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See detailA prosopography of Breton rulership, A.D. 818-952
Pettiau, Hérold UL

in Journal of Celtic Studies (2004), 4

My aim in this article is to gather the contemporary sources dealing with Breton rulers and their relatives into a comprehensive and systematic prosopographical survey, dor it is striking to what extent ... [more ▼]

My aim in this article is to gather the contemporary sources dealing with Breton rulers and their relatives into a comprehensive and systematic prosopographical survey, dor it is striking to what extent received accounts rely on late texts. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutronen sehen Spinorientierung auf Nanoskala
Weissmüller, J.; Michels, Andreas UL

in Physik in unserer Zeit (2004), 35

Die attraktiven magnetischen Eigenschaften nanokristalliner Weichmagnete werden darauf zurückgeführt, dass bei geringer Kristallitgröße die Orientierung der Spins den Sprüngen in den magnetisch leichten ... [more ▼]

Die attraktiven magnetischen Eigenschaften nanokristalliner Weichmagnete werden darauf zurückgeführt, dass bei geringer Kristallitgröße die Orientierung der Spins den Sprüngen in den magnetisch leichten Richtungen von Kristallit zu Kristallit nicht mehr folgen kann. Physiker am Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe konnten jüngst diese Vorhersage mit Neutronenstreuung überprüfen. [less ▲]

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See detailDokumentation Internationale Quellen zum Unternehmensrecht
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL

in Der Konzern (2004)

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See detailAgainst learning. Reclaiming a language for education in an age of learning.
Biesta, Gert UL

in Nordic Studies in Education (2004), 23

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See detailThe European dimension for the mouse genome mutagenesis program.
Auwerx, Johan; Avner, Phil; Baldock, Richard et al

in Nature Genetics (2004), 36(9), 925-7

The European Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium is the European initiative contributing to the international effort on functional annotation of the mouse genome. Its objectives are to establish and integrate ... [more ▼]

The European Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium is the European initiative contributing to the international effort on functional annotation of the mouse genome. Its objectives are to establish and integrate mutagenesis platforms, gene expression resources, phenotyping units, storage and distribution centers and bioinformatics resources. The combined efforts will accelerate our understanding of gene function and of human health and disease. [less ▲]

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See detailWeak convergence to Ocone martingales: a remark
Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Electronic Communications in Probability (2004), 9

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See detailEvaluation professionnelle compréhensive du programme obésité en Polynésie Française
Baumann, Michèle UL; Cao, M. M.

in Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales (2004), 44(2), 187-202

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See detailConstructivism, educational research, and John Dewey.
Vanderstraeten, Raf; Biesta, Gert UL

in Karl Jaspers Forum (2004)

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See detailMeasurements and particle resolved modelling of the thermo-and fluid dynamics of a packed bed.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Bruch, Christian; Schröder, E.

in Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis (2004), (70), 211-233

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See detailLes villes de Luxembourg et d’Esch-sur-Alzette : quelques aspects économiques et géographiques à la lumière du recensement de 2001
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Gerber, Philippe

in Population et Territoire (2004), 4

Une comparaison des deux grandes villes luxembourgeoises, à travers les données du dernier recensement de 2001, apporte un nouvel éclairage des structures économiques et géographiques de leur population ... [more ▼]

Une comparaison des deux grandes villes luxembourgeoises, à travers les données du dernier recensement de 2001, apporte un nouvel éclairage des structures économiques et géographiques de leur population urbaine. En effet, nous remarquons que les villes de Luxembourg et d’Esch-sur-Alzette connaissent un vieillissement démographique atténué par une concentration d’un grand nombre d’étrangers, ces der-niers étant notamment surreprésentés dans les tranches d’âge actif. Cependant, les étrangers ne présentent pas les mêmes caractéristiques, tant par rapport au niveau d’éducation que de l’emploi qu’ils occupent. Ainsi, près de la moitié des Eschois ayant terminé leurs études ont uniquement suivi l’enseignement primaire ; un quart des habitants de la capitale sont dans ce cas. Cet écart se reporte notamment sur la proportion d’ouvriers, bien plus importante à Esch-sur-Alzette (60% des hommes par exemple) qu’à Luxembourg-Ville (32%). Par contre, la ségrégation socio-spatiale paraît plus accentuée au sein de la capitale du Grand-Duché, cette différence étant notamment liée à l’hétérogénéité de l’activité professionnelle (secteur international et place financière entre autres). [less ▲]

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See detailPolarity-directed analog electrooptic switching in a low-polarization chiral smectic liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy
Lagerwall, Jan UL; Kane, Alexander; Clark, Noel A. et al

in Physical Review. E ,Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2004), 70(3), 031703

We describe an analog electro-optic (EO) switching mechanism occurring in thin cells filled with a low- polarization ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture with positive dielectric anisotropy. The mixture ... [more ▼]

We describe an analog electro-optic (EO) switching mechanism occurring in thin cells filled with a low- polarization ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture with positive dielectric anisotropy. The mixture is composed of an achiral nonpolar smectic-C 􏰐Sm-C􏰋 host doped with a small amount of a commercially available unichiral compound. The switching mechanism provides analog EO behavior, and thus could be attractive for informa- tion display applications. The process is polarization-driven for weak fields, while for higher field strength the dielectric coupling dominates the process. [less ▲]

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See detailUCHL1 is a Parkinson's disease susceptibility gene.
Maraganore, Demetrius M.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Elbaz, Alexis et al

in Annals of neurology (2004), 55(4), 512-21

The reported inverse association between the S18Y variant of the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene and Parkinson's disease (PD) has strong biological plausibility. If confirmed, genetic ... [more ▼]

The reported inverse association between the S18Y variant of the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) gene and Parkinson's disease (PD) has strong biological plausibility. If confirmed, genetic association of this variant with PD may support molecular targeting of the UCHL1 gene and its product as a therapeutic strategy for PD. In this light, we performed a collaborative pooled analysis of individual-level data from all 11 published studies of the UCHL1 S18Y gene variant and PD. There were 1,970 cases and 2,224 unrelated controls. We found a statistically significant inverse association of S18Y with PD. Carriers of the variant allele (Y/Y plus Y/S vs S/S) had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.95) and homozygotes for the variant allele (Y/Y vs S/S plus Y/S) had an OR of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.88). There was a linear trend in the log OR consistent with a gene dose effect (p = 0.01). The inverse association was most apparent for young cases compared with young controls. There was no evidence for publication bias and the associations remained significant after excluding the first published, hypothesis-generating study. These findings confirm that UCHL1 is a susceptibility gene for PD and a potential target for disease-modifying therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailSchuldfähigkeit, Dissozialität und Psychopathy - eine Gutachtenanalyse
Schmidt, Alexander F. UL; Scholz, Oskar B.; Nedopil, Norbert

in Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform (2004), 87

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Neuere Ansätze der Schuldfähigkeitsbegutachtung machen auf das Problem der differentialdiagnostischen Abgrenzung von Dissozialität und störungsbedingtem Verhalten aufmerksam ... [more ▼]

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Neuere Ansätze der Schuldfähigkeitsbegutachtung machen auf das Problem der differentialdiagnostischen Abgrenzung von Dissozialität und störungsbedingtem Verhalten aufmerksam. Aus differentialtypologischer Sicht kommt dem Psychopathy-Konstrukt sensu Hare hierbei eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Fragestellung: In welchem empirischem Zusammenhang mit der Schuldfähigkeit lässt sich das Psychopathy-Konstrukt als Extrembeispiel des dissozialen Typus finden? Methode: Aus einer Inhaltsanalyse von 33 Schuldfähigkeitsgutachten liegen die PCL-R Scores vor. Hieraus werden Gruppenunterschiede berechnet, Zusammenhangsmaße für Gesamtscore und Einzelfaktoren mit den jeweiligen Schuldfähigkeitsgruppen und das Klassifizierungsvermögen. Ergebnisse: Es findet sich kein statistisch bedeutsamer Unterschied zwischen Schuld- und vermindert Schuldfähigen. Für Faktor 2 der PCL-R findet sich ein mäßiger Zusammenhang mit verminderter Schuldfähigkeit und eine geringe diskriminatorische Bedeutung. Diskussion: Die Befunde werden vor den historisch-konventionalen Forderungen von Justiz und Psychiatrie einerseits und entwicklungspsychologischer Befunde zum Phänomen der Dissozialität andererseits diskutiert. [less ▲]

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See detailSNURF-SNRPN and UBE3A transcript levels in patients with Angelman syndrome
Runte, Maren UL; Kroisel, PM; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G et al

in Human Genetics (2004), 114(6), 553-561

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See detailJacques Derrida’s religion with/out religion and the im/possibility of religious education.
Miedema, S.; Biesta, Gert UL

in Religious Education (2004), 99(1), 23-37

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See detailTime hierarchies in the Escherichia coli carbohydrate uptake and metabolism.
Kremling, A.; Fischer, S.; Sauter, Thomas UL et al

in Bio Systems (2004), 73(1), 57-71

The analysis of metabolic pathways with mathematical models contributes to the better understanding of the behavior of metabolic processes. This paper presents the analysis of a mathematical model for ... [more ▼]

The analysis of metabolic pathways with mathematical models contributes to the better understanding of the behavior of metabolic processes. This paper presents the analysis of a mathematical model for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism in Escherichia coli. It is shown that the dynamic processes cover a broad time span from some milliseconds to several hours. Based on this analysis the fast processes could be described with steady-state characteristic curves. A subsequent robustness analysis of the model parameters shows that the fast part of the system may act as a filter for the slow part of the system; the sensitivities of the fast system are conserved. From these findings it is concluded that the slow part of the system shows some robustness against changes in parameters of the fast subsystem, i.e. if a parameter shows no sensitivity for the fast part of the system, it will also show no sensitivity for the slow part of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of synphilin-1 in synaptic function and protein degradation.
Krüger, Rejko UL

in Cell and Tissue Research (2004), 318(1), 195-9

The name synphilin-1 comes from its identification as an alpha-synuclein-interacting protein (SNCAIP) in yeast two-hybrid screens. Since alpha-synuclein ( PARK1) was the first gene identified as causing ... [more ▼]

The name synphilin-1 comes from its identification as an alpha-synuclein-interacting protein (SNCAIP) in yeast two-hybrid screens. Since alpha-synuclein ( PARK1) was the first gene identified as causing inherited forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), synphilin-1 was quickly implicated in neurodegeneration in PD. Recently, the first genetic evidence for the direct contribution of synphilin-1 in the pathogenesis of PD has been defined with the identification of an R621C mutation as a susceptibility factor for PD in two German patients. Extensive in vitro studies have determined the physiological functions of synphilin-1, identified novel synphilin-1-interacting proteins, and linked synphilin-1 to ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. The present article provides an overview of the current concepts of the role of synphilin-1 in synaptic function and protein degradation and in the molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in PD. [less ▲]

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See detailPhonon and plasmon excitation in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of graphite
Vitali, L.; Schneider, M. A.; Kern, K. et al

in Physical Review. B (2004), 69(12),

The inelastic electron tunneling spectrum (IETS) of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite has been measured with scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at 6 K. The observed spectral features are in very good ... [more ▼]

The inelastic electron tunneling spectrum (IETS) of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite has been measured with scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at 6 K. The observed spectral features are in very good agreement with the vibrational density of states of graphite calculated from first principles. We discuss the enhancement of certain phonon modes by phonon-assisted tunneling in STS based on the restrictions imposed by the electronic structure of graphite. We also demonstrate the local excitation of surface plasmons in IETS, which are detected at an energy of 40 meV. [less ▲]

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See detail(-)-isopinocampheol substituted mesogens: An investigation of the effect of bulky terminal groups in chiral smectic liquid crystals
Yates, Chris; Lagerwall, Jan UL; Nobili, Maurizio et al

in Ferroelectrics (2004), 311

A ferroelectric liquid crystal with an end-substituted (-)-isopinocampheol (IPC) group has been studied in isolation and in mixtures with the antiferroelectric compound EHPOCBC. The samples were studied ... [more ▼]

A ferroelectric liquid crystal with an end-substituted (-)-isopinocampheol (IPC) group has been studied in isolation and in mixtures with the antiferroelectric compound EHPOCBC. The samples were studied with respect to electroclinic coefficients, tilt angles, X-ray layer spacing, dielectric permittivity, spontaneous polarisation and relative birefringence under an applied field. In the pure isopinocampheol substituted compound, the SmA-SmC phase transition appears strongly first order and is associated with a significant increase in effective birefringence. The smectic layer spacing decreases below the transition approximately with the optical tilt. On increased EHPOCBC concentration the change in birefringence across the transition diminishes, until the point at which the mixture adopts an anticlinic SmC(A) phase, and the expected decrease in birefringence is observed. There is very little change in birefringence with field for the IPC compound, whilst EHPOCBC shows a marked increase with increasing field, for a few degrees above the phase transition. The results are analyzed with respect to two models. In one it is proposed that the bulky IPC group disorders the SmA phase by introducing undulations in the smectic layer. These undulations may disappear in the SmC phase due to an antiparallel arrangement of neighbouring molecules. In the other model the bent shape of the mesogen as a whole plays a crucial role in changing the optical properties at the SmA-SmC transition, due to the biased rotation around the molecular axis of inertia. [less ▲]

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See detailMehrsprachigkeit im Klassenzimmer - die Chancen des Fremdsprachenfrühunterrichts
Ehrhart, Sabine UL

in Neusprachliche Mitteilungen aus Wissenschaft und Praxis (2004), (2), 75-79

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See detailModeling of Wideband MIMO Radio Channels Based on NLOS Indoor Measurements
Yu, Kai; Bengtsson, Mats; Ottersten, Björn UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2004), 53(3), 655665

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See detailInterpreneurship’: Organisational (re)emergence and entrepreneurial development in a second-generation family firm
Fletcher, Denise Elaine UL

in International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (2004), 10(1/2), 34-48

Although there has been some attention to how notions of entrepreneurship and family intersect in the life of family businesses, intensive analysis of these issues in relation to inter-generational and ... [more ▼]

Although there has been some attention to how notions of entrepreneurship and family intersect in the life of family businesses, intensive analysis of these issues in relation to inter-generational and organisational emergence in small family firms is underdeveloped. In order to redress this imbalance, it is important to undertake intensive analysis of entrepreneurial issues alongside those of family, ownership, management and inter-generational emergence. This is undertaken in this article using a biographical analysis of two second generation owner-managers and sons-in-law of the original founders of a small manufacturing company in the UK. Working with his younger brother-in-law, they are responsible for taking a small steeplejack company into its second/third generation and a new electrical engineering market. As the younger brother-in-law takes on an entrepreneurial role within the company and endeavours to develop new opportunities, the Chairman gives an account of the struggles involved in achieving a balance between ownership, management and family tensions. The notion of ‘interpreneurship’ whereby family members are interacting and creating new possibilities for themselves, their lives, their organizations whilst drawing upon past events, happenings, experiences and conversations that have gone before, is considered in the context of inter-generational (re) emergence. [less ▲]

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See detail«L'expérience gustative au péril de ses excès»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Voir (2004)

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See detailRational torsion of J_0(N) for hyperelliptic modular curves and families of Jacobians of genus 2 and genus 3 curves with a rational point of order 5, 7 or 10
Leprévost, Franck UL; Pohst, Michael; Schöpp, Andreas

in Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universität Hamburg (2004), 74

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See detailZur Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft im Zeitalter der Globalisierung
Klump, Rainer UL

in List-Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik (2004)

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See detailLand for Logistics. locational dynamics, real estate markets and political regulation of regional distribution complexes.
Hesse, Markus UL

in Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie = Journal of Economic & Social Geography (2004), 95(2), 162-173

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See detailNon observance des psychotropes: implication thérapeutique mutuelle du patient et du médecin généraliste
Baumann, Michèle UL; Baumann, C.; Alla, F.

in Presse Médicale (2004), 33(7), 445-448

Différencier, sur une période de 5 ans, les consommateurs de psychotropes non-observants (Nob), des observants (Ob) en fonction de leurs caractéristiques démographiques et de leurs opinions sur la ... [more ▼]

Différencier, sur une période de 5 ans, les consommateurs de psychotropes non-observants (Nob), des observants (Ob) en fonction de leurs caractéristiques démographiques et de leurs opinions sur la confiance accordée aux prescripteurs, les effets de la prise, le discours de l’entourage, les informations reçues. Méthode. Parmi 166 consommateurs âgés en moyenne de 55 ans, deux questions pour chaque psychotrope consommé pendant une durée de 5 ans ont permis de les classer en Ob ou Nob. Les données ont été recueillies par auto-questionnaire et entretien téléphonique. Résultats Trente-neuf pour cent des consommateurs ont été définis comme Nob. Les médicaments psychotropes sont prescrits en majorité par des médecins généralistes, dont la clientèle est moins souvent observante que celle des psychiatres. Les Nob sont plus enclins à ressentir les effets positifs après une prise et à déclarer pouvoir s’en passer. Quatre-vingt-dix pour cent des consommateurs déclarent porter un regard positif sur les psychotropes et 40% parlent de leur consommation à leur entourage ; les Nob sont plus nombreux à le faire. Seuls 12% des consommateurs ne cherchent pas d’informations sur les psychotropes car ils font confiance aux prescripteurs. Discussion Les consommateurs de psychotropes nécessitent une éducation thérapeutique mieux adaptée à leurs attentes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mesure conservatoire pratiquée sur le fondement d’un jugement étranger
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Droit et Procédures (2004)

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See detailArray Interpolation and Bias Reduction
Hyberg, Per; Jansson, Magnus; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2004), 52(10), 27112720

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See detailHousehold robots look and learn
Kröse, B.; Bunschoten, R.; ten Hagen, S. et al

in IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine (2004), 11(4), 45-52

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See detailFunctional calculus in weighted group algebras
Dziubanski, Jacek; Ludwig, Jean; Molitor-Braun, Carine UL

in Revista Matemática Complutense (2004), 17(2), 321-357

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See detailDer Fragebogen Karls des Großen. Ein wenig bekanntes Dokument aus der Vorgeschichte der Umfrageforschung
Voss, Peter UL; Petersen, Thomas; Grube, Norbert et al

in Koelner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (2004), 56(4), 736-745

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See detailKnizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations for positive genus and Krichever-Novikov algebras
Schlichenmaier, Martin UL; Sheinman, Oleg K.

in Russian Mathematical Surveys (2004), 59(4), 737-770

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See detailSelf-Poisoning of Crystal Nuclei in Hard-Rod Liquids
Schilling, Tanja UL; Frenkel, Daan

in Physical Review Letters (2004), 92(8),

We report a Monte Carlo study of the pathway for crystal nucleation in a fluid of hard, colloidal rods. In the earliest stages of nucleation, a lamellar crystallite forms. Subsequent thickening of this ... [more ▼]

We report a Monte Carlo study of the pathway for crystal nucleation in a fluid of hard, colloidal rods. In the earliest stages of nucleation, a lamellar crystallite forms. Subsequent thickening of this lamella is hampered by the fact that the top and bottom surfaces of this crystallite are preferentially covered by rods that align parallel to the surface. As a consequence, subsequent growth of individual crystals is stunted. Experimental evidence for such stunted crystal growth has recently been reported by Maeda and Maeda in experiments on suspensions of colloidal rods [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 018303 (2003)]. The simulations suggest that, in experiments, the growth of multilayer colloidal crystals can be selectively enhanced by the application of an external aligning field. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel functional interaction between the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump 4b and the proapoptotic tumor suppressor Ras-associated factor 1 (RASSF1).
Armesilla, Angel L.; Williams, Judith C.; Buch, Mamta H. et al

in The Journal of biological chemistry (2004), 279(30), 31318-28

Plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are enzymatic systems implicated in the extrusion of calcium from the cell. We and others have previously identified molecular interactions ... [more ▼]

Plasma membrane calmodulin-dependent calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are enzymatic systems implicated in the extrusion of calcium from the cell. We and others have previously identified molecular interactions between the cytoplasmic COOH-terminal end of PMCA and PDZ domain-containing proteins. These interactions suggested a new role for PMCA as a modulator of signal transduction pathways. The existence of other intracellular regions in the PMCA molecule prompted us to investigate the possible participation of other domains in interactions with different partner proteins. A two-hybrid screen of a human fetal heart cDNA library, using the region 652-840 of human PMCA4b (located in the catalytic, second intracellular loop) as bait, revealed a novel interaction between PMCA4b and the tumor suppressor RASSF1, a Ras effector protein involved in H-Ras-mediated apoptosis. Immunofluorescence co-localization, immunoprecipitation, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments performed in mammalian cells provided further confirmation of the physical interaction between the two proteins. The interaction domain has been narrowed down to region 74-123 of RASSF1C (144-193 in RASSF1A) and 652-748 of human PMCA4b. The functionality of this interaction was demonstrated by the inhibition of the epidermal growth factor-dependent activation of the Erk pathway when PMCA4b and RASSF1 were co-expressed. This inhibition was abolished by blocking PMCA/RASSSF1 association with an excess of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein containing the region 50-123 of RASSF1C. This work describes a novel protein-protein interaction involving a domain of PMCA other than the COOH terminus. It suggests a function for PMCA4b as an organizer of macromolecular protein complexes, where PMCA4b could recruit diverse proteins through interaction with different domains. Furthermore, the functional association with RASSF1 indicates a role for PMCA4b in the modulation of Ras-mediated signaling. [less ▲]

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See detailJanus kinase (Jak) subcellular localization revisited: the exclusive membrane localization of endogenous Janus kinase 1 by cytokine receptor interaction uncovers the Jak.receptor complex to be equivalent to a receptor tyrosine kinase
Behrmann, Iris UL; Smyczek, Tanja; Heinrich, Peter C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(34), 35486-93

The Janus kinases are considered to be cytoplasmic kinases that constitutively associate with the cytoplasmic region of cytokine receptors, and the Janus kinases (Jaks) are crucial for cytokine signal ... [more ▼]

The Janus kinases are considered to be cytoplasmic kinases that constitutively associate with the cytoplasmic region of cytokine receptors, and the Janus kinases (Jaks) are crucial for cytokine signal transduction. We investigated Jak1 localization using subcellular fractionation techniques and fluorescence microscopy (immunofluorescence and yellow fluorescent protein-tagged Jaks). In the different experimental approaches we found Jak1 (as well as Jak2 and Tyk2) predominantly located at membranes. In contrast to previous reports we did not observe Jak proteins in significant amounts within the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic localization observed for the Jak1 mutant L80A/Y81A, which is unable to associate with cytokine receptors, indicates that Jak1 does not have a strong intrinsic membrane binding potential and that only receptor binding is crucial for the membrane recruitment. Finally we show that Jak1 remains a membrane-localized protein after cytokine stimulation. These data strongly support the hypothesis that cytokine receptor.Janus kinase complexes can be regarded as receptor tyrosine kinases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of the inhibitors of interleukin-6 signal transduction SHP2 and SOCS3 for desensitization of interleukin-6 signalling
Fischer, P.; Lehmann, U.; Sobota, R. M. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 378(Pt 2), 449-60

The immediate early response of cells treated with IL-6 (interleukin-6) is the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing ... [more ▼]

The immediate early response of cells treated with IL-6 (interleukin-6) is the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the feedback inhibitor SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling) are potent inhibitors of IL-6 signal transduction. Impaired function of SOCS3 or SHP2 leads to enhanced and prolonged IL-6 signalling. The inhibitory function of both proteins depends on their recruitment to the tyrosine motif 759 within glycoprotein gp130. In contrast to inactivation, desensitization of signal transduction is regarded as impaired responsiveness due to prestimulation. Usually, after activation the sensing receptor becomes inactivated by modifications such as phosphorylation, internalization or degradation. We designed an experimental approach which allows discrimination between desensitization and inactivation of IL-6 signal transduction. We observed that pre-stimulation with IL-6 renders cells less sensitive to further stimulation with IL-6. After several hours, the cells become sensitive again. We show that not only signal transduction through previously activated receptors is affected by desensitization but signalling through receptors which were not targeted by the first stimulation was also attenuated ( trans -desensitization). Interestingly, in contrast to inhibition, desensitization does not depend on the presence of functional SHP2. Furthermore, cells lacking SOCS3 show constitutive STAT3 activation which is not affected by pre-stimulation with IL-6. All these observations suggest that desensitization and inhibition of signalling are mechanistically distinct. [less ▲]

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See detailFormation and electronic properties of BC3 single-wall nanotubes upon boron substitution of carbon nanotubes
Fuentes, G. G.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Knupfer, M. et al

in Physical Review. B (2004), 69(24),

We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study on the electronic and optical properties of highly boron-substituted (up to 15 at.%) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Core-level electron energy-loss ... [more ▼]

We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study on the electronic and optical properties of highly boron-substituted (up to 15 at.%) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Core-level electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveals that the boron incorporates into the lattice structure of the tubes, transferring similar to1/2 hole per boron atom into the carbon derived unoccupied density of states. The charge transfer and the calculated Fermi-energy shift in the doped nanotubes evidence that a simple rigid-band model can be ruled out and that additional effects such as charge localization and doping induced band-structure changes play an important role at this high doping levels. In optical absorption a new peak appears at 0.4 eV which is independent of the doping level. Compared to the results from a series of ab initio calculations our results support the selective doping of semiconducting nanotubes and the formation of BC3 nanotubes instead of a homogeneous random boron substitution. [less ▲]

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See detailChoice procedures in pairwise comparison multiple-attribute decision making methods
Bisdorff, Raymond UL; Roubens, M.

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2004), 3051

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See detailAllgemeine Didaktik revisited
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Beiträge zur Lehrerbildung (2004), 22

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See detailCharacterisation of muniipal solid waste combustion in a great furnace.
Peters, Bernhard UL; Frey, Hannes; Hunsinger, H. et al

in Waste Management (2004), 23(8)

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See detailEmpirical Likelihood Based Inference in Conditional Moment Restriction Models
Kitamura, Yuichi; Tripathi, Gautam UL; Ahn, Hyungtaik

in Econometrica (2004), 72

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See detailDie Bedeutung der Philosophie für einen Theologen,
Weber, Jean-Marie UL

in Nos Cahiers (2004), 1/ 2003

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See detailBook review of : M. ERBE, Die Habsburger 1493-1918. Eine Dynastie im Reich und in Europa, 2000
Weis, Monique UL

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2004), 82

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See detailA Note on Compatibility and Entry in a Circular Model of Product Differentiation
Jonard, Nicolas UL; Schenk, Eric

in Economics Bulletin (2004), 12

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See detailEducation, accountability and the ethical demand. Can the democratic potential of accountability be regained?
Biesta, Gert UL

in Educational Theory (2004), 54(3), 233-250

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See detailConformational subspace in simulation of early-stage protein folding
Jurkowski, Wiktor UL; Brylinski, Michal; Konieczny, Leszek et al

in Proteins (2004), 55(1), 115-27

A probability calculus was used to simulate the early stages of protein folding in ab initio structure prediction. The probabilities of particular phi and psi angles for each of 20 amino acids as they ... [more ▼]

A probability calculus was used to simulate the early stages of protein folding in ab initio structure prediction. The probabilities of particular phi and psi angles for each of 20 amino acids as they occur in crystal forms of proteins were used to calculate the amount of information necessary for the occurrence of given phi and psi angles to be predicted. It was found that the amount of information needed to predict phi and psi angles with 5 degrees precision is much higher than the amount of information actually carried by individual amino acids in the polypeptide chain. To handle this problem, a limited conformational space for the preliminary search for optimal polypeptide structure is proposed based on a simplified geometrical model of the polypeptide chain and on the probability calculus. These two models, geometric and probabilistic, based on different sources, yield a common conclusion concerning how a limited conformational space can represent an early stage of polypeptide chain-folding simulation. The ribonuclease molecule was used to test the limited conformational space as a tool for modeling early-stage folding. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediSi: prediction of signal peptides and their cleavage positions
Hiller, Karsten UL; Grote, Andreas; Scheer, Maurice et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2004)

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See detailThe sequential activity of the GTPases Rap1B and Cdc42 determines neuronal polarity.
Schwamborn, Jens Christian UL; Puschel, Andreas W.

in Nature Neuroscience (2004), 7(9), 923-9

The establishment of a polarized morphology is an essential step in the differentiation of neurons with a single axon and multiple dendrites. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, one of several initially ... [more ▼]

The establishment of a polarized morphology is an essential step in the differentiation of neurons with a single axon and multiple dendrites. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, one of several initially indistinguishable neurites is selected to become the axon. Both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and the evolutionarily conserved Par complex (comprising Par3, Par6 and an atypical PKC (aPKC) such as PKClambda or PKCzeta) are involved in axon specification. However, the initial signals that establish cellular asymmetry and the pathways that subsequently translate it into structural changes remain to be elucidated. Here we show that localization of the GTPase Rap1B to the tip of a single neurite is a decisive step in determining which neurite becomes the axon. Using GTPase mutants and RNA interference, we found that Rap1B is necessary and sufficient to initiate the development of axons upstream of Cdc42 and the Par complex. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance of unpassivated AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMTs after short-term electrical bias stress
Bernát, J.; Wolter, M.; Javorka, P. et al

in Solid-State Electronics (2004), 48((2004)), 1825-1828

Performance of unpassivated MOVPE grown AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMTs under short-term electrical bias stress isreported. Insignificant degradation in DC and RF behaviour of prepared devices after 16 h stress at VD ... [more ▼]

Performance of unpassivated MOVPE grown AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMTs under short-term electrical bias stress isreported. Insignificant degradation in DC and RF behaviour of prepared devices after 16 h stress at VD ¼ 21 V and VG ¼ 2:5 V is observed. This can be demonstrated by a maximum drain current of 1.03 and 1.01 A/mm and a peak extrinsic transconductance of 233 and 225 mS/mm before and after bias stress, respectively. Consecutive drain voltage sweeps indicates on low current collapse in samples investigated. The RF characteristics show a decrease of the fmax-tof T ratio from 2.23 to 2.15 and the saturated output power density measured at 2 GHz from 3.60 to 3.53 W/mm after the devices were stressed. This result indicates that reliable AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMTs without passivation can be prepared. However, additional studies are needed to understand if the material structure and/or the device processing is responsible for low current collapse and RF dispersion in these devices. [less ▲]

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See detailSpin structure of nanocrystalline terbium
Weissmüller, J.; Michels, Andreas UL; Michels, D. et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2004), 69

We present an experimental study of the magnetic microstructure in the nanocrystalline hard magnet Tb. Field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data are analyzed quantitatively in terms of ... [more ▼]

We present an experimental study of the magnetic microstructure in the nanocrystalline hard magnet Tb. Field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data are analyzed quantitatively in terms of the correlation function of the spin misalignment. We find that up to applied fields of several tesla the magnetization remains “locked in” to the basal planes of the hcp crystal lattice of each individual crystallite, but that the in-plane orientation of the spins is highly nonuniform within each grain. This spin disorder at the nanoscale can be suppressed by a large applied field, but in the remanent state the disorder reduces the magnetization to values considerably below the Stoner limit. In field-dependent SANS, the intragrain spin disorder gives rise to a crossover of the scattering curves, and to the unusual finding that the scattering cross section at small scattering vector increases with increasing magnetic field. As the origin of the internal spin disorder within the grains, we propose an extra magnetic anisotropy energy at small grain size, presumably due to microstrain, a suggestion which is supported by analysis of ac-susceptibility data in the paramagnetic state. Our finding of a reduced remanence at small grain size is contrary to the remanence enhancement that is observed in other nanocrystalline hard magnets. We also report an unusual logarithmic field dependence of the magnetization over wide ranges of the applied field and temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailLa respiration : Comparaison entre les représentations des élèves et l’évolution historique du concept
Flammang, Cécile; Vlassis, Joëlle UL; Crahay, Marcel

in Informations Pédagogiques (2004), 55

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See detailExplicit form of the time operator of a gaussian stationary process
Suchanecki, Zdzislaw UL

in International Journal of Theoretical Physics (2004), 43

We present the time operator theory in the framework of stationary stochastic processes. The main results of the paper is the derivation of the time operator acting on the Fock space associated with a ... [more ▼]

We present the time operator theory in the framework of stationary stochastic processes. The main results of the paper is the derivation of the time operator acting on the Fock space associated with a discrete time gaussian stationary process. [less ▲]

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See detailEffizienz des Frühunterrichts: begleitende Forschung im Rahmen der Fremdsprachenreformen
Ziegler, Gudrun UL; Dauster, Judith

in Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. Supplement (2004), (2), 24-28

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See detailSelf-poisoning of crystal nuclei in hard-rod liquids
Schilling, Tanja UL; Frenkel, Daan

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2004), 16(19), 2029-2036

We report a Monte Carlo study of the pathway for crystal nucleation in a fluid of hard, colloidal rods. In the earliest stages of nucleation, a lamellar crystallite forms. Subsequent thickening of this ... [more ▼]

We report a Monte Carlo study of the pathway for crystal nucleation in a fluid of hard, colloidal rods. In the earliest stages of nucleation, a lamellar crystallite forms. Subsequent thickening of this lamella is hampered by the fact that the top and bottom surfaces of this crystallite are preferentially covered by rods that align parallel to the surface. As a consequence, subsequent growth of individual crystals is stunted. Experimental evidence for such stunted crystal growth has recently been reported by Maeda and Maeda in experiments on suspensions of colloidal rods [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 018303 (2003)]. The simulations suggest that, in experiments, the growth of multilayer colloidal crystals can be selectively enhanced by the application of an external aligning field. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen do prototypes bias person memory? Differential effects of abstraction level
Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine UL

in European Journal of Social Psychology (2004), 34

Three experiments investigated the operation of prototypical person categories, which were either at a superordinate or at a subordinate level of abstraction, on person memory. In Experiment 1, a ... [more ▼]

Three experiments investigated the operation of prototypical person categories, which were either at a superordinate or at a subordinate level of abstraction, on person memory. In Experiment 1, a recognition memory experiment, subjects received person attributes describing fictional target persons, each description pertaining to one of the two abstraction levels. Distractors in the recognition test varied in degree of relatedness to a prototypical category. Distractors that were related to the corresponding category were falsely recognized, if the category was at a superordinate level, but not for a subordinate category. This revealed a significant bias in recognition toward conceptually related but nonpresented items only at the superordinate level. In Experiment 2 which used a conceptual priming procedure subjects responded faster to distractor items related to a superordinate category than to those related to a subordinate category. Experiment 3 replicated the difference between levels of abstraction when subjects’ task was to recall rather than to recognize the presented attributes. The findings imply that person categories at different levels of abstraction operate differentially on person memory and restrict assumptions from prototype theory to a superordinate level. [less ▲]

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See detailSchriftpraxen marokkanischer Frauen in einem französischen Vorstadtviertel.
Weth, Constanze UL

in Lendemains (2004), 114/115

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See detailDesign of sheet pile installation by vibration
Van Baars, Stefan UL

in Geotechnical and Geological Engineering (2004), 22(3), 391-400

In the Netherlands 70% of the steel sheet piles are installed with vibrators. This is because vibrators have a high production rate and therefore a low installation cost. This method only works for soft ... [more ▼]

In the Netherlands 70% of the steel sheet piles are installed with vibrators. This is because vibrators have a high production rate and therefore a low installation cost. This method only works for soft peat and clay layers and saturated sand layers which are not densely compacted. During pile installation several problems might occur. In this paper the attention is paid to avoiding jamming of the pile before it has reached its planned depth. In most of these cases this is caused by a design error which has let to a vibrator which is too light. Over the years different design tools, such as computer models, design graphs and design equations, have been developed in order to predict the minimum required vibrator force. In this paper a new design equation is presented, which consists of three parts: the mass of the sheet pile, the friction along the shaft and the soil resistance at the tip of the pile based on the cone penetration resistance. This equation and several other design tools for sheet pile installation, have been compared with 18 field tests. It was found that the general design graphs of the Dutch Union of Foundation Contractors (NVAF), the design equation of the Dutch Civil Engineering Centre for Construction Research and Design Rules (CUR) and the German design equation of the EAU1996 gave very poor results. The computer model Vibdrive from Holeyman (1996), the design graphs for specific locations from the NVAF and the new presented design equation from the author gave reasonable predictions. Since the computer program is, because of its complexity, not regarded as a design tool for daily design work and the local design graphs only exist for a small number of locations in The Netherlands, the new design equation is according to the field tests the best method for the calculation of the vibrator needed for sheet pile installation. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality of life and attitudes towards psychotropics and dependency: consumers versus non-consumers aged 50 and over
Baumann, Michèle UL; Bonnetain, F.

in Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (2004), 29

Aim: To assess the relationships between sociodemographic factors, quality of life and attitudes towards psychotropic drugs and dependency and to compare those relationships in continuous consumers (CC ... [more ▼]

Aim: To assess the relationships between sociodemographic factors, quality of life and attitudes towards psychotropic drugs and dependency and to compare those relationships in continuous consumers (CC), occasional consumers (OC) and non-consumers (NC) of those drugs. Methods: Quality of life (SF36) and attitudes (14 statements) were measured in 601 subjects (45–60 years old) from the SUVIMAX cohort (SUpple´mentation en VItamines et en sels Mine ´raux AntioXydants). Data were obtained on 334 NC, 142 CC, 125 OC from the inclusion questionnaire and the monthly consumption report notebooks kept by subjects between 1994 and 1998. Dichotomous and polychotomous logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Results: The lower the quality of life score the more frequent was consumption. NC tended to be men, with high quality of life scores. They entertained negative attitudes towards psychotropics and dependency. OC tended to be women reporting a chronic pathology, with fairly high social status. They had intermediate quality of life and denied dependency. CC tended to be men with no professional activity and low quality of life scores in particular for mental health and perceived health. They had positive attitudes towards psychotropics and accept dependency. Discussion: Assessment of patients’ quality of life and understanding of their attitudes towards psychotropics can provide essential information for those in charge of health promotionprogrammes and may help in identifying new intervention strategies. Preventive education and follow-up of therapy may be better suited to the needs of patients [less ▲]

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See detailConfidence balls in Gaussian regression
Baraud, Yannick UL

in Annals of Statistics (2004), 32(2), 528--551

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See detailThe effect of recombinant IgG antibodies against the leucine-33 form of the platelet beta3 integrin (HPA-1a) on platelet function.
Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Preston, Sandy; Smethurst, Peter A. et al

in Thrombosis and haemostasis (2004), 91(4), 743-54

Recombinant HPA-1a antibodies with Fc, mutated to remove destructive effector functions, have been developed as a potential therapy for fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT), via blockade of ... [more ▼]

Recombinant HPA-1a antibodies with Fc, mutated to remove destructive effector functions, have been developed as a potential therapy for fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT), via blockade of binding of human HPA-1a polyclonal antibodies to fetal HPA-1a1b platelets. We have assessed the effect of the IgG1 HPA-1a antibody B2G1 and two mutated derivatives in various functional assays in resting and agonist-stimulated platelets of the three HPA-1 genotypes. With HPA-1a1b platelets (fetal genotype), the antibodies did not activate signalling or CD62P expression in resting platelets, did not change in vitro bleeding time (IVBT), and did not inhibit platelet adhesion to collagen in flowing blood. Adhesion of HPA-1a1b platelets to fibrinogen was reduced by 20%, and aggregation induced by ADP by 50%, but collagen-related peptide (CRP-XL)-induced aggregation was normal. With HPA-1a1a platelets, aggregation to both ADP and CRP-XL was inhibited, with total blockade of adhesion to fibrinogen and of IVBT responses. Interestingly, a monovalent antibody fragment with identical specificity had no inhibitory effect on aggregation. In static adhesion assays using human alphaIIbbeta3 or alphaVbeta3 transfectants of HPA-1a (Leu(33)) phenotype, attachment to fibrinogen of the latter but not of the former was completely blocked by the HPA-1a antibodies. These observations are best explained by antibody-mediated blockade of the RGD binding site on beta3 by a mechanism of steric hindrance. As the effect on platelet function is modest with HPA-1a1b (fetal type) platelets, the mutated HPA-1a antibodies described here could be developed further for FMAIT therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailJacques Fontanille, Soma et Séma, 2004
Tore, Gian Maria UL

in RSSI: Recherches Sémiotiques (2004), 24(1-3), 299-317

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See detailMalthus and Solow - a note on closed-form solutions
Irmen, Andreas UL

in Economics Bulletin (2004), 10(6), 1-6

Recently, Jones (2002 and Barro and Sala-í-Martin (2004) pointed out that the neoclassical growth model with a Cobb-Douglas technology has a closed-form solution. This note makes a similar remark for the ... [more ▼]

Recently, Jones (2002 and Barro and Sala-í-Martin (2004) pointed out that the neoclassical growth model with a Cobb-Douglas technology has a closed-form solution. This note makes a similar remark for the Malthusian model: I develop and characterize a closed-form solution. Moreover, I emphasize structural similarities between the Malthusian and the neoclassical model if the dynamic behavior is governed by a Bernoulli differential equation. [less ▲]

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See detailIl lavoro socialmente utile a favore della P.A. non è subordinato
Ratti, Luca UL

in Il Lavoro nelle Pubbliche Amministrazioni (2004)

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See detailA novel two-color photodetector based on an InAlAs-InGaAs HEMT layer structure
Marso, Michel UL; Wolter, M.; Kordoš, P.

in IEEE Photonics Technology Letters (2004), 16 (2004)(11), 2541-2543

The spectral responsivity of an InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal diode above a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is investigated as a function of the applied bias. At low voltages, only the ... [more ▼]

The spectral responsivity of an InAlAs–InGaAs metal–semiconductor–metal diode above a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is investigated as a function of the applied bias. At low voltages, only the InAlAs layer above the 2DEG contributes to the photocurrent, while the InGaAs channel layer is activated at higher bias. This results in a voltage-dependent spectral response of the photodetector. The ratio of the responsivities at 1300 and 850 nm changes from 0.03- at 1-V to 0.44- at 1.6-V bias. This property makes the device a candidate suitable to detect and to separate optical information originated both from the GaAs (850 nm) and in the InGaAs (1300, 1550 nm)-based optoelectronic technology. [less ▲]

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See detailLa politique étrangère et de sécurité commune et l’identité de l’Union européenne
Neframi, Eleftheria UL

in Annuaire Français de Droit International (2004)

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See detailHeinz-Elmar Tenorth (Hrsg.): Klassiker der Pädagogik
Tröhler, Daniel UL

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogik (2004), 50

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See detailVisualization of individual DNA loops and a map of loop domains in the human dystrophin gene
Iarovaia, Olga V.; Bystritskiy, Andrey; Ravcheev, Dmitry UL et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2004), 32(7), 2079-2086

The organization of the human dystrophin gene into loop domains has been studied using two different experimental approaches: excision of DNA loops mediated by nuclear matrix-bound topoisomerase II and in ... [more ▼]

The organization of the human dystrophin gene into loop domains has been studied using two different experimental approaches: excision of DNA loops mediated by nuclear matrix-bound topoisomerase II and in situ hybridization of different probes with histone- depleted nuclei (nuclear halos). Our objective was to examine if the DNA loops mapped by this biochemical approach coincide with loops visualized by microscopy. The results obtained using both approaches were in good agreement. Eight loops separated by attachment regions of different length were mapped in the upstream part (up to exon 54) of the gene by topoisomerase II-mediated excision. One of these loops was then directly visualized by in situ hybridization of the corresponding bacmid clone with nuclear halos. This is the ®rst direct demonstration that a DNA domain mapped as a loop using a biochemical approach corresponds to a loop visible on cytological preparations. The validity of this result and of the whole map of loop domains was con®rmed by in situ hybridization using probes derived from other attachment regions or loops mapped by topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage; these probes hybridized on the core or halo region, respectively, of nuclear halos. Our results demonstrate that a single transcription unit may be organized into several loops and that DNA loop attachment regions may be fairly long. Three out of four replication origins mapped in this gene co-localize with loop attachment regions, and the major deletion hot spot is harbored in an attachment region. These results strongly suggest that partitioning of genomic DNA into speci®c loops attached to a skeletal structure is a characteristic feature of eukaryotic chromosome organization in interphase. [less ▲]

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See detailThe application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and downstream analyses to a mixed community of prokaryotic microorganisms
Wilmes, Paul UL; Bond, P. L.

in Environmental Microbiology (2004), 6(9), 911-920

In the post-genomic era, the focus of numerous researchers has moved to studying the functional products of gene expression. In microbiology, these 'omic' approaches have largely been limited to pure ... [more ▼]

In the post-genomic era, the focus of numerous researchers has moved to studying the functional products of gene expression. In microbiology, these 'omic' approaches have largely been limited to pure cultures of microorganisms. Consequently, they do not provide information on gene expression in a complex mixture of microorganisms as found in the environment. Our method enabled the successful extraction and purification of the entire proteome from a laboratory-scale activated sludge system optimized for enhanced biological phosphorus removal, its separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the mapping of this metaproteome. Highly expressed protein spots were excised and identified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with de novo peptide sequencing. The proteins isolated were putatively identified as an outer membrane protein (porin), an acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase and a protein component of an ABC-type branched-chain amino acid transport system. These proteins possibly stem from the dominant and uncultured Rhodocyclus-type polyphosphate-accumulating organism in the activated sludge. We propose the term 'metaproteomics' for the large-scale characterization of the entire protein complement of environmental microbiota at a given point in time. [less ▲]

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See detailFerroelectric polysiloxane liquid crystals with ‘de vries’-type smectic a* -smectic c* transitions
Rössle, Martin; Zentel, Rudolf; Lagerwall, Jan UL et al

in Liquid Crystals (2004), 31(6), 883-887

We report preliminary results of optical and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on the smectic A*2smectic C* transition in two ferroelectric liquid crystalline polysiloxanes. Although the ... [more ▼]

We report preliminary results of optical and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on the smectic A*2smectic C* transition in two ferroelectric liquid crystalline polysiloxanes. Although the optical tilt angle in the SmC* phases reaches values up to 30‡, temperature-dependent SAXS measurements clearly reveal that the smectic layer spacing is basically conserved during the A*–C* transition as well as in the subsequent C* phase. Connected with the A*–C* transition we further observed a significant increase in bire- fringence, hence reflecting an increase of orientational order. The practical absence of layer shrinkage and the enhanced orientational ordering are consistent with the de Vries diffuse cone model of smectic A2smectic C transitions. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovation et externalités spatiales: une approche par la fonction de production de connaissance
Bertinelli, Luisito UL

in Revue d'Economie Régionale et Urbaine (2004), avril(2), 283-310

The knowledge production function, which has initially been suggested as a mean to measure of technological externalities, is extended here to the spatial dimension. After accounting for spatial ... [more ▼]

The knowledge production function, which has initially been suggested as a mean to measure of technological externalities, is extended here to the spatial dimension. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, two interesting results are worth noting : 1) distance matters when it comes to measure the diffusion of knowledge ; 2) as suggested by Adam JAFFE (1989), technological externalities flow through R&D as well as patents. Classification JEL : C21, R12, O31. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticipatory effects of food exposure in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa.
Legenbauer, Tanja; Vögele, Claus UL; Rüddel, Heinz

in Appetite (2004), (42), 33-40

Objective. To investigate cephalic phase responses (CPRs) in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and to test the assumption that eating disordered individuals respond with more marked CPRs and higher ... [more ▼]

Objective. To investigate cephalic phase responses (CPRs) in women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and to test the assumption that eating disordered individuals respond with more marked CPRs and higher increases in psychophysiological arousal to the presentation of food cues. Method. Thirteen female inpatients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were compared to 15 non-eating disordered female volunteers. Participants were exposed to their preferred binge food in a single laboratory session with the possibility to eat immediately after the exposure trial. Results. The results show greater salivation responses to food exposure and lower sympathetic arousal in patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa than in non-eating-disordered participants. Distress and feelings of tension and insecurity during food exposure were higher in patients compared to controls. Discussion. These results support the hypothesis that anticipatory cephalic phase responses are more marked in eating disordered individuals and may therefore play a role in the maintenance of binge eating behavior. [less ▲]

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See detail«Report on the Louvain workshop "Les effets de matière comme synesthésies»
Roelens, Nathalie UL

in Zeitschrift für Semiotik (2004)

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See detailImpact of layer structure on performance of unpassivated AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMTs,
Bernát, J.; Wolter, M.; Fox, A. et al

in Electronics Letters (2004), 40(1), 78-80

The performance of unpassivated AlGaN=GaN=SiC HEMTs prepared on different MOVPE grown layer structures is reported. An overall improvement of device characteristics using doped structures in comparison to ... [more ▼]

The performance of unpassivated AlGaN=GaN=SiC HEMTs prepared on different MOVPE grown layer structures is reported. An overall improvement of device characteristics using doped structures in comparison to undoped counterpart is observed. This can be demonstrated by IDS of 0.86 and 1.33 A=mm, gm of 220 and 273 mS=mm, fT of 33 and 43 GHz and fmax of 54 and 61 GHz for 0.3 mm gate length devices on undoped and doped structures, respectively. The DC=pulsed I–V characteristics as well as power measurements show insignificant RF dispersion of HEMTs on doped structures. These results underline the advantage of doped layer structures for preparation of high-performance AlGaN=GaN HEMTs. [less ▲]

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See detailSolvation free energies and transfer free energies for amino acids from hydrophobic solution to water solution from a very simple residue model
Gu, Wei UL; Rahi, S. J.; Helms, V.

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2004), 108(18), 5806-5814

Solvation free energies of neutral amino acids in water and in chloroform were computed from extensive molecular dynamics simulations using multiconfiguration thermodynamic integration. The values ... [more ▼]

Solvation free energies of neutral amino acids in water and in chloroform were computed from extensive molecular dynamics simulations using multiconfiguration thermodynamic integration. The values computed for the AMBER force field are in very good agreement with available experimental data (rms differences of 5.1 kJ mol(-1) for the solvation free energies and 6.4 kJ mol(-1) for the transfer free energies of amino acids between water and chloroform) and with existing calculations. We derived an additive residue-scale solvation model formulated as the sum of a nonpolar term that is proportional to the molecular surface area and an electrostatic term (Kirkwood-Onsager model) for the hydration free energy of a dipole in a solvated cavity. This model can surprisingly well describe the solvation free energies in water and chloroform as well as the transfer free energies of amino acids between the two solvents when suitably adapted cavity radii are used. Root-mean-square differences of the predicted values with respect to the values calculated from thermodynamic integration are 1.8, 5.9, and 7.7 kJ mol(-1), respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailThe spatial Solow model
Camacho, Camen; Zou, Benteng UL

in Economics Bulletin (2004)

In this paper, we solve a Solow model in continuous time and space. We prove the existence of a solution to the problem and its convergence to a stationary solution. The simulations of various scenario in ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we solve a Solow model in continuous time and space. We prove the existence of a solution to the problem and its convergence to a stationary solution. The simulations of various scenario in the last section of the paper illustrates the convergence issue. [less ▲]

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See detailCommon Polymorphisms in the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Are Associated with Adrenocortical Responses to Psychosocial Stress
Wüst, S.; Van Rossum, E. F. C.; Federenko, I. S. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2004), 89(2), 565-573

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See detailPilotage et qualité du système éducatif.
Nicaise, Julien; Dierendonck, Christophe UL

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2004)

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See detailLysozyme folded in silico according to the limited conformational sub-space
Jurkowski, Wiktor UL; Brylinski, M.; Konieczny, L. et al

in Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (2004), 22(2), 149-58

The conformational sub-space oriented on early-stage protein folding is applied to lysozyme folding. The part of the Ramachandran map distinguished on the basis of a geometrical model of the polypeptide ... [more ▼]

The conformational sub-space oriented on early-stage protein folding is applied to lysozyme folding. The part of the Ramachandran map distinguished on the basis of a geometrical model of the polypeptide chain limited to the mutual orientation of the peptide bond planes is shown to deliver the initial structure of the polypeptide for the energy minimization procedure in the ab initio model of protein folding prediction. Two forms of energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulation procedures were applied to the assumed early-stage protein folding of lysozyme. One of them included the disulphide bond system and the other excluded it. The post-energy-minimization and post-dynamics structures were compared using RMS-D and non-bonding contact maps to estimate the degree of approach to the native, target structure of the protein molecule obtained using the limited conformational sub-space for the early stage of folding. [less ▲]

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See detailWelbevinden van Europese ouderen
Drooglever-Fortuijn, Joos; Ferring, Dieter UL; van der Meer, M. et al

in Geron (2004), 6(4), 14-18

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See detailThe acquisition of arithmetic knowledge - an FMRI study.
Delazer, Margarete; Domahs, Frank; Lochy, Aliette UL et al

in Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior (2004), 40(1), 166-7

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See detailA benchmark for methods in reverse engineering and model discrimination: problem formulation and solutions.
Kremling, Andreas; Fischer, Sophia; Gadkar, Kapil et al

in Genome Research (2004), 14(9), 1773-85

A benchmark problem is described for the reconstruction and analysis of biochemical networks given sampled experimental data. The growth of the organisms is described in a bioreactor in which one ... [more ▼]

A benchmark problem is described for the reconstruction and analysis of biochemical networks given sampled experimental data. The growth of the organisms is described in a bioreactor in which one substrate is fed into the reactor with a given feed rate and feed concentration. Measurements for some intracellular components are provided representing a small biochemical network. Problems of reverse engineering, parameter estimation, and identifiability are addressed. The contribution mainly focuses on the problem of model discrimination. If two or more model variants describe the available experimental data, a new experiment must be designed to discriminate between the hypothetical models. For the problem presented, the feed rate and feed concentration of a bioreactor system are available as control inputs. To verify calculated input profiles an interactive Web site (http://www.sysbio.de/projects/benchmark/) is provided. Several solutions based on linear and nonlinear models are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe chemoattractants, IL-8 and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, regulate granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signaling by inducing suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 expression.
Stevenson, Nigel J.; Haan, Serge UL; McClurg, Angela E. et al

in Journal of immunology (2004), 173(5), 3243-9

Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are encoded by immediate early genes known to inhibit cytokine responses in a classical feedback loop. SOCS gene expression has been shown to be induced by many ... [more ▼]

Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are encoded by immediate early genes known to inhibit cytokine responses in a classical feedback loop. SOCS gene expression has been shown to be induced by many cytokines, growth factors, and innate immune stimuli, such as LPS. In this paper, we report that the chemoattractants, IL-8 and fMLP, up-regulate SOCS1 mRNA in human myeloid cells, primary human neutrophils, PBMCs, and dendritic cells. fMLP rapidly up-regulates SOCS1, whereas the induction of SOCS1 upon IL-8 treatment is delayed. IL-8 and fMLP did not signal via Jak/STATs in primary human macrophages, thus implicating the induction of SOCS by other intracellular pathways. As chemoattractant-induced SOCS1 expression in neutrophils may play an important role in regulating the subsequent response to growth promoting cytokines like G-CSF, we investigated the effect of chemoattractant-induced SOCS1 on cytokine signal transduction. We show that pretreatment of primary human neutrophils with fMLP or IL-8 blocks G-CSF-mediated STAT3 activation. This study provides evidence for cross-talk between chemoattractant and cytokine signal transduction pathways involving SOCS proteins, suggesting that these chemotactic factors may desensitize neutrophils to G-CSF via rapid induction of SOCS1 expression. [less ▲]

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See detailStudies in Philosophy and Education Volume 23
Biesta, Gert UL

in Studies in Philosophy and Education (2004), 23

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See detailEvaluation professionelle compréhensive du programme obésité en Polynésie fFançaise
Baumann, Michèle UL; Thiery, Delphine; Cao

in Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales (2004), 44(2), 187-202

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See detailLa France et l'Europe médiane: relations économiques et financières, 1919-1939
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Valahian Journal of historical studies (2004), (2),

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See detailBook review of : B. NOAK, Politische Auffassungen im niederländischen Drama des 17. Jahrhunderts, 2002
Weis, Monique UL

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2004), 82

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See detailMarkt, Ellenbogenmentalität und Fremdenfeindlichkeit. Zusammenhangsanalysen und Implikationen für die pädagogische Praxis
Hadjar, Andreas UL

in Sozial Extra: Zeitschrift für Soziale Arbeit und Sozialpolitik (2004), (12), 36-40

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See detailSpecific order impairment in arabic number writing: A case-study.
Lochy, Aliette UL; Domahs, Frank; Bartha, Lisa et al

in Cognitive neuropsychology (2004), 21(5), 555-75

The present study examines the transitory deficit in transcoding verbal to Arabic numbers in an aphasic patient, TM. She showed a mild syntactic impairment in syntactic comprehension of verbal numbers ... [more ▼]

The present study examines the transitory deficit in transcoding verbal to Arabic numbers in an aphasic patient, TM. She showed a mild syntactic impairment in syntactic comprehension of verbal numbers, with preserved performance in comprehension of Arabic numbers, in access to semantic representation, as well as in reading of Arabic numbers, but she committed 75% of errors when required to write numbers in the Arabic format to dictation. In conformity to the previous literature on transcoding deficits, the majority of her errors were syntactic (60%). However, most of them were unusual "order errors" (50%) in which lexical digits (e.g., 1 to 9) were written on the left and zeros on the right of the number, which contained in the majority of the cases the correct number of digits. A similar type of errors has been reported in only one previous case study (Delazer & Denes, 1998), but not specifically studied. We discuss hypotheses concerning its origins as stemming from a syntactic disorder within existing models of transcoding (McCloskey, Caramazza, & Basili, 1985; Power & Dal Martello, 1990). We also report kinematic assessment of the patient's handwriting before and after recovery. At time of the second examination, results show that her pattern of movement fluency parallels that of healthy subjects and supports a distinction between two types of zeros within Arabic numbers, in relation to the verbal code and the rules required to produce them. This paper thus also highlights the potential usefulness of using a digitising tablet in the study of transcoding deficits. [less ▲]

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