links between the five equivalent representations of a set function are emphasized in this presentation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn an axiomatization of the quasi-arithmetic mean values without the symmetry axiom
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Aequationes Mathematicae (2000), 59(1-2), 74-83

Kolmogoroff and Nagumo proved that the quasi-arithmetic means correspond exactly to the decomposable sequences of continuous, symmetric, strictly increasing in each variable and reflexive functions. We ... [more ▼]

Kolmogoroff and Nagumo proved that the quasi-arithmetic means correspond exactly to the decomposable sequences of continuous, symmetric, strictly increasing in each variable and reflexive functions. We replace decomposability and symmetry in this characterization by a generalization of the decomposability. [less ▲]

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See detailParis, 1er juillet 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; Kaplan, Charles

in Juris-Classeur périodique (2000)

Contrôle de la procédure suivie par les arbitres.

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See detailThe Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
Happold, Matthew UL

in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (2000), 3

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See detailContributions of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor and oncostatin M receptor to signal transduction in heterodimeric complexes with glycoprotein 130
Hermanns, H. M.; Radtke, S.; Haan, Claude UL et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 163(12), 6651-8

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M (OSM) lead to heterodimerization of LIF receptor (LIFR) or the OSM-specific receptor (OSMR) with ... [more ▼]

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M (OSM) lead to heterodimerization of LIF receptor (LIFR) or the OSM-specific receptor (OSMR) with glycoprotein (gp) 130, the common receptor subunit for IL-6-type cytokines. Thereby intracellular signaling via Janus kinases (Jaks) and STAT transcription factors is initiated. We investigated the contributions of LIFR and OSMR to signal transduction in the context of heterodimers with gp130. Chimeric receptors based on the extracellular parts of the IL-5R alpha- and beta-chains were generated, allowing the induced heterodimerization of two different cytoplasmic tails. Our studies demonstrate that upon heterodimerization with the gp130 cytoplasmic region, the cytoplasmic parts of both LIFR and OSMR were critical for activation of an acute phase protein promoter in HepG2 hepatoma cells. The membrane-proximal region of LIFR or OSMR was crucial for the ability of such receptor complexes to induce DNA binding of STAT1 and STAT3 in COS-7 cells. Membrane-distal regions of LIFR and OSMR contributed to STAT activation even in the absence of gp130 STAT recruitment sites. We further show that the Janus kinases Jak1 and Jak2 constitutively associated with receptor constructs containing the cytoplasmic part of LIFR, OSMR, or gp130, respectively. Homodimers of the LIFR or OSMR cytoplasmic regions did not elicit responses in COS-7 cells but did in HepG2 cells and in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Thus, in spite of extensive functional similarities, differential signaling abilities of gp130, LIFR, and OSMR may become evident in a cell-type-specific manner. [less ▲]

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See detailThe biochemical metabolite screen in the Munich ENU Mouse Mutagenesis Project: determination of amino acids and acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry.
Rolinski, B.; Arnecke, R.; Dame, T. et al

in Mammalian Genome (2000), 11(7), 547-51

BACKGROUND: Gene mutations often result in altered protein expression and, in turn, lead to changes in metabolite levels in one or more distinct biochemical pathways. Traditional analytical methods for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Gene mutations often result in altered protein expression and, in turn, lead to changes in metabolite levels in one or more distinct biochemical pathways. Traditional analytical methods for metabolite determination are usually time consuming, expensive, and, thus, not suitable for high throughput analysis. However, recent developments in electrospray-tandem-mass-spectrometry allow comprehensive metabolite scanning from very small amounts of blood with high speed, cost effectiveness, and accuracy. METHODS: A blood spot from a filter paper equivalent to 3 microl of blood was punched out and transferred to a 96-well microtiter plate. After addition of a set of 14 stable isotope-labeled internal standards, amino acids and acylcarnitines were extracted with methanol. The dried residue was derivatized with butanolic hydrochloric acid and subjected to MSMS analysis. RESULTS: Acyl-carnitines were all determined by a precursor ion scan of 85 Da. Neutral loss scanning of 102 Da was suitable for the quantitation of threonine, serine, proline, histidine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine/leucine and valine. Glycine was detected by a loss of a 56-Da fragment, whereas a 119-Da loss was suitable for the measurement of citrulline, ornithine, arginine, and lysine. Specific problems encountered: owing to their identical molecular weight, isoleucine and leucine could not be quantitated separately, and, owing to their instability, glutamine and asparagine were found to be decarboxylated to their respective acids. Determination was linear over the concentration range tested (20 to 1000 micromol/L), and intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation were in the range of 10-15%. CONCLUSION: ESI-MSMS proved to be a highly sensitive, linear, and sufficiently precise method for the quantitative determination of amino acids and acylcarnitines in mouse blood, allowing large-scale screening applications when speed and cost effectiveness are mandatory. [less ▲]

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See detailFormation of Porous Silicon Filter Structures with Different Properties on Small Areas
Arens-Fischer, R.; Krüger, M.; Thönissen, M. et al

in Journal of Porous Materials (2000), 7 (1/2/3)

Porous silicon (PS) layer systems have a broad range of possible applications. An advantage is the good control of the refractive index and the etch rate of the layers by the applied current density and ... [more ▼]

Porous silicon (PS) layer systems have a broad range of possible applications. An advantage is the good control of the refractive index and the etch rate of the layers by the applied current density and the time respectively. For micro-optical devices you need patterned PS. For some optical devices it is not sufficient to have only one filter but it is necessary to form filters with different properties on a small area. We applied a method (M. Frank, U.B. Schallenberg, N. Kaiser, and W. Buß, in Conference on Miniaturized Systems with Microoptics and Micromechanics, edited by M.E. Moamedi, L.J. Hornbeck, and K.S.J. Pister (SPIE, San Jose, 1997), SPIE Proceedings Series 3008, p. 265) to PS which fits this goal by the following steps: fabrication of the desired reflectors below each other and partial removal of upper reflectors with reactive ion etching (RIE). The technological aspects of patterning PS after the fabrication are an important topic of this work. Problems are discussed in detail and solutions are given. [less ▲]

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See detailPoursuivre les ‘rebelles’ au-delà des frontières. Les répercussions diplomatiques de l’affaire Thomas van Thielt (1567)
Weis, Monique UL

in Bulletin de la Société royale d’histoire du protestantisme belge (2000), 126

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See detailGenome-wide, large-scale production of mutant mice by ENU mutagenesis.
Hrabe de Angelis, M. H.; Flaswinkel, H.; Fuchs, H. et al

in Nature Genetics (2000), 25(4), 444-7

In the post-genome era, the mouse will have a major role as a model system for functional genome analysis. This requires a large number of mutants similar to the collections available from other model ... [more ▼]

In the post-genome era, the mouse will have a major role as a model system for functional genome analysis. This requires a large number of mutants similar to the collections available from other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report on a systematic, genome-wide, mutagenesis screen in mice. As part of the German Human Genome Project, we have undertaken a large-scale ENU-mutagenesis screen for dominant mutations and a limited screen for recessive mutations. In screening over 14,000 mice for a large number of clinically relevant parameters, we recovered 182 mouse mutants for a variety of phenotypes. In addition, 247 variant mouse mutants are currently in genetic confirmation testing and will result in additional new mutant lines. This mutagenesis screen, along with the screen described in the accompanying paper, leads to a significant increase in the number of mouse models available to the scientific community. Our mutant lines are freely accessible to non-commercial users (for information, see http://www.gsf.de/ieg/groups/enu-mouse.html). [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential inhibition of IL-6-type cytokine-induced STAT activation by PMA
Terstegen, L.; Maassen, B. G.; Radtke, S. et al

in FEBS Letters (2000), 478(1-2), 100-4

Prior activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA) results in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and ... [more ▼]

Prior activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA) results in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway which is most likely mediated by the induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and requires the specific SHP2 binding site Y759 of the IL-6 signal transducer gp130. In this study, we demonstrate that PMA inhibits STAT activation by IL-6 and the related cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) but not by oncostatin M (OSM). Since the LIF receptor also contains an SHP2 recruitment site whereas the OSM receptor lacks such a module, we propose that two SHP2 binding modules within a homo- or heterodimeric receptor are necessary to mediate the PMA inhibitory effect. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-Complexity Estimators for Distributed Sources
Bengtsson, Mats; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2000), 48(8), 21852194

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See detailAge and residual cholesterol efflux affect HDL cholesterol levels and coronary artery disease in ABCA1 heterozygotes
Clee, S. M.; Kastelein, J. J.; van Dam, M. et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (2000), 106(10), 1263-1270

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See detailEmploi et chômage (1994-1999)»,
Fehlen, Fernand UL; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL

in Bulletin du STATEC. Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (2000), 3

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See detailDécision de la Cour de Justice des Communautés européennes, 17 novembre 1998
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Recueil Dalloz (2000)

Compétence internationale en matière de mesures conservatoires.

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See detailGenetic influence on the development of Parkinson's disease.
Riess, O.; Kuhn, W.; Krüger, Rejko UL

in Journal of neurology (2000), 247 Suppl 2

In the last few years, the genetic contribution to Parkinson's disease has gained major attention and resulted in the identification of four gene loci in autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, the genetic contribution to Parkinson's disease has gained major attention and resulted in the identification of four gene loci in autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Several mutations in two genes have been shown to be responsible for neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. One of the gene products involved, alpha-synuclein, is a major component of Lewy bodies, the neuropathological feature of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, mutations in the parkin gene are associated with parkinsonism without Lewy body pathology. The elucidation of polygenic changes in the dopamine pathway, mitochondrial dysfunction, and of xenobiotic metabolism is technically now possible by means of association and genotype studies. The increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease at a molecular level will have important implications for the development of individual therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. [less ▲]

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See detailCytoplasmic STAT proteins associate prior to activation
Haan, Serge UL; Kortylewski, M.; Behrmann, Iris UL et al

in Biochemical Journal (2000), 345 Pt 3

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool ... [more ▼]

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool of monomeric STAT proteins. Based on a previous observation that non-phosphorylated STAT3-Src homology 2 domains dimerize in vitro, we investigated whether the observed dimerization is of physiological relevance within the cellular context. We show that STAT1 and STAT3 are pre-associated in non-stimulated cells. Apparently, these complexes are not able to translocate into the nucleus. We provide evidence that the event of STAT activation is more complex than previously assumed. [less ▲]

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See detailSandra Kobelt: Nonkonformist am Pranger: Johannes Frey (1743-1800)
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(1), 37-39

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See detailExtrapyramidal motor signs in degenerative ataxias.
Schols, L.; Peters, S.; Szymanski, S. et al

in Archives of neurology (2000), 57(10), 1495-500

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized 311 patients with ataxia clinically and genetically. Course of the disease and EPS were investigated according to a standardized protocol. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of EPS in subtypes of ataxia was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Extrapyramidal motor signs occurred in all forms of ataxia, but frequency and type of EPS varied between genetically and clinically defined subtypes. Postural tremor in hereditary ataxias was typical for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Dystonia was generally rare in ataxias, but, if present, suggested SCA3. We observed a parkinsonian variant of SCA3 in which parkinsonism was present in the beginning of the disease and responded well to levodopa therapy, leading to diagnostic confusion. Parkinsonism in SCA3 was independent of CAG repeat length but ran in families, suggesting modifying genes. In idiopathic sporadic cerebellar ataxia (ISCA), EPS are more frequent in late-onset than in early-onset forms. In 50% of ISCA patients with parkinsonism, the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy remained questionable because of normal autonomic function. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapyramidal motor signs can help to predict the genetic subtype of ataxia. Extrapyramidal motor signs were more frequent in genetic subtypes in which basal ganglia affection has been demonstrated by postmortem studies. However, no type of EPS was specific for an underlying mutation. In ISCA, EPS are an adverse prognostic factor. Parkinsonism is especially associated with a more rapid course of the disease. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1495-1500 [less ▲]

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See detailDouai, 1er avril 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Clunet (2000)

Compétence internationale en matière de voies d’exécution.

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See detailDatenexplosion erschwert Bioforschung
Schneider, Reinhard UL

in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (2000)

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See detailAre You Ready for the 21st Century? Quality in English Language Teaching
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL; Horner, Kristine

in Praxis des Neusprachlichen Unterrichts (2000), 47

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See detailBegrifflichkeit und Interkulturelles Lernen. Eine Replik auf Edmondson & House (1999)
Hu, Adelheid UL

in Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung (2000), 11(1), 130-136

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See detailGenetic analysis of immunomodulating factors in sporadic Parkinson's disease.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Hardt, C.; Tschentscher, F. et al

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2000), 107(5), 553-62

Immunomodulating factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by biochemical methods. In order to investigate functionally important genes of the tumor necrosis ... [more ▼]

Immunomodulating factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by biochemical methods. In order to investigate functionally important genes of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) pathway we studied the frequency of DNA polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL6), the TNFalpha, and the TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) genes in 264 sporadic German PD patients and in 183 age and sex matched German healthy controls. Analyzing the TNFalpha-308 polymorphism we found heterozygous individuals carrying alleles 1 and 2 more frequently in patients with a relative risk of 1.56 (p = 0.046, p(c) = 0.13, chi2 = 3.98). In contrast, the frequency of the B/2 haplotype described by the TNFR1-609 and TNFRI+36 polymorphisms was significantly decreased in our PD patients group (p = 0.0097, p(c) = 0.048, chi2 = 6.69) with a relative risk reduced to 0.52. Our results suggest an involvement of immunomodulating factors in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD as revealed by a molecular genetic approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPestalozzis Weg vom politischen zum christlichen Republikanismus
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichte (2000), 50

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See detailIdentität und Äquilibration. Von Metaphern und Goldwaagen bei Heinrich von Kleist
Mein, Georg UL

in Kleist-Jahrbuch (2000)

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See detailMeasuring the exchange-stiffness constant of nanocrystalline solids by elastic small-angle neutron scattering
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.; Wiedenmann, A. et al

in Philosophical Magazine Letters (2000), 80

In ferromagnets with a non-uniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline or cold-worked polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure gives rise to ... [more ▼]

In ferromagnets with a non-uniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline or cold-worked polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure gives rise to elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The paper explores a method for determining the exchange-stiffness constant A by analysis of the dependence of the elastic SANS cross-section on the applied magnetic field. Experimental results for A and for the spin-wave stiffness constant D in cold-worked or nanocrystalline Ni and Co are found to agree with literature data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering on single-crystal specimens. [less ▲]

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See detailMoving Beyond Sprawl. Aufbruch der Stadt ins 21. Jahrhundert.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Kommune (2000), 18(8), 73-78

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See detailPlacental transfer and decay of maternally acquired antimeasles antibodies in Nigerian children
Hartter, H. K.; Oyedele, O. I.; Dietz, K. et al

in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (2000), 19(7), 635-641

Background. In developing countries vaccination against measles virus (MV) is generally administered at 9 months of age, although it is well- documented that protection of most infants by passively ... [more ▼]

Background. In developing countries vaccination against measles virus (MV) is generally administered at 9 months of age, although it is well- documented that protection of most infants by passively acquired maternal MV antibodies is waning before immunization is given. The purpose of this study was to investigate the decay of maternally derived MV antibodies in Nigerian infants as well as to compare a German and Nigerian cohort of paired mothers and newborns regarding the placental transfer efficiency of MV-specific IgG and total IgG antibodies. Methods. MV-specific IgG antibodies were measured with a commercially available MV-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a recombinant hemagglutinin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as a neutralization assay. Total IgG values were determined with a standard immunoturbidimetric test. Results. Anti-MV IgG titers were twice as high in German newborns as in Nigerian newborns. An increased concentration of immunoglobulins transferred via the placenta was found only in the German cohort. High concentrations of total maternal IgG reduced the concentration of MV-specific as well as total IgG that crossed the placenta. Furthermore only 17% of the 4-month-old Nigerian infants were still protected against measles. Antibodies had a biologic half-life of 33 days and a biochemical half-life of 48 days. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that the decay of passively acquired MV antibodies occurred even more rapidly than expected resulting in susceptibility to MV in most of the 4-month-old infants in Nigeria. Furthermore transfer of maternal anti-MV IgG and total IgG antibodies to the newborn was more efficient in the German cohort compared with the Nigerian group. These findings suggest the use of alternative vaccination strategies in developing countries to possibly reduce the window of susceptibility against measles. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Muller, T.; Riess, O.

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2000), 107(1), 31-40

A major step in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders was the identification of a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha ... [more ▼]

A major step in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders was the identification of a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies (LB), the neuropathological hallmark of PD. Moreover, a fragment of alpha-synuclein (NAC) is the second major component of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies of other neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia with LB (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also revealed intracellular accumulations of alpha-synuclein in affected brain regions. This may indicate that these disorders partially share common pathogenic mechanisms. Recent data provide first insights into the physiological function of alpha-synuclein and support the concept of an essential role of alpha-synuclein in neurodegeneration. Increasing knowledge on the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration and of the pathophysiological function of alpha-synuclein in particular may influence future development of therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial-irregular oblique derivative problems for nonlinear parabolic complex equations of second order with measurable coefficients
Wen, Guochun; Zou, Benteng UL

in Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications (2000)

In this paper, initial-irregular oblique derivative boundary value problems for nonlinear and non-divergence parabolic complex equations of second order in multiply connected domains are discussed, where ... [more ▼]

In this paper, initial-irregular oblique derivative boundary value problems for nonlinear and non-divergence parabolic complex equations of second order in multiply connected domains are discussed, where coefficients of equations are measurable. Firstly, the uniqueness of solutions for the above problems is verified, and then a priori estimates of solutions for the problems are given. Finally, by using the above estimates and the Leray-Schauder theorem, the existence of solutions of the initial-boundary value problems is proved. [less ▲]

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