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See detailSignal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal attenuation
Anhuf, D.; Weissenbach, M.; Schmitz, J. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(5), 2535-43

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two ... [more ▼]

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two-SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that is activated by many cytokines and growth factors. SHP2 counteracts the activation of transcription factors of the STAT family and the induction of IL-6-responsive genes. Tyrosine 759 of gp130, the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6R complex, is essential for the phosphorylation of SHP2. Mutation of tyrosine 759 to phenylalanine leads to an enhanced inducibility of IL-6-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that no further tyrosines in the cytoplasmic part of gp130 are required for the phosphorylation of SHP2. We also tested whether the tyrosine 759 motifs in both subunits of the gp130 dimer are required for SHP2 association and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, one SHP2-recruiting phosphotyrosine motif in a single chain of the gp130 dimer is sufficient to mediate SHP2 association to the gp130 receptor subunit and its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as to attenuate IL-6-dependent gene induction. Furthermore, we show that repression of gene induction via Y759 does not require the presence of the SHP2 and STAT recruitment sites within the same receptor subunit, but within the same receptor complex. The Y759 motif in gp130 also attenuates gene induction mediated by the oncostatin M and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor complexes, which both contain gp130 as the shared subunit. [less ▲]

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See detailVillin-like actin-binding proteins are expressed ubiquitously in Arabidopsis.
Klahre, U.; Friederich, Evelyne UL; Kost, B. et al

in Plant physiology (2000), 122(1), 35-48

In an attempt to elucidate the biological function of villin-like actin-binding proteins in plants we have cloned several genes encoding Arabidopsis proteins with high homology to animal villin. We found ... [more ▼]

In an attempt to elucidate the biological function of villin-like actin-binding proteins in plants we have cloned several genes encoding Arabidopsis proteins with high homology to animal villin. We found that Arabidopsis contains at least four villin-like genes (AtVLNs) encoding four different VLN isoforms. Two AtVLN isoforms are more closely related to mammalian villin in their primary structure and are also antigenically related, whereas the other two contain significant changes in the C-terminal headpiece domain. RNA and promoter/beta-glucuronidase expression studies demonstrated that AtVLN genes are expressed in all organs, with elevated expression levels in certain types of cells. These results suggest that AtVLNs have less-specialized functions than mammalian villin, which is found only in the microvilli of brush border cells. Immunoblot experiments using a monoclonal antibody against pig villin showed that AtVLNs are widely distributed in a variety of plant tissues. Green fluorescent protein fused to full-length AtVLN and individual AtVLN headpiece domains can bind to both animal and plant actin filaments in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of "Econometric Methods" by Jack Johnston and John DiNardo
Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Econometric Theory (2000), 16

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See detailRank n swapping algebra for PGLn Fock--Goncharov X moduli space
Sun, Zhe UL

in Mathematische Annalen (2000)

The rank $n$ swapping multifraction algebra is a field of cross ratios up to $(n+1)\times (n+1)$-determinant relations equipped with a Poisson bracket, called the {\em swapping bracket}, defined on the ... [more ▼]

The rank $n$ swapping multifraction algebra is a field of cross ratios up to $(n+1)\times (n+1)$-determinant relations equipped with a Poisson bracket, called the {\em swapping bracket}, defined on the set of ordered pairs of points of a circle using linking numbers. Let $D_k$ be a disk with $k$ points on its boundary. The moduli space $\mathcal{X}_{\operatorname{PGL}_n,D_k}$ is the building block of the Fock--Goncharov $\mathcal{X}$ moduli space for any general surface. Given any ideal triangulation of $D_k$, we find an injective Poisson algebra homomorphism from the rank $n$ Fock--Goncharov algebra for $\mathcal{X}_{\operatorname{PGL}_n,D_k}$ to the rank $n$ swapping multifraction algebra with respect to the Atiyah--Bott--Goldman Poisson bracket and the swapping bracket. Two such injective Poisson algebra homomorphisms related to two ideal triangulations $\mathcal{T}$ and $\mathcal{T}'$ are compatible with each other under the flips. [less ▲]

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See detailLogical foundation of fuzzy preferential systems with application to the electre decision aid methods
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

in Computers and Operations Research (2000), 27(7-8), 673-687

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See detailLa directive sur le commerce électronique
Prüm, André UL

in Revue de Droit Bancaire et Financier (2000), (4), 1620-9435

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See detailD. Hoffmann & K. Neumann (Hg.): Die gegenwärtige Struktur der Erzie­hungswissenschaft. Zum Selbstverständnis einer undisziplinierten Disziplin. Weinheim: Beltz 1998
Priem, Karin UL

in Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Bildungswissenschaften = Rivista svizzera di scienze dell'educazione = Revue suisse des sciences de l'education (2000), 1(1), 245-247

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 17 novembre 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (2000)

Notion de décision susceptible d’accueil en France.

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See detailScreening for dysmorphological abnormalities--a powerful tool to isolate new mouse mutants.
Fuchs, H.; Schughart, K.; Wolf, E. et al

in Mammalian Genome (2000), 11(7), 528-30

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See detailIndependence: In or Out of Europe? An Independent Scotland and the European Union
Happold, Matthew UL

in International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2000), 49

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See detailCytoplasmic STAT proteins associate prior to activation
Haan, Serge UL; Kortylewski, M.; Behrmann, Iris UL et al

in Biochemical Journal (2000), 345 Pt 3

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool ... [more ▼]

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool of monomeric STAT proteins. Based on a previous observation that non-phosphorylated STAT3-Src homology 2 domains dimerize in vitro, we investigated whether the observed dimerization is of physiological relevance within the cellular context. We show that STAT1 and STAT3 are pre-associated in non-stimulated cells. Apparently, these complexes are not able to translocate into the nucleus. We provide evidence that the event of STAT activation is more complex than previously assumed. [less ▲]

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See detailExtrapyramidal motor signs in degenerative ataxias.
Schols, L.; Peters, S.; Szymanski, S. et al

in Archives of neurology (2000), 57(10), 1495-500

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Extrapyramidal motor signs (EPS) are well-known symptoms of degenerative ataxia. However, little is known about frequency and appearance of EPS in subtypes of ataxia. METHODS: We characterized 311 patients with ataxia clinically and genetically. Course of the disease and EPS were investigated according to a standardized protocol. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of EPS in subtypes of ataxia was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Extrapyramidal motor signs occurred in all forms of ataxia, but frequency and type of EPS varied between genetically and clinically defined subtypes. Postural tremor in hereditary ataxias was typical for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). Dystonia was generally rare in ataxias, but, if present, suggested SCA3. We observed a parkinsonian variant of SCA3 in which parkinsonism was present in the beginning of the disease and responded well to levodopa therapy, leading to diagnostic confusion. Parkinsonism in SCA3 was independent of CAG repeat length but ran in families, suggesting modifying genes. In idiopathic sporadic cerebellar ataxia (ISCA), EPS are more frequent in late-onset than in early-onset forms. In 50% of ISCA patients with parkinsonism, the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy remained questionable because of normal autonomic function. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapyramidal motor signs can help to predict the genetic subtype of ataxia. Extrapyramidal motor signs were more frequent in genetic subtypes in which basal ganglia affection has been demonstrated by postmortem studies. However, no type of EPS was specific for an underlying mutation. In ISCA, EPS are an adverse prognostic factor. Parkinsonism is especially associated with a more rapid course of the disease. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1495-1500 [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of RDS/Peripherin and ROM1 as candidate genes in generalised progressive retinal atrophy and exclusion of digenic inheritance
Runte, Maren UL; Dekomien, Gabriele; Epplen, Jörg T

in Animal Genetics (2000), 31(3), 223-227

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See detailSimulación Numérica de la Combustión en Lecho Estacionario
Peters, Bernhard UL

in Ingenieria Quimica -Madrid- (2000), 366

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See detailInvolvement of alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Muller, T.; Riess, O.

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2000), 107(1), 31-40

A major step in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders was the identification of a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha ... [more ▼]

A major step in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders was the identification of a mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies (LB), the neuropathological hallmark of PD. Moreover, a fragment of alpha-synuclein (NAC) is the second major component of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies of other neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia with LB (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also revealed intracellular accumulations of alpha-synuclein in affected brain regions. This may indicate that these disorders partially share common pathogenic mechanisms. Recent data provide first insights into the physiological function of alpha-synuclein and support the concept of an essential role of alpha-synuclein in neurodegeneration. Increasing knowledge on the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration and of the pathophysiological function of alpha-synuclein in particular may influence future development of therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailMutterschutz als Prävention. Überlegungen zu einem neugefundenen Text Pestalozzis
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(1), 42-44

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See detailEditorial
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (2000), 6(1), 1-1

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See detailMutations in ABC1 in Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency
Brooks-Wilson, A.; Marcil, M.; Clee, S. M. et al

in Nature Genetics (1999), 22(4), 336-45

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See detailCharacterization of some aggregation functions stable for positive linear transformations
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Mathonet, Pierre UL; Tousset, Eric

in Fuzzy Sets and Systems (1999), 102(2), 293-314

This paper deals with the characterization of some classes of aggregation functions often used in multicriteria decision making problems. The common properties involved in these characterizations are ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the characterization of some classes of aggregation functions often used in multicriteria decision making problems. The common properties involved in these characterizations are "increasing monotonicity" and "stability for positive linear transformations". Additional algebraic properties related to associativity allow to completely specify the functions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of familiarity on the processing of human faces
Dubois, S; Rossion, B; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in NeuroImage (1999), 9(3), 278289

Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was ... [more ▼]

Most brain imaging studies on face perception have investigated the processing of unknown faces and addressed mainly the question of specific face processing in the human brain. The goal of this study was to highlight the effects of familiarity on the visual processing of faces. Using [15O]water 3D Positron Emission Tomography, regional cerebral blood flow distribution was measured in 11 human subjects performing an identical task (gender categorization) on both unknown and known faces. Subjects also performed two control tasks (a face recognition task and a visual pattern discrimination task). They were scanned after a training phase using videotapes during which they had been familiarized with and learned to recognize a set of faces. Two major results were obtained. On the one hand, we found bilateral activations of the fusiform gyri in the three face conditions, including the so-called fusiform-face area, a region in the right fusiform gyrus specifically devoted to face processing. This common activation suggests that different cognitive tasks performed on known and unknown faces require the involvement of this fusiform region. On the other hand, specific regional cerebral blood flow changes were related to the processing of known and unknown faces. The left amygdala, a structure involved in implicit learning of visual representations, was activated by the categorization task on unknown faces. The same task on known faces induced a relative decrease of activity in early visual areas. These differences between the two categorization tasks reveal that the human brain processes known and unknown faces differently. [less ▲]

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See detailA characterization of the ordered weighted averaging functions based on the ordered bisymmetry property
Marichal, Jean-Luc UL; Mathonet, Pierre UL

in IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems (1999), 7(1), 93-96

This paper deals with a characterization of a class of aggregation operators. This class concerns operators which are symmetric, increasing, stable for the same positive linear transformations and present ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with a characterization of a class of aggregation operators. This class concerns operators which are symmetric, increasing, stable for the same positive linear transformations and present a property close to the bisymmetry property: the ordered bisymmetry property. It is proved that the class investigated contains exactly the ordered weighted averaging operators (OWA) introduced by Yager in 1988. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuronal mechanisms of perceptual learning: Changes in human brain activity with training in orientation discrimination
Schiltz, Christine UL; Bodart, M. J; Dubois, S et al

in NeuroImage (1999), 9(1), 46-62

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood flow was measured twice in six human subjects: before and after extensive training in orientation discrimination. In each session ... [more ▼]

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood flow was measured twice in six human subjects: before and after extensive training in orientation discrimination. In each session subjects performed two orientation discrimination tasks, during which they discriminated the orientation of a grating at either the trained or untrained reference orientation, and a control task, during which they detected a randomly textured pattern. By comparing the discrimination to the detection tasks, we observed a main effect of task bilaterally in the posterior occipital cortex, extending into the left posterior fusiform gyrus and the right inferior occipital gyrus, bilaterally in the intraparietal sulcus, as well as in the cerebellum, thalamus, and brainstem. When we compared the activation pattern before and after the training period, all the changes observed were activity decreases. The nonspecific changes, which were not related to the orientation used during the training, were situated in the cerebellum and bilaterally in the extrastriate visual cortex. The orientation-specific changes, on the other hand, were restricted to the striate and extrastriate visual cortex, more precisely the right calcarine sulcus, the left lingual gyrus, the left middle occipital, and the right inferior occipital gyrus. These findings confirm our hypothesis concerning the existence of learning related changes at early levels of visual processing in human adults and suggest that mechanisms resulting in neuronal activity decreases might be involved in the present kind of learning. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Blind Second-Order Deconvolution
Gorokhov, Alexei; Kristensson, Martin; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Signal Processing Letters (1999), 6

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See detailSelective differentiation and proliferation of human eosinophils from umbilical cord blood: calcium fluxes and superoxide ion secretion
Zardini, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Thérapie (1999), 54(1), 103-9

Investigation of the physiologic mechanisms involved in the activation of eosinophils is crucial to comprehend their role in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. To overcome the difficulty of obtaining ... [more ▼]

Investigation of the physiologic mechanisms involved in the activation of eosinophils is crucial to comprehend their role in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions. To overcome the difficulty of obtaining large numbers of eosinophils, we differentiated in vitro eosinophils from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. These cells responded to fMLP or PAF with an increase in [Ca2+]i, associated with O2 production. Deprivation or chelation of extracellular calcium induced a reduction of fMLP or PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. Similar results were obtained with extracellular Ni2+ addition. Chelation of intracellular calcium induced an inhibition of fMLP- or PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and a decrease in O2- production. Our results indicate that fMLP- and PAF-dependent O2- production in eosinophils requires intra- and extracellular Ca2+ and that Ca2+ influx is necessary for optimal activation. [less ▲]

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See detailSoziale Netze im Alter: Selektivität in der Netzwerkgestaltung, wahrgenommene Qualität der Sozialbeziehungen und Affekt.
Ferring, Dieter UL; Filipp, Sigrun-Heide

in Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Padagogische Psychologie (1999), 31(3)

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See detailThe case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: Polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response
Rudquist, Per; Lagerwall, Jan UL; Buivydas, M. et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (1999), 9(6), 1257-1261

We have studied the three-component liquid crystal mixture reported to exhibit ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’ [Inui et al., J. Mater. Chem, 1996, 6, 671]. We find that the thresholdless or V-shaped ... [more ▼]

We have studied the three-component liquid crystal mixture reported to exhibit ‘thresholdless antiferroelectricity’ [Inui et al., J. Mater. Chem, 1996, 6, 671]. We find that the thresholdless or V-shaped switching is obtained in thf absence of antiferroelectricity. This analog electro-optic response is due to the field-induced switching of a twisted smectic C* structure stabilized by polar surface interactions and by electrostatic bulk polarization charge interactions. The latter confine the director twist to thin surface regions leaving the bulk of the cell uniform, which gives good extinction at zero field. In sufficiently thin cells, such thresholdless switching can in fact be followed down to much lower temperatures, where the bulk would be antiferroelectric, but is maintained in the cells in the ferroelectric state by hysteresis from surface action. [less ▲]

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See detail«Ecrire le visage: Michaux, Blanchot, Klossowski, Genet»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Word & Image (1999)

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See detailSpatio-temporal distribution of chondromodulin-I mRNA in the chicken embryo: expression during cartilage development and formation of the heart and eye.
Dietz, U. H.; Ziegelmeier, G.; Bittner, K. et al

in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (1999), 216(3), 233-43

To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal ... [more ▼]

To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal chondrocytes from chicken embryos with mRNA species modulated in vitro by retinoic acid (RA). Chondrocyte-specific gene expression is downregulated by RA, and PCR-amplified cDNAs from both untreated and RA-modulated cells were differentially displayed. Amplification products only from RNA of untreated chondrocytes were further analyzed, and a cDNA-fragment of the chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) mRNA was isolated. After obtaining full length cDNA clones, we have analyzed the mRNA expression patterns at different developmental stages by RNase protection assay and in situ hybridization. Analysis of different tissues and cartilage from 17-day-old chicken embryos showed ChM-I mRNA only in chondrocytes. During somitogenesis of the chicken embryo, ChM-I transcripts were detected in the notochord, the floor and the roof plate of the neural tube, and in cartilage precursor tissues such as the sclerotomes of the somites, the developing limbs, the pharyngeal arches, the otic vesicle, and the sclera. ChM-I continued to be expressed in differentiated cartilages derived from these tissues and also in noncartilaginous domains of the developing heart and retina. Thus, in the chicken, the expression of ChM-I is not restricted to mature cartilage but is already present during early development in precartilaginous tissues as well as in heart and eye. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (1999), 5(1), 1-1

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See detailSmall-angle neutron scattering by the magnetic microstructure of nanocrystalline ferromagnets near saturation
Weissmüller, J.; McMichael, R. D.; Michels, Andreas UL et al

in Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1999), 104(3), 261-275

The paper presents a theoretical analysis of elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) due to the nonuniform magnetic microstructure in nanocrystalline ferromagnets. The reaction of the ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a theoretical analysis of elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) due to the nonuniform magnetic microstructure in nanocrystalline ferromagnets. The reaction of the magnetization to the magnetocrystalline and magnetoelastic anisotropy fields is derived using the theory of micromagnetics. In the limit where the scattering volume is a single magnetic domain, and the magnetization is nearly aligned with the direction of the magnetic field, closed form solutions are given for the differential scattering cross-section as a function of the scattering vector and of the magnetic field. These expressions involve an anisotropy field scattering function, that depends only on the Fourier components of the anisotropy field microstructure, not on the applied field, and a micromagnetic response function for SANS, that can be computed from tabulated values of the materials parameters saturation magnetization and exchange stiffness constant or spin wave stiffness constant. Based on these results, it is suggested that the anisotropy field scattering function SH can be extracted from experimental SANS data. A sum rule for SH suggests measurement of the volumetric mean square anisotropy field. When magneto-crystalline anisotropy is dominant, then a mean grain size or the grain size distribution may be determined by analysis of SH. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork of Superconducting Gravimeters Benefits a Number of Disciplines
Crossley, D.; Hinderer, J.; Casula, G. et al

in EOS (1999), 80(11), 121-126

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See detailCognitive support methods for multi-criteria expert decision making
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

in European Journal of Operational Research (1999), 119(2), 379-387

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See detailFrauen- und Geschlechterforschung in der Themenselektion der "Zeitschrift für Päd­agogik
Priem, Karin UL

in Feministische Studien (1999), 17

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See detailA kurtosis-based dynamic approach to Gaussian mixture modeling
Vlassis, Nikos UL; Likas, A.

in IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Part A, Systems and Humans (1999), 29(4), 393-399

We address the problem of probability density function estimation using a Gaussian mixture model updated with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. To deal with the case of an unknown number of ... [more ▼]

We address the problem of probability density function estimation using a Gaussian mixture model updated with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. To deal with the case of an unknown number of mixing kernels, we define a new measure for Gaussian mixtures, called total kurtosis, which is based on the weighted sample kurtoses of the kernels. This measure provides an indication of how well the Gaussian mixture fits the data. Then we propose a new dynamic algorithm for Gaussian mixture density estimation which monitors the total kurtosis at each step of the Ehl algorithm in order to decide dynamically on the correct number of kernels and possibly escape from local maxima. We show the potential of our technique in approximating unknown densities through a series of examples with several density estimation problems. [less ▲]

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See detailAmerikanisierung des Raumes? Muster und Metapher spätindustrieller Stadt- und Raumentwicklung.
Hesse, Markus UL; Schmitz, Stefan

in Geographische Rundschau (1999), 51(10), 576-578

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See detailTeeth. Where and how to make them.
Peters, H.; Balling, Rudi UL

in Trends in Genetics (1999), 15(2), 59-65

Organs have to develop at precisely determined sites to ensure functionality of the whole organism. Organogenesis is typically regulated by a series of interactions between morphologically distinct ... [more ▼]

Organs have to develop at precisely determined sites to ensure functionality of the whole organism. Organogenesis is typically regulated by a series of interactions between morphologically distinct tissues. The developing tooth of the mouse is an excellent model to study these processes and we are beginning to understand the networks regulating reciprocal tissue interactions at the molecular level. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of signaling molecules including FGFs and BMPs are recursively used to induce localized responses in the adjacent tissue layer (mesenchyme or epithelium). However, at different phases of odontogenesis these secreted growth factors have distinct effects and at the same time they are regulated by different upstream factors. The mesenchymal transcription factors Msx1 and Pax9 are initially regulated by epithelial FGFs and BMPs, but subsequently they function upstream of these signaling molecules. This cascade provides a molecular model by which reciprocal tissue interactions are controlled. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EURODIAB Substudy 2 Study Group Vitamin D supplement in early childhood and risk for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (1999), 42(1), 51-55

The initiation of the immunopathogenetic process that can lead to Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood probably occurs early in life. Studies in vitro have shown that vitamin D3 is ... [more ▼]

The initiation of the immunopathogenetic process that can lead to Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood probably occurs early in life. Studies in vitro have shown that vitamin D3 is immunosuppressive or immunomodulating and studies in experimental models of autoimmunity, including one for autoimmune diabetes, have shown vitamin D to be protective. Seven centres in Europe with access to population-based and validated case registers of insulin-dependent diabetes patients participated in a case-control study focusing on early exposures and risk of Type I diabetes. Altogether data from 820 patients and 2335 control subjects corresponding to 85% of eligible patients and 76% of eligible control subjects were analysed. Questions focused on perinatal events and early eating habits including vitamin D supplementation. The frequency of vitamin D supplementation in different countries varied from 47 to 97% among control subjects. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with a decreased risk of Type I diabetes without indication of heterogeneity. The Mantel-Haenszel combined odds ratio was 0.67 (95% confidence limits: 0.53, 0.86). Adjustment for the possible confounders: a low birth weight, a short duration of breast feeding, old maternal age and study centre in logistic regression analysis did not affect the significant protective effect of vitamin D. In conclusion, this large multicentre trial covering many different European settings consistently showed a protective effect of vitamin D supplementation in infancy. The findings indicate that activated vitamin D might contribute to immune modulation and thereby protect or arrest an ongoing immune process initiated in susceptible people by early environmental exposures. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the parkin deletion in sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease. Short communication.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Vieira-Sacker, A. M.; Kuhn, W. et al

in Journal of Neural Transmission (1999), 106(2), 159-63

Recently a mutation in the parking gene has been identified as the cause for an autosomal-recessively inherited form of early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). The disease causing minimal deletion has ... [more ▼]

Recently a mutation in the parking gene has been identified as the cause for an autosomal-recessively inherited form of early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). The disease causing minimal deletion has been defined as a homozygous exon 4 loss in the parkin gene among Japanese patients. We investigated 140 sporadic and familial EOPD patients of German ancestry for the exon 4 deletion in the parkin gene. None of our patients exhibited a homozygous deletion of exon 4, suggesting a minor role of this mutation for EOPD in Caucasians. Nevertheless a detailed mutation analysis is warranted to explore the overall significance of mutations in the parkin gene in EOPD. [less ▲]

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See detailPax1 and Pax9 synergistically regulate vertebral column development.
Peters, H.; Wilm, B.; Sakai, N. et al

in Development (1999), 126(23), 5399-408

The paralogous genes Pax1 and Pax9 constitute one group within the vertebrate Pax gene family. They encode closely related transcription factors and are expressed in similar patterns during mouse ... [more ▼]

The paralogous genes Pax1 and Pax9 constitute one group within the vertebrate Pax gene family. They encode closely related transcription factors and are expressed in similar patterns during mouse embryogenesis, suggesting that Pax1 and Pax9 act in similar developmental pathways. We have recently shown that mice homozygous for a defined Pax1 null allele exhibit morphological abnormalities of the axial skeleton, which is not affected in homozygous Pax9 mutants. To investigate a potential interaction of the two genes, we analysed Pax1/Pax9 double mutant mice. These mutants completely lack the medial derivatives of the sclerotomes, the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs and the proximal parts of the ribs. This phenotype is much more severe than that of Pax1 single homozygous mutants. In contrast, the neural arches, which are derived from the lateral regions of the sclerotomes, are formed. The analysis of Pax9 expression in compound mutants indicates that both spatial expansion and upregulation of Pax9 expression account for its compensatory function during sclerotome development in the absence of Pax1. In Pax1/Pax9 double homozygous mutants, formation and anteroposterior polarity of sclerotomes, as well as induction of a chondrocyte-specific cell lineage, appear normal. However, instead of a segmental arrangement of vertebrae and intervertebral disc anlagen, a loose mesenchyme surrounding the notochord is formed. The gradual loss of Sox9 and Collagen II expression in this mesenchyme indicates that the sclerotomes are prevented from undergoing chondrogenesis. The first detectable defect is a low rate of cell proliferation in the ventromedial regions of the sclerotomes after sclerotome formation but before mesenchymal condensation normally occurs. At later stages, an increased number of cells undergoing apoptosis further reduces the area normally forming vertebrae and intervertebral discs. Our results reveal functional redundancy between Pax1 and Pax9 during vertebral column development and identify an early role of Pax1 and Pax9 in the control of cell proliferation during early sclerotome development. In addition, our data indicate that the development of medial and lateral elements of vertebrae is regulated by distinct genetic pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Improved MUSIC Algorithm for Estimation of Time Delays in Asynchronous DS-CDMA Systems
Östman, Thomas; Parkvall, Stefan; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (1999), 47(11), 16281631

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See detailBipolar ranking from pairwise fuzzy outrankings
Bisdorff, Raymond UL

in Belgian Journal of Operations Research, Statistics and Computer Science (1999), 37(4), 379-387

In this paper we propose to apply the concept of L-valued kernels to the problem of constructing a global ranking from a pairwise L-valued outranking relation defined on a set of decision alternatives as ... [more ▼]

In this paper we propose to apply the concept of L-valued kernels to the problem of constructing a global ranking from a pairwise L-valued outranking relation defined on a set of decision alternatives as encountered in the fuzzy preference modelling context. Our approach is based on a repetitive selection of best and worst candidates from sharpest L-valued or most credible initial and terminal kernels. A practical illustration will concern the global ranking of movies from individual evaluations of a given set of movie critics. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of: Michael Toolan. Language in Literature
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in Social Semiotics (1999), 9

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See detailElectrooptic and dielectric spectroscopy measurements of binary chiral-dopant antiferroelectric mixtures
Parghi, D. D.; Lagerwall, Jan UL; Heppke, Gerd

in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals (1999), 351

Recent examinations on binary chiral-dopant antiferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures revealed an unusual switching behaviour. In order to investigate the switching processes that take place in the ... [more ▼]

Recent examinations on binary chiral-dopant antiferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures revealed an unusual switching behaviour. In order to investigate the switching processes that take place in the mixtures, both in the bulk and as influenced by surfaces, further electrooptic and dielec- tric spectroscopy studies have been carried out on two model binary mix- tures in the induced SmA*, SmC* and SmCA* phases. The dielectric spectra feature the different modes typical for these phases, but of varying purity, indicating a more complex phase behaviour than expected. The electrooptic behaviour in the antiferroelectric phase varied from clearly antiferroelectric to near hysteresis-free switching directly between ferro- electric states. We conclude that the phase sequence, and consequently switching behaviour, is a function of both the type of dopant used and of the strength of the surface interactions (cell thickness). In thin cells syn- clinic (ferroelectric) ordering appears to be favoured. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial results on the molecular phylogeny of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) based on 18S rDNA data
Wollscheid-Lengeling, Evi UL; Waegele, Heike

in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (1999), 13(2), 215-226

This study investigated nudibranch phylogeny on the basis of 18S rDNA sequence data. 18S rDNA sequence data of 19 taxa representing the major living orders and families of the Nudibranchia were analyzed ... [more ▼]

This study investigated nudibranch phylogeny on the basis of 18S rDNA sequence data. 18S rDNA sequence data of 19 taxa representing the major living orders and families of the Nudibranchia were analyzed. Representatives of the Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Gymnomorpha, Prosobranchia, and Pulmonata were also sequenced and used as outgroups. An additional 28 gastropod sequences taken from GenBank were also included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of these more than 50 gastropod taxa provide strong evidence for support of the monophyly of the Nudibranchia. The monophyly of the Doridoidea, Cladobranchia, and Aeolidoidea within the Nudibranchia are also strongly supported. Phylogenetic utility and information content of the 18S rDNA sequences for Nudibranchia, and Opisthobranchia in general, are examined using the program SplitsTree as well as phylogenetic reconstructions using distance and parsimony approaches. 0Results based on these molecular data are compared with hypotheses about nudibranch phylogeny inferred from morphological data. [less ▲]

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See detailSaar-Lor-Lux, un espace modèle pour l'intégration européenne?
Schulz, Christian UL

in Géographies. Bulletin de l'Association de Géographes Français (1999), 76(4), 397-407

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See detailDie Logik der kurzen Wege. Räumliche Mobilität und Verkehr als Gegenstand der Stadtforschung.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Erdkunde (1999), 53(4), 317-329

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See detailDer Strukturwandel von Warenwirtschaft und Logistik und seine Bedeutung für die Stadtentwicklung.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Geographische Zeitschrift (1999), 87(3-4), 223-237

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See detailA Matrix Extension of the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality
Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Economics Letters (1999), 63

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See detailInduction of Egr-1 mRNA and protein by endothelin 1, angiotensin II and norepinephrine in neonatal cardiac myocytes.
Shamim, A.; Pelzer, T.; Grohe, C. et al

in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry (1999), 195(1-2), 11-7

The early growth response gene Egr-1 is a nuclear transcription factor known to serve as an intermediary in a broad range of signal transduction processes. Recent studies have assigned Egr-1 a new role as ... [more ▼]

The early growth response gene Egr-1 is a nuclear transcription factor known to serve as an intermediary in a broad range of signal transduction processes. Recent studies have assigned Egr-1 a new role as an amplifier of gene expression. Egr-1 mRNA is expressed in the myocardium and is rapidly induced in response to hypertrophic stimuli. However, induction of the Egr-1 protein has not yet been demonstrated in the myocardium; on the other hand, in skeletal muscle cells we have shown translational regulation of Egr-1. To further investigate the role of Egr-1 in the regulatory mechanisms of a variety of signal transduction processes we have therefore asked whether bona fide hypertrophic stimuli induce Egr-1 protein subsequently to its mRNA in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes or whether translational block occurs. In confocal laser studies the Egr-1 protein was nuclearly localized. Norepinephrine (NE, 2 microM), angiotensin II (AII, 0.1 microM), and endothelin 1 (E1, 0.1 microM) each induced the Egr-1 mRNA 6-8 fold and the Egr-1 protein 3-5 fold (n = 3, p < 0.01). Therefore, in contrast to skeletal muscle cells, these stimuli increased Egr-1 mRNA and protein levels. These results point further to the role of Egr-1 as a possible amplifier of signal transduction in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Pestalozzi-Blätter (1999), 5(2), 1-1

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See detailWess-Zumino-Witten-Novikov theory, Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, and Krichever-Novikov algebras, I
Schlichenmaier, Martin UL; Sheinman, Oleg K.

in Russian Mathematical Surveys (1999), 54(1), 213-250

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See detailReview of: T. Hoenselaars and M. Buning (eds) English Literature and the Other Languages
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in European English Messenger (1999), 8

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See detailVertical p-MOSFETs with gate oxide deposition before selective epitaxial growth
Moers, J.; Klaes, D.; Tönnesmann, A. et al

in Solid-State Electronics (1999), 43(1999), 529-535

A novel vertical MOSFET concept using selective epitaxial growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition is proposed and the ®rst p-channel device characteristics measured are described. In contrast to ... [more ▼]

A novel vertical MOSFET concept using selective epitaxial growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition is proposed and the ®rst p-channel device characteristics measured are described. In contrast to other MOS technologies, the gate oxide is deposited before epitaxy, and therefore it exists before the channel region is grown. Compared to planar layouts, the vertical layout increases the packing density without the use of advanced lithography; the extent of the increase depends on application. Compared to other vertical transistors, this concept reduces overlap capacitance and o ers the possibility of three-dimensional integration. Vertical p channel MOSFETs with a channel length LG down to 130 nm and a gate oxide thickness dox down to 12 nm have been fabricated and yield a transconductance of 100 mS mm-1. [less ▲]

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See detailJEX Nîmes, 9 juin 1998
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Recueil Dalloz (1999)

Compétence internationale en matière de mesures conservatoires.

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See detailPsychological and physiological reactivity to stress: an experimental study on bulimic patients, restrained eaters and controls
Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Vögele, Claus UL

in Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics (1999), 68

BACKGROUND: Binge eating behavior in bulimic patients is thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of psychophysiological arousal in stressful situations. Previous results suggest that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Binge eating behavior in bulimic patients is thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of psychophysiological arousal in stressful situations. Previous results suggest that interpersonal stress and achievement challenge are perceived as particularly stressful by bulimic individuals. It is not clear, however, whether bulimic individuals respond to stress with an increased desire to binge, and whether this increase is accompanied by higher psychophysiological reactivity compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with bulimia nervosa (DSM-IV), 27 restrained eaters, and 27 controls participated in two experimental sessions in which continuous measures of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rat e, and ecectrodermal activity were monitored under conditions of achievement challenge (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and interpersonal stress provoking feelings of loneliness and social rejection (film, imagery task). Ratings of desire to binge, negative mood, and hunger were obtained between experimental trials. Groups were matched for age and body mass index. RESULTS: There was a marked difference in subjective ratings during interpersonal stress. Bulimic patients responded to the imagery task with increases in both desire to binge and hunger, whereas restrained eaters and controls showed no change. There were no substantial group differences in psychophysiological reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: The dissociation between emotional responses and physiological activation may have important therapeutic implications. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling of insect antennae to field-effect transistors for biochemical sensing
Schroth, P.; Schöning, M. J.; Schütz, S. et al

in Electrochimica Acta (1999), 44(1999), 3821-3826

A bioelectronic interface based on the coupling of an intact insect antenna to a field-e effct transistor (FET) has been realised in a whole-beetle BioFET (Biologically sensitive FET) and an isolated ... [more ▼]

A bioelectronic interface based on the coupling of an intact insect antenna to a field-e effct transistor (FET) has been realised in a whole-beetle BioFET (Biologically sensitive FET) and an isolated-antenna BioFET configuration. The intrinsic BioFET characteristics, such as current-voltage curves, transconductance and signal-to-noise ratio clearly depend on the chip layout. Therefore, the experiments were performed with three di erent gate geometries: linear shape (5 um x 100 um), U shape (5 um x 1000 um) and meander shape (10 um x 6000 um). The BioFET allows the determination of the `green-leaf odour' Z-3-hexen-l-ol down to the low ppb concentration range. Thus, the detection of plant damages is possible with this novel kind of biosensor. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Influence of Nano-Scaling on the Glass Transition of Molecular Liquids
Krüger, Jan-Kristian UL; Holtwick, R.; le Coutre, Andre et al

in Nanostructured Materials (1999), 12(1), 519-522

The nature of the glass transition is still a matter of debate. We used temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) and Brillouin spectroscopy ( BS ) to investigate the freezing behaviour of canonical glasses ... [more ▼]

The nature of the glass transition is still a matter of debate. We used temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) and Brillouin spectroscopy ( BS ) to investigate the freezing behaviour of canonical glasses ( salol and di-n-butyl-phtalate (DBP)) confined to controlled pore glasses (CPG) with pore diameters between 2.5 and 20 nm. The temperature behaviour of the heat capacity of the composite system deviates from the bulk fluid properties and we interpret the remaining kink-like anomaly at Tg as a static glass transition. In smaller pores Tg is only slightly shifted to lower temperatures. This operative Tg is in good agreement with sound velocity data showing a sharp kink at Tg. The working hypothesis of the existence of a static glass transition is supported by the fact that the -relaxation process disappears with decreasing pore diameter. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Räume der Milieus. Neue Forschungsfragen zur Wechselwirkung von sozial-räumlichen Arrangements und Mobilität.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Ökologisches Wirtschaften (1999), 14(5-6), 23-25

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See detailGauge-invariant theory for semiclassical magnetotransport through ballistic microstructures
Wirtz, Ludger UL; Tang, J. Z.; Burgdorfer, J.

in Physical Review. B (1999), 59(4), 2956-2967

Within the semiclassical theory of magnetotransport through ballistic cavities, fluctuations in the transmission amplitude and in the conductance originate from the Aharonov-Bohm phase of directed areas ... [more ▼]

Within the semiclassical theory of magnetotransport through ballistic cavities, fluctuations in the transmission amplitude and in the conductance originate from the Aharonov-Bohm phase of directed areas. We formulate the semiclassical transmission amplitude in gauge-invariant form. The gauge invariant phases can be visualized in terms of areas enclosed by classical paths, which consist of the real path connecting the entrance point to the exit point and a virtual path leading back to the entrance point. We implement this method on different levels of a semiclassical description of magnetotransport with applications to magnetoconductance fluctuations and correlations. The validity of the semiclassical theories is analyzed. [S0163-1829(99)10903-2]. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coût de la durée du procéès pour les parties
Ancel, Pascal UL; Cottin, Marianne

in Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (1999), 2

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See detailCase report and molecular analysis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a South African child
Vardas, E. A D; Leary, P. M. B; Yeats, J. C et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (1999), 37(3), 775-777

This is the first case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from South Africa in which the molecular characteristics of the causative measles virus were examined. The virus found is classified as ... [more ▼]

This is the first case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from South Africa in which the molecular characteristics of the causative measles virus were examined. The virus found is classified as genotype D3, which has not previously been found in Africa and was last circulating in the United States before 1992. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization and binding specificity of the monomeric STAT3-SH2 domain.
Haan, Serge UL; Hemmann, U.; Hassiepen, U. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1999), 274(3), 1342-8

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are important mediators of cytokine signal transduction. STAT factors are recruited to phosphotyrosine-containing motifs of activated receptor ... [more ▼]

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are important mediators of cytokine signal transduction. STAT factors are recruited to phosphotyrosine-containing motifs of activated receptor chains via their SH2 domains. The subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the STATs leads to their dissociation from the receptor, dimerization, and translocation to the nucleus. Here we describe the expression, purification, and refolding of the STAT3-SH2 domain. Proper folding of the isolated protein was proven by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The STAT3-SH2 domain undergoes a conformational change upon dimerization. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we demonstrate that the monomeric domain binds to specific phosphotyrosine peptides. The specificity of binding to phosphotyrosine peptides was assayed with the tyrosine motif encompassing Tyr705 of STAT3 and with all tyrosine motifs present in the cytoplasmic tail of the signal transducer gp130. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of a Leu-lle internalization motif within the cytoplasmic domain of the leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor
Thiel, S.; Behrmann, Iris UL; Timmermann, A. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1999), 339 (Pt 1)

Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex comprised of the LIF receptor (LIFR) and the interleukin (IL)-6 signal transducer gp130. Upon binding to its cognate receptor ... [more ▼]

Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex comprised of the LIF receptor (LIFR) and the interleukin (IL)-6 signal transducer gp130. Upon binding to its cognate receptor LIF is internalized. In this study, we show that the LIFR is endocytosed independently of gp130. By using a heterochimaeric receptor system we identified a dileucine-based internalization motif within the cytoplasmic domain of the LIFR. Our findings suggest that a heterodimeric LIFR/gp130 complex and homodimeric gp130/gp130 complex are endocytosed via distinct internalization signals. [less ▲]

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See detailZic1 regulates the patterning of vertebral arches in cooperation with Gli3.
Aruga, J.; Mizugishi, K.; Koseki, H. et al

in Mechanisms of Development (1999), 89(1-2), 141-50

Skeletal abnormalities are described that appeared in Zic1-deficient mice. These mice show multiple abnormalities in the axial skeleton. The deformities are severe in the dorsal parts of the vertebrae ... [more ▼]

Skeletal abnormalities are described that appeared in Zic1-deficient mice. These mice show multiple abnormalities in the axial skeleton. The deformities are severe in the dorsal parts of the vertebrae, vertebral arches, but less so in the vertebral bodies (spina bifida occulta). The proximal ribs are deformed having ectopic processes. The abnormalities found in the vertebral arches can be traced back to disturbed segmental patterns of dorsal sclerotome. The Zic1/Gli3 double mutants showed severe abnormalities of vertebral arches not found in single mutants. The abnormalities in the vertebral arches were less severe in Zic1/Pax1 mutants than Zic1/Gli3 mutants, but significantly more pronounced than in Zic1 single mutants. The three genes may act synergistically in the development of the vertebral arches. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical simulation of the motion and combustion of granular material.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Dziugys, Algis

in Industrial Heat Engineering (1999), 21

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See detailAppendice : quelques données statistiques
Fermigier, Stéphane; Leprévost, Franck UL; FIEKER, Claus

in Journal of Number Theory (1999), 78

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See detailLe gage-espèces (de l’accession en matière monétaire)
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Petites Affiches, la Loi (1999)

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See detailAspekte des Moralischen im Nibelungenlied
Sieburg, Heinz UL

in SVMMA CUM PROBITATE. Mélanges offert à Jean-Paul Harpes par ses collègues et amis. Publications du Centre Universitaire du Luxembourg 199 (1999)

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See detailQuantitative measurement of proteins by western blotting with Cy5-coupled secondary antibodies.
Fradelizi, J.; Friederich, Evelyne UL; Beckerle, M. C. et al

in BioTechniques (1999), 26(3), 484-6488490

The concentration of proteins in cells is an important parameter that determines how a protein will interact with other proteins or pharmacological agents. Recent developments in Western blotting ... [more ▼]

The concentration of proteins in cells is an important parameter that determines how a protein will interact with other proteins or pharmacological agents. Recent developments in Western blotting techniques have now made this a method of choice to measure protein concentration in complex solutions such as total cell extracts. We show that detection of Cy5-coupled secondary antibodies by PhosphorImager analysis produces signals that approach linearity with respect to protein concentration over a 20-fold range. We used this technique to estimate cellular levels of zyxin, which is an important protein component of the actin cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. By producing specific protein standards based on sequences that are available from public databases, it is now possible to estimate the concentration of almost any protein by this technique. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Signature Estimation for Uniform Linear Arrays with Unknown Receiver Gains and Phases
Asztély, David; Swindlehurst, Andrew Lee; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (1999), 47(8), 21282138

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See detailLes représentations pré-algébriques des élèves sortant de l'enseignement primaire
DEMONTY, I; Vlassis, Joëlle UL

in Informations Pédagogiques (1999), 47

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See detail19 GHz vertical Si p-channel MOSFET
Moers, J.; Klaes, D.; Tönnesmann, A. et al

in Electronics Letters (1999), 35(1999), 239-240

Vertical Si p-MOSFETs with channel lengths of 100nm were fabricated using selective low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) epitaxial growth and conventional i-line lithography. The layout, called ... [more ▼]

Vertical Si p-MOSFETs with channel lengths of 100nm were fabricated using selective low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) epitaxial growth and conventional i-line lithography. The layout, called VOXFET, reduces gate to source/drain overlap capacitances, thus improving high speed applications. Transistors with a gate width of 12 um and gate oxide thickness of 10nm show transconductances gM of 200mS/mm and measured cutoff frequencies of fT = 8.7GHz and fMAX = 19.2 GHz. [less ▲]

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See detailRelease of O2- by human umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils: role of intra- and extracellular calcium
Zardini, D. M.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Cell Calcium (1999), 25(5), 381-9

The aim of our study was to investigate the physiologic mechanisms involved in eosinophil activation as an essential prerequisite to disrupting the biochemical cascade that triggers inflammation, thereby ... [more ▼]

The aim of our study was to investigate the physiologic mechanisms involved in eosinophil activation as an essential prerequisite to disrupting the biochemical cascade that triggers inflammation, thereby attenuating the effect of this activation or, ideally, preventing it from occurring. We have, therefore, examined the nature of the fMLP- and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and the relationship between the [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production in human umbilical cord blood-derived eosinophils cultured in the presence of IL-3 and IL-5. These cells responded to fMLP or PAF (1 microM each) with an increase in [Ca2+]i (217.3 +/- 22.1 and 197.8 +/- 22.1 nM respectively) which was associated with production of O2- (40.2 +/- 8.2 and 35.2 +/- 7.6 pmol/min/10(6) cells respectively). The role of Ca2+ in the induced respiratory burst was studied by changing the availability of Ca2+ in the intra- and extracellular compartments. Removal or chelation of extracellular Ca2+ induced a reduction of both the fMLP and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. Chelation of intracellular Ca2+ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of fMLP- and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and caused a decrease in O2- production. SK&F 96365 had a stimulatory effect on PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and on fMLP-induced O2- production, this phenomenon was not observed with extracellular Ca2+ removal or chelation. Furthermore, Ni2+ exhibited an inhibition of both fMLP and PAF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and O2- production. Finally, both fMLP and PAF induced an increase in divalent cation influx that was further augmented by thapsigargin. Our results indicate that fMLP and PAF dependent O2- production in human eosinophils require intra- and extracellular Ca2+ and that Ca2+ influx is necessary for optimal activation. [less ▲]

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See detailCohomologie de l'algèbre de Lie des opérateurs différentiels sur une variété à coefficients dans les fonctions
Poncin, Norbert UL

in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série I. Mathématique (1999), 328(9), 789--794

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See detailEffects of nicotine administered via a transdermal delivery system on vigilance: a repeated measure study.
Mancuso, Giovanna UL; Andres, P.; Ansseau, M. et al

in Psychopharmacology (1999), 142(1), 18-23

Fifteen 18- to 25-year-old male smokers were tested in a within-subjects design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Subjects were tested on the RVIP test ... [more ▼]

Fifteen 18- to 25-year-old male smokers were tested in a within-subjects design to determine the influence of a transdermal patch of 21 mg nicotine on vigilance. Subjects were tested on the RVIP test (Rapid Visual Information Processing test) 1.30, 3.00 and 6.30 h after patch application, to verify the involvement of the dose of nicotine on the performance. This study confirms and extends the increasing effects of nicotine on vigilance previously found with orally and transdermally given nicotine. Moreover, it showed that such performance was independent of the time of nicotine absorption (1.30, 3.00 and 6.30 h after patch application), which suggests that a relatively low dose of nicotine suffices to activate vigilance processing. Regarding motor performance, no convincing effect of nicotine was observed on reaction time. [less ▲]

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 2 mars 1999
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Juris-Classeur périodique (1999)

Portée des conventions bilatérales d’entraide judiciaire.

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See detailVillin function in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Correlation of in vivo effects to its biochemical activities in vitro.
Friederich, Evelyne UL; Vancompernolle, K.; Louvard, D. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (1999), 274(38), 26751-60

Villin is an actin-binding protein of the intestinal brush border that bundles, nucleates, caps, and severs actin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner in vitro. Villin induces the growth of microvilli in ... [more ▼]

Villin is an actin-binding protein of the intestinal brush border that bundles, nucleates, caps, and severs actin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner in vitro. Villin induces the growth of microvilli in transfected cells, an activity that requires a carboxyl-terminally located KKEK motif. By combining cell transfection and biochemical assays, we show that the capacity of villin to induce growth of microvilli in cells correlates with its ability to bundle F-actin in vitro but not with its nucleating activity. In agreement with its importance for microfilament bundling in cells, the KKEK motif of the carboxyl-terminal F-actin-binding site is crucial for bundling in vitro. In addition, substitutions of basic residues in a second site, located in the amino-terminal portion of villin, impaired its activity in cells and reduced its binding to F-actin in the absence of Ca(2+) as well as its bundling and severing activities in vitro. Altogether, these findings suggest that villin participates in the organization and stabilization of the brush border core bundle but does not initiate its assembly by nucleation of actin filaments. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal Motion in the Annapolis, Maryland GPS Monument
Schenewerk, M.; van Dam, Tonie UL; Nerem, Steven R.

in GPS Solutions (1999), 2(3), 41-49

The permanent GPS tracking site at Annapolis, MD shows a 7-mm seasonal signal primarily in its horizontal position. It is suggested that thermal expansion of the pier on which the antenna rests is the ... [more ▼]

The permanent GPS tracking site at Annapolis, MD shows a 7-mm seasonal signal primarily in its horizontal position. It is suggested that thermal expansion of the pier on which the antenna rests is the source of this motion. A simple numerical model of the pier reproduces the observed motion of the GPS antenna, lending credence to this hypothesis. Although adding an additional level of complexity, this motion is predictable and the site retains it s value for high precision monitoring. Although the arrangement of this GPS site it somewhat uncommon, these results emphasize the importance of the underlying antenna monumentation when measuring crustal motions. [less ▲]

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See detailAn infinite tower of genus 2 curves related to the Kowalewski top
Leprévost, Franck UL; Markushevich, Dimitri

in Journal für die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik (1999), 514

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See detail«La figure de Bélisaire chez Marmontel et Diderot»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Voir (1999)

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See detailIntercomparison between the FG5 202 and FGG 206 at the site of the superconducting gravimeter C021 in Membach (Belgium)
Francis, Olivier UL; Amalvict, M.; Hinderer, J.

in Bulletin d'Information du Bureau Gravimétrique International (1999), (84), 36-39

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See detailCadherin-11 is highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcomas and during differentiation of myoblasts in vitro.
Markus, M. A.; Reichmuth, C.; Atkinson, M. J. et al

in Journal of Pathology (1999), 187(2), 164-72

Rhabdomyosarcomas bear a morphological and genetic resemblance to developing skeletal muscle. Apart from myogenic marker genes (bHLH factors, myosin, actin), cell adhesion molecules such as N-cadherin and ... [more ▼]

Rhabdomyosarcomas bear a morphological and genetic resemblance to developing skeletal muscle. Apart from myogenic marker genes (bHLH factors, myosin, actin), cell adhesion molecules such as N-cadherin and N-CAM have been reported to be expressed both in rhabdomyosarcomas and during myogenesis. The present study demonstrates the expression of another cadherin, cadherin-11, in rhabdomyosarcomas and during differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: cadherin-11, a predominantly mesenchymal cell adhesion molecule, is highly expressed in embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, which do not bear the Pax-3-FKHR fusion previously described. Cadherin-11 is down-regulated in normal skeletal muscle and after myotube formation in vitro. The results of this study suggest that cadherin-11 might be involved in myogenesis and that rhabdomyosarcomas may re-express or fail to down-regulate cadherin-11. Since alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas bearing the t(2;13) translocation do not express cadherin-11, it is postulated that Pax-3 and cadherin-11 might be linked and involved in the same myogenic pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailModified IQML and Weighted Subspace Fitting without Eigendecomposition
Kristensson, Martin; Jansson, Magnus; Ottersten, Björn UL

in Signal Processing (1999), 79(1), 2944

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See detailModelling the influence of grain-size-dependent solute drag on the kinetics of grain growth in nanocrystalline materials
Michels, Andreas UL; Krill, C. E.; Ehrhardt, H. et al

in Acta Materialia (1999), 47(7), 2143-2152

The large relative change in total grain-boundary area that accompanies grain growth in a nanocrystalline material has a potentially strong influence on the kinetics of grain growth whenever grain ... [more ▼]

The large relative change in total grain-boundary area that accompanies grain growth in a nanocrystalline material has a potentially strong influence on the kinetics of grain growth whenever grain-boundary migration is controlled by solute (impurity) drag. As the grain-boundary area decreases, the concentration of solute or impurity atoms segregated to the boundaries is expected to increase rapidly, introducing a grain-size dependence to the retarding force on boundary migration. We have modified the Burke equation—which assumes the drag force to be independent of the average grain size—to take into account a linear dependence of grain-boundary pinning on grain size. The form of the resulting grain-growth curve is surprisingly similar to Burke's solution; in fact, a constant rescaling of the boundary mobility parameter is sufficient to map one solution approximately onto the other. The activation energies for grain-boundary motion calculated from the temperature dependence of the mobility parameter are therefore identical for both models. This fact provides an explanation for the success of Burke's solution in fitting grain-growth data obtained in systems, such as nanocrystalline materials, for which the assumption of grain-size-independent solute drag is incorrect. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation in the betaA3/A1-crystallin encoding gene Cryba1 causes a dominant cataract in the mouse.
Graw, J.; Jung, M.; Loster, J. et al

in Genomics (1999), 62(1), 67-73

During the mouse ENU mutagenesis screen, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. One particular mutant was discovered as a progressive opacity (Po). Heterozygotes show opacification of ... [more ▼]

During the mouse ENU mutagenesis screen, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. One particular mutant was discovered as a progressive opacity (Po). Heterozygotes show opacification of a superficial layer of the fetal nucleus, which progresses and finally forms a nuclear opacity. Since the homozygotes have already developed the total cataract at eye opening, the mode of inheritance is semidominant. Linkage analysis was performed using a set of genome-wide microsatellite markers. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 11 distal of the marker D11Mit242 (9.3 +/- 4.4 cM) and proximal to D11Mit36 (2.3 +/- 2.3 cM). This position makes the betaA3/A1-crystallin encoding gene Cryba1 an excellent candidate gene. Mouse Cryba1 was amplified from lens mRNA. Sequence analysis revealed a mutation of a T to an A at the second base of exon 6, leading to an exchange of Trp by Arg. Computer analysis predicts that the fourth Greek key motif of the affected betaA3/A1-crystallin will not be formed. Moreover, the mutation leads also to an additional splicing signal, to the skipping of the first 3 bp of exon 6, and finally to the deletion of the Trp residue. Both types of mRNA are present in the homozygous mutant lenses. The mutation will be referred to as Cryba1(po1). This particular mouse mutation provides an excellent animal model for a human congenital zonular cataract with suture opacities, which is caused by a mutation in the homologous gene. [less ▲]

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See detailNotochord-dependent expression of MFH1 and PAX1 cooperates to maintain the proliferation of sclerotome cells during the vertebral column development.
Furumoto, T. A.; Miura, N.; Akasaka, T. et al

in Developmental Biology (1999), 210(1), 15-29

During axial skeleton development, the notochord is essential for the induction of the sclerotome and for the subsequent differentiation of cartilage forming the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs ... [more ▼]

During axial skeleton development, the notochord is essential for the induction of the sclerotome and for the subsequent differentiation of cartilage forming the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. These functions are mainly mediated by the diffusible signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog. The products of the paired-box-containing Pax1 and the mesenchyme forkhead-1 (Mfh1) genes are expressed in the developing sclerotome and are essential for the normal development of the vertebral column. Here, we demonstrate that Mfh1 like Pax1 expression is dependent on Sonic hedgehog signals from the notochord, and Mfh1 and Pax1 act synergistically to generate the vertebral column. In Mfh1/Pax1 double mutants, dorsomedial structures of the vertebrae are missing, resulting in extreme spina bifida accompanied by subcutaneous myelomeningocoele, and the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are missing. The morphological defects in Mfh1/Pax1 double mutants strongly correlate with the reduction of the mitotic rate of sclerotome cells. Thus, both the Mfh1 and the Pax1 gene products cooperate to mediate Sonic hedgehog-dependent proliferation of sclerotome cells. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychologische Operationsvorbereitung Erwachsener
Vögele, Claus UL

in Hygiene und Medizin (1999), (24), 184-188

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See detailInterleukin-6 and oncostatin M-induced growth inhibition of human A375 melanoma cells is STAT-dependent and involves upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/Kip1
Kortylewski, M.; Heinrich, P. C.; Mackiewicz, A. et al

in Oncogene (1999), 18(25), 3742-53

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines lead to growth arrest of human A375 melanoma cells. The present study demonstrates that this effect depends on the activation of STAT transcription factors. We observed ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines lead to growth arrest of human A375 melanoma cells. The present study demonstrates that this effect depends on the activation of STAT transcription factors. We observed a correlation between the extent of growth inhibition exerted by IL-6, IL-6 plus soluble IL-6 receptor or oncostatin M (OSM) and the intensities of STAT3 and STAT1 signals. A truncated chimeric receptor retaining only the membrane-proximal region of gp130, the common signal transducer of IL-6-type cytokines, did neither activate STATs nor mediate growth arrest of stable transfectants. These functions were restored by the addition of short STAT recruitment modules comprising critical tyrosine residues from gp130 (Y767, Y814). A receptor carrying tyrosine module Y759 of gp130 effectively mediated activation of the phosphatase SHP-2 but did not alter cell growth. Overexpression of dominant negative forms of STAT3 but not STAT1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of OSM and IL-6 in A375 cells. In addition, we have identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/Kipl as a novel target to be regulated by IL-6-type cytokines. Stimulation-dependent upregulation of p27 mRNA occurred STAT3-dependently. Also p27 protein accumulated which coincided with the disappearance of hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein in three human melanoma cell lines sensitive to IL-6-type cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Wahrnehmung von Persönlichkeitseigenschaften und ihrer Zusammenhänge: ein Methodenvergleich
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie (1999), 30

The present paper is focused on the topic of the cognitive organization of trait descriptive terms which are used frequently in ordinary language. Three studies were conducted to assess the impact of ... [more ▼]

The present paper is focused on the topic of the cognitive organization of trait descriptive terms which are used frequently in ordinary language. Three studies were conducted to assess the impact of different data gathering techniques on the typological results. In study I the sorting technique was used in which subjects were asked to partition the set of personality trait names into different groups, each group representing a different person. Study II consisted of a variant of the sorting method in which subjects had to successively collect terms into one group describing a person several times. In study III a trait rating task was conducted. Since it was assumed theoretically that trait descriptive terms are organized by implicit personality dimensions and prototypes, respectively, the data were analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling methods. Clustering solutions and dimensional configurations were obtained which varied largely between the data gathering techniques. Furthermore, the techniques differ markedly in the stability of the classificatory representations they induce. Issues concerning major drawbacks of methods of data acquisition and data analysis are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 24 novembre 1998
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (1999)

Conflit international de décisions.

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See detailAsynchronous Near-Far Resistant DS-CDMA Receivers Without A Priori Synchronization
Parkvall, Stefan; Ström, Erik G.; Milstein, Laurence B. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (1999), 47(1), 7888

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