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See detailCharacterization of a mutation in the lens-specific MP70 encoding gene of the mouse leading to a dominant cataract.
Graw, J.; Loster, J.; Soewarto, D. et al

in Experimental Eye Research (2001), 73(6), 867-76

During an ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis screen, Aey5, a new mouse mutation exhibiting an autosomal dominant congenital cataract was isolated. The cataractous phenotype is visible at the eye opening and ... [more ▼]

During an ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis screen, Aey5, a new mouse mutation exhibiting an autosomal dominant congenital cataract was isolated. The cataractous phenotype is visible at the eye opening and progresses to a nuclear and zonular cataract at 2 months of age with no difference in onset or severity between heterozygous and homozygous mutants. Histological analysis revealed that fiber cell differentiation continues at the lens bow region, but the cell nuclei do not degrade normally and remain in the deeper cortex. Further, the lens nucleus has clefts of various sizes while the remainder of the eye was morphologically normal. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 3 between the markers D3Mit101 and D3Mit77 near the connexin encoding genes Gja5 and Gja8. Sequence analysis revealed no differences in the Gja5 gene, but identified a T-->C mutation at position 191 in the Gja8 gene, which was confirmed by an additional Mva 12691 restriction site in the genomic DNA of homozygous mutants. This mutation results in Val-->Ala substitution at codon 64 of connexin50 (Cx50) also known as lens membrane protein 70 (MP70). Aey5 represents the second dominant mouse cataract mutant affecting Cx50, a membrane protein preferentially expressed in the lens. Since both mutations affect similar regions in the first extracellular domain this region appears to be critically important for its function in lens transparency. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of a new, dominant V124E mutation in the mouse alphaA-crystallin-encoding gene.
Graw, J.; Loster, J.; Soewarto, D. et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (2001), 42(12), 2909-15

PURPOSE: During an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screening, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. The purpose of the study was morphologic description, mapping of the mutant gene ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: During an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screening, mice were tested for the occurrence of dominant cataracts. The purpose of the study was morphologic description, mapping of the mutant gene, and characterization of the underlying molecular lesion in a particular mutant, Aey7. METHODS: Isolated lenses were photographed and histologic sections of the eye were analyzed according to standard procedures. Linkage analysis was performed with a set of microsatellite markers covering all autosomal chromosomes. cDNA was amplified after reverse transcription of lens mRNA. For PCR, cDNA or genomic DNA was used as a template. RESULTS: Nuclear opacity and posterior suture anomaly were visible at eye opening and progressed to a nuclear and zonular cataract at 2 months of age. The opacity as well as the microphthalmia was more pronounced in the homozygotes than in the heterozygotes. The mutation was mapped to chromosome 17 between the markers D17Mit133 and D17Mit180. This position made the alphaA-crystallin-encoding gene (Cryaa) an excellent candidate gene. Sequence analysis revealed a mutation of a T to an A at position 371 in the Cryaa cDNA. The mutation was confirmed by an additional MnlI restriction site in the genomic DNA of homozygous mutants leading to replacement of Val with Glu at codon 124 affecting the C-terminal region of the alphaA-crystallin. CONCLUSIONS: The Aey7 mutant represents the first dominant mouse cataract mutation affecting the Cryaa gene. The mutation leads to progressive opacification of the lens. Compared with the beta- and gamma-crystallin-encoding genes, mutations in the alpha-crystallin-encoding genes are rare. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vigueur des garanties et sûretés personnelles dans les procédures collectives
Prüm, André UL

in Revue de Droit de l'ULB (2001), 24

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See detailAn approach to simulate the motion of spherical and non-spherical fuel particles in combustions chambers.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Dziugys, Algis

in Granular Matter (2001), 3

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See detailL'utilisation de la photographie dans la 'Wehrmachtsaustellung' - Rendez-vous manqué entre l'histoire et la photographie
Majerus, Benoît UL

in Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent = Bijdragen tot de Eigentijdse Geschiedenis (2001), 8

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See detailMitogen-activated protein kinases control p27/Kip1 expression and growth of human melanoma cells
Kortylewski, M.; Heinrich, P. C.; Kauffmann, M. E. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2001), 357(Pt 1), 297-303

The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1 and ERK2, involved in regulating cell growth and differentiation, are constitutively active in A375 and ... [more ▼]

The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1 and ERK2, involved in regulating cell growth and differentiation, are constitutively active in A375 and WM239 human melanoma cells. Using PD098059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MEK), we investigated the role of persistently activated ERK1/2 in cell growth. The inhibition of MAPK activity induced a dose-dependent growth arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase. Correspondingly, we observed the up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27/Kip1 and hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. Further studies showed that PD098059 treatment significantly decreased Cdk2 kinase activity, most probably owing to an augmented level of p27/Kip1 associated with cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes. The accumulation of p27/Kip1 protein in A375 cells was attributed to its increased stability. Our findings suggest that constitutively active ERK1/2 kinases contribute to the growth of melanoma cells by negative regulation of the p27/Kip1 inhibitor. [less ▲]

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See detailOnderwijs en opvoeding en de terugkeer van de religie in een postmoderne samenleving.
Biesta, Gert UL; Nijnatten,C. van; Miedema, S.

in Pedagogiek (2001), 21(2), 124-177

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See detailMagnetic small-angle neutron scattering by nanocrystalline terbium
Weissmüller, J.; Michels, D.; Michels, Andreas UL et al

in Scripta Materialia (2001), 44(8), 2357-2361

We present an experimental study of the magnetic microstructure in the nanocrystalline hard magnet Tb. Field-dependent SANS data are analyzed quantitatively in terms of the correlation function of the ... [more ▼]

We present an experimental study of the magnetic microstructure in the nanocrystalline hard magnet Tb. Field-dependent SANS data are analyzed quantitatively in terms of the correlation function of the spin misalignment. We find that up to applied fields of several Tesla the magnetization remains ‘locked in’ to the basal planes of the hcp crystal lattice of each individual crystallite; But that the in-plane orientation of the spins is highly nonuniform within each particle. This internal structure can be suppressed by the applied field. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of M. Peters & J. Marshall, Wittgenstein: Philosophy, Postmodernism, Pedagogy. Education.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Jahrbuch für Bildungs- und Erziehungsphilosophie. (2001), 4

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See detailAuf Aeneas' Spuren
Uhrmacher, Martin UL; Fleck, Udo

in Archaeologie in Deutschland (2001), 2001(4), 58-63

Butrint an der Südküste Albaniens ist ein Mikrokosmos der Geschichte im östlichen Mittelmeerraum: Von der frühen griechischen Archaik bis zum Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts war die Stadt besiedelt, seit 1994 ... [more ▼]

Butrint an der Südküste Albaniens ist ein Mikrokosmos der Geschichte im östlichen Mittelmeerraum: Von der frühen griechischen Archaik bis zum Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts war die Stadt besiedelt, seit 1994 gräbt dort ein britisch-albanisches Archäologenteam und knüpft an italienische Kampagnen an, die der Zweite Weltkrieg unterbrochen hat. Diese Forschungen und vor allem die 1997 erfolgte Aufnahme Butrints in die UNESCO-Liste des Weltkulturerbes bewirkten, dass die einzigartige und bisher nahezu unberührte Kulturstätte verstärkt in den Blickpunkt der Öffentlichkeit rückt. [less ▲]

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See detailA concordance- and genre-informed approach to ESP essay writing
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal (2001), 55

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See detailRegles de l'OMC - Effet direct - Invocabilité (Note de jurisprudence)
Gerkrath, Jörg UL

in Revue des Affaires Européennes [= RAE] = Law & European Affairs (2001), 5

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See detailPfalzgraf Wolfgang, Philipp II. und die spanischen Niederlande 1565-1569
Weis, Monique UL

in Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Saargegend (2001), 49

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See detailMit und ohne Netz - Fotovoltaik-Anlagen in Deutschland und Andalusien
Helfer, Malte UL

in Geographie Heute (2001), (6), 36-39

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See detailHuman umbilical cord blood monocyte-derived eosinophils produce superoxide but not nitric oxide
Zardini, D. M.; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Inflammation Research (2001), 50(7), 357-61

Both N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine, and 1-O-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine induced superoxide release in umbilical cord eosinophils, while no response was observed with ... [more ▼]

Both N-formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine, and 1-O-Alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine induced superoxide release in umbilical cord eosinophils, while no response was observed with lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-4 and/or interferon-gamma. Furthermore, upon activation with different inflammatory stimuli, neither induction of nitric oxide synthesis nor expression of the constitutive and/or inducible nitric oxide synthase were observed in these eosinophils derived in vitro. Human umbilical cord derived eosinophils are able to produce superoxide as peripheral blood eosinophils. Whether human peripheral eosinophils are capable of NO synthesis is still the subject of considerable debate, nevertheless, our results suggest that these in vitro derived eosinophils are not capable of nitric oxide synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonality of birth in patients with childhood type 1 diabetes in nineteen European regions
McKinney, P.A.; De Beaufort, Carine UL

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 67-74

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Differences in seasonality of birth patterns between the general population and the group who develop Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus indicate that environmental factors ... [more ▼]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Differences in seasonality of birth patterns between the general population and the group who develop Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus indicate that environmental factors operating around the antenatal and perinatal period could be important. We investigated whether the same unsual patterns in seasonality of birth observed in children with Type I diabetes in Great Britain could also be found in other European populations. METHODS: Population-based incidence cohorts of children diagnosed with Type I diabetes under 15 years of age from 1989 onwards were analysed. Previously reported data sets from Great Britain were also included together with data on children diagnosed over an additional 5 year period (1988-1992). To assess the role of seasonality in diabetes, we used the method of Walter and Elwood to examine monthly birth figures for each country or region. RESULTS: Outside of Great Britain, no seasonality of birth was seen for any single or combination of European countries. Significant sinusoidal patterns were observed in Scotland, Yorkshire and Leicester, although the peak for Leicester appeared around autumn rather than spring. There was little evidence that sex or age at diagnosis played a part in differences in seasonal patterns, either overall or for any individual country. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found no uniform seasonal pattern of birth in childhood diabetes patients across European populations, either overall or according to sex and age. This study provides no consistent evidence that environmental factors, which vary from season to season, have any influence on the fetal or neonatal life to determine the onset of Type I diabetes. However, a study of seasonality that takes into account possible changes both over time and over geographical areas could provide more insights. [less ▲]

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See detailDienstleistungsfreiheit brutto oder netto? Probleme der europäischen Sprachenvielfalt am Beispiel der EG-Fernsehrichtlinie
Cole, Mark UL; Haus, Florian C.

in Juristische Schulung : Zeitschrift für Studium und Referendariat (2001)

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See detailCytokine-mediated growth inhibition of human melanoma cells
Kortylewski, M.; Heinrich, P. C.; Mackiewicz, A. et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2001), 495

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See detailEchelon: origines et perspectives d'un débat transnational
Leprévost, Franck UL; Warusfel, Bertrand

in Annuaire Français des Relations Internationales (2001), 2

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See detailIdentification of Berezin-Toeplitz deformation quantization,
Karabegov, Alexander; Schlichenmaier, Martin UL

in Journal für die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik (2001), 540

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See detailChirp Parameter Estimation from a Sample Covariance Matrix
Völcker, Björn; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2001)

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See detailSequence interpretation. Functional annotation of mouse genome sequences.
Nadeau, J. H.; Balling, Rudi UL; Barsh, G. et al

in Science (2001), 291(5507), 1251-5

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See detailThe Notch ligand Jagged1 is required for inner ear sensory development.
Kiernan, A. E.; Ahituv, N.; Fuchs, H. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2001), 98(7), 3873-8

Within the mammalian inner ear there are six separate sensory regions that subserve the functions of hearing and balance, although how these sensory regions become specified remains unknown. Each sensory ... [more ▼]

Within the mammalian inner ear there are six separate sensory regions that subserve the functions of hearing and balance, although how these sensory regions become specified remains unknown. Each sensory region is populated by two cell types, the mechanosensory hair cell and the supporting cell, which are arranged in a mosaic in which each hair cell is surrounded by supporting cells. The proposed mechanism for creating the sensory mosaic is lateral inhibition mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. However, one of the Notch ligands, Jagged1 (Jag1), does not show an expression pattern wholly consistent with a role in lateral inhibition, as it marks the sensory patches from very early in their development--presumably long before cells make their final fate decisions. It has been proposed that Jag1 has a role in specifying sensory versus nonsensory epithelium within the ear [Adam, J., Myat, A., Roux, I. L., Eddison, M., Henrique, D., Ish-Horowicz, D. & Lewis, J. (1998) Development (Cambridge, U.K.) 125, 4645--4654]. Here we provide experimental evidence that Notch signaling may be involved in specifying sensory regions by showing that a dominant mouse mutant headturner (Htu) contains a missense mutation in the Jag1 gene and displays missing posterior and sometimes anterior ampullae, structures that house the sensory cristae. Htu/+ mutants also demonstrate a significant reduction in the numbers of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. Because lateral inhibition mediated by Notch predicts that disruptions in this pathway would lead to an increase in hair cells, we believe these data indicate an earlier role for Notch within the inner ear. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-redundant signal transduction of interleukin-6-type cytokines. The adapter protein Shc is specifically recruited to rhe oncostatin M receptor
Hermanns, H. M.; Radtke, S.; Schaper, F. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 275(52), 40742-8

The common use of the cytokine receptor gp130 has served as an explanation for the extremely redundant biological activities exerted by interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Indeed, hardly any differences in ... [more ▼]

The common use of the cytokine receptor gp130 has served as an explanation for the extremely redundant biological activities exerted by interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Indeed, hardly any differences in signal transduction initiated by these cytokines are known. In the present study, we demonstrate that oncostatin M (OSM), but not IL-6 or leukemia inhibitory factor, induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the Shc isoforms p52 and p66 and their association with Grb2. Concomitantly, OSM turns out to be a stronger activator of ERK1/2 MAPKs. Shc is recruited to the OSM receptor (OSMR), but not to gp130. Binding involves Tyr(861) of the OSMR, located within a consensus binding sequence for the Shc PTB domain. Moreover, Tyr(861) is essential for activation of ERK1/2 and for full activation of the alpha(2)-macroglobulin promoter, but not for an exclusively STAT-responsive promoter. This study therefore provides evidence for qualitative differential signaling mechanisms exerted by IL-6-type cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Intonation final fallender Nuklei. Eine kontrastive Untersuchung zum Hamburgischen und Berlinischen
Gilles, Peter UL

in Germanistische Linguistik (2001), 157-158

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See detailCommon genetic variation in ABCA1 is associated with altered lipoprotein levels and a modified risk for coronary artery disease
Clee, S. M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Engert, J. C. et al

in Circulation (2001), 103(9), 1198-1205

BACKGROUND: Low plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently identified the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) as the major ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Low plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently identified the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) as the major gene underlying the HDL deficiency associated with reduced cholesterol efflux. Mutations within the ABCA1 gene are associated with decreased HDL-C, increased triglycerides, and an increased risk of CAD. However, the extent to which common variation within this gene influences plasma lipid levels and CAD in the general population is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the phenotypic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of ABCA1. The R219K variant has a carrier frequency of 46% in Europeans. Carriers have a reduced severity of CAD, decreased focal (minimum obstruction diameter 1.81+/-0.35 versus 1.73+/-0.35 mm in noncarriers, P:=0.001) and diffuse atherosclerosis (mean segment diameter 2.77+/-0.37 versus 2.70+/-0.37 mm, P:=0.005), and fewer coronary events (50% versus 59%, P:=0.02). Atherosclerosis progresses more slowly in carriers of R219K than in noncarriers. Carriers have decreased triglyceride levels (1.42+/-0.49 versus 1.84+/-0.77 mmol/L, P:=0.001) and a trend toward increased HDL-C (0.91+/-0.22 versus 0.88+/-0.20 mmol/L, P:=0.12). Other single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region had milder effects on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that common variation in ABCA1 significantly influences plasma lipid levels and the severity of CAD. [less ▲]

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See detailFabrication of Laterally Displaced Porous Silicon Filters
Marso, Michel UL; Wolter, M.; Arens-Fischer, R. et al

in Thin Solid Films (2001), 382(2001), 218-221

Porous silicon superlattices have been used to manufacture laterally displaced dielectric filters with different optical properties on one substrate. Two different fabrication processes for two-colour ... [more ▼]

Porous silicon superlattices have been used to manufacture laterally displaced dielectric filters with different optical properties on one substrate. Two different fabrication processes for two-colour microfilter arrays are presented. Both methods overcome the problem of non-uniform optical properties of the well-known procedure where two filter stacks are grown one upon another, with subsequent partial removal of the upper filter by reactive ion etching. The novel methods give uniform optical properties of the two filter areas, profiting from the main property of the formation process of porous silicon: the formation of porous silicon occurs only at the porous silicon substrate interface. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the incentives to provide fuel-efficient automobiles
Degryse, Hans; Irmen, Andreas UL

in Journal of Economics (2001), 73(2), 149-165

We argue that the provision of more fuel-efficient cars necessitates specific aerodynamic shapes. We show that the presence of this technological constraint may reduce the incentives to provide fuel ... [more ▼]

We argue that the provision of more fuel-efficient cars necessitates specific aerodynamic shapes. We show that the presence of this technological constraint may reduce the incentives to provide fuel efficiency. In equilibrium, cars become more similar and aerodynamic as fuel prices increase. However, the provided level of fuel efficiency falls short of the social optimal one such that a fuel-economy standard is welfare-enhancing.<P>(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.) [less ▲]

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See detailSafety considerations of DNA in food
Jonas, D. A.; Elmadfa, I.; Engel, K.-H. et al

in Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism (2001), 45(6), 1-20

Recombinant DNA techniques are capable of introducing genetic changes into food organisms that are more predictable than those introduced through conventional breeding techniques. This review discusses ... [more ▼]

Recombinant DNA techniques are capable of introducing genetic changes into food organisms that are more predictable than those introduced through conventional breeding techniques. This review discusses whether the consumption of DNA in approved novel foods and novel food ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be regarded as being as safe as the consumption of DNA in existing foods. It concludes that DNA from GMOs is equivalent to DNA from existing food organisms that has always been consumed with human diets. Any risks associated with the consumption of DNA will remain, irrespective of its origin, because the body handles all DNA in the same way. The breakdown of DNA during food processing and passage through the gastrointestinal tract reduces the likelihood that intact genes capable of encoding foreign proteins will be transferred to gut microflora. The review does not specifically address food safety issues arising from the consumption of viable genetically modified microorganisms but it shows that the likelihood of transfer and functional integration of DNA from ingested food by gut microflora and/or human cells is minimal. Information reviewed does not indicate any safety concerns associated with the ingestion of DNA per se from GMOs resulting from the use of currently available recombinant DNA techniques in the food chain. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychophysiological effects of relaxation training in children
Lohaus, Arnold; Klein-Hessling, Johannes; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in British Journal of Health Psychology (2001), 6

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and an imagery-based relaxation training on childrens' physiological and subjective responses in a randomized controlled trial ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and an imagery-based relaxation training on childrens' physiological and subjective responses in a randomized controlled trial. DESIGN: Sixty-four children aged 9 to 13 years were randomly allocated to either one of three experimental conditions: progressive muscle relaxation, imagery-based relaxation or a control condition (neutral story). There were five training sessions in each condition. METHOD: Heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), and skin temperature (ST) were measured continuously during a 5-minute baseline period, an 8-minute relaxation training period, and a 5-minute follow-up in each session. In addition, subjective ratings of mood and physical well-being were collected intermittently. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A physiological pattern indicating relaxation was most clearly associated with the imagery-based relaxation approach (decreases in HR and SCL), although ST remained unchanged. In contrast, progressive muscle relaxation led to an increase in HR during the training. The neutral story condition showed a similar trend as the imagery-based relaxation approach (although not reaching statistical significance). Furthermore, children's ratings of positive mood and physical wellbeing increased during baseline and training periods, but there were no differences between training conditions. The results indicate psychophysiological effects of relaxation instructions which, however, are not specific for systematic relaxation training. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the small-angle neutron scattering of nanocrystalline ferromagnets using a micromagnetics model
Weissmüller, J.; Michels, Andreas UL; Barker, J. G. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2001), 63

In ferromagnets with a nonuniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline (nc-) or cold-worked (cw-) polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure ... [more ▼]

In ferromagnets with a nonuniform magnetocrystalline and/or magnetoelastic anisotropy, such as nanocrystalline (nc-) or cold-worked (cw-) polycrystalline materials, the static magnetic microstructure gives rise to strong elastic magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The paper explores a method for analyzing field-dependent SANS data from such materials in terms of a model based on the theory of micromagnetics. Samples of cw Ni and of electrodeposited nc Ni and nc Co were characterized by x-ray scattering and magnetometry, and were investigated by SANS both with and without polarization of the neutron beam. The variation of the differential scattering cross section with the scattering vector and with the applied magnetic field is well described by the model. Also, experimental results for the exchange stiffness constant A and for the spin-wave stiffness constant D obtained from the analysis are found to agree with literature data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering on single-crystal specimens. The model supplies an “anisotropy field scattering function” that contains information on the magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy in the material, and on the characteristic length scales on which the anisotropy changes direction. The results suggest that the anisotropy may be strongly nonuniform in each crystallite, possibly due to twinning, and that some magnetic moments in the Ni samples are strongly pinned at defects. [less ▲]

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See detailA probabilistic model for appearance-based robot localization
Krose, B. J. A.; Vlassis, Nikos UL; Bunschoten, Roland et al

in Image and Vision Computing (2001), 19(6), 381-391

In this paper we present a method for an appearance-based modeling of the environment of a mobile robot. We describe the task (localization of the robot) in a probabilistic framework. Linear image ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present a method for an appearance-based modeling of the environment of a mobile robot. We describe the task (localization of the robot) in a probabilistic framework. Linear image features are extracted using a Principal Component Analysis. The appearance model is represented as a probability density function of the image feature vector given the location of the robot. We estimate this density model from the data with a kernel estimation method. We show how the parameters of the model influence the localization performance. We also study how many features and which features are needed for good localization. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIs childhood onset type1 diabetes a wealth-related disease. An ecological analysis of European incidence rates
Patterson, C.C.; Dahlquist, G.; Soltesz, G. et al

in Diabetologia (2001), 44

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See detailA Simplified Approach to Computing Efficiency Bounds in Semiparametric Models
Severini, Thomas A.; Tripathi, Gautam UL

in Journal of Econometrics (2001), 102

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See detailCalibration of the LaCoste-Romberg 906 by Comparison with the Superconducting Gavimeter C021 in Membach (Belgium)
Francis, Olivier UL; Hendrickx, Marc

in Journal of the Geodetic Society of Japan (2001), 47(1), 16-21

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See detailCigarette smoking and attention: processing speed or specific effects?
Mancuso, Giovanna UL; Lejeune, M.; Ansseau, M.

in Psychopharmacology (2001), 155(4), 372-8

RATIONALE: It has been evidenced that nicotine acts on some dimensions of human attention. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to test whether the positive effects of nicotine usually observed on the ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: It has been evidenced that nicotine acts on some dimensions of human attention. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to test whether the positive effects of nicotine usually observed on the posterior system are specific or should rather be explained in terms of an effect of nicotine on eye movement velocity. METHODS: Ten participants were submitted to four tasks assessing attention. The tasks were borrowed from Zimmermann and Fimm's Battery for the Assessment of Attention: alert, eye movements, visual search and incompatibility. The order of the different tasks was balanced among participants. A within-subjects repeated-measure design was used. Participants received a 0.9-mg or 0.1-mg nicotine cigarette. The 0.1-mg cigarette was used as control. The order of administration of doses over sessions was counterbalanced. During the testing day, volunteers smoked their own cigarette and then waited 3 h without smoking. At the end of this abstinence period, participants completed the baseline tests before smoking an experimental cigarette ad libitum. They were then tested again. RESULTS: Participants who received nicotine appeared to respond faster in an eye movement task--a task associated with a non-elaborated attentional process. Similarly, their alert state improved. On the contrary, no effect of nicotine was observed in the incompatibility task and in the visual search task depending on elaborated attentional process. CONCLUSIONS: Data support previous observations and suggest that, first, non-elaborated information processing appeared to be more sensitive to nicotine and, second, this effect is not due to a velocity factor. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Republikanismus als historische Quelle und politische Theorie des Kommunitarismus
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogik (2001), 47(1), 45-65

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See detailA database of invariant rings
Kemper, Gregor; Körding, Elmar; Malle, Gunter et al

in Experimental Mathematics (2001), 10(4), 537--542

We announce the creation of a database of invariant rings. This database contains a large number of invariant rings of finite groups, mostly in the modular case. It gives information on generators and ... [more ▼]

We announce the creation of a database of invariant rings. This database contains a large number of invariant rings of finite groups, mostly in the modular case. It gives information on generators and structural properties of the invariant rings. The main purpose is to provide a tool for researchers in invariant theory. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen effects in the myocardium: inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA binding by estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta.
Pelzer, T.; Neumann, M.; de Jager, T. et al

in Biochemical and biophysical research communications (2001), 286(5), 1153-7

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that estrogen effects in the heart include direct hormone effects on the myocardium. In a recent study we found that one beneficial effect of estradiol on the myocardium is the inhibition of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. This effect was associated with a reduction of NF-kappaB activity. In the present study we have analyzed the functional mechanism of NF-kappaB inhibition in the myocardium by estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. Despite the previous finding that 17-beta-estradiol (10 nM) inhibited the staurosporine-induced binding of p65/p50 NF-kappaB complexes to their cognate DNA elements in cultured rat cardiac myocytes, myocyte extracts showed no change in expression or cellular localization of p65, p50, and IkappaB upon staurosporine or estradiol treatment. Addition of either estrogen receptor-alpha or estrogen receptor-beta as recombinant protein was sufficient to inhibit staurosporine-dependent p65/p50 DNA binding in cardiac myocytes. 17-beta-Estradiol inhibits staurosporine-induced p65/p50 DNA binding associated with apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes via estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta. This is not associated with changes in p65, p50 and IkappaB expression or subcellular localization. Thus, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by estrogenic compounds might inhibit NF-kappaB dependent gene expression such as pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium. [less ▲]

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See detailAlmost Kähler deformation quantization
Karabegov, Alexander; Schlichenmaier, Martin UL

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2001), 57(2), 135-148

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See detailEnu mouse mutagenesis: generation of mouse mutants with aberrant plasma IgE levels.
Alessandrini, F.; Jakob, T.; Wolf, A. et al

in International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology (2001), 124(1-3), 25-8

BACKGROUND: The ENU Mouse Mutagenesis Project aims at a large-scale, systematic production of mouse mutants using the alkylating agent ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU). Offspring of mutagenized mice are subjected ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The ENU Mouse Mutagenesis Project aims at a large-scale, systematic production of mouse mutants using the alkylating agent ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU). Offspring of mutagenized mice are subjected to a multiparameter screen to detect alterations in various phenotypes with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes relevant for the expression of the phenotype. Using this approach, we have analyzed plasma IgE concentrations to identify mouse mutants with aberrant plasma IgE levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: ENU-mutagenized male C3HeB/FeJ were mated to wild-type females to produce F1 offspring. F1 animals were analyzed for alterations in their plasma IgE concentrations that showed a dominant mode of inheritance, or bred further to screen for recessive phenotypes. Plasma IgE concentrations were determined by ELISA and a normal range for plasma IgE was established using C3HeB/FeJ wild-type animals. So far we have tested 6568 F1 animals. Repeated testing confirmed a stable aberrant IgE phenotype in 124 animals. To confirm the genetic basis of the observed phenotype, these mice were subjected to confirmation crossing. Currently we have established 9 independent mutant mouse lines (3 with high plasma IgE and 6 with plasma IgE below detection limit) that have been genetically confirmed and additional 24 variant mouse lines are currently undergoing confirmation testing. CONCLUSION: ENU mouse mutagenesis allowed us to generate and identify mouse mutants with aberrant plasma IgE levels, which may be used to characterize novel genes involved in IgE regulation and may serve as animal models for IgE-mediated diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailRac-1-mediated O2- secretion requires Ca2+ influx in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells
Valentin, F.; Bueb, Jean-Luc UL; Capdeville-Atkinson, C. et al

in Cell Calcium (2001), 29(6), 409-15

Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells reacted to N -formyl- l -Methionyl- l -Leucyl- l -P henylalanine (f MLP) with a rise in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2]i), NADPH oxidase activation, and ... [more ▼]

Neutrophil-like HL-60 cells reacted to N -formyl- l -Methionyl- l -Leucyl- l -P henylalanine (f MLP) with a rise in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2]i), NADPH oxidase activation, and increased superoxide anion (O2-) production. [Ca2+]i mobilization and superoxide production were largely dependent on extracellular calcium (Ca2+]e) and a capacitative calcium entry. The monomeric G-protein, Rac-1, regulates NADPH oxidase activity. We tested the effect of removal of Ca2+]e on Rac-1 plasma membrane sequestration and activation of NADPH oxidase using immunodetection and a double labelling fluorescent method. Results showed that Rac-1 activation is mediated via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive heteromeric G-protein pathway, and that Rac-1 membrane sequestration was preceded by [Ca2+]i mobilization following entry of Ca2+ e. Therefore, we propose that O2- production is dependent on activation of PTX-sensitive G-proteins and sequestration of Rac-1 in the plasma membrane, following entry of Ca2+ e. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the convergence of multiple random integrals
Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica (2001), 37(3-4), 429--470

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See detailDer Kult des "Sisyphos" - ein Paradox deutscher Pädagogik?
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Infos und Akzente (2001), 8(2), 39-44

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See detailBeyond Tides - Determination of Core Properties from Superconducting Gravimeter Observations
Smylie, Douglas E.; Francis, Olivier UL; Merriam, James B.

in Journal of the Geodetic Society of Japan (2001), 47(1), 364-372

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (1 UL)
See detailReview of R. Tolmach Lakoff. The Language War
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in BELL. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literatures (2001), 10

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See detailKommunitarismus und Sozialpädagogik
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Neue Praxis: Zeitschrift für Sozialarbeit, Sozialpädagogik und Sozialpolitik (2001), 31(2), 113-129

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See detailLes situations-problèmes, plus qu’une méthode à la mode
Vlassis, Joëlle UL

in Informations Pédagogiques (2001), 52

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See detailCritical thinking and the question of critique. Some lessons from deconstruction.
Biesta, Gert UL; Stams, G. J. J. M.

in Studies in Philosophy & Education (2001), 20(1), 57-74

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See detailThe Absent Character of Gene in Hanif Kureishi's The Buddha of Suburbia
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in Notes on Contemporary Literature (2001), 31

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See detailPerzeptuelle Identifikation regional markierter Tonhöhenverläufe. Eine Pilotstudie zum Hamburgischen
Gilles, Peter UL; Peters, Jörg; Peter, Auer et al

in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik (2001), 68(2), 155-172

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See detailUnbekanntere Seiten von Fremdenfeindlichkeit und wie man damit umgeht. Neue Forschungsbefunde und Praxisanregungen
Willems, Helmut UL; Wahl, Klaus

in kultuRRevolution (2001), (2), 6-8

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See detailOn the cohomology of the Nijenhuis-Richardson graded Lie algebra of the space of functions of a manifold
Poncin, Norbert UL

in Journal of Algebra (2001), 243(1), 16-40

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See detailLuigi Peruzzi (1910-1993). Les Mémoires d’un antifasciste italien sauvés de l’oubli
Scuto, Denis UL

in Passerelles. Revue d'études interculturelles (2001), (13), 235-243

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See detailGlobal Positioning System and Gravity Used to Study Greenland Ice
van Dam, Tonie UL; Larson, Kristine; Wahr, John et al

in Earth in Space (2001), 13(5), 1-16

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See detailDie Analogie von Menschheits- und Individualentwicklung. Attraktivität, Karriere und Zerfall eines Denkmodells
Andresen, Sabine; Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Vierteljahresschrift für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik (2001), 77(2), 145-172

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See detailKinetically assisted potential sputtering of insulators by highly charged ions
Hayderer, G.; Cernusca, S.; Schmid, M. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2001), 86(16), 3530-3533

A new form of potential sputtering has been found for impact of slow (less than or equal to 1500 eV) multiply charged Xe ions (charge states up to q = 25) on MgOx. In contrast to alkali-halide or SiO2 ... [more ▼]

A new form of potential sputtering has been found for impact of slow (less than or equal to 1500 eV) multiply charged Xe ions (charge states up to q = 25) on MgOx. In contrast to alkali-halide or SiO2 surfaces this mechanism requires the simultaneous presence of electronic excitation of the target material and of a kinetically formed collision cascade within the target in order to initiate the sputtering process. This kinetically assisted potential sputtering mechanism has been identified to be present for ether insulating surfaces as well. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on magnetic correlations in nanostructured ferromagnets
Weissmüller, J.; Michels, Andreas UL

in Physical Review Letters (2001), 87(14), 149701-149701

A Comment on the Letter by Jörg F. Löffler, Hans Benjamin Braun, and Werner Wagner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1990 (2000). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply.

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See detailEthylnitrosourea-induced mutation in mice leads to the expression of a novel protein in the eye and to dominant cataracts.
Graw, J.; Klopp, N.; Loster, J. et al

in Genetics (2001), 157(3), 1313-20

A novel ENU-induced mutation in the mouse leading to a nuclear and zonular opacity of the eye lens (Aey1) was mapped to chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit303 and D1Mit332. On the basis of the ... [more ▼]

A novel ENU-induced mutation in the mouse leading to a nuclear and zonular opacity of the eye lens (Aey1) was mapped to chromosome 1 between the markers D1Mit303 and D1Mit332. On the basis of the chromosomal position, the gamma-crystallin encoding gene cluster (Cryg) and the betaA2-crystallin encoding gene Cryba2 were tested as candidate genes. An A --> T mutation destroys the start codon of the Cryge gene in the mutants; this mutation was confirmed by the absence of a restriction site for NcoI in the corresponding genomic fragment of homozygous mutants. The next in-frame start codon is 129 bp downstream; this predicted truncated gammaE-crystallin consists of 131 amino acids, resulting in a molecular mass of 14 kD. However, another open reading frame was observed just 19 bp downstream of the regular Cryge start codon, resulting in a protein of 119 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 13 kD. Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against gamma-crystallins or the novel Aey1-specific protein demonstrated the specific expression of the Aey1 protein in the cataractous lenses only; the truncated form of the gammaE-crystallin could not be detected. Therefore, it is concluded that the novel protein destroys the sensitive cellular structure of the eye lens. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic approaches to mouse mutagenesis.
Brown, S. D.; Balling, Rudi UL

in Current Opinion in Genetics and Development (2001), 11(3), 268-73

A major challenge in post-genomics is the systematic determination of mammalian gene function. A variety of mouse mutagenesis technologies, both gene- and phenotype-driven, are being used to underpin ... [more ▼]

A major challenge in post-genomics is the systematic determination of mammalian gene function. A variety of mouse mutagenesis technologies, both gene- and phenotype-driven, are being used to underpin systematic and comprehensive approaches to mammalian gene function studies. Recently, a number of centres have completed large-scale ENU mutagenesis programmes that employ a phenotype-driven approach to the generation of mouse mutants. The use of ENU mutagenesis represents a powerful and efficient approach to mammalian gene-function studies, but many parallel developments are needed in downstream technologies to properly harness the new enlarged mouse-mutant resources that are being created. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Dynamiques de l’emploi dans la Grande Région Saar-Lor-Lux
Belkacem, Rachid; Borsenberger, Monique; Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL et al

in Bulletin du STATEC. Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (2001), 4

Cette contribution est le résultat d’un travail collectif de quatre chercheurs appartenant respectivement au Groupe de Recherche sur l’Education et l’Emploi (GREE, Nancy), Centre d’Etudes de Populations ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution est le résultat d’un travail collectif de quatre chercheurs appartenant respectivement au Groupe de Recherche sur l’Education et l’Emploi (GREE, Nancy), Centre d’Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio - Economiques (CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg), et Etablissement Public de la Métropole Lorraine (EPML, Pont-à-Mousson). Elle concerne une préoccupation commune, à savoir les dynamiques de l’emploi dans la Grande Région Saar-Lor-Lux. L’article met en œuvre une démarche pluridisciplinaire mêlant les apports de la géographie, de l’histoire, de la sociologie, du droit et de l’économie. Ces quatre chercheurs appartiennent à un réseau plus large d’acteurs et d’institutions des quatre pays concernés, dont l’objectif est la réalisation d’un ouvrage sur la Grande Région. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of the genomic organization of Pax9 and its conserved physical association with Nkx2-9 in the human, mouse, and pufferfish genomes.
Santagati, F.; Gerber, J. K.; Blusch, J. H. et al

in Mammalian Genome (2001), 12(3), 232-7

As a first step towards the identification of cis-regulatory elements of Pax9 by means of comparative genomics, we have analyzed genome regions encompassing the Pax9 gene in three vertebrate species ... [more ▼]

As a first step towards the identification of cis-regulatory elements of Pax9 by means of comparative genomics, we have analyzed genome regions encompassing the Pax9 gene in three vertebrate species, humans, mice (Mus musculus), and the Japanese pufferfish (Fugu rubripes). We show the genomic organization of Pax9 and its physical association with Nkx2-9 conserved in the three species. We discuss about possible implications of the conserved synteny between Pax9 and Nkx2-9 in a context of vertebrate evolution. This report also includes the first description of the primary structures of Fugu Pax9 and Nkx2-9. Furthermore, we report the identification of a novel upstream exon and putative transcription start sites in mouse Pax9. Our results suggest that transcription of Pax9 may be initiated at two alternative start sites and driven by TATA-less promoters. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive methylation analysis in typical and atypical PWS and AS patients with normal biparental chromosomes 15
Runte, Maren UL; Faerber, Claudia; Lich, Christina et al

in European Journal of Human Genetics (2001), 9(7), 519-526

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See detailDynamics of the swollen lamellar phase
Schilling, Tanja UL; Theissen, O.; Gompper, G.

in European Physical Journal E. Soft Matter (2001), 4(1), 103-114

We investigate the dynamical behavior of lamellar phases in ternary amphiphilic systems of water, oil and amphiphile. The interaction between the amphiphilic monolayers is described by the steric ... [more ▼]

We investigate the dynamical behavior of lamellar phases in ternary amphiphilic systems of water, oil and amphiphile. The interaction between the amphiphilic monolayers is described by the steric interaction due to thermal fluctuations for uncharged, and by electrostatic interactions for charged systems. The dynamics of the system is determined by the hydrodynamics of the fluid layers. The basic parameters of our model are the viscosities of the two solvents, the average thicknesses of the oil and water layers, and the bending rigidity. The model allows to consider different monolayer interactions across the oil and water layers. Relaxation rates are calculated for arbitrary wave vectors parallel and perpendicular to the average monolayer plane. We find that there is a quite complex crossover behavior from a q2 law for small parallel wave vectors to a q3 law for large q . We discuss the relevance of our result for the interpretation of dynamic light-scattering and neutron-spin-echo experiments for these systems. [less ▲]

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See detailGPS measurements of vertical crustal motion in Greenland
Wahr, John; van Dam, Tonie UL; Larson, Kristine et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2001), 106(D24), 33755-33759

We have analyzed 5 years of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements taken at Kellyville, just off the western margin of the ice sheet in southern Greenland. A fit to the vertical component ... [more ▼]

We have analyzed 5 years of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements taken at Kellyville, just off the western margin of the ice sheet in southern Greenland. A fit to the vertical component gives a negative secular uplift rate of −5.8±1.0 mm/yr. A negative rate (i.e., a subsidence) is consistent with archeological and historical evidence that the surrounding region has been subsiding over the last 3 kyr. However, it is inconsistent with estimates of the Earth's continuing viscoelastic response to melting ice prior to 4 ka years ago, which predict that Kellyville should be uplifting, rather than subsiding, by 2.0±3.5 mm/yr. The resulting −7.8±3.6 mm/yr discrepancy is too large to be the result of loading from present-day changes in nearby ice. We show, instead, that it is consistent with independent suggestions that the western ice sheet margin in this region of Greenland may have advanced by ≈50 km during the past 3–4 kyr. [less ▲]

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See detail«Le jardin des délices/supplices de Claude Simon »
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in C.R.I.N. (2001)

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See detailThe battle of two genomes: genetics of bacterial host/pathogen interactions in mice.
Lengeling, A.; Pfeffer, K.; Balling, Rudi UL

in Mammalian Genome (2001), 12(4), 261-71

Genetic factors strongly determine the outcome of infectious diseases caused by various pathogens. The molecular mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility in humans, however, remains largely unknown ... [more ▼]

Genetic factors strongly determine the outcome of infectious diseases caused by various pathogens. The molecular mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility in humans, however, remains largely unknown. Complex interactions of multiple genes that control the host response to a pathogen further complicate the picture. Animal models have a tremendous potential to dissect the complex genetic system of host-pathogen interaction into single components. This is particularly true for the mouse, which will continue to develop into an invaluable tool in the identification and cloning of host resistance genes. Three main approaches have been taken to establish mouse models for human infectious diseases: 1) Production of mouse mutants by gene targeting; 2) positional cloning of host-resistance genes in mutant mice; and 3) mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the complex aspects of host-pathogen interactions. The contribution of all three methods to the understanding of infectious diseases in humans will be reviewed in this work, with a special emphasis on the studies of resistance/susceptibility mechanism in bacterial infections. [less ▲]

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See detailprosoDB: Eine multimediale Datenbankumgebung für konversationelle und prosodische Analysen
Gilles, Peter UL

in Gesprächsforschung : Online-Zeitschrift zur verbalen Interaktion (2001), (2), 75-89

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See detailLa politique commerciale commune selon le traité de Nice
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Cahiers de Droit Européen (2001), 5/6

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 14 novembre 2000
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; Kaplan, Charles

in Juris-Classeur périodique (2001)

Reconnaissance d’un jugement ignorant une clause compromissoire.

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See detailDécision de la Cour de cassation, 1ère Civ., 6 juillet 2000
Cuniberti, Gilles UL; Kaplan, Charles

in Juris-Classeur périodique (2001)

Conditions de la renonciation de l’Etat à son immunité d’exécution.

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See detailLa Communication de la Commission européenne sur le commerce électronique et les services financiers
Prüm, André UL

in Revue de Droit Bancaire et Financier (2001), 1620-9435(2), 80

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See detailThe IC-SNURF–SNRPN transcript serves as a host for multiple small nucleolar RNA species and as an antisense RNA for UBE3A
Runte, Maren UL; Huettenhofer, A; Groß, S et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2001), 10(23), 2687-2700

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See detailEin spannendes Mosaik. Bevölkerungs- und Raumentwicklung in den USA.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Kommune (2001), 19(7), 19-23

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See detailFamilial parkinsonism with synuclein pathology: clinical and PET studies of A30P mutation carriers.
Krüger, Rejko UL; Kuhn, W.; Leenders, K. L. et al

in Neurology (2001), 56(10), 1355-62

BACKGROUND: The authors identified the second known mutation in the alpha-synuclein(SNCA) gene, an alanine-to-proline exchange in amino acid position 30 (A30P), that cosegregates with the disease in one ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The authors identified the second known mutation in the alpha-synuclein(SNCA) gene, an alanine-to-proline exchange in amino acid position 30 (A30P), that cosegregates with the disease in one German family with autosomal dominantly inherited parkinsonism (ADP). The authors studied carriers of the A30P mutation to compare the phenotype of this mutation with idiopathic PD (IPD) and to assess nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in symptomatic and preclinical mutation carriers. METHODS: The pedigree of the A30P family spans five generations with five affected individuals. The authors performed detailed neurologic examinations followed by mutation analysis in 11 living individuals. In three mutation carriers, two individuals with definite PD and one person at risk for PD, they used L-[18]F-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-DOPA), [11]C-raclopride (RAC), and [18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to investigate presynaptic dopaminergic function, dopamine D2 receptors, and cerebral energy metabolism. The authors studied the cognitive functions of carriers of the A30P mutation using neuropsychological screening. RESULTS: PET studies revealed striatal presynaptic dopaminergic alterations consistent with sporadic IPD in two affected family members and no evidence for nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction in one presymptomatic mutation carrier. Neuropsychological testing in four mutation carriers provided evidence for cognitive impairment as a frequent and early symptom of the A30P mutation; this is also supported by regional cerebral energy metabolism alterations in the clinically presymptomatic subject. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of the A30P mutation in the SNCA gene is similar to that of sporadic IPD, including a high variability of the age at disease onset, ranging from 54 to 76 years. The follow-up of presymptomatic carriers of the A30P mutation may give insight into preclinical disease stages and early manifestations of PD. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged to the cytoplasmic tail of alphaIIb or beta3 allows the expression of a fully functional integrin alphaIIb(beta3): effect of beta3GFP on alphaIIb(beta3) ligand binding.
Plançon, Sébastien UL; Morel-Kopp, M. C.; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth UL et al

in The Biochemical journal (2001), 357(Pt 2), 529-36

Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an autofluorescent tag, we report the first successful visualization of a beta3 integrin in a living cell. GFP fused in frame to the cytoplasmic tail of either ... [more ▼]

Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an autofluorescent tag, we report the first successful visualization of a beta3 integrin in a living cell. GFP fused in frame to the cytoplasmic tail of either alphaIIb or beta3 allowed normal expression, heterodimerization, processing and surface exposure of alphaIIbGFPbeta3 and alphaIIb(beta3)GFP receptors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Direct microscopic observation of the autofluorescent cells in suspension following antibody-induced alphaIIb(beta3) capping revealed an intense autofluorescent cap corresponding to unlabelled immunoclustered GFP-tagged alphaIIb(beta3). GFP-tagged alphaIIbbeta3 receptors mediated fibrinogen-dependent cell adhesion, were readily detectable in focal adhesions of unstained living cells and triggered p125(FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation similar to wild-type alphaIIb(beta3) (where FAK corresponds to focal adhesion kinase). However, GFP tagged to beta3, but not to alphaIIb, induced spontaneous CHO cell aggregation in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, as well as binding of the fibrinogen mimetic monoclonal antibody PAC1 in the absence of alphaIIb(beta3) receptor activation. Time-lapse imaging of living transfectants revealed a characteristic redistribution of GFP-tagged alphaIIb(beta3) during the early stages of cell attachment and spreading, starting with alphaIIb(beta3) clustering at the rim of the cell contact area, that gradually overlapped with the boundary of the attached cell, and, with the onset of cell spreading, to a reorganization of alphaIIb(beta3) in focal adhesions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that (1) fusion of GFP to the cytoplasmic tail of either alphaIIb or beta3 integrin subunits allows normal cell surface expression of a functional receptor, and (2) structural modification of the beta3 integrin cytoplasmic tail, rather than the alphaIIb subunit, plays a major role in alphaIIb(beta3) affinity modulation. With the successful direct visualization of functional alphaIIb(beta3) receptors in living cells, the generation of autofluorescent integrins in transgenic animals will become possible, allowing new approaches to study the dynamics of integrin functions. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of sarcolemmal calcium pump attenuates induction of cardiac gene expression in response to ET-1.
Piuhola, J.; Hammes, A.; Schuh, K. et al

in American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology (2001), 281(3), 699-705

The function of the plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) in myocardium is unknown. PMCA is localized in caveolae, 50- to 100-nm membrane invaginations, which also contain receptors ... [more ▼]

The function of the plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) in myocardium is unknown. PMCA is localized in caveolae, 50- to 100-nm membrane invaginations, which also contain receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1) and various other ligands. PMCA has been suggested to play a role in regulation of caveolar signal transduction. We studied the effects of the hypertrophic agonist ET-1 and increased coronary perfusion pressure on cardiac synthesis of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in transgenic rats overexpressing the human PMCA 4CI in isolated perfused heart preparation. ET-1 infusion for 2 h increased BNP mRNA levels twofold in left ventricles (LV) of nontransgenic rats, whereas no increase was noted in PMCA rat hearts. Similar responses were seen in adrenomedullin and c-fos mRNA levels, and in immunoreactive BNP secretion. Increased mechanical load produced by elevated perfusion pressure induced similar 1.5- to 1.6-fold increases in LV BNP mRNA in both nontransgenic and PMCA rat hearts. These results show that cardiac overexpression of PMCA attenuates ET-1-stimulated early induction of cardiac gene expression, suggesting that PMCA may modulate myocardial growth responses. [less ▲]

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See detailCrustal displacements due to continental water loading
van Dam, Tonie UL; Wahr, J.; Milly, P. C. D. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2001), 28(4), 651-654

The effects of long-wavelength (>100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (ΔrM) have root-mean-square (RMS ... [more ▼]

The effects of long-wavelength (>100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (ΔrM) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994–1998 as large as 8 mm, with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare ΔrM with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (ΔrO) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the ΔrO time series are adjusted by ΔrM, their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the ΔrM. Of the ΔrO time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the ΔrM. The ΔrM time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or postglacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual precocity after immigration from developing countries to Belgium: Evidence of previous exposure to organochlorine pesticides
Krstevska-Konstantinova, M.; Charlier, C.; Craen, M. et al

in Human Reproduction (2001), 16(103), 1020-1026

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to ... [more ▼]

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to 5 years earlier from 22 developing countries, without any link to a particular ethnic or country background. The patients were either adopted (n = 28) or non-adopted (n = 12), the latter having normal weight and height at immigration and starting early puberty without evidence of earlier deprivation. This led to the hypothesis that the mechanism of precocious puberty might involve previous exposure to oestrogenic endocrine disrupters. A toxicological plasma screening for eight pesticides detected p,p′-DDE, which is derived from the organochlorine pesticide DDT. Median p,p′-DDE concentrations were respectively 1.20 and 1.04 ng/ml in foreign adopted (n = 15) and non-adopted (n = 11) girls with precocious puberty, while 13 out of 15 Belgian native girls with idiopathic or organic precocious puberty showed undetectable concentrations (<0.1 ng/ml). A possible relationship between transient exposure to endocrine disrupters and sexual precocity is suggested, and deserves further studies in immigrant children with non-advanced puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal Employment Subsidies to Heterogeneous Workers: Unemployment-Trap, Job-Additionality and Tax Rates
Picard, Pierre M UL

in Annales d’Economie et de Statistique = Annals of Economics and Statistics (2001), 62

Unemployment and welfare benefits generate unemployment traps. In this paper, we design the optimal employment subsidies that allow governments to reduce unemployment traps under constant budget deficit ... [more ▼]

Unemployment and welfare benefits generate unemployment traps. In this paper, we design the optimal employment subsidies that allow governments to reduce unemployment traps under constant budget deficit and without diminishing workers' welfare. We explore the effects of work incentives on the shape and on the properties of employment subsidies. We finally address the issues of self-help effect and job-additionality. [less ▲]

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See detailAlGaN/GaN HEMT Optimization Using the RoundHEMT Technology
Marso, Michel UL; Javorka, P.; Alam, A. et al

in Physica Status Solidi A. Applied Research (2001), 188

The electrical characterization of epitaxially grown HEMT layer systems for device fabrication is commonly performed by Hall measurements. However, the ultimate characterization of a HEMT layer system is ... [more ▼]

The electrical characterization of epitaxially grown HEMT layer systems for device fabrication is commonly performed by Hall measurements. However, the ultimate characterization of a HEMT layer system is the transistor device itself. The RoundHEMT concept meets the need for a device technology with few fabrication steps that allows a fast feedback to epitaxy while providing an evaluation of important electrical and also processing data. Even though nearly identical Hall data on structures with different thickness and doping concentration of the AlGaN layers suggest similar device properties, the RoundHEMTs resolve remarkable differences in device performance. The best layer structure was used to fabricate HEMTs with IDS = 700 mA/mm, fT = 35 GHz, and fmax = 70 GHz for LG = 0.2 mm. [less ▲]

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See detailThe plasmamembrane calmodulin-dependent calcium pump: a major regulator of nitric oxide synthase I.
Schuh, K.; Uldrijan, S.; Telkamp, M. et al

in The Journal of cell biology (2001), 155(2), 201-5

The plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) (Shull, G.E., and J. Greeb. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:8646-8657; Verma, A.K., A.G. Filoteo, D.R. Stanford, E.D. Wieben, J.T. Penniston ... [more ▼]

The plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPase (PMCA) (Shull, G.E., and J. Greeb. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:8646-8657; Verma, A.K., A.G. Filoteo, D.R. Stanford, E.D. Wieben, J.T. Penniston, E.E. Strehler, R. Fischer, R. Heim, G. Vogel, S. Mathews, et al. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:14152-14159; Carafoli, E. 1997. Basic Res. Cardiol. 92:59-61) has been proposed to be a regulator of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction networks of the cell. However, little is known about its precise mechanisms of action. Knock-out of (mainly neuronal) isoform 2 of the enzyme resulted in hearing loss and balance deficits due to severe inner ear defects, affecting formation and maintenance of otoconia (Kozel, P.J., R.A. Friedman, L.C. Erway, E.N. Yamoah, L.H. Liu, T. Riddle, J.J. Duffy, T. Doetschman, M.L. Miller, E.L. Cardell, and G.E. Shull. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 273:18693-18696). Here we demonstrate that PMCA 4b is a negative regulator of nitric oxide synthase I (NOS-I, nNOS) in HEK293 embryonic kidney and neuro-2a neuroblastoma cell models. Binding of PMCA 4b to NOS-I was mediated by interaction of the COOH-terminal amino acids of PMCA 4b and the PDZ domain of NOS-I (PDZ: PSD 95/Dlg/ZO-1 protein domain). Increasing expression of wild-type PMCA 4b (but not PMCA mutants unable to bind PDZ domains or devoid of Ca2+-transporting activity) dramatically downregulated NO synthesis from wild-type NOS-I. A NOS-I mutant lacking the PDZ domain was not regulated by PMCA, demonstrating the specific nature of the PMCA-NOS-I interaction. Elucidation of PMCA as an interaction partner and major regulator of NOS-I provides evidence for a new dimension of integration between calcium and NO signaling pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailParticipation of NK1 receptors in nociceptin-induced modulation of rat knee joint mechanosensitivity
McDougall, Jason; Hanesch, Ulrike UL; Pawlak, Matthias et al

in Experimental Brain Research (2001), 137

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See detailReprésentations irréductibles bornées des groupes de Lie exponentiels
Ludwig, Jean; Molitor-Braun, Carine UL

in Canadian Journal of Mathematics (2001), 53(5), 944-978

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See detailHollow-ion formation in microcapillaries
Tokesi, K.; Wirtz, Ludger UL; Lemell, C. et al

in Physical Review. A (2001), 64(4),

Transmission of highly charged ions through microcapillaries is studied theoretically by a classical trajectory simulation. The interaction of highly charged ions with the internal surface of the ... [more ▼]

Transmission of highly charged ions through microcapillaries is studied theoretically by a classical trajectory simulation. The interaction of highly charged ions with the internal surface of the capillary is treated within the framework of dielectric-response theory. The simulation is based on the classical over-the-barrier model modified for open cylindrical surfaces. The multielectron evolution and relaxation is taken into account as a stochastic event sequence. We consider N6+ and Ne10+ with an energy of 2.1 keV/amu passing through a metallic microcapillary of Ni. We analyze the distance of closest approach. the angular distribution, and the distribution of the mean occupation numbers of n shells of highly charged ions. We find the resulting charge state distribution of transmitted projectiles in good agreement with recent measurements. Implications for nanotube targets will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA flexible and stable numerical method for the decomposition process of wood particles.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Bruch, Christian

in Chemosphere (2001), 42

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See detailReview of: B. Sowinski. Stilistik and G. Molinié. La stylistique
Weber, Jean-Jacques UL

in BELL. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literatures (2001), 10

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See detailReflexive Perspektivenwechsel im Umgang mit Heterogenität und ,Geschlecht’
Karl, Ute UL

in EWI-Report (2001), (24), 14-15

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See detailActA and human zyxin harbour Arp2/3-independent actin-polymerization activity.
Fradelizi, J.; Noireaux, V.; Plastino, J. et al

in Nature Cell Biology (2001), 3(8), 699-707

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network that is composed of a variety of F-actin structures. To understand how these structures are produced, we tested the capacity of proteins to direct actin ... [more ▼]

The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network that is composed of a variety of F-actin structures. To understand how these structures are produced, we tested the capacity of proteins to direct actin polymerization in a bead assay in vitro and in a mitochondrial-targeting assay in cells. We found that human zyxin and the related protein ActA of Listeria monocytogenes can generate new actin structures in a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-dependent (VASP) manner, but independently of the Arp2/3 complex. These results are consistent with the concept that there are multiple actin-polymerization machines in cells. With these simple tests it is possible to probe the specific function of proteins or identify novel molecules that act upon cellular actin polymerization. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutralizing monoclonal antibodies can potentiate IL-5 signaling
Zabeau, L.; Van der Heyden, J.; Broekaert, D. et al

in European Journal of Immunology (2001), 31(4), 1087-97

IL-5 is a major determinant in the survival, differentiation and effector-functions of eosinophils. It mediates its effect upon binding and activation of a membrane bound receptor (R), composed of a ... [more ▼]

IL-5 is a major determinant in the survival, differentiation and effector-functions of eosinophils. It mediates its effect upon binding and activation of a membrane bound receptor (R), composed of a ligand-specific alpha-chain and a beta-chain, shared with the receptors for IL-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We have generated and mapped the epitopes of three monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against this cytokine: the strong neutralizing mAb 5A5 and 1E1, and the very weak neutralizing mAb H30. We found that H30 as well as 5A5 can increase proliferation above the level induced by human (h)IL-5 alone, in a JAK-2-dependent manner, and at every sub-optimal hIL-5 concentration analyzed. This effect is dependent on mAb-mediated cross-linking of IL-5R complexes, and is only observed on cell lines expressing a hybrid human/mouse IL-5Ralpha-chain. We discuss these findings in view of the stoichiometric and topological requirements for an activated IL-5R. Since humanized anti-IL-5 mAb are currently in clinical testing, our findings imply that such mAb should be carefully evaluated for their potentiating effects. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelations between the incidence of childhood onset type 1 diabetes in Europe and HLA genotypes
Ronningen, K.S.; Keiding, N.; Green, A. et al

in Diabetologia (2001), 44(3), 51-59

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See detailWhy Dewey now?
Biesta, Gert UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Historiographie (2001), 7(2), 71-75

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See detailA pet study of human skill learning: Changes in brain activity related to learning an orientation discrimination task
Schiltz, Christine UL; Bodart, Jean-Michel; Michel, Christian et al

in Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior (2001), 37(2), 243-265

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography we investigated the effect of training in orientation discrimination upon cerebral activity in healthy human adults. When subjects are trained in this ... [more ▼]

Using 15O-water 3D positron emission tomography we investigated the effect of training in orientation discrimination upon cerebral activity in healthy human adults. When subjects are trained in this discrimination task, they learn the visuo-motor stimulus-response association required by the task and they increase their perceptual abilities in orientation discrimination. The present study was designed to investigate the rCBF modifications related to both these learning processes induced by training in orientation discrimination. PET data were acquired on two separate days (before and after training). Comparing the activation pattern related to orientation discrimination before and after the training period we observed activity decreases located in the left cerebellar cortex, in the right precentral gyrus and bilaterally in the fusiform gyri. The only region showing an activity increase was located in the body of the right caudate nucleus. These findings confirm the role of the neostriatum in skill learning and highlight the importance of mechanisms resulting in cortical and cerebellar neuronal activity decreases in this type of learning. [less ▲]

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