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See detailGuest Editorial: Space Information Networks: Technological Challenges, Design Issues, and Solutions
Xue, Kaiping; De Cola, Tomaso; Wei, David S.L. et al

in IEEE Network (2021), 35(4), 16-18

It has been expected that the space information networks (SIN), as an extension of the terrestrial network, would provide high-speed, high-capacity, global continuous communication, and data transmission ... [more ▼]

It has been expected that the space information networks (SIN), as an extension of the terrestrial network, would provide high-speed, high-capacity, global continuous communication, and data transmission services anywhere for anyone at any time. With rapid advances in relevant technologies (e.g., satellite miniaturization technology, reusable rocket launch technology, and semiconductor technology), low-orbit satellites, drones, and airships can be integrated into the SIN to supply more comprehensive network connectivity. The standard development organizations including 3GPP, ITU, and ETSI already starts corresponding standardization activities to support nonterrestrial networks in SIN. It can be foreseen that SIN will be expanded to provide not only telephone services but also various kinds of Internet services, and it is thus able to serve many more users with different demands. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean port cities in transition
Hesse, Markus UL

in Journal of Transport Geography (2021), 96

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See detailEditoriaal. Kinderen.
Venken, Machteld UL

in Tijdschrift. Erfgoedpraktijk in Vlaanderen (2021), 11(2), 4-5

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See detailElliptical Symmetry Tests in R
Ley, Christophe UL; Babić, Slad̄ana; Palangetić, Marko

in R Journal (2021), 13:2

The assumption of elliptical symmetry has an important role in many theoretical develop ments and applications. Hence, it is of primary importance to be able to test whether that assumption actually holds ... [more ▼]

The assumption of elliptical symmetry has an important role in many theoretical develop ments and applications. Hence, it is of primary importance to be able to test whether that assumption actually holds true or not. Various tests have been proposed in the literature for this problem. To the best of our knowledge, none of them has been implemented in R. This article describes the R package elliptical symmetry which implements several well-known tests for elliptical symmetry together with some recent tests. We demonstrate the testing procedures with a real data example. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen a Master Dies: Speculation and Asset Float
Penasse, Julien UL; Renneboog, Luc; Scheinkman, José

in Review of Financial Studies (2021), 34(8), 38403879

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See detailSecure Transmission in Massive MIMO System with Specular Component-based Beamforming and Artificial Noise over Ricean Fading Channel
Qu, Aiyan; Zhang, Xianyu; An, Kang et al

in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters (2021), 10(11, Nov. 2021),

This paper investigates the secure transmission in a multi-user massive MIMO system over Ricean fading channel in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper. In order to reduce the system complexity and ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the secure transmission in a multi-user massive MIMO system over Ricean fading channel in the presence of a multi-antenna eavesdropper. In order to reduce the system complexity and the channel estimation overhead, a low-complexity beamforming (BF) scheme using only the specular component is presented. Moreover, the generation of artificial noise (AN) is employed at the base station (BS) for additional security enhancement. Specifically, a tractable closedform lower bound for the achievable ergodic secrecy rate is derived. Furthermore, the optimal power allocation factor is obtained based on the asymptotic analysis to maximize the achievable ergodic secrecy rate. The analytical results reveal that the ergodic secrecy rate improves with the increase of Ricean K- factor and converges to a specific constant when increasing the number of antennas. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated through comprehensive simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling COVID-19 dynamics and potential for herd immunity by vaccination in Austria, Luxembourg and Sweden
Kemp, Francoise UL; Proverbio, Daniele UL; Aalto, Atte UL et al

in Journal of Theoretical Biology (2021)

Against the COVID-19 pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions have been widely applied and vaccinations have taken off. The upcoming question is how the interplay between vaccinations and social ... [more ▼]

Against the COVID-19 pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions have been widely applied and vaccinations have taken off. The upcoming question is how the interplay between vaccinations and social measures will shape infections and hospitalizations. Hence, we extend the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model including these elements. We calibrate it to data of Luxembourg, Austria and Sweden until 15 December 2020. Sweden results having the highest fraction of undetected, Luxembourg of infected and all three being far from herd immunity in December. We quantify the level of social interaction, showing that a level around 1/3 of before the pandemic was still required in December to keep the effective reproduction number Refft below 1, for all three countries. Aiming to vaccinate the whole population within 1 year at constant rate would require on average 1,700 fully vaccinated people/day in Luxembourg, 24,000 in Austria and 28,000 in Sweden, and could lead to herd immunity only by mid summer. Herd immunity might not be reached in 2021 if too slow vaccines rollout speeds are employed. The model thus estimates which vaccination rates are too low to allow reaching herd immunity in 2021, depending on social interactions. Vaccination will considerably, but not immediately, help to curb the infection; thus limiting social interactions remains crucial for the months to come. [less ▲]

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See detailLEO Satellite Constellations for 5G and Beyond: How Will They Reshape Vertical Domains?
Liu, Shicong; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2021), 59(7), 30-36

The rapid development of communication technologies in the past decades has provided immense vertical opportunities for individuals and enterprises. However, conventional terrestrial cellular networks ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of communication technologies in the past decades has provided immense vertical opportunities for individuals and enterprises. However, conventional terrestrial cellular networks have unfortunately neglected the huge geographical digital divide, s ince high-bandwidth wireless coverage is concentrated in urban areas. To meet the goal of “connecting the unconnected,” integrating low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites with the terrestrial cellular networks has been widely considered as a promising solution. In this article, we first introduce the development roadmap of LEO sa tellite constellations (SatCons), including early attempts in LEO satellites with the emerging LEO constellations. Further, we discuss the unique opportunities of employing LEO SatCons for the delivery of integrating 5G networks. Specifically, we present their key performance indicators, which offer important guidelines for the design of associated enabling techniques, and then discuss the potential impact of integrating LEO SatCons with typical 5G use cases, where we engrave our vision of various vertical domains reshaped by LEO SatCons. Technical challenges are finally provided to specify future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailRacial disparities in observers' attention to and estimations of others' pain
Kissi, Ama; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Mende-Siedlecki et al

in Pain (2021)

Research has demonstrated racial disparities in pain care such that Black patients often receive poorer pain care than White patients. Little is known about mechanisms accounting for the emergence of such ... [more ▼]

Research has demonstrated racial disparities in pain care such that Black patients often receive poorer pain care than White patients. Little is known about mechanisms accounting for the emergence of such disparities. The present study had 2 aims. First, we examined whether White observers' attentional processing of pain (using a visual search task [VST] indexing attentional engagement to and attentional disengagement from pain) and estimation of pain experience differed between White vs Black faces. Second, we examined whether these differences were moderated by (1) racially biased beliefs about pain experience and (2) the level of pain expressed by Black vs White faces. Participants consisted of 102 observers (87 females) who performed a VST assessing pain-related attention to White vs Black avatar pain faces. Participants also reported on racially biased beliefs about White vs Black individuals' pain experience and rated the pain intensities expressed by White and Black avatar faces. Results indicated facilitated attentional engagement towards Black (vs White) pain faces. Furthermore, observers who more strongly endorsed the belief that White individuals experience pain more easily than Black individuals had less difficulty disengaging from Black (vs White) pain faces. Regarding pain estimations, observers gave higher pain ratings to Black (vs White) faces expressing high pain and White (vs Black) faces expressing no pain. The current findings attest to the importance of future research into the role of observer attentional processing of sufferers' pain in understanding racial disparities in pain care. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed, and future research directions are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockPerf: A Hybrid Blockchain Emulator/Simulator Framework
Polge, Julien UL; Ghatpande, Sankalp UL; Kubler, Sylvain et al

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

Blockchain is increasingly used for registering, authenticating and validating digital assets (financial assets, real estate, etc.) and transactions, governing interactions, recording data and managing ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is increasingly used for registering, authenticating and validating digital assets (financial assets, real estate, etc.) and transactions, governing interactions, recording data and managing identification among multiple parties in a trusted, decentralized, and secure manner. Today, a large variety of blockchain technologies is expanding in order to fulfill technical and non-technical needs and requirements. Within this context, determining and most importantly evaluating the characteristics/performance of a given blockchain platform is crucial for system designers before deploying it. A number of blockchain simulators have been proposed in the literature over the past few years, as reviewed in this paper, but are often limited in several respects (lack of extensibility, do not allow for evaluating all aspects of a blockchain...). This paper extends and improves a state-of-the-art simulator (BlockSim) into a new simulator called ‘‘BlockPerf’’ to overcome those limitations. Both simulators are compared based on a real-life (benchmarking) Bitcoin scenario, whose results show that BlockPerf provides more realistic results than BlockSim, improving by around ≈50% (in average) the outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailWeighted numbers: Commentary on “The Number Sense Represents (Rational) Numbers” by Sam Clarke and Jacob Beck
Marinova, Mila UL; Fedele, Marta; Reynvoet, Bert

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2021)

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See detailDual pairs in the Pin-group and duality for the corresponding spinorial representation
Guerin, Clément UL; Liu, Gang; Merino, Allan

in Algebras and Representation Theory (2021), 24(6), 16251640

In this paper, we give a complete picture of Howe correspondence for the setting (O(E,b),Pin(E,b),Π), where O(E,b) is an orthogonal group (real or complex), Pin(E,b) is the two-fold Pin-covering of O(E,b ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we give a complete picture of Howe correspondence for the setting (O(E,b),Pin(E,b),Π), where O(E,b) is an orthogonal group (real or complex), Pin(E,b) is the two-fold Pin-covering of O(E,b), and Π is the spinorial representation of Pin(E,b). More precisely, for a dual pair (G,G′) in O(E,b), we determine explicitly the nature of its preimages (G̃,G′~) in Pin(E,b), and prove that apart from some exceptions, (G̃,G′~) is always a dual pair in Pin(E,b); then we establish the Howe correspondence for Π with respect to (G̃,G′~). [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Secrecy Capacity of MIMO Wiretap Channels: Convex Reformulation and Efficient Numerical Methods
Mukherjee, Anshu; Ottersten, Björn UL; Tran, Le-Nam

in IEEE Transactions on Communications (2021), 69(10), 6865-6878

This paper presents novel numerical approaches to finding the secrecy capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel subject to multiple linear transmit covariance constraints ... [more ▼]

This paper presents novel numerical approaches to finding the secrecy capacity of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel subject to multiple linear transmit covariance constraints, including sum power constraint, per antenna power constraints and interference power constraint. An analytical solution to this problem is not known and existing numerical solutions suffer from slow convergence rate and/or high per-iteration complexity. Deriving computationally efficient solutions to the secrecy capacity problem is challenging since the secrecy rate is expressed as a difference of convex functions (DC) of the transmit covariance matrix, for which its convexity is only known for some special cases. In this paper we propose two low-complexity methods to compute the secrecy capacity along with a convex reformulation for degraded channels. In the first method we capitalize on the accelerated DC algorithm which requires solving a sequence of convex subproblems, for which we propose an efficient iterative algorithm where each iteration admits a closed-form solution. In the second method, we rely on the concave-convex equivalent reformulation of the secrecy capacity problem which allows us to derive the so-called partial best response algorithm to obtain an optimal solution. Notably, each iteration of the second method can also be done in closed form. The simulation results demonstrate a faster convergence rate of our methods compared to other known solutions. We carry out extensive numerical experiments to evaluate the impact of various parameters on the achieved secrecy capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Innovative Strategy Allowing a Holisitic System Change towards Circular Economy within Supply-Chains
Mangers, Jeff UL; Minoufekr, Meysam UL; Plapper, Peter UL et al

in Energies (2021), 14(14),

: The concept of the circular economy (CE) is receiving encouraging attention among scholars and practitioners, as a convenient solution to move away from the linear economy concept without neglecting the ... [more ▼]

: The concept of the circular economy (CE) is receiving encouraging attention among scholars and practitioners, as a convenient solution to move away from the linear economy concept without neglecting the goals of sustainable development. The main goals of the CE are the closing of resource loops and the keeping of resources in the system for as long as possible at the highest utility level. However, as a result of the lack of internationally accepted definitions of the CE and several unsolved barriers, an excessive and inconsistent number of different CE applications exist. Most fields are mainly focusing on making a linear system circular instead of applying the CE principles in a holistic way. This paper presents a strategy to close the mentioned inconsistency gap, by contrasting currently discussed CE barriers and goals and thereof deriving two areas with a need for action (1. identifying the needed collection, sorting, and recovery infrastructure, and 2. developing circular product design guidelines). The strategy itself consists of connecting these two areas through an improved information exchange between the end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) of products. The result is CE design guidelines which are in accordance with the available or needed collection, sorting, and recovery infrastructure. The proposed strategy presents an innovative solution to apply CE principles in a holistic manner, based on EOL-driven product design. [less ▲]

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See detailExact thermal properties of free-fermionic spin chains
Białończyk, Michał; Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL

in SciPost Physics (2021)

An exact description of integrable spin chains at finite temperature is provided using an elementary algebraic approach in the complete Hilbert space of the system. We focus on spin chain models that ... [more ▼]

An exact description of integrable spin chains at finite temperature is provided using an elementary algebraic approach in the complete Hilbert space of the system. We focus on spin chain models that admit a description in terms of free fermions, including paradigmatic examples such as the one-dimensional transverse-field quantum Ising and XY models. The exact partition function is derived and compared with the ubiquitous approximation in which only the positive parity sector of the energy spectrum is considered. Errors stemming from this approximation are identified in the neighborhood of the critical point at low temperatures. We further provide the full counting statistics of a wide class of observables at thermal equilibrium and characterize in detail the thermal distribution of the kink number and transverse magnetization in the transverse-field quantum Ising chain. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Beamforming, User Scheduling, and Resource Allocation for Integrated Terrestrial-Satellite Communication
Peng, Deyi; Bandi, Ashok; Li, Yun et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(9), 8868-8882

In this paper, we investigate hybrid beamforming, user scheduling, and resource allocation optimization based on spectrum coexisting forward transmission in integrated terrestrial-satellite network (ITSN ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate hybrid beamforming, user scheduling, and resource allocation optimization based on spectrum coexisting forward transmission in integrated terrestrial-satellite network (ITSN) with the purpose of improving system sum rate and energy efficiency. Considering the limitation of on-board beamforming, a hybrid analog-digital beamforming scheme is designed under the scenario of millimeter wave (mmWave) coexisting in the ITSN framework. Besides, in order to further mitigate intra-beam and inter-beam interference, we propose an adaptive user scheduling scheme, which first determines the cluster center based on adaptive threshold, and then selects users with less channel correlation into a scheduling cluster. Moreover, we model system sum rate maximization problem that incorporates maximum power constrains and minimum data rate requirements. Combined with the aforementioned hybrid beamforming and user scheduling strategy, we formulate the sum rate maximizing problem to a pure power allocation issue. In view of the non-convexity and high complexity, we propose a feasible optimization method based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion and logarithmic linearization to optimize the power allocation for each user terminal (UT). Simulation results show that our proposed joint beamforming and resource allocation optimization scheduling scheme can achieve an attractive gain in system sum rate and energy efficiency compared with conservative beamforming and allocations. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian model uncertainty quantification for hyperelastic soft tissue models
Zeraatpisheh, Milad UL; Beex, Lars UL; Bordas, Stéphane UL

in Data-Centric Engineering (2021)

Patient-specific surgical simulations require the patient-specific identification of the constitutive parameters. The sparsity of the experimental data and the substantial noise in the data (e.g ... [more ▼]

Patient-specific surgical simulations require the patient-specific identification of the constitutive parameters. The sparsity of the experimental data and the substantial noise in the data (e.g., recovered during surgery) cause considerable uncertainty in the identification. In this exploratory work, parameter uncertainty for incompressible hyperelasticity, often used for soft tissues, is addressed by a probabilistic identification approach based on Bayesian inference. Our study particularly focuses on the uncertainty of the model: we investigate how the identified uncertainties of the constitutive parameters behave when different forms of model uncertainty are considered. The model uncertainty formulations range from uninformative ones to more accurate ones that incorporate more detailed extensions of incompressible hyperelasticity. The study shows that incorporating model uncertainty may improve the results, but this is not guaranteed. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital twinning of Cellular Capsule Technology: emerging outcomes from the perspective of porous media mechanics
Urcun, Stéphane UL

in PLoS ONE (2021)

Spheroids encapsulated within alginate capsules are emerging as suitable in vitro tools to investigate the impact of mechanical forces on tumor growth since the internal tumor pressure can be retrieved ... [more ▼]

Spheroids encapsulated within alginate capsules are emerging as suitable in vitro tools to investigate the impact of mechanical forces on tumor growth since the internal tumor pressure can be retrieved from the deformation of the capsule. Here we focus on the particular case of Cellular Capsule Technology (CCT). We show in this contribution that a modeling approach accounting for the triphasic nature of the spheroid (extracellular matrix, tumor cells and interstitial fluid) offers a new perspective of analysis revealing that the pressure retrieved experimentally cannot be interpreted as a direct picture of the pressure sustained by the tumor cells and, as such, cannot therefore be used to quantify the critical pressure which induces stress-induced phenotype switch in tumor cells. The proposed multiphase reactive poro-mechanical model was cross-validated. Parameter sensitivity analyses on the digital twin revealed that the main parameters determining the encapsulated growth configuration are different from those driving growth in free condition, confirming that radically different phenomena are at play. Results reported in this contribution support the idea that multiphase reactive poro-mechanics is an exceptional theoretical framework to attain an in-depth understanding of CCT experiments, to confirm their hypotheses and to further improve their design. We show in this contribution that a modeling approach accounting for the triphasic nature of the spheroid (extracellular matrix, tumor cells and interstitial fluid) offers a new perspective of analysis revealing that the pressure retrieved experimentally cannot be interpreted as a direct picture of the pressure sustained by the tumor cells and, as such, cannot therefore be used to quantify the critical pressure which induces stress-induced phenotype switch in tumour cells. The proposed multiphase reactive poro-mechanical model was cross-validated. Parameter sensitivity analyses on the digital twin revealed that the main parameters determining the encapsulated growth configuration are different from those driving growth in free condition, confirming that radically different phenomena are at play.Results reported in this contribution support the idea that multiphase reactive poro-mechanics is an exceptional theoretical framework to attain an in-depth understanding of CCT experiments, to confirm their hypotheses and to further improve their design. [less ▲]

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See detailSCR-Apriori for Mining ‘Sets of Contrasting Rules’
Aleksandrova, Marharyta UL; Chertov, Oleg

in Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing (2021), 393

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See detailStromal fibroblasts shape the myeloid phenotype in normal colon and colorectal cancer and induce CD163 and CCL2 expression in macrophages
Stadler, Mira; Pudelko, Karoline; Biermeier, Alexander et al

in Cancer Letters (2021)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for about 10% of cancer deaths worldwide. Colon carcinogenesis is critically influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor ... [more ▼]

Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for about 10% of cancer deaths worldwide. Colon carcinogenesis is critically influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) represent the major components of the tumor microenvironment. TAMs promote tumor progression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. However, the impact of the molecular crosstalk of tumor cells (TCs) with CAFs and macrophages on monocyte recruitment and their phenotypic conversion is not known in detail so far. In a 3D human organotypic CRC model, we show that CAFs and normal colonic fibroblasts are critically involved in monocyte recruitment and for the establishment of a macrophage phenotype, characterized by high CD163 expression. This is in line with the steady recruitment and differentiation of monocytes to immunosuppressive macrophages in the normal colon. Cytokine profiling revealed that CAFs produce M-CSF, and IL6, IL8, HGF and CCL2 secretion was specifically induced by CAFs in co-cultures with macrophages. Moreover, macrophage/CAF/TCs co-cultures increased TC invasion. We demonstrate that CAFs and macrophages are the major producers of CCL2 and, upon co-culture, increase their CCL2 production twofold and 40-fold, respectively. CAFs and macrophages expressing high CCL2 were also found in vivo in CRC, strongly supporting our findings. CCL2, CCR2, CSF1R and CD163 expression in macrophages was dependent on active MCSFR signaling as shown by M-CSFR inhibition. These results indicate that colon fibroblasts and not TCs are the major cellular component, recruiting and dictating the fate of infiltrated monocytes towards a specific macrophage population, characterized by high CD163 expression and CCL2 production. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Spectrum and Energy Optimization of NOMA-Enabled Small-Cell Networks With QoS Guarantee
Khan, Wali Ullah UL; Jameel, Furqan; Li, Xingwang et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021)

In recent years, wireless communication has experienced a massive shift from a single service (i.e., voice) to an interconnected web of networks. Although many techniques have been developed improving the ... [more ▼]

In recent years, wireless communication has experienced a massive shift from a single service (i.e., voice) to an interconnected web of networks. Although many techniques have been developed improving the offered services to mobile users, still the demand for high-quality services cannot be reached. Therefore, this paper proposes a joint non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-enabled optimization framework for small-cell network (SCNet) by utilizing the concepts of multi-objective problem. In particular, the transmit power of base station (BS) in each small-cell simultaneously optimizes to maximize the sum-capacity and total energy efficiency (EE) of SCNet. The multi-objective optimization problem is formulated as non-convex subject to several practical constraints, i.e., individual quality of service requirement, maximum power budget of small-cell BS, and efficient decoding of superimposed signal using successive interference cancellation. Based on the nature of the problem, the optimal solutions are provided using sequential quadratic programming, and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker approaches. The obtained results show significant performance gains over conventional orthogonal multiple access technique in terms of sum-capacity and total EE. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning Force Fields: Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges
Poltavskyi, Igor UL; Tkatchenko, Alexandre UL

in Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (2021)

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See detailFAIR chemical structures in the Journal of Cheminformatics
Schymanski, Emma UL; Bolton, Evan E.

in Journal of Cheminformatics (2021), 13(1), 50

Abstract The ability to access chemical information openly is an essential part of many scientific disciplines. The Journal of Cheminformatics is leading the way for rigorous, open cheminformatics in many ... [more ▼]

Abstract The ability to access chemical information openly is an essential part of many scientific disciplines. The Journal of Cheminformatics is leading the way for rigorous, open cheminformatics in many ways, but there remains room for improvement in primary areas. This letter discusses how both authors and the journal alike can help increase the FAIR ness (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, Reusability) of the chemical structural information in the journal. A proposed chemical structure template can serve as an interoperable Additional File format (already accessible ), made more findable by linking the DOI of this data file to the article DOI metadata, supporting further reuse . [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Hume to Wuhan: An Epistemological Journey on the Problem of Induction in COVID-19 Machine Learning Models and its Impact Upon Medical Research
Vega Moreno, Carlos Gonzalo UL

in IEEE Access (2021), 9

Advances in computer science have transformed the way artificial intelligence is employed in academia, with Machine Learning (ML) methods easily available to researchers from diverse areas thanks to ... [more ▼]

Advances in computer science have transformed the way artificial intelligence is employed in academia, with Machine Learning (ML) methods easily available to researchers from diverse areas thanks to intuitive frameworks that yield extraordinary results. Notwithstanding, current trends in the mainstream ML community tend to emphasise <italic>wins</italic> over knowledge, putting the scientific method aside, and focusing on maximising metrics of interest. Methodological flaws lead to poor justification of method choice, which in turn leads to disregard the limitations of the methods employed, ultimately putting at risk the translation of solutions into real-world clinical settings. This work exemplifies the impact of the problem of induction in medical research, studying the methodological issues of recent solutions for computer-aided diagnosis of COVID-19 from chest X-Ray images. [less ▲]

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See detailCan Offline Testing of Deep Neural Networks Replace Their Online Testing?
Ul Haq, Fitash UL; Shin, Donghwan UL; Nejati, Shiva UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26(5),

We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test ... [more ▼]

We distinguish two general modes of testing for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs): Offline testing where DNNs are tested as individual units based on test datasets obtained without involving the DNNs under test, and online testing where DNNs are embedded into a specific application environment and tested in a closed-loop mode in interaction with the application environment. Typically, DNNs are subjected to both types of testing during their development life cycle where offline testing is applied immediately after DNN training and online testing follows after offline testing and once a DNN is deployed within a specific application environment. In this paper, we study the relationship between offline and online testing. Our goal is to determine how offline testing and online testing differ or complement one another and if offline testing results can be used to help reduce the cost of online testing? Though these questions are generally relevant to all autonomous systems, we study them in the context of automated driving systems where, as study subjects, we use DNNs automating end-to-end controls of steering functions of self-driving vehicles. Our results show that offline testing is less effective than online testing as many safety violations identified by online testing could not be identified by offline testing, while large prediction errors generated by offline testing always led to severe safety violations detectable by online testing. Further, we cannot exploit offline testing results to reduce the cost of online testing in practice since we are not able to identify specific situations where offline testing could be as accurate as online testing in identifying safety requirement violations. [less ▲]

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See detailTopological Defect-Guided Regular Stacking of Focal Conic Domains in Hybrid-Aligned Smectic Liquid Crystal Shells
Noh, Junghyun; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Crystals (2021), 11(8), 913

We study liquid crystal (LC) shells in hybrid configuration (director tangential to the inside but normal to the outside) as they slowly undergo a transition from a nematic (N) to a smectic-A (SmA) phase ... [more ▼]

We study liquid crystal (LC) shells in hybrid configuration (director tangential to the inside but normal to the outside) as they slowly undergo a transition from a nematic (N) to a smectic-A (SmA) phase. Every shell has two antipodal +1 topological defects, at the thinnest and thickest points, respectively. On cooling from N to SmA, the symmetry axis connecting the defects gradually reorients from blackalong gravity to perpendicular to it, reversibly and continuously, if the LC and aqueous phase are density matched at the N-SmA transition. This suggests reduced density near the defects---reflecting a local reduction in order---under the strong confinement with antagonistic boundary conditions. In the SmA phase, a regular array of focal conic domains (FCDs) develops, templated in position and orientation by the +1 defect at the thinnest point. Around this defect, a single complete toroidal FCD always develops, surrounded by incomplete FCDs. In contrast to similar FCD arrangements on flat aqueous interfaces, this is a stable situation, since the two +1 defects are required by the spherical topology. Our results demonstrate how the topological defects of LC shells can be used to template complex self-organized structures. blackWith a suitable adaption of the LC chemistry, shells might serve as a basis for producing solid particles with complex yet highly regular morphologies. [less ▲]

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See detailNationwide implementation of media literacy training sessions on internet safety
Tiemann, Aline; Melzer, André UL; Steffgen, Georges UL

in Communications: the European Journal of Communication Research (2021)

Although numerous media literacy training sessions on internet safety for children and adolescents have been conducted, their number contrasts sharply with the few systematic studies on their ... [more ▼]

Although numerous media literacy training sessions on internet safety for children and adolescents have been conducted, their number contrasts sharply with the few systematic studies on their effectiveness. In this study, we describe the evaluation of nationwide-implemented training sessions on internet safety in Luxembourg, which included perceptions of learning outcomes and evaluations of implementation and effectiveness. Training data from 2011 to 2018 were analyzed, including 28,060 students and 5,031 teachers. Students reported pronounced learning effects, especially for younger students and for repeated training participation. Teachers greatly appreciated the implementation and effectiveness, which generally increased over the years. The perceived effectiveness of the training was significantly related to teachers’ planning to cover internet safety topics in future lessons. The present study shows that carefully planned and continuously evaluated training sessions on internet safety successfully support children’s understanding and teachers’ willingness to implement internet safety in their curriculum. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archives du Web luxembourgeois. Histoire, enjeux et perspectives
Els, Ben; Maurer, Yves; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 73

Cet article entend contribuer à faire découvrir l’archivage du Web luxembourgeois, son histoire, sa continuité par rapport à d’autres initiatives européennes, ses atouts et ses spécificités, avant de ... [more ▼]

Cet article entend contribuer à faire découvrir l’archivage du Web luxembourgeois, son histoire, sa continuité par rapport à d’autres initiatives européennes, ses atouts et ses spécificités, avant de proposer des réflexions sur les usages scientifiques qui peuvent en âtre faits, et ce au-delà de la seule histoire du numérique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of Kelvin probe force microscopy operation modes and environment on grain boundary band bending in perovskite and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
Martin Lanzoni, Evandro UL; Gallet, Thibaut UL; Spindler, Conrad UL et al

in Nano Energy (2021), 88

An in-depth understanding of the electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline semiconductor absorbers is of high importance since their charge carrier recombination rates may be very ... [more ▼]

An in-depth understanding of the electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline semiconductor absorbers is of high importance since their charge carrier recombination rates may be very high and hence limit the solar cell device performance. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) is the method of choice to investigate GB band bending on the nanometer scale and thereby helps to develop passivation strategies. Here, it is shown that the workfunction, measured with amplitude modulation (AM)-KPFM, which is by far the most common KPFM measurement mode, is prone to exhibit measurement artifacts at grain boundaries on typical solar cell absorbers such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CH3NH3PbI3. This is a direct consequence of a change in the cantilever–sample distance that varies on rough samples. Furthermore, we critically discuss the impact of different environments (air versus vacuum) and show that air exposure alters the GB and facet contrast, which leads to erroneous interpretations of the GB physics. Frequency modulation (FM)-KPFM measurements on non-air-exposed CIGSe and perovskite absorbers show that the amount of band bending measured at the GB is negligible and that the electronic landscape of the semiconductor surface is dominated by facet-related contrast due to the polycrystalline nature of the absorbers. [less ▲]

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See detailA hyper-reduction method using adaptivity to cut the assembly costs of reduced order models
Hale, Jack UL; Schenone, Elisa; Baroli, Davide UL et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2021), 380

At every iteration or timestep of the online phase of some reduced-order modelling schemes, large linear systems must be assembled and then projected onto a reduced order basis of small dimension. The ... [more ▼]

At every iteration or timestep of the online phase of some reduced-order modelling schemes, large linear systems must be assembled and then projected onto a reduced order basis of small dimension. The projected small linear systems are cheap to solve, but assembly and projection are now the dominant computational cost. In this paper we introduce a new hyper-reduction strategy called reduced assembly (RA) that drastically cuts these costs. RA consists of a triangulation adaptation algorithm that uses a local error indicator to con- struct a reduced assembly triangulation specially suited to the reduced order basis. Crucially, this reduced assembly triangulation has fewer cells than the original one, resulting in lower assembly and projection costs. We demonstrate the efficacy of RA on a Galerkin-POD type reduced order model (RAPOD). We show performance increases of up to five times over the baseline Galerkin-POD method on a non-linear reaction-diffusion problem solved with a semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and up to seven times for a 3D hyperelasticity problem solved with a continuation Newton-Raphson algorithm. The examples are implemented in the DOLFIN finite element solver using PETSc and SLEPc for linear algebra. Full code and data files to produce the results in this paper are provided as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of ERA5 integrated water vapor trends for climate change analysis in continental Europe: An evaluation with GPS (1994–2019) by considering statistical significance
Yuan, Peng; Hunegnaw, Addisu UL; Alshawaf, Fadwa et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2021), 260(112416),

Although the statistical significances for the trends of integrated water vapor (IWV) are essential for a correct interpretation of climate change signals, obtaining accurate IWV trend estimates with ... [more ▼]

Although the statistical significances for the trends of integrated water vapor (IWV) are essential for a correct interpretation of climate change signals, obtaining accurate IWV trend estimates with realistic uncertainties remains a challenge. This study evaluates the feasibility of the IWV trends derived from the newly released fifth generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis (ERA5) for climate change analysis in continental Europe. This is achieved by comparing the trends derived from in-situ ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS)’s daily IWV series from 1994 to 2019 at 109 stations. The realistic uncertainties and statistical significances of the IWV trends are evaluated with the time series analysis on their noise characteristics and proper noise models. Results show that autoregressive moving average ARMA(1,1) noise model is preferred rather than the commonly assumed white noise (WN) or first-order autoregressive AR(1) noise for about 68% of the ERA5 and GPS IWV series. An improper noise model would misevaluate the trend uncertainty of an IWV time series, compared with its specific preferred noise model. For example, ARMA(1,1) may misevaluate the standard deviations of their trend estimates (0.1–0.3 kg m−2 decade−1) by 10%. Nevertheless, ARMA(1,1) is recommended as the default noise model for the ERA5 and GPS IWV series. However, the preferred noise model for each ERA5 minus GPS (E-G) IWV series should be specifically determined, because the AR(1)-related models can result in an underestimation on its trend uncertainty by 90%. In contrast, power-law (PL) model can lead to an overestimation by up to nine times. The E-G IWV trends are within −0.2–0.4 kg m−2 decade−1, indicating that the ERA5 is a potential data source of IWV trends for climate change analysis in continental Europe. The ERA5 and GPS IWV trends are consistent in their magnitudes and geographical patterns, lower in Northwest Europe (0–0.4 kg m−2 decade−1) but higher around the Mediterranean Sea (0.6–1.4 kg m−2 decade−1). [less ▲]

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See detailFederated Learning-based Scheme for Detecting Passive Mobile Attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge Computing
Boualouache, Abdelwahab UL; Engel, Thomas UL

in Annals of Telecommunications (2021)

Detecting passive attacks is always considered difficult in vehicular networks. Passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless medium to collect beacons. These beacons can be exploited to track the ... [more ▼]

Detecting passive attacks is always considered difficult in vehicular networks. Passive attackers can eavesdrop on the wireless medium to collect beacons. These beacons can be exploited to track the positions of vehicles not only to violate their location privacy but also for criminal purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel federated learning-based scheme for detecting passive mobile attackers in 5G Vehicular Edge Computing. We first identify a set of strategies that can be used by attackers to efficiently track vehicles without being visually detected. We then build an efficient Machine Learning (ML) model to detect tracking attacks based only on the receiving beacons. Our scheme enables Federated Learning (FL) at the edge to ensure collaborative learning while preserving the privacy of vehicles. Moreover, FL clients use a semi-supervised learning approach to ensure accurate self-labeling. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme to detect passive mobile attackers quickly and with high accuracy. Indeed, only 20 received beacons are required to achieve 95\% accuracy. This accuracy can be achieved within 60 FL rounds using 5 FL clients in each FL round. The obtained results are also validated through simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe decisional value of information in European semi-automated decision-making
Demkova, Simona UL

in Review of European Administrative Law (2021), 2(14), 29-50

This article asserts that the automated processing of information, such as via large-scale information systems in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ), alters the ‘value’ of information from a ... [more ▼]

This article asserts that the automated processing of information, such as via large-scale information systems in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ), alters the ‘value’ of information from a means of assistance to a key decisional asset. Information in its different forms, whether paper-based or digital, has always been fundamental to decision-making conduct. Concretely, the premise holds that decisions shall be based on correct, full, and adequate knowledge and reasoning. Technological innovation has, however, magnified information capacities and significance. The article in that respect maintains that the ‘decisional value’ of automatically-processed information consequently also alters the nature of the respective decision-making – from a conventional type where the agent exercises discretion to a ‘semi-automated’ conduct in which automation inhibits the agent’s decision-making capacity. The recognition of such transformation is necessary for the law to keep up with the technological progress and safeguard rights of individuals who are subjects of such semi-automated decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailCarrier collaboration with endogenous networks: Or, the limits of what carrier collaboration can achieve under antitrust immunity
Mantin, Benny UL; Czerny, Achim; Jost, Peter et al

in Journal of Air Transport Management (2021), 94

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See detailRational Necessities: on the Silence of Liberal Democratic Theory in Front of the Unreasonable Other
Spindola Diniz, Ricardo UL

in Etica e Politica (2021), 23(2), 467-480

To take or think history seriously, The Concept of Liberal Democratic Law tells us, is to comprehend it as a constant process of denaturalization. Having presented us with a conception of history as an on ... [more ▼]

To take or think history seriously, The Concept of Liberal Democratic Law tells us, is to comprehend it as a constant process of denaturalization. Having presented us with a conception of history as an on-going earthquake that ruins and denaturalizes everything, does Van der Walt not in the end step back from this seismic vision of history? This engagement seeks to circumscribe this question in the textual body of The Concept of Liberal Democratic Law. It does so under the auspices of the following bet: to submit one’s literary enterprise as a reading is tantamount to submit one’s work to a process of denaturalization. After all, in other interpretations, the text does not live on. Interpretation marks off the text’s posteriority, its after-life. Therefore, by interrogating the way the text posits its possible readership, declaring silence to the foreseeable unreasonable reader, arguably one makes room to evaluate whether the text’s representation of what liberal democracy is about does not end up being a dissemblance between its maxim and practice when it declares that before an unreasonable reader, the discussion must come to an end. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface anchoring mediates bifurcation in nematic microflows within cylindrical capillaries
Paul, Steffen; Eric, Stellamanns; Sengupta, Anupam UL

in Physics of Fluids (2021), 33(072005), 072005-1-072005-13

Capillary microflows of liquid crystal phases are central to material, biological and bio-inspired systems. Despite their fundamental and applied significance, a detailed understanding of the stationary ... [more ▼]

Capillary microflows of liquid crystal phases are central to material, biological and bio-inspired systems. Despite their fundamental and applied significance, a detailed understanding of the stationary behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLC-s) in cylindrical capillaries is still lacking. Here, using numerical simulations based on the continuum theory of Leslie, Ericksen, and Parodi, we investigate stationary NLC flows within cylindrical capillaries possessing homeotropic (normal) and uniform planar anchoring conditions. By considering the material parameters of the flow-aligning NLC, 5CB, we report that instead of the expected, unique director field monotonically approaching the alignment angle over corresponding Ericksen numbers (dimensionless number capturing viscous vs elastic effects), a second solution emerges at a threshold flow rate (or applied pressure gradient). We demonstrate that the onset of the second solution, a nematodynamic bifurcation yielding distinct director configurations at the threshold pressure gradient, can be controlled by the surface anchoring and the flow driving mechanism (pressure-driven or volume-driven). For homeotropic surface anchoring, this alternate director field orients against the alignment angle in the vicinity of the capillary center; while in the uniform planar case, the alternate director field extends throughout the capillary volume, leading to reduction of the flow speed with increasing pressure gradients. While the practical realization and utilization of such nematodynamic bifurcations still await systematic exploration, signatures of the emergent rheology have been reported by the authors previously within microfluidic environments, under both homeotropic and planar anchoring conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Handbook of Diverse Economies
Schulz, Christian UL

in Economic Geography (2021)

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See detailTaming Reflection: An Essential Step Toward Whole-program Analysis of Android Apps
Sun, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(3), 1-36

Android developers heavily use reflection in their apps for legitimate reasons. However, reflection is also significantly used for hiding malicious actions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art static ... [more ▼]

Android developers heavily use reflection in their apps for legitimate reasons. However, reflection is also significantly used for hiding malicious actions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art static analysis tools for Android are challenged by the presence of reflective calls which they usually ignore. Thus, the results of their security analysis, e.g., for private data leaks, are incomplete, given the measures taken by malware writers to elude static detection. We propose a new instrumentation-based approach to address this issue in a non-invasive way. Specifically, we introduce to the community a prototype tool called DroidRA, which reduces the resolution of reflective calls to a composite constant propagation problem and then leverages the COAL solver to infer the values of reflection targets. After that, it automatically instruments the app to replace reflective calls with their corresponding Java calls in a traditional paradigm. Our approach augments an app so that it can be more effectively statically analyzable, including by such static analyzers that are not reflection-aware. We evaluate DroidRA on benchmark apps as well as on real-world apps, and demonstrate that it can indeed infer the target values of reflective calls and subsequently allow state-of-the-art tools to provide more sound and complete analysis results. [less ▲]

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See detailMethylamine Gas Treatment Affords Improving Semitransparency, Efficiency, and Stability of CH3NH3PbBr3-Based Perovskite Solar Cells
Singh, Ajay UL; Matteocci, Fabio; Zhu, Hongwei et al

in Solar RRL (2021)

High bandgap semitransparent solar cells based on CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites are attractive for building integration, tandem cells, and electrochemical applications. The lack of control of the CH3NH3PbBr3 ... [more ▼]

High bandgap semitransparent solar cells based on CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites are attractive for building integration, tandem cells, and electrochemical applications. The lack of control of the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite growth limit the exploitation of CH3NH3PbBr3-based perovskite solar cells. Herein, a posttreatment is carried out after the initial CH3NH3PbBr3 crystallization based on methylamine gas that drastically enhances the perovskite quality leading to a highly crystalline film with improved average visible transmittance (AVT) close to 56%. Opaque devices showed outstanding results in terms of open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaching 1.54 V and 9.2%, respectively. These achievements are ascribed to a film with reduced morphological defects and better interface quality and reduced nonradiative pathways. For the first time, the fabrication of semitransparent CH3NH3PbBr3-based solar cells is demonstrated reaching a maximum PCE equal to 7.6%, an AVT of the full stack device of 52%, and an excellent light stability at maximum-power point tracking. [less ▲]

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See detailHöchste Kolonialzeit. Sonderweg Saarland
Bloch, Natalie UL

in Theater heute (2021), (7), 61-62

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See detailGeneralized Chern numbers based on open system Green's functions
Farias, Maria Belen UL; Groenendijk, Solofo; Schmidt, Thomas UL

in New Journal of Physics (2021), 23

We present an alternative approach to studying topology in open quantum systems, relying directly on Green's functions and avoiding the need to construct an effective non-Hermitian (nH) Hamiltonian. We ... [more ▼]

We present an alternative approach to studying topology in open quantum systems, relying directly on Green's functions and avoiding the need to construct an effective non-Hermitian (nH) Hamiltonian. We define an energy-dependent Chern number based on the eigenstates of the inverse Green's function matrix of the system which contains, within the self-energy, all the information about the influence of the environment, interactions, gain or losses. We explicitly calculate this topological invariant for a system consisting of a single 2D Dirac cone and find that it is half-integer quantized when certain assumptions about the self-energy are made. Away from these conditions, which cannot or are not usually considered within the formalism of nH Hamiltonians, we find that such a quantization is usually lost and the Chern number vanishes, and that in special cases, it can change to integer quantization. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Impact of Sample Duplication in Machine Learning based Android Malware Detection
Zhao, Yanjie; Li, Li; Wang, Haoyu et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(3), 1-38

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021), (7-8), 476

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See detailDie Psychotechnik im Dienste der Berufsberatung - eine Erinnerung an die Verdienste von Nicolas Braunshausen
Steffgen, Georges UL; Ewen, Norbert UL

in Psychologische Rundschau: Ueberblick Uber die Fortschritte der Psychologie in Deutschland, Oesterreich, und der Schweiz (2021), 72(3), 220-221

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2021)

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See detailNB-IoT via LEO satellites: An efficient resource allocation strategy for uplink data transmission
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Maturo, Nicola; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021)

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See detailRandom access procedure over non-terrestrial networks: From theory to practice
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Abdalla, Abdelrahman UL; Querol, Jorge UL et al

in IEEE Access (2021)

Non-terrestrial Networks (NTNs) have become an appealing concept over the last few years and they are foreseen as a cornerstone for the next generations of mobile communication systems. Despite opening up ... [more ▼]

Non-terrestrial Networks (NTNs) have become an appealing concept over the last few years and they are foreseen as a cornerstone for the next generations of mobile communication systems. Despite opening up new market opportunities and use cases for the future, the novel impairments caused by the signal propagation over the NTN channel, compromises several procedures of the current cellular standards. One of the first and most important procedures impacted is the random access (RA) procedure, which is mainly utilized for achieving uplink synchronization among users in several standards, such as the fourth and fifth generation of mobile communication (4 & 5G) and narrowband internet of things (NB-IoT). In this work, we analyse the challenges imposed by the considerably increased delay in the communication link on the RA procedure and propose new solutions to overcome those challenges. A trade-off analysis of various solutions is provided taking into account also the already existing ones in the literature. In order to broaden the scope of applicability, we keep the analysis general targeting 4G, 5G and NB-IoT systems since the RA procedure is quasi-identical among these technologies. Last but not least, we go one step further and validate our techniques in an experimental setup, consisting of a user and a base station implemented in open air interface (OAI), and an NTN channel implemented in hardware that emulates the signal propagation delay. The laboratory test-bed built in this work, not only enables us to validate various solutions, but also plays a crucial role in identifying novel challenges not previously treated in the literature. Finally, an important key performance indicator (KPI) of the RA procedure over NTN is shown, which is the time that a single user requires to establish a connection with the base station. [less ▲]

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See detailLand and the housing affordability crisis: landowner and developer strategies in Luxembourg’s facilitative planning context
Paccoud, Antoine UL; Hesse, Markus UL; Becker, Tom UL et al

in Housing Studies (2021)

The issue of land and its ownership remains under-explored in relation to the housing affordability crisis. We argue that the concentrated ownership of residential land affects housing production in ... [more ▼]

The issue of land and its ownership remains under-explored in relation to the housing affordability crisis. We argue that the concentrated ownership of residential land affects housing production in Luxembourg through the interplay of landowner and developer wealth accumulation strategies. Drawing on expert interviews, we first show that the country’s growth-centred ecology has produced a negotiated planning regime that does little to manage the pace of residential development. Through an investigation of the development of 71 large-scale residential projects since 2007, we then identify the private land-based wealth accumulation strategies this facilitative planning regime enables. This analysis of land registry data identifies land hoarding, land banking and the strategic use of the planning system. The Luxembourg case – with its extremes of land concentration, low taxes and public disengagement from land – provides a glimpse at the influence of landowner and property developer strategies on housing affordability free of the usual mediating impact of the planning system. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Systematically Building a Controlled Natural Language for Functional Requirements
Veizaga Campero, Alvaro Mario UL; Alferez, Mauricio UL; Torre, Damiano UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26(4), 79

[Context] Natural language (NL) is pervasive in software requirements specifications (SRSs). However, despite its popularity and widespread use, NL is highly prone to quality issues such as vagueness ... [more ▼]

[Context] Natural language (NL) is pervasive in software requirements specifications (SRSs). However, despite its popularity and widespread use, NL is highly prone to quality issues such as vagueness, ambiguity, and incompleteness. Controlled natural languages (CNLs) have been proposed as a way to prevent quality problems in requirements documents, while maintaining the flexibility to write and communicate requirements in an intuitive and universally understood manner. [Objective] In collaboration with an industrial partner from the financial domain, we systematically develop and evaluate a CNL, named Rimay, intended at helping analysts write functional requirements. [Method] We rely on Grounded Theory for building Rimay and follow well-known guidelines for conducting and reporting industrial case study research. [Results] Our main contributions are: (1) a qualitative methodology to systematically define a CNL for functional requirements; this methodology is intended to be general for use across information-system domains, (2) a CNL grammar to represent functional requirements; this grammar is derived from our experience in the financial domain, but should be applicable, possibly with adaptations, to other information-system domains, and (3) an empirical evaluation of our CNL (Rimay) through an industrial case study. Our contributions draw on 15 representative SRSs, collectively containing 3215 NL requirements statements from the financial domain. [Conclusion] Our evaluation shows that Rimay is expressive enough to capture, on average, 88% (405 out of 460) of the NL requirements statements in four previously unseen SRSs from the financial domain. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure Transmission in Cell-Free Massive MIMO With RF Impairments and Low-Resolution ADCs/DACs
Zhang, Xianyu; Liang, Tao; An, Kang et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(9, Sept. 2021), 8937-8949

This paper considers the secure transmission in a cell-free massive MIMO system with imperfect radio frequency (RF) chains and low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the secure transmission in a cell-free massive MIMO system with imperfect radio frequency (RF) chains and low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) at both access points (APs) and legitimate users, where an active eavesdropper attempts to wiretap the confidential data. The Gaussian RF impairment model (GRFIM) and additive quantization noise model (AQNM) are used to evaluate the impacts of the RF impairments and low resolution ADCs/DACs, respectively. The analytical results of the linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation show that there is nonzero floor on the estimation error with respect to the RF impairments, ADC/DAC precision and the pilot power of the eavesdropper which is different from the conventional case with perfect transceiver. Then, a tractable closed-form expression for the ergodic secrecy rate is obtained with respect to key system parameters, such as the antenna number per AP, the AP number, user number, quality factors of the ADC/DAC and the RF chain, pilot signal power of the eavesdropper, etc. Moreover, a compensation algorithm between the imperfect RF components and the inexpensive coarse ADCs/DACs is also presented. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the achieved expressions and the devised algorithm, and show the effects of RF impairments and low resolution ADC/DAC on the secrecy performance. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitized-counterdiabatic quantum approximate optimization algorithm
Chandarana, P.; Hegade, N. N.; Paul, K. et al

in Physical Review Research (2021)

The quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) has proved to be an e ective classical-quantum algorithm serving multiple purposes, from solving combinatorial optimization problems to finding the ... [more ▼]

The quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) has proved to be an e ective classical-quantum algorithm serving multiple purposes, from solving combinatorial optimization problems to finding the ground state of many-body quantum systems. Since QAOA is an ansatz-dependent algorithm, there is always a need to design ansatz for better optimization. To this end, we propose a digitized version of QAOA enhanced via the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity. Specifically, we use a counterdiabatic (CD) driving term to design a better ansatz, along with the Hamiltonian and mixing terms, enhancing the global performance. We apply our digitizedcounterdiabatic QAOA to Ising models, classical optimization problems, and the P-spin model, demonstrating that it outperforms standard QAOA in all cases we study. [less ▲]

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See detailThe missing risk premium in exchange rates
Penasse, Julien UL; Magnus, Dahlquist

in Journal of Financial Economics (2021)

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See detailTWAILing the Minimum Core Concept: Rethinking the Minimum Core of Economic and Social Rights in the Third World
Lichuma, Caroline Omari UL

in Nigerian Yearbook of International Law (2021), 2

The deployment of the minimum core concept in the sphere of Economic and Social Rights (hereinafter ESRs) can be attributed to the treaty body charged with the implementation of the International Covenant ... [more ▼]

The deployment of the minimum core concept in the sphere of Economic and Social Rights (hereinafter ESRs) can be attributed to the treaty body charged with the implementation of the International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights (hereinafter ICESCR). This treaty body, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (hereinafter CESCR) first adopted the minimum core concept in 1990 in its General Comment No. 3 on the Nature of State Obligations [UNCESCR, General Comment No. 3: The Nature of State Parties’ Obligations (Art. 2, Para. 1 of the Covenant), 14 December 1990, E/1991/23 (Hereinafter General Comment No. 3)]. The Committee averred that a failure on their part to introduce such a minimum core obligation would have amounted to depriving the ICESCR of its raison d’être. Since the inception of this concept however, numerous criticisms have been levelled against its normative and conceptual foundations as well as its implementation in practice. This article intends to contribute to this critical reflection on the prospects and challenges of the minimum core concept by utilizing a Third World Approaches to International Law (Hereinafter TWAIL) lens to critique the application of the concept to the Third World. The Article is divided into five sections. Sections 1 and 2 briefly sketch the contours of TWAIL as a critical school of thought, and focus on highlighting its application particularly in the area of international human rights law. Section 3 thereafter takes up the task of tracing the origins and utilization of the minimum core concept by the CESCR in its assessment of compliance with the ICESCR. The penultimate Sect. 4 undertakes an ambitious critical analysis of the minimum core concept from a TWAIL perspective. The paper concludes with Sect. 5 which offers a reconceptualized application of the minimum core concept potentially capable of alleviating the TWAIL concerns raised in earlier sections of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailSeeking Compatibility in Preventing Crime with Artificial Intelligence and Ensuring a Fair Trial
Blount, Kelly UL

in Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology (2021), 15(1), 25-51

The justice system is increasingly reliant on new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). In the field of criminal law this also extends to the methods utilized by police for preventing crime ... [more ▼]

The justice system is increasingly reliant on new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI). In the field of criminal law this also extends to the methods utilized by police for preventing crime. Though policing is not explicitly covered by Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, this article will demonstrate that there can be adverse effects of policing on fair trial rights and make the analogy to criminal investigations as a recognized pre-trial process. Specifically, it will argue that policing that relies on AI to predict crime has direct effects on fair trial processes such as the equality of arms, the presumption of innocence, and the right to confront the evidence produced against a defendant. It will conclude by challenging the notion that AI is always an appropriate tool for legal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Field, Old Practices: Promises and Challenges of Public History
Cauvin, Thomas UL

in magazén | International Journal for Digital and Public Humanities (2021), 2(1), 13-44

lthough public history is becoming increasingly international, the field remains difficult to define and subject to some criticism. Based on sometimes long-established public practices, public history ... [more ▼]

lthough public history is becoming increasingly international, the field remains difficult to define and subject to some criticism. Based on sometimes long-established public practices, public history displays new approaches to audiences, collaboration and authority in history production. This article provides an overview of public history, its various definitions and historiography, and discusses some of the main criticisms of the field. Public history is compared to a tree of knowledge whose parts (roots, trunk, branches and leaves) represent the many collaborative and interconnected stages in the field. Defining public history as a systemic process (tree) demonstrates the need for collaboration between the different actors – may they be trained historians or not – and aim to focus on the role they play in the overall process. The future of international public history will involve balancing practice-based approaches with more theoretical discussions on the role of trained historians, audiences and different uses of the past. [less ▲]

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See detailImpairment of neuronal mitochondrial function by l-DOPA in the absence of oxygen-dependent auto-oxidation and oxidative cell damage
Hörmann, Philipp; Delcambre, Sylvie UL; Hanke, Jasmin et al

in Cell Death Discovery (2021)

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanin (l-DOPA or levodopa) is currently the most used drug to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). After crossing the blood–brain barrier, it is enzymatically converted to ... [more ▼]

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanin (l-DOPA or levodopa) is currently the most used drug to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). After crossing the blood–brain barrier, it is enzymatically converted to dopamine by neuronal cells and restores depleted endogenous neurotransmitter levels. l-DOPA is prone to auto-oxidation and reactive intermediates of its degradation including reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cellular damage. In this study, we investigated how oxygen tension effects l-DOPA stability. We applied oxygen tensions comparable to those in the mammalian brain and demonstrated that 2% oxygen almost completely stopped its auto-oxidation. l-DOPA even exerted a ROS scavenging function. Further mechanistic analysis indicated that l-DOPA reprogrammed mitochondrial metabolism and reduced oxidative phosphorylation, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, induced reductive glutamine metabolism, and depleted the NADH pool. These results shed new light on the cellular effects of l-DOPA and its neuro-toxicity under physiological oxygen levels that are very distinct to normoxic in vitro conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between large molecules pose a puzzle for reference quantum mechanical methods
Yasmine S. Al-Hamdani; Péter R. Nagy; Andrea Zen et al

in Nature Communications (2021)

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See detailAn Atomistic Study of the Thermoelectric Signatures of CNT Peapods
Rodríguez Méndez, Alvaro; Medrano Sandonas, Leonardo UL; Dianat, Arezoo et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and interfaces (2021), 125(25), 1372113731

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a great potential for applications in the development of high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their low-cost and for ... [more ▼]

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a great potential for applications in the development of high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their low-cost and for being environmentally friendly. Pristine nanotubes have, however, high electrical and thermal conductivities so that further nanoscale engineering is required to exploit them as TE materials. We investigate electron and phonon transport in CNT peapods to elucidate their potential advantage over pristine CNTs as basic TE elements. We show that the electron and phonon transport properties are sensitively modified by C60 encapsulation, when the CNT–C60 intermolecular interaction is strong enough to produce a periodic buckling of the CNT walls. Moreover, the phonon transmission is strongly suppressed at low and high frequencies, leading to a reduction of the phonon contribution to the overall thermal conductance. A similar effect has also been observed in the recently proposed phononic metamaterials. We obtain in general a larger TE figure of merit over a broad temperature range for the CNT peapod when compared with the pristine CNT, achieving an increase by a factor of 2.2 at 575 K. Our findings show an alternative route for the enhancement of the TE performance of CNT-based devices. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear Z2n-Manifolds and Linear Actions
Bruce, Andrew UL; Ibarguengoytia, Eduardo UL; Poncin, Norbert UL

in Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (2021), 17(060), 58

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See detailThe BIOMarkers in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis (BIOMAP) Glossary: developing a lingua franca to facilitate data harmonisation and cross-cohort analyses
Broderick, Conor; Christian, Nils; Apfelbacher, Christian et al

in British Journal of Dermatology (2021)

Dear Editor, BIOMAP (BIOMarkers in Atopic dermatitis and Psoriasis) is a large European consortium aiming to advance personalised medicine for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis by identifying biomarkers ... [more ▼]

Dear Editor, BIOMAP (BIOMarkers in Atopic dermatitis and Psoriasis) is a large European consortium aiming to advance personalised medicine for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis by identifying biomarkers which predict therapeutic response and disease progression. BIOMAP brings together clinicians, researchers, patient organisations and pharmaceutical industry partners and encompasses data from over 60 individual studies, including randomised clinical trials, population-based cohorts and deeply-phenotyped disease registries. The curation and harmonisation of data and bio-samples from these established studies will facilitate cross-cohort clinical and molecular analyses, increasing the potential to identify small effect estimates and to better stratify disease subtypes. This letter serves to disseminate BIOMAP's pathway to data harmonisation and will inform future collaborative research endeavours. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Anisotropy in Interfacial Tension of Nematic Liquid Crystals
Honaker, Lawrence; Sharma, Anjali UL; Schanen, Andy et al

in Crystals (2021), 11(6), 687

<jats:p>Liquid crystal (LC) phases typically show anisotropic alignment-dependent properties, such as viscosity and dielectric permittivity, so it stands to reason that LCs also have anisotropic ... [more ▼]

<jats:p>Liquid crystal (LC) phases typically show anisotropic alignment-dependent properties, such as viscosity and dielectric permittivity, so it stands to reason that LCs also have anisotropic interfacial tensions. Measuring the interfacial tension ? of an LC with conventional methods, such as pendant drops, can be challenging, however, especially when we need to know ? for different LC aligning conditions, as is the case when we seek ??, the interfacial tension anisotropy. Here, we present measurements of ?? of the common synthetic nematic LC compound 5CB against water using a microfluidic droplet aspiration technique. To ensure tangential and normal alignment, respectively, we add poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), respectively, as a stabilizer and measure ? for different concentrations of stabilizer. By fitting the Szyszkowski equation to the data, we can extrapolate to zero-stabilizer concentration, obtaining the ? of 5CB to pure water for each alignment. For normal alignment, we find ??=31.9?0.8 mN?m-1, on the order of 1 mN?m-1 greater than ?$_$=30.8?5 mN?m-1 for tangential alignment. This resonates with the empirical knowledge that 5CB aligns tangentially to an interface with pure water. The main uncertainty arises from the use of polymeric PVA as tangential-promoting stabilizer. Future improvements in accuracy may be expected if PVA can be replaced by a low molar mass stabilizer that ensures tangential alignment.</jats:p [less ▲]

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See detail#gemeinsamlesen: Raptexte online kommentieren und diskutieren. Unterrichtsmaterialien für den Deutschunterricht
Baumann, Isabell Eva UL

in Programme for Innovative Teaching and Training (PITT) (2021)

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See detailSecure Vehicular Communications Through Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
Ai, Yun; De Figueiredo, Felipe A.P; Kong, Long et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021), 70(7), 7272-7276

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is considered as a revolutionary technique to improve the wireless system performance by reconfiguring the radio wave propagation environment artificially ... [more ▼]

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is considered as a revolutionary technique to improve the wireless system performance by reconfiguring the radio wave propagation environment artificially. Motivated by the potential of RIS in vehicular networks, we analyze the secrecy outage performance of RIS-aided vehicular communications in this paper. More specifically, two vehicular communication scenarios are considered, i.e., a vehicular-to-vehicular (V2V) communication where the RIS acts as a relay and a vehicular-to-infrastructure (V2I) scenario where the RIS functions as the receiver. In both scenarios, a passive eavesdropper is present attempting to retrieve the transmitted information. Closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) are derived and verified. The results demonstrate the potential of improving secrecy with the aid of RIS under both V2V and V2I communications. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversal statistics of vortices in a newborn holographic superconductor: beyond the Kibble-Zurek mechanism
Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Gómez-Ruiz, Fernando Javier; Li, Zhi-Hong et al

in JHEP (2021)

Traversing a continuous phase transition at a finite rate leads to the breakdown of adiabatic dynamics and the formation of topological defects, as predicted by the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM ... [more ▼]

Traversing a continuous phase transition at a finite rate leads to the breakdown of adiabatic dynamics and the formation of topological defects, as predicted by the celebrated Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). We investigate universal signatures beyond the KZM, by characterizing the distribution of vortices generated in a thermal quench leading to the formation of a holographic superconductor. The full counting statistics of vortices is described by a binomial distribution, in which the mean value is dictated by the KZM and higher-order cumulants share the universal power-law scaling with the quench time. Extreme events associated with large fluctuations no longer exhibit a power-law behavior with the quench time and are characterized by a universal form of the Weibull distribution for different quench rates. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of Common Genetic Variants for Drug-Resistance to Specific Anti-Seizure Medications
Wolking, Stefan; Campbell, Ciarán; Stapleton, Caragh et al

in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2021), 12

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians ... [more ▼]

Objective: Resistance to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) presents a significant hurdle in the treatment of people with epilepsy. Genetic markers for resistance to individual ASMs could support clinicians to make better-informed choices for their patients. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether the response to individual ASMs was associated with common genetic variation.Methods: A cohort of 3,649 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping. We conducted genome-wide association analyses (GWASs) on responders to specific ASMs or groups of functionally related ASMs, using non-responders as controls. We performed a polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses based on risk variants for epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders and ASM resistance itself to delineate the polygenic burden of ASM-specific drug resistance.Results: We identified several potential regions of interest but did not detect genome-wide significant loci for ASM-specific response. We did not find polygenic risk for epilepsy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and drug-resistance associated with drug response to specific ASMs or mechanistically related groups of ASMs.Significance: This study could not ascertain the predictive value of common genetic variants for ASM responder status. The identified suggestive loci will need replication in future studies of a larger scale. [less ▲]

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See detailCan citizen science complement official data sources that serve as evidence-base for policies and practice to improve water quality?
König, Ariane UL; Pickar, Karl Arthur UL; Stankiewicz, Jacek UL et al

in Statistical Journal of the IAOS (2021), 73(1), 189-204

Addressing environmental issues in policy making requires recognising these issues as part of a complex socio-ecological system. The evidence base for such policies and associated monitoring and ... [more ▼]

Addressing environmental issues in policy making requires recognising these issues as part of a complex socio-ecological system. The evidence base for such policies and associated monitoring and implementation measures, as well as related official indicators, statistics and environmental accounts are receiving increasing attention. This paper explores the potential of citizen science as a non-traditional source of data to complement the current data production process for evidence-based policy-making, using pollution of surface waters and its effect on associated ecosystems as an example. The paper develops a framework that helps to explore the official data production process in relation to different purposes of environmental policies. This highlights different challenges that the current official data production process sees itself confronted with in relation to the different purposes of the policies and associated monitoring regimes. These questions are explored with reference to the case of evidence-based policy making on water quality of surface freshwater in the EU, with a focus on Luxembourg. The analysis is based on extensive documentary analysis and literature review, as well as a series of interviews and participatory workshops with various stakeholders, and first results of a pilot project work with engaged citizen volunteers to solicit data on water quality with a focus on its nutrient content. On this basis, this paper argues that citizen science has the clear potential to meaningfully contribute both to the evidence base for policy and practice, as well as to an improved governance process. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la poussière à la lumière bleue. Émotions, récits, gestes de l'archive à l'ère numérique
Muller, Caroline; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2021), 12(12),

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity ... [more ▼]

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity has emerged between this book and the actual experience and practice of historical research because of the rise in digital technologies, which have prompted a dramatic change in historians’ relationship with archives. Based on the collective online book Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique (“The allure of the archives in the digital age” – https://www.gout-numerique.net/) and on a study day held in 2018 at the French National Archives, this paper aims to investigate the changing relationship of historians with archives: their emotional engagement, their relations with archivists and their practices when consulting paper, digitised or born-digital archives. From dusty shelves to blue light, the entire profession of historian has changed, often in discreet, implicit ways, such as the recent practice of taking photos at archival centers, a consequence of the widespread ownership and use of digital cameras. Do archives still elicit the same emotions when they are merely one snapshot among many on a hard disk, or when they are turned into data and published online in a corpus? If the emotion attached to archives is no longer the same, does this change the way in which we interpret them? How should we reflect on our own practices so that we can see past the algorithms that drive the search engines and software we now use? [less ▲]

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See detailLinking Physical Objects to Their Digital Twins via Fiducial Markers Designed for Invisibility to Humans
Schwartz, Mathew; Geng, Yong UL; Agha, Hakam UL et al

in Multifunctional Materials (2021), 4(2), 022002

The ability to label and track physical objects that are assets in digital representations of the world is foundational to many complex systems. Simple, yet powerful methods such as bar- and QR-codes have ... [more ▼]

The ability to label and track physical objects that are assets in digital representations of the world is foundational to many complex systems. Simple, yet powerful methods such as bar- and QR-codes have been highly successful, e.g. in the retail space, but the lack of security, limited information content and impossibility of seamless integration with the environment have prevented a large-scale linking of physical objects to their digital twins. This paper proposes to link digital assets created through building information modeling (BIM) with their physical counterparts using fiducial markers with patterns defined by cholesteric spherical reflectors (CSRs), selective retroreflectors produced using liquid crystal self-assembly. The markers leverage the ability of CSRs to encode information that is easily detected and read with computer vision while remaining practically invisible to the human eye. We analyze the potential of a CSR-based infrastructure from the perspective of BIM, critically reviewing the outstanding challenges in applying this new class of functional materials, and we discuss extended opportunities arising in assisting autonomous mobile robots to reliably navigate human-populated environments, as well as in augmented reality. [less ▲]

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See detailElaiophylin Is a Potent Hsp90/ Cdc37 Protein Interface Inhibitor with K-Ras Nanocluster Selectivity
Siddiqui, Farid A.; Vukic, Vladimir; Salminen, Tiina A. et al

in Biomolecules (2021)

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic ... [more ▼]

The natural product elaiophylin is a macrodiolide with a broad range of biological activities. However, no direct target of elaiophylin in eukaryotes has been described so far, which hinders a systematic explanation of its astonishing activity range. We recently showed that the related conglobatin A, a protein–protein interface inhibitor of the interaction between the N-terminus of Hsp90 and its cochaperone Cdc37, blocks cancer stem cell properties by selectively inhibiting K-Ras4B but not H-Ras. Here, we elaborated that elaiophylin likewise disrupts the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interaction, without affecting the ATP-pocket of Hsp90. Similarly to conglobatin A, elaiophylin decreased expression levels of the Hsp90 client HIF1 , a transcription factor with various downstream targets, including galectin-3. Galectin-3 is a nanocluster scaffold of K-Ras, which explains the K-Ras selectivity of Hsp90 inhibitors. In agreement with this K-Ras targeting and the potent effect on other Hsp90 clients, we observed with elaiophylin treatment a submicromolar IC50 for MDA-MB-231 and MIAPaCa-2 3D spheroid formation. Finally, a strong inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells grown in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microtumor model was determined. These results suggest that several other macrodiolides may have the Hsp90/ Cdc37 interface as a target site. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Enhancement for Full-Duplex Relaying with Time-Switching-Based SWIPT in Wireless Sensors Networks
Tran, Phu Tin; Nguyen Nhat, ; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL et al

in Sensors (2021), 21(11), 3847

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency ... [more ▼]

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency. This paper studies the outage performance for a SWIPT-based decode-and-forward (DF) FD relaying network consisting of a single-antenna source S, a two-antenna relay R, and a multi-antenna destination D. Specifically, we propose four protocols, namely static time-switching factor with selection combining (STSF-SC), static time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (STSF-MRC), optimal dynamic time-switching factor with selection combining (ODTSF-SC), and optimal dynamic time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (ODTSF-MRC) to fully investigate the outage performance of the proposed system. In particular, the optimal time-switching factor from the ODTSF-SC and ODTSF-MRC methods is designed to maximize the total received data at the destination. In this context, we derive exact closed-formed expressions for all schemes in terms of the outage probability (OP). Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to corroborate the theoretical analysis’s correctness and the proposed schemes’ effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand les e-pétitions influencent-elles la décision politique ? Une analyse du système de pétitions électroniques de la Chambre des députés du Luxembourg
Kies, Raphaël UL; Seidenthal, Sven UL

in Participations (2021), 3(28), 177-202

Dans cet article, nous présentons l’une des premières analyses à étudier de manière systématique les facteurs expliquant le degré d’appropriation par un gouvernement des demandes exprimées dans les e ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous présentons l’une des premières analyses à étudier de manière systématique les facteurs expliquant le degré d’appropriation par un gouvernement des demandes exprimées dans les e-pétitions qui lui sont soumises. Cette analyse se base sur l’ensemble des e-pétitions ayant obtenu les 4 500 signatures requises pour donner lieu à un débat public à la Chambre des députés du Luxembourg. Les hypothèses testées pour expliquer les variations dans le niveau d’appropriation des e-pétitions par le gouvernement ont été : 1) la compatibilité avec l’agenda du gouvernement, 2) la compétence du gouvernement pour traiter les e-pétitions en question, 3) la nature consensuelle (ou non)de l’e-pétition, 4) le nombre de signatures en sa faveur, 5) sa visibilité médiatique, et 6) le statut de son initiateur. Conformément à nos attentes, nous avons observé que les probabilités qu’une e-pétition soit prise en considération par le gouvernement sont liées à essentiellement trois facteurs : 1) la compatibilité avec l’agenda du gouvernement, 2) la compétence du gouvernement et 3) l’accord du gouvernement avec les revendications des pétitionnaires. Les autres facteurs, tels que le soutien populaire ou médiatique de l’e-pétition, sa thématique ou bien les coûts de sa réalisation, apparaissent peu significatifs. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction. La participation politique en ligne au révélateur du pétitionnement électronique
Contamin, Jean-Gabriel; Kies, Raphaël UL; Paye, Olivier et al

in Participations (2021), 3(28), 7-45

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See detailGlobale Warenketten und ungleiche Entwicklung
Hesse, Markus UL

in Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie (2021)

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See detailWhat do alexithymia items measure? A discriminant content validity study of the Toronto-alexithymia-scale–20
Veirman, Elke; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL; Verleysen, Gregory et al

in PeerJ (2021), 29

Background Questions have been raised about whether items of alexithymia scales assess the construct alexithymia and its key features, and no other related constructs. This study assessed the ... [more ▼]

Background Questions have been raised about whether items of alexithymia scales assess the construct alexithymia and its key features, and no other related constructs. This study assessed the (discriminant) content validity of the most widely used alexithymia scale, i.e., the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Methods Participants (n = 81) rated to what extent TAS-20 items and items of related constructs were relevant for assessing the constructs ‘alexithymia’, ‘difficulty identifying feelings’, ‘difficulty describing feelings’, ‘externally-oriented thinking’, ‘limited imaginal capacity’, ‘anxiety’, ‘depression’, and ‘health anxiety’. Results Results revealed that, overall, the TAS-20 did only partly measure ‘alexithymia’. Only the subscales ‘difficulty identifying feelings’ and ‘difficulty describing feelings’ represented ‘alexithymia’ and their intended construct, although some content overlap between these subscales was found. In addition, some items assessed (health) anxiety equally well or even better. Conclusions Revision of the TAS-20 is recommended to adequately assess all key features of alexithymia. Findings with the TAS-20 need to be interpreted with caution in people suffering from medical conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of COVID-19 on alternative and local food systems and the potential for the sustainability transition: Insights from 13 countries
Reckinger, Rachel UL; Nemes, Gusztav; Chiffoleau, Yuna et al

in Sustainable Production and Consumption (2021), 28(2021), 591599

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major stress test for the agri-food system. While most research has analysed the impact of the pandemic on mainstream food systems, this article examines how alternative ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major stress test for the agri-food system. While most research has analysed the impact of the pandemic on mainstream food systems, this article examines how alternative and local food systems (ALFS) in 13 countries responded in the first months of the crisis. Using pri- mary and secondary data and combining the Multi-Level Perspective with social innovation approaches, we highlight the innovations and adaptations that emerged in ALFS, and how these changes have cre- ated or supported the sustainability transition in production and consumption systems. In particular, we show how the combination of social and technological innovation, greater citizen involvement, and the increased interest of policy-makers and retailers have enabled ALFS to extend their scope and engage new actors in more sustainable practices. Finally, we make recommendations concerning how to support ALFS’ upscaling to embrace the opportunities arising from the crisis and strengthen the sustainability transition [less ▲]

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See detailBoys don't cry (or do the dishes): Family size and the housework gender gap
Menta, Giorgia UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 186

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an ... [more ▼]

We here use data from the British Cohort Study (BCS) to link family size to age-16 children’s contribution to household chores and the adult housework gender gap. Assuming that home production is an increasing function of family size and using an instrument to account for the endogeneity of fertility, we show that larger families have a different effect on boys and girls at age 16: girls in large families are significantly more likely to contribute to housework, with no effect for boys. We then show that childhood family size affects the housework gender gap between the cohort members and their partners at age 34. Women who grew up in larger families are more likely to carry out a greater share of household tasks in adulthood, as compared to women from smaller families. In addition, growing up in a large family makes cohort members more likely to sort into households with a wider housework gender gap as adults. We show that the persistent effect of family size is due to the adoption of behaviours in line with traditional gender roles: a lower likelihood of employment and shorter commutes for women, along with a higher employment probability for their partners. [less ▲]

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See detailPrestigious Language, Pigeonholed Speakers: Stances towards the "Native English Speaker" in a Multilingual European Institution
Lovrits, Veronika UL; de Bres, Julia

in Journal of Sociolinguistics (2021), 25(3), 398-417

Critical sociolinguistics has demonstrated that the social construct of the “native speaker” has a strong impact on people’s lives, but research on “native speaker effects” in the workplace remains rare ... [more ▼]

Critical sociolinguistics has demonstrated that the social construct of the “native speaker” has a strong impact on people’s lives, but research on “native speaker effects” in the workplace remains rare. This article examines such effects from the perspective of four “native English speaker” trainees on temporary contracts in a multilingual European Union institution in Luxembourg. Applying the framework of sociolinguistic stance to interview data and drawings, we examine how the participants position themselves towards the “native English speaker” construct at work, and how they think others position them. According to our participants, “native English speaker” positioning confers privilege but restricts opportunities, demonstrating that the interest of a multilingual organisation in using the “native English speaker” as a resource does not automatically provide a powerful position to “native English speaking” workers. Our results featuring trainees in precarious labour conditions raise broader issues regarding the precaritisation of language work in the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailDark solitons in a trapped gas of long-range interacting bosons
Beau, M.; Del Campo Echevarria, Adolfo UL; Frantzeskakis, D. J. et al

in Physical Review X (2021)

We consider the interplay of repulsive short-range and long-range interactions in the dynamics of dark solitons, as prototypical coherent nonlinear excitations in a trapped quasi-1D Bose gas. Upon ... [more ▼]

We consider the interplay of repulsive short-range and long-range interactions in the dynamics of dark solitons, as prototypical coherent nonlinear excitations in a trapped quasi-1D Bose gas. Upon examining the form of the ground state, both the existence of the solitary waves and their stability properties are explored and corroborated by direct numerical simulations. We find that single- and multiple-dark-soliton states can exist and are generically robust in the presence of long-range interactions. We analyze the modes of vibration of such excitations and find that their respective frequencies are significantly upshifted as the strength of the long-range interactions is increased. Indeed, we find that a prefactor of the long-range interactions considered comparable to the trap strength may upshift the dark soliton oscillation frequency by an order of magnitude, in comparison to the well established one of /√2 in a trap of frequency . [less ▲]

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See detailCan coupons counteract strategic consumer behavior?
Hermel, Dror; Aviv, Yossi; Mantin, Benny UL

in Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management (2021), 21(3), 262-273

In multi-period environments, the presence of strategic consumers induces monopolist retailers to inter-temporally compete with themselves. Targeting consumers with price-discount coupons is a proposed ... [more ▼]

In multi-period environments, the presence of strategic consumers induces monopolist retailers to inter-temporally compete with themselves. Targeting consumers with price-discount coupons is a proposed mechanism to overcome this inter-temporal competition. Targeting consumers with coupons can counteract strategic consumer behavior, but this mechanism cannot completely eradicate the negative implications imposed by the presence of such consumers. Additionally, the quality of information available (regarding the consumers’ valuations) may play an important role in the targeting decisions. Specifically, we illustrate how the retailer may absent completely from targeting efforts when the quality of information and the proportion of strategic consumers are sufficiently low. Lastly, we consider the optimal investment in information solicitation, demonstrating the trade-off between a low investment, which result in low quality of targeting capability, and a high investment which improves the effectiveness of the targeting efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of mental and somatic stressors on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a diary study
Poppe, Louise; De Paepe; van Ryckeghem, Dimitri UL et al

in PeerJ (2021), 9

Background Adopting an active lifestyle is key in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, the majority of individuals with T2DM fails to do so. Additionally, individuals with T2DM ... [more ▼]

Background Adopting an active lifestyle is key in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, the majority of individuals with T2DM fails to do so. Additionally, individuals with T2DM are likely to experience mental (e.g., stress) and somatic (e.g., pain) stressors. Research investigating the link between these stressors and activity levels within this group is largely lacking. Therefore, current research aimed to investigate how daily fluctuations in mental and somatic stressors predict daily levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour among adults with T2DM. Methods Individuals with T2DM (N = 54) were instructed to complete a morning diary assessing mental and somatic stressors and to wear an accelerometer for 10 consecutive days. The associations between the mental and somatic stressors and participants’ levels of PA and sedentary behaviour were examined using (generalized) linear mixed effect models. Results Valid data were provided by 38 participants. We found no evidence that intra-individual increases in mental and somatic stressors detrimentally affected participants’ activity levels. Similarly, levels of sedentary behaviour nor levels of PA were predicted by inter-individual differences in the mental and somatic stressors. [less ▲]

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See detailGoffin's Cockatoos (Cacatua goffiniana) Can Solve a Novel Problem After Conflicting Past Experiences
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; O'Hara, Mark; Carminito, Chelsea et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021)

Novel problems often partially overlap with familiar ones. Some features match the qualities of previous situations stored in long-term memory and therefore trigger their retrieval. Using relevant, while ... [more ▼]

Novel problems often partially overlap with familiar ones. Some features match the qualities of previous situations stored in long-term memory and therefore trigger their retrieval. Using relevant, while inhibiting irrelevant, memories to solve novel problems is a hallmark of behavioral flexibility in humans and has recently been demonstrated in great apes. This capacity has been proposed to promote technical innovativeness and thus warrants investigations of such a mechanism in other innovative species. Here, we show that proficient tool—users among Goffin's cockatoos—an innovative tool—using species—could use a relevant previous experience to solve a novel, partially overlapping problem, even despite a conflicting, potentially misleading, experience. This suggests that selecting relevant experiences over irrelevant experiences guides problem solving at least in some Goffin's cockatoos. Our result supports the hypothesis that flexible memory functions may promote technical innovations. [less ▲]

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See detailSecure Energy Efficiency Maximization in Cognitive Satellite-Terrestrial Networks
Lu, Weixin; An, Kang; Liang, Tao et al

in IEEE Systems Journal (2021), 15(2), 2382-2385

This article investigates the secure energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in a cognitive satellite-terrestrial network with a capable eavesdropper. The objective is to maximize the secure EE for ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the secure energy efficiency (EE) optimization problem in a cognitive satellite-terrestrial network with a capable eavesdropper. The objective is to maximize the secure EE for the primary satellite network while satisfying the allowable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio requirements of the secondary and primary users along within the transmit power limitation of both satellite and the terrestrial base station. Owing to the nonconvexity and intractability of the original optimization problem, a beamforming scheme and associated transformation algorithms are proposed by jointly applying the Taylor approximation, fraction programming, and alternating search to cope with the implementation difficulty. The key is to convert the original optimization problem into a simple convex framework and obtain the optimal solution step by step. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the feasibility and practicability of the proposed optimization algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailIncome and Wealth Volatility: Evidence from Italy and the U.S. in the Past Two Decades
Menta, Giorgia UL; Wolff, Edward; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19(2), 293-313

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective ... [more ▼]

Income volatility and wealth volatility are central objects of investigation for the literature on income and wealth inequality and dynamics. Here we analyse the two concepts in a comparative perspective for the same individuals in Italy and the U.S. over the last two decades. We find that in both countries wealth volatility reaches significantly higher values than income volatility, the effect being mostly driven by changes in the market value of real estate assets. We also show that there is more volatility in both dimensions in the U.S. and that the overall trend in both countries is increasing over time. We conclude by exploring volatility in consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailMantis: flexible and consensus-driven genome annotation
Teixeira Queiros, Pedro UL; Delogu, Francesco UL; Hickl, Oskar UL et al

in GigaScience (2021), 10(6),

The rapid development of the (meta-)omics fields has produced an unprecedented amount of high-resolution and high-fidelity data. Through the use of these datasets we can infer the role of previously ... [more ▼]

The rapid development of the (meta-)omics fields has produced an unprecedented amount of high-resolution and high-fidelity data. Through the use of these datasets we can infer the role of previously functionally unannotated proteins from single organisms and consortia. In this context, protein function annotation can be described as the identification of regions of interest (i.e., domains) in protein sequences and the assignment of biological functions. Despite the existence of numerous tools, challenges remain in terms of speed, flexibility, and reproducibility. In the big data era, it is also increasingly important to cease limiting our findings to a single reference, coalescing knowledge from different data sources, and thus overcoming some limitations in overly relying on computationally generated data from single sources.We implemented a protein annotation tool, Mantis, which uses database identifiers intersection and text mining to integrate knowledge from multiple reference data sources into a single consensus-driven output. Mantis is flexible, allowing for the customization of reference data and execution parameters, and is reproducible across different research goals and user environments. We implemented a depth-first search algorithm for domain-specific annotation, which significantly improved annotation performance compared to sequence-wide annotation. The parallelized implementation of Mantis results in short runtimes while also outputting high coverage and high-quality protein function annotations.Mantis is a protein function annotation tool that produces high-quality consensus-driven protein annotations. It is easy to set up, customize, and use, scaling from single genomes to large metagenomes. Mantis is available under the MIT license at https://github.com/PedroMTQ/mantis. [less ▲]

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See detail"[M]a défense, c’est mon éclat". Conjurer l’oubli face à la mort ? Figurations de l'oubli comme mort symbolique dans la correspondance staëlienne
Saintes, Laetitia UL

in Travaux et recherches de l'Institut Benjamin Constant (2021), 18

Cet article entend examiner au départ de la correspondance de Germaine de Staël, ainsi que de Dix années d'exil, toutes les occurrences de cette peur de l'oubli qui la touche dès qu'est ordonné son exil à ... [more ▼]

Cet article entend examiner au départ de la correspondance de Germaine de Staël, ainsi que de Dix années d'exil, toutes les occurrences de cette peur de l'oubli qui la touche dès qu'est ordonné son exil à quarante lieues de Paris. L'écrivaine clôt en effet nombre de ses lettres en demandant à ses correspondants de ne pas l'oublier, et évoque à de nombreuses reprises sa peur de ne plus être remémorée (de ses amis comme de l'opinion) si elle en venait à ne plus lutter publiquement contre la mesure d'exil qui la frappe. En ce sens, conjurer l'oubli revient chez elle à conjurer la mort symbolique qui serait la sienne dès lors qu'elle accepterait son sort d'exilée sans discussion ; le présent article envisage les modalités selon lesquelles se joue cette peur de l'oubli comme d'une mort symbolique. [less ▲]

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See detailAuthoritarianism Beyond Disposition: A Literature Review of Research on Contextual Antecedents
Schnelle, Caroline; Baier, Dirk; Hadjar, Andreas UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2021), 12

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or ... [more ▼]

A core debate in authoritarianism research relates to the stability of authoritarianism, i.e., whether it is a dispositional phenomenon socialized in early childhood or even genetically predisposed, or whether it is impacted by time-sensitive, exterior conditions. Whereas certain individual authoritarian tendencies emerge as a rather stable personality trait, there is also empirical evidence for a dynamic influence of external factors. This review article provides a conceptual multilevel framework for the study of authoritarianism and offers an insight into the state-of-research on socialization and situational influences, with a particular focus on threat. Findings are discussed with regard to key theories of authoritarianism. [less ▲]

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See detailIs This Time Really Different? Flight-to-Safety and the COVID-19 Crisis
Löwen, Celina; Kchouri, Bilal UL; Lehnert, Thorsten UL

in PLoS ONE (2021), 16(5),

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See detailRecent Developments and Overview of the Country and Practitioner’s Reports
Cole, Mark David UL

in European Data Protection Law Review (2021), 7(2021), 217-220

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