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See detailLe travail de parole avec les enseignants: un rempart face aux nouvelles formes de fatigue subjective
Weber, Jean-Marie UL; Pirone, Ilaria

in Psicanalise e Educacao (2020), 29

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See detailThe Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy: Border Making and its Consequences.
Venken, Machteld UL

in European Review of History (2020), 26(6), 697-708

This special issue addresses practices of border-making and their consequences on the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. As the reality did not correspond to the peaceful Europe ... [more ▼]

This special issue addresses practices of border-making and their consequences on the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. As the reality did not correspond to the peaceful Europe articulated in the Paris Treaties, a multitude of (un)foreseen complications followed the drawing of borders and states. Articles include new case studies on the creation, centralization or peripheralization of border regions, such as Subcarpathian Rus, Vojvodina, Banat and the Carpathian Mountains, on border zones such as the Czechoslovakian harbour in Germany, and on cross-border activities. The special issue shows how disputes over national identities and ethnic minorities, as well as other factors such as the economic consequences of the new state borders, appeared on the interwar political agenda and coloured the lives of borderland inhabitants. Adopting a bottom-up approach, the contributions demonstrate the agency of borderlands and their people in the establishment, functioning, disorganization or ultimate breakdown of some of the newly created interwar nation-states. [less ▲]

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See detailOpinion Statement ECJ-TF 2/2020 on the ECJ Decision of 3 March 2020 in Vodafone Magyarország Mobil Távközlési Zrt. (Case C-75/18) on Progressive Turnover Taxes
García Prats, Alfredo; Haslehner, Werner UL; Heydt, Volker et al

in European Taxation (2020), 60(12), 555-564

This CFE Opinion Statement discusses the decision of the Grand Chamber of the ECJ in Vodafone. The Court held that the imposition of the Hungarian progressive turnover-based tax on the telecommunications ... [more ▼]

This CFE Opinion Statement discusses the decision of the Grand Chamber of the ECJ in Vodafone. The Court held that the imposition of the Hungarian progressive turnover-based tax on the telecommunications sector did not infringe the EU fundamental freedoms or article 401 of the VAT Directive (2006/112), and that the question regarding the prohibition of State aid was inadmissible. Vodafone is especially important in respect of the current debate regarding turnover-based digital services taxes. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of constitutive models for describing the flow of uncured styrene-butadiene rubber
Rehor, Martin UL; Gansen, Alex UL; Sill, Clemens et al

in Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics (2020), 286

Uncured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) can be modelled as a viscoelastic material with at least two different relaxation mechanisms. In this paper we compare multi-mode constitutive models combining two ... [more ▼]

Uncured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) can be modelled as a viscoelastic material with at least two different relaxation mechanisms. In this paper we compare multi-mode constitutive models combining two viscoelastic modes (linear and/or nonlinear) in three possible ways. Our particular choice of the two modes was inspired by models originally developed to describe the response of asphalt binders. We select the model that best fits the experimental data obtained from a modified stress relaxation experiment in the torsional configuration of the plate-plate rheometer. The optimisation of the five model parameters for each model is achieved by minimising the weighted least-squares distance between experimental observations and the computer model output using a tree-structured Parzen estimator algorithm to find an initial guess, followed by further optimisation using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. The results show that the model combining the linear mode and the nonlinear mode is the most suitable variant to describe the observed behavior of SBR in the given regime. The predictive capabilities of the three models are further examined in changed experimental and numerical configurations. Full data and code to produce the figures in this article are included as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Vulnerabilities: The Effects of Neighborhood Structural Changes upon Older Residents’ Mental Health and Perceptions of the Broader Community
Settels, Jason UL

in Journal of Community Psychology (2020)

Neighborhoods' structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents' well‐being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily ... [more ▼]

Neighborhoods' structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents' well‐being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily activities and social lives are more confined to their immediate communities. This study examines how changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage affects older residents' depression and stress, as well as perceptions of neighborhood context. This study employed waves 2 (2010–2011) and 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N= 2357) and fixed‐effects linear regression models to study these relationships. While rising neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more depression and stress, it was negatively associated with overall neighborhood social capital and neighborhood social cohesion, and was only associated with lower perceptions of neighborhood safety among respondents who relocated to new neighborhoods. Beyond cross‐sectional associations, changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with changes in mental health and perceptions of neighborhood social context. [less ▲]

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See detailAn exploratory approach for an oriented development of an untargeted hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform for polar metabolites in biological matrices
Iturrospe, Elias; Da Silva, Katyeny Manuela; Talavera Andujar, Begona UL et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2020)

The analysis of polar metabolites based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods should take into consideration the complexity of interactions in LC columns to be able to cover a broad ... [more ▼]

The analysis of polar metabolites based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods should take into consideration the complexity of interactions in LC columns to be able to cover a broad range of metabolites of key biological pathways. Therefore, in this study, different chromatographic columns were tested for polar metabolites including reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) columns. Based on a column screening, two new generations of zwitterionic HILIC columns were selected for further evaluation. A tree-based method optimization was applied to investigate the chromatographic factors affecting the retention mechanisms of polar metabolites with zwitterionic stationary phases. The results were evaluated based on a scoring system which was applied for more than 80 polar metabolites with a high coverage of key human metabolic pathways. The final optimized methods showed high complementarity to analyze a wide range of metabolic classes including amino acids, small peptides, sugars, amino sugars, phosphorylated sugars, organic acids, nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and acylcarnitines. Optimized methods were applied to analyze different biological matrices, including human urine, plasma and liver cell extracts using an untargeted approach. The number of high-quality features ( < 30% median relative standard deviation) ranged from 3,755 for urine to 5,402 for the intracellular metabolome of liver cells, showing the potential of the methods for untargeted purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble-Graded Quantum Superplane
Bruce, Andrew UL; Duplij, Steven

in Reports on Mathematical Physics (2020), 86(3), 383-400

A ℤ2 × ℤ2-graded generalisation of the quantum superplane is proposed and studied. We construct a bicovariant calculus on what we shall refer to as the double-graded quantum superplane. The ommutation ... [more ▼]

A ℤ2 × ℤ2-graded generalisation of the quantum superplane is proposed and studied. We construct a bicovariant calculus on what we shall refer to as the double-graded quantum superplane. The ommutation rules between the coordinates, their differentials and partial derivatives are explicitly given. Furthermore, we show that an extended version of the double-graded quantum superplane admits a natural Hopf -algebra structure. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid Attitude Control for Nano-Spacecraft: Reaction Wheel Failure and Singularity Handling
Mahfouz, Ahmed UL; Pritykin, Dmitry; Biggs, James

in Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics (2020), 44(3), 548-558

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See detailBreaking Up the Unity of the World: Peter Fitzpatrick’s Conception of Responsive Law
van der Walt, Johan Willem Gous UL

in Law, Culture and the Humanities (2020)

This short article on Peter Fitzpatrick’s conception of “responsive law” analyzes the ambiguous temporality that Fitzpatrick discerned in modern law. On the one hand, law makes the claim of being fully ... [more ▼]

This short article on Peter Fitzpatrick’s conception of “responsive law” analyzes the ambiguous temporality that Fitzpatrick discerned in modern law. On the one hand, law makes the claim of being fully present and therefore already and completely contained in itself. This aspect of law reflects the law’s claim to “immanence,” that is, its claim of always being able to rely strictly on its own operational terms without having to take recourse to any consideration not already contained within itself. It is this aspect of law that renders the ideal of the “rule of law” feasible. On the other hand, the law’s claim to doing justice to every unique and therefore every new case also demands that it takes leave of that which is already settled within it. This aspect of law can be called its “imminence.” The imminence of the law concerns the reality that law always finds itself on the threshold of that which has not yet been said and must still be said. The article shows how Fitzpatrick relied on Freud’s concept of the totem to explain the “wondrous” unity of its immanence and imminence. [less ▲]

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See detailDichloromethane Degradation Pathway from Unsequenced Hyphomicrobium sp. MC8b Rapidly Explored by Pan-Proteomics
Hayoun, Karim; Geersens, Emilie; Laczny, Cedric Christian UL et al

in Microorganisms (2020)

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See detailA rule-based expert system for real-time feedback-control in deep brain stimulation
Bremm, René Peter UL; Koch, Klaus Peter; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering (2020), 6(3), 4

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See detailAnalysis and visualisation of tremor dynamics in deep brain stimulation patients
Bremm, René Peter UL; Koch, Klaus Peter; Krüger, Rejko UL et al

in Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering (2020), 6(3), 4

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See detailConversion from video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to thoracotomy during major lung resection: how does it affect perioperative outcomes?
Seitlinger, Joseph; Olland, Anne; Guinard, Sophie et al

in Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (2020)

Objectives: Since video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was first performed in the early 1990s, there have been many developments, and the conversion rate has decreased over the years. This article ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Since video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was first performed in the early 1990s, there have been many developments, and the conversion rate has decreased over the years. This article highlights the specific outcomes of patients undergoing conversion to thoracotomy despite initially scheduled VATS lung resection. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 501 patients who underwent thoracoscopic anatomic lung resection (i.e. lobectomy, segmentectomy or bilobectomy) between 1 January 2012 and 1 August 2017 at our institution. We explored the risk factors for surgical conversion and adverse events occurring in patients who underwent conversion to thoracotomy. Results: A total of 44/501 patients underwent conversion during the procedure (global rate: 8.8%). The main reasons for conversion were (i) anatomical variation, adhesions or unexpected tumour extension (37%), followed by (ii) vascular causes (30%) and (iii) unexpected lymph node invasion (20%). The least common reason for conversion was technical failure (13%). We could not identify any specific risk factors for conversion. The global complication rate was significantly higher in converted patients (40.9%) than in complete VATS patients (16.8%) (P = 0.001). Postoperative atrial fibrillation was a major complication in converted patients (18.2%) [odds ratio (OR) 5.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.80-13.27; P = 0.001]. Perioperative mortality was higher in the conversion group (6.8%) than in the VATS group (0.2%) (OR 33.3, 95% CI 3.4-328; P = 0.003). Conclusions: Through the years, the global conversion rate has dramatically decreased to <10%. Nevertheless, patients who undergo conversion represent a high-risk population in terms of complications (40.9% vs 16.8%) and perioperative mortality (6.8% vs 0.2%). [less ▲]

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See detailCommon diseases alter the physiological age-related blood microRNA profile.
Fehlmann, Tobias; Lehallier, Benoit; Schaum, Nicholas et al

in Nature communications (2020), 11(1), 5958

Aging is a key risk factor for chronic diseases of the elderly. MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptional gene silencing through base-pair binding on their target mRNAs. We identified nonlinear changes in ... [more ▼]

Aging is a key risk factor for chronic diseases of the elderly. MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptional gene silencing through base-pair binding on their target mRNAs. We identified nonlinear changes in age-related microRNAs by analyzing whole blood from 1334 healthy individuals. We observed a larger influence of the age as compared to the sex and provide evidence for a shift to the 5' mature form of miRNAs in healthy aging. The addition of 3059 diseased patients uncovered pan-disease and disease-specific alterations in aging profiles. Disease biomarker sets for all diseases were different between young and old patients. Computational deconvolution of whole-blood miRNAs into blood cell types suggests that cell intrinsic gene expression changes may impart greater significance than cell abundance changes to the whole blood miRNA profile. Altogether, these data provide a foundation for understanding the relationship between healthy aging and disease, and for the development of age-specific disease biomarkers. [less ▲]

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See detailPerpetuating Crises at the Source?: (Inter)Regionalism and Normative Incoherence for Sustainable Migration in Africa
Koff, Harlan UL

in Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies (2020), 47(4), 1-22

In response to the 2015–2016 migration crisis, the European Union established the Emergency Trust Fund for Africa that aimed ‘to address the root causes of instability, forced displacement and irregular ... [more ▼]

In response to the 2015–2016 migration crisis, the European Union established the Emergency Trust Fund for Africa that aimed ‘to address the root causes of instability, forced displacement and irregular migration and to contribute to better migration management.’ This article questions the logic of this approach to migration management by asking whether African regions can ‘better manage migration.’ The article examines the normative bases of migration policies amongst the African Union (AU) and six regional economic communities (RECs), as well as the normative bases of the development strategies pursued by the AU and these RECs. The article proposes normative policy coherence for development as an approach to better understand the relationships between regional integration, sustainable development and migration management in Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen the score function is the identity function - A tale of characterizations of the normal distribution
Ley, Christophe UL

in Econometrics and Statistics (2020)

The normal distribution is well-known for several results that it is the only to fulfil. Much less well-known is the fact that many of these characterizations follow from the fact that the derivative of ... [more ▼]

The normal distribution is well-known for several results that it is the only to fulfil. Much less well-known is the fact that many of these characterizations follow from the fact that the derivative of the log-density of the normal distribution is the (negative) identity function. This a priori very simple yet surprising observation allows a deeper understanding of existing characterizations and paves the way for an immediate extension of various seemingly normal-based characterizations to a general density by replacing the (negative) identity function in these results with the derivative of that log-density. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns and Drivers of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in New Zealand Glacier-Fed Streams
Kohler, Tyler J.; Peter, Hannes; Fodelianakis, Stilianos et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2020), 11

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) exhibit near-freezing temperatures, variable flows, and often high turbidities. Currently, the rapid shrinkage of mountain glaciers is altering the delivery of meltwater ... [more ▼]

Glacier-fed streams (GFSs) exhibit near-freezing temperatures, variable flows, and often high turbidities. Currently, the rapid shrinkage of mountain glaciers is altering the delivery of meltwater, solutes, and particulate matter to GFSs, with unknown consequences for their ecology. Benthic biofilms dominate microbial life in GFSs, and play a major role in their biogeochemical cycling. Mineralization is likely an important process for microbes to meet elemental budgets in these systems due to commonly oligotrophic conditions, and extracellular enzymes retained within the biofilm enable the degradation of organic matter and acquisition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The measurement and comparison of these extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) can in turn provide insight into microbial elemental acquisition effort relative to environmental availability. To better understand how benthic biofilm communities meet resource demands, and how this might shift as glaciers vanish under climate change, we investigated biofilm EEA in 20 GFSs varying in glacier influence from New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Using turbidity and distance to the glacier snout normalized for glacier size as proxies for glacier influence, we found that bacterial abundance (BA), chlorophyll a (Chl a), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and total EEA per gram of sediment increased with decreasing glacier influence. Yet, when normalized by BA, EPS decreased with decreasing glacier influence, Chl a still increased, and there was no relationship with total EEA. Based on EEA ratios, we found that the majority of GFS microbial communities were N-limited, with a few streams of different underlying bedrock geology exhibiting P-limitation. Cell-specific C-acquiring EEA was positively related to the ratio of Chl a to BA, presumably reflecting the utilization of algal exudates. Meanwhile, cell-specific N-acquiring EEA were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and both N- and P-acquiring EEA increased with greater cell-specific EPS. Overall, our results reveal greater glacier influence to be negatively related to GFS biofilm biomass parameters, and generally associated with greater microbial N demand. These results help to illuminate the ecology of GFS biofilms, along with their biogeochemical response to a shifting habitat template with ongoing climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Emotional Music on Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Wagener, Gary; Berning, Madeleine; Pinto Coelho da Costa, Andreia UL et al

in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (2020)

Impaired facial emotion recognition in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is in contrast to their intact emotional music recognition. This study tested whether emotion congruent music enhances ... [more ▼]

Impaired facial emotion recognition in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is in contrast to their intact emotional music recognition. This study tested whether emotion congruent music enhances facial emotion recognition. Accuracy and reaction times were assessed for 19 children with ASD and 31 controls in a recognition task with angry, happy, or sad faces. Stimuli were shown with either emotionally congruent or incongruent music or no music. Although children with ASD had higher reaction times than controls, accuracy only differed when incongruent or no music was played, indicating that congruent emotional music can boost facial emotion recognition in children with ASD. Emotion congruent music may support emotion recognition in children with ASD, and thus may improve their social skills. [less ▲]

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See detailGigaSOM.jl: High-performance clustering and visualization of huge cytometry datasets
Kratochvil, Miroslav UL; Hunewald, Oliver; Heirendt, Laurent UL et al

in GigaScience (2020), 9(11),

Background: The amount of data generated in large clinical and phenotyping studies that use single-cell cytometry is constantly growing. Recent technological advances allow the easy generation of data ... [more ▼]

Background: The amount of data generated in large clinical and phenotyping studies that use single-cell cytometry is constantly growing. Recent technological advances allow the easy generation of data with hundreds of millions of single-cell data points with >40 parameters, originating from thousands of individual samples. The analysis of that amount of high-dimensional data becomes demanding in both hardware and software of high-performance computational resources. Current software tools often do not scale to the datasets of such size; users are thus forced to downsample the data to bearable sizes, in turn losing accuracy and ability to detect many underlying complex phenomena. Results: We present GigaSOM.jl, a fast and scalable implementation of clustering and dimensionality reduction for flow and mass cytometry data. The implementation of GigaSOM.jl in the high-level and high-performance programming language Julia makes it accessible to the scientific community and allows for efficient handling and processing of datasets with billions of data points using distributed computing infrastructures. We describe the design of GigaSOM.jl, measure its performance and horizontal scaling capability, and showcase the functionality on a large dataset from a recent study. Conclusions: GigaSOM.jl facilitates the use of commonly available high-performance computing resources to process the largest available datasets within minutes, while producing results of the same quality as the current state-of-art software. Measurements indicate that the performance scales to much larger datasets. The example use on the data from a massive mouse phenotyping effort confirms the applicability of GigaSOM.jl to huge-scale studies. [less ▲]

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See detailMRV of Emissions and Mitigation Action: the Paris Agreement and Financial Support for Transparency- Related Capacity Building in Developing Countries
Alexandraki, Chrysa UL

in Climate Law (2020), 10(3-4), 308-334

This article examines the role of the Paris Agreement in enabling developed-country financial contributions aimed at building transparency-related capacity in developing countries. It first analyses the ... [more ▼]

This article examines the role of the Paris Agreement in enabling developed-country financial contributions aimed at building transparency-related capacity in developing countries. It first analyses the legal means and institutional arrangements utilized by the Agreement to support developing countries in building transparency-related capacity. It then argues that even though the Agreement adopts certain legal and institutional means to foster transparency-related capacity building in developing countries through financial support, it does so in a way that risks undermining the meaningful and accountable use of climate finance, while softening the bindingness of the Agreement’s provisions. The lack of accountability obligations on climate finance for developing countries, the principle of flexibility, and the challenges intrinsic to climate finance, combine to weaken the climate-finance obligation, while calling into question the effectiveness of the Agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Channel Joint Forecasting-Scheduling for the Internet of Things
Rodoplu, Volkan; Nakip, Mert; Qorbanian, Roozbeh UL et al

in IEEE Access (2020), 8

We develop a methodology for Multi-Channel Joint Forecasting-Scheduling (MC-JFS) targeted at solving the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer Massive Access Problem of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication ... [more ▼]

We develop a methodology for Multi-Channel Joint Forecasting-Scheduling (MC-JFS) targeted at solving the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer Massive Access Problem of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication in the presence of multiple channels, as found in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. In contrast with the existing schemes that merely react to current traffic demand, Joint Forecasting-Scheduling (JFS) forecasts the traffic generation pattern of each Internet of Things (IoT) device in the coverage area of an IoT Gateway and schedules the uplink transmissions of the IoT devices over multiple channels in advance, thus obviating contention, collision and handshaking, which are found in reactive protocols. In this paper, we present the general form of a deterministic scheduling optimization program for MC-JFS that maximizes the total number of bits that are delivered over multiple channels by the delay deadlines of the IoT applications. In order to enable real-time operation of the MC-JFS system, first, we design a heuristic, called Multi-Channel Look Ahead Priority based on Average Load (MC-LAPAL), that solves the general form of the scheduling problem. Second, for the special case of identical channels, we develop a reduction technique by virtue of which an optimal solution of the scheduling problem is computed in real time. We compare the network performance of our MC-JFS scheme against Multi-Channel Reservation-based Access Barring (MC-RAB) and Multi-Channel Enhanced Reservation-based Access Barring (MC-ERAB), both of which serve as benchmark reactive protocols. Our results show that MC-JFS outperforms both MC-RAB and MC-ERAB with respect to uplink cross-layer throughput and transmit energy consumption, and that MC-LAPAL provides high performance as an MC-JFS heuristic. Furthermore, we show that the computation time of MC-LAPAL scales approximately linearly with the number of IoT devices. This work serves as a foundation for building scalable JFS schemes at IoT Gateways in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailPeers als Quelle aktueller Motivation? Wie Jugendliche mit heterogenen Verhaltensweisen Peerinteraktionen in Abhängigkeit des behavioralen Klassenumfeldes erleben
Knickenberg, Margarita; Zurbriggen, Carmen UL; Schmidt, Philipp

in Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie (2020)

The relevance of peers for adolescents' development has already been confirmed in various studies. Among other things, adolescents indicated higher situational motivation and joy as well as less feelings ... [more ▼]

The relevance of peers for adolescents' development has already been confirmed in various studies. Among other things, adolescents indicated higher situational motivation and joy as well as less feelings of stress during social interactions with classmates compared to indi- vidual work settings. However, it turned out that adolescents with behavioural problems have difficulties in making and maintaining social contacts and friendships. While in previous studies behaviour was investigated as dichotomous variable, this study chose a dimensional, person-centered approach to identify adolescents with heterogeneous behaviour. Therefore, this paper aims at analysing effects of social inter- actions at school on emotional experiences of adolescents with heterogeneous behavioural profiles. In addition, a potential moderating effect of the classroom environment regarding behaviour will be tested. The sample comprised N = 719 students of grade five and six. Data were collected using the experience sampling method. In detail, the students completed a short questionnaire concerning their momentary emo- tional experience and their social context two to three times a day on five consecutive days at school. Thus, 8870 snapshots of the adolescents' emotional experiences and situations in class were available. Using teacher ratings regarding the students' behaviour, latent profile analyses were calculated and three different profiles within the sample were identified: students with adaptive, with internalising and with externalising behaviour. Findings of multilevel structural equation models show, first, that students are more motivated and less stressed while interacting with others during lessons (e.g. in partner or group activities) compared to individual working situations. This effect is more pronounced for students with internalising and externalising behavioural profiles. Second, the small differential moderating, but not significant effects indi- cate that the relation between adolescents' emotional experiences and peer interactions is not moderated by the classroom environment regarding prosocial or problem behaviour. The results will be discussed from methodological and content-related perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailAuction-based Multi-Channel Cooperative Spectrum Sharing in Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial IoT Networks
Zhang, Xiaokai; Guo, Daoxing; An, Kang et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2020)

In this paper, we investigate the multi-channel cooperative spectrum sharing in hybrid satellite-terrestrial internet of things (IoT) networks with the auction mechanism, which is designed to reduce the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the multi-channel cooperative spectrum sharing in hybrid satellite-terrestrial internet of things (IoT) networks with the auction mechanism, which is designed to reduce the operational expenditure of the satellitebased IoT (S-IoT) network while alleviating the spectrum scarcity issues of terrestrial-based IoT (T-IoT) network. The cluster heads of selected T-IoT networks assist the primary satellite users transmission through cooperative relaying techniques in exchange for spectrum access. We propose an auction-based optimization problem to maximize the sum transmission rate of all primary S-IoT receivers with the appropriate secondary network selection and corresponding radio resource allocation profile by the distributed implementation while meeting the minimum transmission rate of secondary receivers of each TIoT network. Specifically, the one-shot Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) auction is introduced to obtain the maximum social welfare, where the winner determination problem is transformed into an assignment problem and solved by the Hungarian algorithm. To further reduce the primary satellite network decision complexity, the sequential Vickrey auction is implemented by sequential fashion until all channels are auctioned. Due to incentive compatibility with those two auction mechanisms, the secondary T-IoT cluster yields the true bids of each channel, where both the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes are implemented in cooperative communication. Finally, simulation results validate the effectiveness and fairness of the proposed auction-based approach as well as the superiority of the NOMA scheme in secondary relays selection. Moreover, the influence of key factors on the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondria interaction networks show altered topological patterns in Parkinson's disease.
Zanin, Massimiliano; Santos, Bruno F. R.; Antony, Paul UL et al

in NPJ systems biology and applications (2020), 6(1), 38

Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, individual mitochondria-based analyses do not show a uniform feature in PD patients. Since mitochondria interact ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, individual mitochondria-based analyses do not show a uniform feature in PD patients. Since mitochondria interact with each other, we hypothesize that PD-related features might exist in topological patterns of mitochondria interaction networks (MINs). Here we show that MINs formed nonclassical scale-free supernetworks in colonic ganglia both from healthy controls and PD patients; however, altered network topological patterns were observed in PD patients. These patterns were highly correlated with PD clinical scores and a machine-learning approach based on the MIN features alone accurately distinguished between patients and controls with an area-under-curve value of 0.989. The MINs of midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDANs) derived from several genetic PD patients also displayed specific changes. CRISPR/CAS9-based genome correction of alpha-synuclein point mutations reversed the changes in MINs of mDANs. Our organelle-interaction network analysis opens another critical dimension for a deeper characterization of various complex diseases with mitochondrial dysregulation. [less ▲]

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See detailTalking War: Representation, Veterans and Ideology in Post-War Parliamentary Debates
Mochtak, Michal UL; Glaurdic, Josip UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL

in Government and Opposition (2020), Online

How do politicians in post-war societies talk about the past war? How do they discursively represent vulnerable social groups created by the conflict? Does the nature of this representation depend on the ... [more ▼]

How do politicians in post-war societies talk about the past war? How do they discursively represent vulnerable social groups created by the conflict? Does the nature of this representation depend on the politicians’ ideology or their record of combat service? We answer these questions by pairing natural language processing tools and a large corpus of parliamentary debates with an extensive data set of biographical information including detailed records of war service for all members of parliament during two recent terms in Croatia. We demonstrate not only that veteran politicians talk about war differently from their non-veteran counterparts, but also that the sentiment of war-related political discourse is highly dependent on the speaker’s exposure to combat and ideological orientation. These results improve our understanding of the representational role played by combat veterans, as well as of the link between descriptive and substantive representation of vulnerable groups in post-war societies. [less ▲]

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See detailEin Blick auf aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Blockchains und deren Auswirkungen auf den Energieverbrauch
Sedlmeir, Johannes; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Informatik-Spektrum (2020)

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However ... [more ▼]

The enormous power consumption of Bitcoin has led to undifferentiated discussions in science and practice about the sustainability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology in general. However, blockchain technology is far from homogeneous—not only with regard to its applications, which now go far beyond cryptocurrencies and have reached businesses and the public sector, but also with regard to its technical characteristics and, in particular, its power consumption. This paper summarizes the status quo of the power consumption of various implementations of blockchain technology, with special emphasis on the recent ‘‘Bitcoin Halving’’ and so-called ‘‘zk-rollups’’. We argue that although Bitcoin and other proof-of-work blockchains do indeed consume a lot of power, alternative blockchain solutions with significantly lower power consumption are already available today, and new promising concepts are being tested that could further reduce in particulary the power consumption of large blockchain networks in the near future. From this we conclude that although the criticism of Bitcoin’s power consumption is legitimate, it should not be used to derive an energy problem of blockchain technology in general. In many cases in which processes can be digitized or improved with the help of more energy-efficient blockchain variants, one can even expect net energy savings. [less ▲]

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See detailA UNIFORM RESULT FOR THE DIMENSION OF FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION LEVEL SETS
Daw, Lara UL

in Statistics and Probability Letters (2020)

Let B={Bt:t≥0} be a real-valued fractional Brownian motion of index H∈(0,1). We prove that the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension of the level sets Lx={t∈R+:Bt=x} is, with probability one, equal to 1−H for ... [more ▼]

Let B={Bt:t≥0} be a real-valued fractional Brownian motion of index H∈(0,1). We prove that the macroscopic Hausdorff dimension of the level sets Lx={t∈R+:Bt=x} is, with probability one, equal to 1−H for all x∈R. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing multi-member panels to tackle RSD complexities
Hambly, Jessica; Gill, Nick; Vianelli, Lorenzo UL

in Forced Migration Review (2020), (65), 32-35

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See detailAssessing the robustness of decentralized gathering: a multi‐agent approach on micro‐biological systems
Proverbio, Daniele UL; Gallo, Luca; Passalacqua, Barbara et al

in Swarm Intelligence (2020), 14

Adopting a multi-agent systems paradigm, we developed, tested and exploited a computational testbed that simulates gathering features of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. It features a tailored ... [more ▼]

Adopting a multi-agent systems paradigm, we developed, tested and exploited a computational testbed that simulates gathering features of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. It features a tailored design and implementation to manage discrete simulations with autonomous agents on a microscopic scale, thus focusing on their social behavior and mutual interactions. Hence, we could assess the behavioral conditions under which decentralized gathering could occur. We investigated the dependence of the model dynamics on the main physical variables, namely density and number of amoebas, gaining indications that the process strongly depends on both. This result integrates previous researches, where density is identified as the sole relevant variable. We determined a high-density and high-numerosity region where assuming a scale-free behavior is safe. We also estimated the systematic uncertainties arising from a number of amoebas off the scale-free region, when coping with limited computational resources. Finally, we probed the robustness of the simulated gathering process against both extrinsic and intrinsic noise sources. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily, Community and Long-Term Socioeconomic Inequality: Evidence from Siblings and Youth Peers
Bingley, Paul; Cappellari, Lorenzo; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos UL

in Economic Journal (2020)

Using administrative data for the population of Danish men and women, we develop an empirical model which accounts for the joint earnings dynamics of siblings and youth community peers. We provide the ... [more ▼]

Using administrative data for the population of Danish men and women, we develop an empirical model which accounts for the joint earnings dynamics of siblings and youth community peers. We provide the first decomposition of the sibling correlation of permanent earnings into family and community effects allowing for life-cycle dynamics, and extend the analysis to consider other outcomes. We find that family is the most important factor influencing sibling correlations of earnings, education and unemployment. Community background matters for shaping the sibling correlation of earnings and unemployment early in the working life, but its importance quickly diminishes. [less ▲]

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See detailLes comptes de la baumaîtrie de la ville de Luxembourg (1388-1500). État des lieux et perspectives de recherches
Pauly, Michel UL

in Comptabilité(S). Revue d'histoire des compatbilités (2020), 13

La contribution présente les comptes de la baumaîtrie de la ville de Luxembourg fort bien conservés pour la fin du 14e et le 15e siècle. Un inventaire des volumes conservés aux archives municipales est ... [more ▼]

La contribution présente les comptes de la baumaîtrie de la ville de Luxembourg fort bien conservés pour la fin du 14e et le 15e siècle. Un inventaire des volumes conservés aux archives municipales est suivi d’une description codicologique sommaire avant que ne soit esquissé le rôle du baumâitre, c.-à-d. du receveur central de la ville et celui du clerc-juré dans la confection des livres de compte ainsi que leur appartenance sociale et linguistique. L’article continue par un bilan de l’exploitation historiographique des livres de la baumaîtrie, y compris pour l’histoire de la langue, et par quelques questions de recherche qui mériteraient d’être approfondies. [less ▲]

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See detailTen years of re-thinking regions from citizens’ perspectives
Koff, Harlan UL; Maganda, Carmen; De Lombaerde, Philippe et al

in Regions and Cohesion (2020), 10(3), -

This special issue commemorating Regions & Cohesion’s tenth anniversary continues the tradition described herein. Entitled “Re-thinking regions: A citizen perspective,” it has been conceptualized and ... [more ▼]

This special issue commemorating Regions & Cohesion’s tenth anniversary continues the tradition described herein. Entitled “Re-thinking regions: A citizen perspective,” it has been conceptualized and coordinated by the journal’s editors, associate editors, and editorial manager. We thank the contributing authors for accepting the challenge to respond to any of the following provocative questions: What contributed to the perceived decline of regions in global affairs? How can regions recover from this perceived decline? How can supranational, transnational, or sub-national regions respond better to the needs of citizens? How can regions better support the Sustainable Development Goals and the transformative development that they pursue? How can regions promote more sustainable usage of natural resources? What roles can regions play in global affairs in the near- to medium-term future? The articles published here provide a snapshot of the state of regional integration in the world today. These articles also engage the field of regional studies, discuss its strengths and weaknesses, and indicate interesting paths for future scholarship. We thank the authors for these proposed ways forward. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial and Clearance Impairment in p.D620N VPS35 Patient-Derived Neurons
Hanss, Zoé UL; Larsen, Simone UL; Antony, Paul UL et al

in Movement Disorders (2020)

Background: VPS35 is part of the retromer complex and is responsible for the trafficking and recycling of proteins implicated in autophagy and lysosomal degradation, but also takes part in the degradation ... [more ▼]

Background: VPS35 is part of the retromer complex and is responsible for the trafficking and recycling of proteins implicated in autophagy and lysosomal degradation, but also takes part in the degradation of mitochondrial proteins via mitochondria-derived vesicles. The p.D620N mutation of VPS35 causes an autosomal-dominant form of Parkinson’s disease (PD), clinically representing typical PD. Objective: Most of the studies on p.D620N VPS35 were performed on human tumor cell lines, rodent models overexpressing mutant VPS35, or in patient-derived fibroblasts. Here, based on identified target proteins, we investigated the implication of mutant VPS35 in autophagy, lysosomal degradation, and mitochondrial function in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from a patient harboring the p.D620N mutation. Methods: We reprogrammed fibroblasts from a PD patient carrying the p.D620N mutation in the VPS35 gene and from two healthy donors in induced pluripotent stem cells. These were subsequently differentiated into neuronal precursor cells to finally generate midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Results: We observed a decreased autophagic flux and lysosomal mass associated with an accumulation of α-synuclein in patient-derived neurons compared to controls. Moreover, patient-derived neurons presented a mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased membrane potential, impaired mitochondrial respiration, and increased production of reactive oxygen species associated with a defect in mitochondrial quality control via mitophagy. Conclusion: We describe for the first time the impact of the p.D620N VPS35 mutation on autophago-lysosome pathway and mitochondrial function in stem cell-derived neurons from an affected p.D620N carrier and define neuronal phenotypes for future pharmacological interventions [less ▲]

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See detailRoles of bacteriophages, plasmids and CRISPR immunity in microbial community dynamics revealed using time-series integrated meta-omics
Martinez Arbas, Susana UL; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Herold, Malte et al

in Nature Microbiology (2020)

Viruses and plasmids (invasive mobile genetic elements (iMGEs)) have important roles in shaping microbial communities, but their dynamic interactions with CRISPR-based immunity remain unresolved. We ... [more ▼]

Viruses and plasmids (invasive mobile genetic elements (iMGEs)) have important roles in shaping microbial communities, but their dynamic interactions with CRISPR-based immunity remain unresolved. We analysed generation-resolved iMGE–host dynamics spanning one and a half years in a microbial consortium from a biological wastewater treatment plant using integrated meta-omics. We identified 31 bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes encoding complete CRISPR–Cas systems and their corresponding iMGEs. CRISPR-targeted plasmids outnumbered their bacteriophage counterparts by at least fivefold, highlighting the importance of CRISPR-mediated defence against plasmids. Linear modelling of our time-series data revealed that the variation in plasmid abundance over time explained more of the observed community dynamics than phages. Community-scale CRISPR-based plasmid–host and phage–host interaction networks revealed an increase in CRISPR-mediated interactions coinciding with a decrease in the dominant ‘Candidatus Microthrix parvicella’ population. Protospacers were enriched in sequences targeting genes involved in the transmission of iMGEs. Understanding the factors shaping the fitness of specific populations is necessary to devise control strategies for undesirable species and to predict or explain community-wide phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Groupe de Coppet et l’écriture polémique. Introduction
Saintes, Laetitia UL

in Cahiers staëliens (2020), 70

Introduction au dossier "Le Groupe de Coppet et l'écriture polémique" des Cahiers staëliens 70 (2020).

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See detailDer Wert digitaler Güter - Steuerrechtliche Einordnung
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Kommunikation und Recht (2020)

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See detailAlterations in Neural Responses and Pain Perception in Older Adults During Distraction
Gonzalez-Roldan, Ana Maria; Terrasa, Juan Lorenzo; Sitges, Carolina et al

in Psychosomatic Medicine (2020), 82

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See detailLe droit à la sauce piquante N°21 – novembre 2020
Hiez, David UL; Laurent, Rémi

in Le droit à la sauce piquante (2020), 21

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See detailARPANET, toute une histoire...
Schafer, Valerie UL

in 1024 : Bulletin de la Société Informatique de France (2020), (30),

Le lecteur pourra non seulement suivre l’évolution du traitement de l’histoire d’ARPANET − et en filigrane la manière dont celle de l’informatique et du numérique a connu des tournants, mais aussi peut ... [more ▼]

Le lecteur pourra non seulement suivre l’évolution du traitement de l’histoire d’ARPANET − et en filigrane la manière dont celle de l’informatique et du numérique a connu des tournants, mais aussi peut-être poursuivre par la lecture des auteurs cités un parcours qui sort des narrations linéaires et témoigne de la complexité de l’histoire d’ARPANET et de son actualité. [less ▲]

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See detailFamily violence and COVID19
Gomez Bravo, Raquel UL; Mariani Borrero, Yusianmar; Dascal-Weichhendler, Hagit et al

in Self and Society in the Corona Crisis (2020)

According to WHO, violence against women tend to increase during any type of emergency, such as the COVID19 outbreak, impacting not just women but also children and their families health . Although data ... [more ▼]

According to WHO, violence against women tend to increase during any type of emergency, such as the COVID19 outbreak, impacting not just women but also children and their families health . Although data on family violence during crisis is scarce, existing reports from China, UK and USA already suggest an increase of intimate partner violence. As social distancing measures are taken and people forced or encourage to stay at home, we could expect that the increase of tension at many homes will unfortunately end up in new cases of family violence or exacerbations of existing ones. Such context of an overloaded health system facing the crisis may imply in extra challenges for victims to seek help. This article aims to summarize the existing evidence regarding family violence during crisis and the resources available that can help to mitigate the impact of violence. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Ras Membrane Organization and Signaling: Ras Rocks Again.
Abankwa, Daniel UL; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

in Biomolecules (2020), 10(11),

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene and recent drug development efforts have spurred significant new research interest. Here we review progress toward understanding how Ras functions in nanoscale ... [more ▼]

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene and recent drug development efforts have spurred significant new research interest. Here we review progress toward understanding how Ras functions in nanoscale, proteo-lipid signaling complexes on the plasma membrane, called nanoclusters. We discuss how G-domain reorientation is plausibly linked to Ras-nanoclustering and -dimerization. We then look at how these mechanistic features could cooperate in the engagement and activation of RAF by Ras. Moreover, we show how this structural information can be integrated with microscopy data that provide nanoscale resolution in cell biological experiments. Synthesizing the available data, we propose to distinguish between two types of Ras nanoclusters, an active, immobile RAF-dependent type and an inactive/neutral membrane anchor-dependent. We conclude that it is possible that Ras reorientation enables dynamic Ras dimerization while the whole Ras/RAF complex transits into an active state. These transient di/oligomer interfaces of Ras may be amenable to pharmacological intervention. We close by highlighting a number of open questions including whether all effectors form active nanoclusters and whether there is an isoform specific composition of Ras nanocluster. [less ▲]

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See detailA Big Data Demand Estimation Model for Urban Congested Networks
Cantelmo, Guido; Viti, Francesco UL

in Transport and Telecommunication (2020)

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See detailOversampled DFT-Modulated Biorthogonal Filter Banks: Perfect Reconstruction Designs and Multiplierless Approximations
Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. II, Express Briefs (2020), 67(11), 2777-2781

We propose a novel methodology for designing oversampled discrete Fourier transform-modulated uniform filter banks. The analysis prototype is designed as a Nyquist filter, whereas the synthesis prototype ... [more ▼]

We propose a novel methodology for designing oversampled discrete Fourier transform-modulated uniform filter banks. The analysis prototype is designed as a Nyquist filter, whereas the synthesis prototype is designed to guarantee perfect reconstruction (PR) considering oversampling. The resulting optimization problem fits into the disciplined convex programming framework, as long as some convex objective function is employed, as the minimization of either the stop-band energy or the maximum deviation from a desired response. The methodology also accounts for near-PR multiplierless approximations of the prototype analysis and synthesis filters, whose coefficients are obtained in the sum-of-power-of-two (SOPOT) space. The quantized coefficients are computed using successive approximation of vectors, which is able to yield filters with a reduced number of SOPOT coefficients in a computationally efficient manner. The proposed methodology is especially appealing for supporting actual hardware deployments, such as modern digital transparent processors to be used in next-generation satellite payloads. [less ▲]

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See detailLa formation dans la Grande Région : réalités et défis
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Les Cahiers de la Grande Région (2020), 3

Inscrit dans la continuité du Cahier n°2 interrogeant les équations du marché du travail, l’objet de ce Cahier n°3 de la Grande Région est la formation sous plusieurs de ses formes (formation continue ... [more ▼]

Inscrit dans la continuité du Cahier n°2 interrogeant les équations du marché du travail, l’objet de ce Cahier n°3 de la Grande Région est la formation sous plusieurs de ses formes (formation continue, apprentissage…), ses réalités et ses défis. A l’heure du déclin démographique et de la transition numérique, mais aussi de la crise sanitaire, cette question s’avère centrale. Difficile jeu d’équilibre entre les besoins des employeurs et les intérêts des individus, la formation dans la Grande Région est également confrontée à la particularité de la situation transfrontalière (questions linguistiques, reconnaissance des diplômes…). En s’appuyant sur les travaux de divers instituts de la Grande Région, ce Cahier de la Grande Région illustrera les problématiques de la formation à résoudre dans les années à venir. [less ▲]

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See detailBarriers and Borders: Human Mobility and Building Inclusive Societies
Graham, Suzanne; Koff, Harlan UL

in Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies (2020), 47(4), 2-5

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See detailPerformance of lime-metakaolin pastes using gravel wash mud (GWM)
Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2020), 114(103772),

The performance of ternary binders using lime, metakaolin (MK) and gravel wash mud (GWM) powders is studied for the development of novel lime-pozzolan pastes. This study examines the influence of varying ... [more ▼]

The performance of ternary binders using lime, metakaolin (MK) and gravel wash mud (GWM) powders is studied for the development of novel lime-pozzolan pastes. This study examines the influence of varying mixture proportions using different types and compositions of lime powders and GWM at different treatment levels on the mechanical properties of lime-MK-GWM pastes. Various characterisation techniques including particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength tests, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were applied on the different raw materials, respectively, on the hardened pastes to determine the reaction kinetics, the resulting microstructure and the mechanical performances of the lime-MK-GWM binder systems. Higher strength-enhancing contributions of thermally treated GWM powders (calcined at 850°C) leading to compressive strengths up to 18 MPa were confirmed and the strength-based evaluations revealed that hydrated lime-based pastes achieved higher mechanical performances than hydraulic lime-based binder systems. [less ▲]

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See detailDistraction from pain: The role of selective attention and pain catastrophizing
Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL; Gonzalez-Roldan, Ana Maria; Montoya, Pedro et al

in European Journal of Pain (2020), 24(10), 1880-1891

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See detailCan intermediaries assure contracts? Experimental evidence
Neugebauer, Tibor UL; Mitzkewitz

in Games and Economic Behavior (2020), 124

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See detailSelf-improving System Integration: Mastering Continuous Change
Bellman, Kirstie; Botev, Jean UL; Diaconescu, Ada et al

in Future Generation Computer Systems (2020)

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See detailForfeiting legal protections to prevent crime? The case of artificial intelligence and predictive policing
Blount, Kelly UL

in Católica Law Review (2020), 4(3), 51-82

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See detailEditorial
Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle UL; Belkacem, Rachid

in Les Cahiers de la Grande Région (2020), 3

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See detailBeam-inside-beam contact: Mechanical simulations of slender medical instruments inside the human body
Magliulo, Marco UL; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Zilian, Andreas UL et al

in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine (2020), 196

Background and Objective This contribution presents a rapid computational framework to mechanically simulate the insertion of a slender medical instrument in a tubular structure such as an artery, the ... [more ▼]

Background and Objective This contribution presents a rapid computational framework to mechanically simulate the insertion of a slender medical instrument in a tubular structure such as an artery, the cochlea or another slender instrument. Methods Beams are employed to rapidly simulate the mechanical behaviour of the medical instrument and the tubular structure. However, the framework’s novelty is its capability to handle the mechanical contact between an inner beam (representing the medical instrument) embedded in a hollow outer beam (representing the tubular structure). This “beam-inside-beam” contact framework, which forces two beams to remain embedded, is the first of its kind since existing contact frameworks for beams are “beam-to-beam” approaches, i.e. they repel beams from each other. Furthermore, we propose contact kinematics such that not only instruments and tubes with circular cross-sections can be considered, but also those with elliptical cross-sections. This provides flexibility for the optimization of patient-specific instruments. Results The results demonstrate that the framework’s robustness is substantial, because only a few increments per simulation and a few iterations per increment are required, even though large deformations, large rotations and large curvature changes of both the instrument and tubular structure occur. The stability of the framework remains high even if the modulus of the inner tube is thousand times larger than that of the outer tube. A mesh convergence study furthermore exposes that a relatively small number of elements is required to accurately approach the reference solution. Conclusions The framework’s high simulation speed originates from the exploitation of the rigidity of the beams’ cross-sections to quantify the exclusion between the inner and the hollow outer beam. This rigidity limits the accuracy of the framework at the same time, but this is unavoidable since simulation accuracy and simulation speed are two competing interests. Hence, the framework is particularly attractive if simulation speed is preferred over accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive Physical Layer Security Analysis of FSO Communications over Malaga Channels
Ai, Yun; Mathur, Aashish; Verma, Gyan Deep et al

in IEEE Photonics Journal (2020)

In this paper, we study the physical layer security of free-space optical (FSO) communications under different eavesdropping scenarios. More specifically, the secrecy performance of FSO communication ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the physical layer security of free-space optical (FSO) communications under different eavesdropping scenarios. More specifically, the secrecy performance of FSO communication employing intensity modulation/direct detection detection is analyzed for the well-established Mlaga channels. Three different realistic scenarios of eavesdropping are considered by assuming different placement locations for the eavesdropper in the paper. Novel expressions for the average secrecy capacity (ASC) and secrecy outage probability (SOP) are derived for the considered scenarios, and useful insights are also provided through asymptotic analysis. The results show: (i) When the eavesdropper is placed near the transmitter, atmospheric condition imposes a less significant impact on secrecy performance; (ii) Certain level of correlation can potentially enhance the secrecy performance for FSO communications; (iii) The correlation imposes opposite impacts on the ASC and SOP of FSO communications; and the secrecy performance metrics exhibit a non-monotonic impact with the increase of correlation; (v) When the correlation of the FSO links is too small or too large (i.e., the correlation parameter around 0 or 1), the correlation plays a more significant impact on secrecy performance; and (vi) The asymptotic slope of the SOP is 0.5 for all eavesdropping scenarios under practical FSO channels. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Neighborhood-Level Concentrated Disadvantage and Social Networks Among Older Americans
Settels, Jason UL

in Journal of Applied Gerontology (2020)

Close social networks provide older persons with resources, including social support, that maintain their well-being. While scholarship shows how networks change over time, a dearth of research ... [more ▼]

Close social networks provide older persons with resources, including social support, that maintain their well-being. While scholarship shows how networks change over time, a dearth of research investigates changing social contexts as causes of network dynamics. Using the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N = 1,776), this study shows how rising neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage through the Great Recession of 2007–2009 was associated with smaller close networks, largely due to fewer new close ties gained, among older Americans. Worsening neighborhood circumstances pose obstacles to older residents’ acquisition of new close ties, including heightened fear, lower generalized trust, stress and depression, and declines in local institutions that attract both residents and nonresidents. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimised biomolecular extraction for metagenomic analysis of microbial biofilms from high-mountain streams
Busi, Susheel Bhanu UL; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Brandani, Jade et al

in PeerJ (2020)

Glacier-fed streams (GFS) are harsh ecosystems dominated by microbial life organized in benthic biofilms, yet the biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by these communities remain under ... [more ▼]

Glacier-fed streams (GFS) are harsh ecosystems dominated by microbial life organized in benthic biofilms, yet the biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by these communities remain under-appreciated. To better understand the microbial processes and communities contributing to GFS ecosystems, it is necessary to leverage high throughput sequencing. Low biomass and high inorganic particle load in GFS sediment samples may affect nucleic acid extraction efficiency using extraction methods tailored to other extreme environments such as deep-sea sediments. Here, we benchmarked the utility and efficacy of four extraction protocols, including an up-scaled phenol-chloroform protocol. We found that established protocols for comparable sample types consistently failed to yield sufficient high-quality DNA, delineating the extreme character of GFS. The methods differed in the success of downstream applications such as library preparation and sequencing. An adapted phenol-chloroform-based extraction method resulted in higher yields and better recovered the expected taxonomic profile and abundance of reconstructed genomes when compared to commercially-available methods. Affordable and straight-forward, this method consistently recapitulated the abundance and genomes of a mock community, including eukaryotes. Moreover, by increasing the amount of input sediment, the protocol is readily adjustable to the microbial load of the processed samples without compromising protocol efficiency. Our study provides a first systematic and extensive analysis of the different options for extraction of nucleic acids from glacier-fed streams for high-throughput sequencing applications, which may be applied to other extreme environments. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive characterization of amino acidpositions in protein structures reveals moleculareffect of missense variants
iqbal, Sumaiya; Perez-Palma, Eduardo; Jespersen, Jakob B. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2020)

Interpretation of the colossal number of genetic variants identified from sequencing applications is one of the major bottlenecks in clinical genetics, with the inference of the effect of amino acid ... [more ▼]

Interpretation of the colossal number of genetic variants identified from sequencing applications is one of the major bottlenecks in clinical genetics, with the inference of the effect of amino acid-substituting missense variations on protein structure and function being especially challenging. Here we characterize the three-dimensional (3D) amino acid positions affected in pathogenic and population variants from 1,330 disease-associated genes using over 14,000 experimentally solved human protein structures. By measuring the statistical burden of variations (i.e., point mutations) from all genes on 40 3D protein features, accounting for the structural, chemical, and functional context of the variations’ positions, we identify features that are generally associated with pathogenic and population missense variants. We then perform the same amino acid-level analysis individually for 24 protein functional classes, which reveals unique characteristics of the positions of the altered amino acids: We observe up to 46% divergence of the class-specific features from the general characteristics obtained by the analysis on all genes, which is consistent with the structural diversity of essential regions across different protein classes. We demonstrate that the function-specific 3D features of the variants match the readouts of mutagenesis experiments for BRCA1 and PTEN, and positively correlate with an independent set of clinically interpreted pathogenic and benign missense variants. Finally, we make our results available through a web server to foster accessibility and downstream research. Our findings represent a crucial step toward translational genetics, from highlighting the impact of mutations on protein structure to rationalizing the variants’ pathogenicity in terms of the perturbed molecular mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailROS networks: designs, aging, Parkinson's disease and precision therapies.
Kolodkin, Alexey UL; Colangelo, AM; Ignatenko, A et al

in NPJ Systems Biology and Applications (2020)

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See detailFoxO maintains a genuine muscle stem-cell quiescent state until geriatric age
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Nature Cell Biology (2020)

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See detailDiscordant Monozygotic Parkinson Disease Twins: Role of Mitochondrial Integrity
Dulovic-Mahlow, Marija; König, Inke R.; Trinh, Joanne et al

in Annals of Neurology (2020)

Objective Even though genetic predisposition has proven to be an important element in Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology, monozygotic (MZ) twins with PD displayed a concordance rate of only about 20 ... [more ▼]

Objective Even though genetic predisposition has proven to be an important element in Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology, monozygotic (MZ) twins with PD displayed a concordance rate of only about 20% despite their shared identical genetic background. Methods We recruited 5 pairs of MZ twins discordant for idiopathic PD and established skin fibroblast cultures to investigate mitochondrial phenotypes in these cellular models against the background of a presumably identical genome. To test for genetic differences, we performed whole genome sequencing, deep mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing, and tested for mitochondrial deletions by multiplex real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the fibroblast cultures. Further, the fibroblast cultures were tested for mitochondrial integrity by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and real‐time PCR to quantify gene expression. Results Genome sequencing did not identify any genetic difference. We found decreased mitochondrial functionality with reduced cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, altered mitochondrial morphology, elevated protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and increased levels of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma coactivator‐α (PPARGC1A) messenger RNA (mRNA) in skin fibroblast cultures from the affected compared to the unaffected twins. Further, there was a tendency for a higher number of somatic mtDNA variants among the affected twins. Interpretation We demonstrate disease‐related differences in mitochondrial integrity in the genetically identical twins. Of note, the clinical expression matches functional alterations of the mitochondria [less ▲]

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See detailLe principe démocratique en droit coopératif : des dangers d’une connaissance superficielle
Hiez, David UL

in AJ Contrats d'Affaires (2020), 10

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See detailGene expression profile of CD14+ blood monocytes following lifestyle-induced weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
Noor, Fozia UL; Biemann, Ronald; Roomp, Kirsten UL et al

in Scientific Reports (2020), 10(1), 17855

Lifestyle-induced weight loss is regarded as an efficient therapy to reverse metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to prevent disease progression. The objective of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle ... [more ▼]

Lifestyle-induced weight loss is regarded as an efficient therapy to reverse metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to prevent disease progression. The objective of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle-induced weight loss modulates gene expression in circulating monocytes. We analyzed and compared gene expression in monocytes (CD14+ cells) and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies by unbiased mRNA profiling. Samples were obtained before and after diet-induced weight loss in well-defined male individuals in a prospective controlled clinical trial (ICTRP Trial Number: U1111-1158-3672). The BMI declined significantly (- 12.6%) in the treatment arm (N = 39) during the 6-month weight loss intervention. This was associated with a significant reduction in hsCRP (- 45.84%) and circulating CD14+ cells (- 21.0%). Four genes were differentially expressed (DEG's) in CD14+ cells following weight loss (ZRANB1, RNF25, RB1CC1 and KMT2C). Comparative analyses of paired CD14+ monocytes and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples before and after weight loss did not identify common genes differentially regulated in both sample types. Lifestyle-induced weight loss is associated with specific changes in gene expression in circulating CD14+ monocytes, which may affect ubiquitination, histone methylation and autophagy [less ▲]

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See detailIntegration of time-series meta-omics data reveals how microbial ecosystems respond to disturbance
Herold, Malte; Martinez Arbas, Susana UL; Narayanasamy, Shaman et al

in Nature Communications (2020)

The development of reliable, mixed-culture biotechnological processes hinges on understanding how microbial ecosystems respond to disturbances. Here we reveal extensive phenotypic plasticity and niche ... [more ▼]

The development of reliable, mixed-culture biotechnological processes hinges on understanding how microbial ecosystems respond to disturbances. Here we reveal extensive phenotypic plasticity and niche complementarity in oleaginous microbial populations from a biological wastewater treatment plant. We perform meta-omics analyses (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics) on in situ samples over 14 months at weekly intervals. Based on 1,364 de novo metagenome-assembled genomes, we uncover four distinct fundamental niche types. Throughout the time-series, we observe a major, transient shift in community structure, coinciding with substrate availability changes. Functional omics data reveals extensive variation in gene expression and substrate usage amongst community members. Ex situ bioreactor experiments confirm that responses occur within five hours of a pulse disturbance, demonstrating rapid adaptation by specific populations. Our results show that community resistance and resilience are a function of phenotypic plasticity and niche complementarity, and set the foundation for future ecological engineering efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-level social-ecological networks in a payments for ecosystem services programme in central Veracruz, Mexico
Langle-Flores, Alfonso; Aguilar Rodríguez, Adriana; Romero-Uribe, Humberto et al

in Environmental Conservation (2020)

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programmes have been considered an important conservation mechanism to avoid deforestation. These environmental policies act in social and ecological contexts at ... [more ▼]

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programmes have been considered an important conservation mechanism to avoid deforestation. These environmental policies act in social and ecological contexts at different spatial scales. We evaluated the social-ecological fit between stakeholders and ecosystem processes in a local PES programme across three levels: social, ecological and social-ecological. We explored collaboration among stakeholders, assessed connectivity between forest units and evaluated conservation activity links between stakeholders and forest units. In addition, to increase programme effectiveness, we classified forest units based on their social and ecological importance. Our main findings suggest that non-governmental organizations occupy brokerage positions between landowners and government in a dense collaboration network. We also found a partial spatial misfit between conservation activity links and the forest units that provide the most hydrological services to Xalapa. We conclude that conservation efforts should be directed towards the middle and high part of the Pixquiac sub-watershed and that the role of non-governmental organizations as mediators should be strengthened to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the local PES programme. [less ▲]

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See detailA scalable method to construct compact road networks from GPS trajectories
Guo, Yuejun UL; Bardera, Anton; FOrt, Marta et al

in International Journal of Geographical Information Science (2020), 0(0), 1-37

The automatic generation of road networks from GPS tracks is a challenging problem that has been receiving considerable attention in the last years. Although dozens of methods have been proposed, current ... [more ▼]

The automatic generation of road networks from GPS tracks is a challenging problem that has been receiving considerable attention in the last years. Although dozens of methods have been proposed, current techniques suffer from two main shortcomings: the quality of the produced road networks is still far from those produced manually, and the methods are slow, making them not scalable to large inputs. In this paper, we present a fast four-step density-based approach to construct a road network from a set of trajectories. A key aspect of our method is the use of an improved version of the Slide method to adjust trajectories to build a more compact density surface. The network has comparable or better quality than that of state-of-the-art methods and is simpler (includes fewer nodes and edges). Furthermore, we also propose a split-and-merge strategy that allows splitting the data domain into smaller regions that can be processed independently, making the method scalable to large inputs. The performance of our method is evaluated with extensive experiments on urban and hiking data. [less ▲]

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See detailSummertime Overheating Risk Assessment of a Flexible Plug-in Modular Unit in Luxembourg
Rakotonjanahary, Tahiana Roland Michaël UL; Scholzen, Frank UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Sustainability (2020)

Modular buildings offer faster construction process, provide better construction quality, allow reducing construction waste and are potentially flexible. Frames of modular units can be made of metal ... [more ▼]

Modular buildings offer faster construction process, provide better construction quality, allow reducing construction waste and are potentially flexible. Frames of modular units can be made of metal, timber, concrete or mixed materials but lightweight structures do not always allow erecting high-rise buildings and generally present a higher risk of overheating and/or overcooling. To reconcile these pros and cons, a typology of modular building called Slab was designed by a group of architects. The building is composed on the one hand of a permanent concrete structure named shelf-structure and on the other hand of several flexible removable timber modular units, also known as modules. The shelf-structure will host the common utility rooms and will serve as docking infrastructure for the housing modules. To provide high flexibility, the Slab building was designed to adapt to any orientation and location in Luxembourg. An energy concept and a HVAC systems design has been developed for the Slab building. Furthermore, a two-fold sustainability analysis was carried out. The first part of the analysis regards the determination of the minimum required wall thicknesses of the modules in accordance with Luxembourgish regulatory requirements, although the current regulation does not yet consider the Slab building typology. The second part, which is the subject of this paper, is thermal comfort assessment, more precisely, summertime overheating risk assessment of these modules, in compliance with Luxembourgish standard. In this regard, dynamic thermal simulations have been realized on two module variants; the first fulfills the passive house requirements, and the second—the current requirements for building permit application, which in principle corresponds to low energy house requirements. Simulations showed that with adequate solar shading and reinforced natural ventilation by window opening, overheating risk could be avoided for the normal residential use scenario for both module variants. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre Multi-Domain Operations et « Guerre nouvelle génération », quelles voies pour les armées françaises ?
Fouillet, Thibault UL

in Revue Défense Nationale (2020), Cahier(La vision stratégique de l'armée de Terre), 18-24

Les évolutions doctrinales en cours, notamment aux États-Unis et en Russie, démontrent de nouvelles ambitions accélérant le rythme de la manœuvre et la synergie entre les domaines. Les opérations de ... [more ▼]

Les évolutions doctrinales en cours, notamment aux États-Unis et en Russie, démontrent de nouvelles ambitions accélérant le rythme de la manœuvre et la synergie entre les domaines. Les opérations de demain seront plus complexes et exigeront des architectures dynamiques, avec des outils numériques puissants. La France doit s’inscrire dans cette perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutionary algorithms deceive humans and machines at image classification: An extended proof of concept on two scenarios
Chitic, Ioana Raluca UL; Leprevost, Franck UL; Bernard, Nicolas

in Journal of Information and Telecommunication (2020)

The range of applications of Neural Networks encompasses image classification. However, Neural Networks are vulnerable to attacks, and may misclassify adversarial images, leading to potentially disastrous ... [more ▼]

The range of applications of Neural Networks encompasses image classification. However, Neural Networks are vulnerable to attacks, and may misclassify adversarial images, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Pursuing some of our previous work, we provide an extended proof of concept of a black-box, targeted, non-parametric attack using evolutionary algorithms to fool both Neural Networks and humans at the task of image classification. Our feasibility study is performed on VGG-16 trained on CIFAR-10. For any category cA of CIFAR-10, one chooses an image A classified by VGG-16 as belonging to cA. From there, two scenarios are addressed. In the first scenario, a target category ct≠cA is fixed a priori. We construct an evolutionary algorithm that evolves A to a modified image that VGG-16 classifies as belonging to ct. In the second scenario, we construct another evolutionary algorithm that evolves A to a modified image that VGG-16 is unable to classify. In both scenarios, the obtained adversarial images remain so close to the original one that a human would likely classify them as still belonging to cA. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial damage-associated inflammation highlights biomarkers in PRKN/PINK1 parkinsonism
Borsche, Max; Koenig, Inke; Delcambre, Sylvie UL et al

in Brain: a Journal of Neurology (2020)

There is increasing evidence for a role of inflammation in Parkinson’s disease. Recent research in murine models suggests that parkin and PINK1 deficiency leads to impaired mitophagy, which causes the ... [more ▼]

There is increasing evidence for a role of inflammation in Parkinson’s disease. Recent research in murine models suggests that parkin and PINK1 deficiency leads to impaired mitophagy, which causes the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), thereby triggering inflammation. Specifically, the CGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase)-STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway mitigates activation of the innate immune system, quantifiable as increased interleukin-6 (IL6) levels. However, the role of IL6 and circulating cell-free mtDNA in unaffected and affected individuals harbouring mutations in PRKN/PINK1 and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients remain elusive. We investigated IL6, C-reactive protein, and circulating cell-free mtDNA in serum of 245 participants in two cohorts from tertiary movement disorder centres. We performed a hypothesis-driven rank-based statistical approach adjusting for multiple testing. We detected (i) elevated IL6 levels in patients with biallelic PRKN/PINK1 mutations compared to healthy control subjects in a German cohort, supporting the concept of a role for inflammation in PRKN/PINK1-linked Parkinson’s disease. In addition, the comparison of patients with biallelic and heterozygous mutations in PRKN/PINK1 suggests a gene dosage effect. The differences in IL6 levels were validated in a second independent Italian cohort; (ii) a correlation between IL6 levels and disease duration in carriers of PRKN/PINK1 mutations, while no such association was observed for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients. These results highlight the potential of IL6 as progression marker in Parkinson’s disease due to PRKN/PINK1 mutations; (iii) increased circulating cell-free mtDNA serum levels in both patients with biallelic or with heterozygous PRKN/PINK1 mutations compared to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, which is in line with previous findings in murine models. By contrast, circulating cell-free mtDNA concentrations in unaffected heterozygous carriers of PRKN/PINK1 mutations were comparable to control levels; and (iv) that circulating cell-free mtDNA levels have good predictive potential to discriminate between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and Parkinson’s disease linked to heterozygous PRKN/PINK1 mutations, providing functional evidence for a role of heterozygous mutations in PRKN or PINK1 as Parkinson’s disease risk factor. Taken together, our study further implicates inflammation due to impaired mitophagy and subsequent mtDNA release in the pathogenesis of PRKN/PINK1-linked Parkinson’s disease. In individuals carrying mutations in PRKN/PINK1, IL6 and circulating cell-free mtDNA levels may serve as markers of Parkinson’s disease state and progression, respectively. Finally, our study suggests that targeting the immune system with anti-inflammatory medication holds the potential to influence the disease course of Parkinson’s disease, at least in this subset of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Respiratory Society Statement on Thoracic Ultrasound
Laursen, Christian B.; Clive, Amelia; Hallifax, Rob et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2020)

Thoracic ultrasound is increasingly considered to be an essential tool for the pulmonologist. It is used in diverse clinical scenarios, including as an adjunct to clinical decision making for diagnosis, a ... [more ▼]

Thoracic ultrasound is increasingly considered to be an essential tool for the pulmonologist. It is used in diverse clinical scenarios, including as an adjunct to clinical decision making for diagnosis, a real-time guide to procedures, and a predictor or measurement of treatment response. The aim of this European Respiratory Society task force was to produce a statement on thoracic ultrasound for pulmonologists using thoracic ultrasound within the field of respiratory medicine. The multidisciplinary panel performed a review of the literature, addressing major areas of thoracic ultrasound practice and application. The selected major areas include equipment and technique, assessment of the chest wall, parietal pleura, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, interstitial syndrome, lung consolidation, diaphragm assessment, intervention guidance, training, and the patient perspective. Despite the growing evidence supporting the use of thoracic ultrasound, the published literature still contains a paucity of data in some important fields. Key research questions for each of the major areas were identified, which serve to facilitate future multi-centre collaborations and research to further consolidate an evidence-based use of thoracic ultrasound, for the benefit of the many patients being exposed to clinicians using thoracic ultrasound. [less ▲]

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See detailHaploinsufficiency due to a novel ACO2 deletion causes mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblasts from a patient with dominant optic nerve atrophy
Neumann, Marie Anne-Catherine UL; Grossmann, Dajana UL; Schimpf-Linzenbold, Simone et al

in Scientific Reports (2020)

ACO2 is a mitochondrial protein, which is critically involved in the function of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), the maintenance of iron homeostasis, oxidative stress defense and the integrity of ... [more ▼]

ACO2 is a mitochondrial protein, which is critically involved in the function of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), the maintenance of iron homeostasis, oxidative stress defense and the integrity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mutations in the ACO2 gene were identified in patients suffering from a broad range of symptoms, including optic nerve atrophy, cortical atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, hypotonia, seizures and intellectual disabilities. In the present study, we identified a heterozygous 51 bp deletion (c.1699_1749del51) in ACO2 in a family with autosomal dominant inherited isolated optic atrophy. A complementation assay using aco1-deficient yeast revealed a growth defect for the mutant ACO2 variant substantiating a pathogenic effect of the deletion. We used patient-derived fibroblasts to characterize cellular phenotypes and found a decrease of ACO2 protein levels, while ACO2 enzyme activity was not affected compared to two age- and gender-matched control lines. Several parameters of mitochondrial function, including mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential or mitochondrial superoxide production, were not changed under baseline conditions. However, basal respiration, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were reduced in mutant cells. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of mtDNA copy number and reduced mtDNA transcription levels in ACO2-mutant fibroblasts. Inducing oxidative stress led to an increased susceptibility for cell death in ACO2-mutant fibroblasts compared to controls. Our study reveals that a monoallelic mutation in ACO2 is sufficient to promote mitochondrial dysfunction and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress as main drivers of cell death related to optic nerve atrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailA pluralistic and integrated approach to action-oriented knowledge for sustainability
Caniglia, Guido; Luederitz, Christopher; von Wirth, Timo et al

in Nature Sustainability (2020)

Sustainability science needs more systematic approaches for mobilizing knowledge in support of interventions that may bring about transformative change. In this Perspective, we contend that action ... [more ▼]

Sustainability science needs more systematic approaches for mobilizing knowledge in support of interventions that may bring about transformative change. In this Perspective, we contend that action-oriented knowledge for sustainability emerges when working in integrated ways with the many kinds of knowledge involved in the shared design, enactment and realization of change. The pluralistic and integrated approach we present rejects technocratic solutions to complex sustainability challenges and foregrounds individual and social learning. We argue that research institutions devoted to sustainability should focus more on creating the conditions for experimenting with multiple kinds of knowledge and ways of knowing to foster sustainability-oriented learning. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes Motivation in Physical Education Have an Impact on Out-of-School Physical Activity over Time? A Longitudinal Approach
Hutmacher, Djenna UL; Eckelt, Melanie UL; Bund, Andreas UL et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020), 17(19), 7258

Previous research based on the trans-contextual model proposes that autonomous motivation in physical education (PE) is transferable to an out-of-school leisure-time (LT) context. However, only cross ... [more ▼]

Previous research based on the trans-contextual model proposes that autonomous motivation in physical education (PE) is transferable to an out-of-school leisure-time (LT) context. However, only cross-sectional and unidirectional analyses have been conducted. The present study used a longitudinal design assessing N = 1681 students (M = 14.68 years) on two occasions, measuring the following constructs: perceived need for support in PE, motivational regulation during PE and LT, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention, and physical activity behavior. Findings based on mixed effect models revealed that autonomy, competence, and relatedness support of the PE teacher were positively related to autonomous motivation. Moreover, similar motivational regulation types were found to significantly cross-lag across contexts. Through longitudinal mediation analyses, further support for the impact of autonomous motivation on physical activity, mediated by intention, attitude, and perceived behavioral control, was found. Suggestions for educational stakeholders regarding how to promote students’ autonomous motivation are provided. [less ▲]

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See detailPatient-derived organoids and orthotopic xenografts of primary and recurrent gliomas represent relevant patient avatars for precision oncology.
Golebiewska, Anna UL; Hau, Ann-Christin; Oudin, Anaïs et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2020)

Patient-based cancer models are essential tools for studying tumor biology and for the assessment of drug responses in a translational context. We report the establishment a large cohort of unique ... [more ▼]

Patient-based cancer models are essential tools for studying tumor biology and for the assessment of drug responses in a translational context. We report the establishment a large cohort of unique organoids and patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) of various glioma subtypes, including gliomas with mutations in IDH1, and paired longitudinal PDOX from primary and recurrent tumors of the same patient. We show that glioma PDOXs enable long-term propagation of patient tumors and represent clinically relevant patient avatars that retain histopathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic features of parental tumors. We find no evidence of mouse-specific clonal evolution in glioma PDOXs. Our cohort captures individual molecular genotypes for precision medicine including mutations in IDH1, ATRX, TP53, MDM2/4, amplification of EGFR, PDGFRA, MET, CDK4/6, MDM2/4, and deletion of CDKN2A/B, PTCH, and PTEN. Matched longitudinal PDOX recapitulate the limited genetic evolution of gliomas observed in patients following treatment. At the histological level, we observe increased vascularization in the rat host as compared to mice. PDOX-derived standardized glioma organoids are amenable to high-throughput drug screens that can be validated in mice. We show clinically relevant responses to temozolomide (TMZ) and to targeted treatments, such as EGFR and CDK4/6 inhibitors in (epi)genetically defined subgroups, according to MGMT promoter and EGFR/CDK status, respectively. Dianhydrogalactitol (VAL-083), a promising bifunctional alkylating agent in the current clinical trial, displayed high therapeutic efficacy, and was able to overcome TMZ resistance in glioblastoma. Our work underscores the clinical relevance of glioma organoids and PDOX models for translational research and personalized treatment studies and represents a unique publicly available resource for precision oncology. [less ▲]

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See detailSine-skewed toroidal distributions and their application in protein bioinformatics
Ley, Christophe UL; Ameijeiras-Alonso, Jose

in Biostatistics (2020)

In the bioinformatics field, there has been a growing interest in modeling dihedral angles of amino acids by viewing them as data on the torus. This has motivated, over the past years, new proposals of ... [more ▼]

In the bioinformatics field, there has been a growing interest in modeling dihedral angles of amino acids by viewing them as data on the torus. This has motivated, over the past years, new proposals of distributions on the torus. The main drawback of most of these models is that the related densities are (pointwise) symmetric, despite the fact that the data usually present asymmetric patterns. This motivates the need to find a new way of constructing asymmetric toroidal distributions starting from a symmetric distribution. We tackle this problem in this article by introducing the sine-skewed toroidal distributions. The general properties of the new models are derived. Based on the initial symmetric model, explicit expressions for the shape and dependence measures are obtained, a simple algorithm for generating random numbers is provided, and asymptotic results for the maximum likelihood estimators are established. An important feature of our construction is that no extra normalizing constant needs to be calculated, leading to more flexible distributions without increasing the complexity of the models. The benefit of employing these new sine-skewed toroidal distributions is shown on the basis of protein data, where, in general, the new models outperform their symmetric antecedents. [less ▲]

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See detailAccelerating fatigue simulations of a phase-field damage model for rubber
Loew, Pascal Juergen UL; Poh, Leong Hien; Peters, Bernhard UL et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2020), 370(113247),

Phase-field damage models are able to describe crack nucleation as well as crack propagation and coalescence without additional technicalities, because cracks are treated in a continuous, spatially finite ... [more ▼]

Phase-field damage models are able to describe crack nucleation as well as crack propagation and coalescence without additional technicalities, because cracks are treated in a continuous, spatially finite manner. Previously, we have developed a phase-field model to capture the rate-dependent failure of rubber, and we have further enhanced it to describe failure due to cyclic loading. Although the model accurately describes fatigue failure, the associated cyclic simulations are slow. Therefore, this contribution presents an acceleration scheme for cyclic simulations of our previously introduced phase-field damage model so that the simulation speed is increased to facilitate large-scale simulations of industrially relevant problems. We formulate an explicit and an implicit cycle jump method, which, depending on the selected jump size, reduce the calculation time up to 99.5%. To circumvent the manual tuning of the jump size, we also present an adaptive jump size selection procedure. Thanks to the implicit adaptive scheme, all material parameters are identified from experiments, which include fatigue crack nucleation and crack growth. Finally, the model and its parameters are validated with additional measurements of the fatigue crack growth rate. [less ▲]

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See detailGradient Estimates on Dirichlet and Neumann Eigenfunctions
Arnaudon, Marc; Thalmaier, Anton UL; Wang, Feng-Yu

in International Mathematics Research Notices (2020), 2020(20), 7279-7305

By methods of stochastic analysis on Riemannian manifolds, we derive explicit two-sided gradient estimates for Dirichlet eigenfunctions on a d-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold D with boundary ... [more ▼]

By methods of stochastic analysis on Riemannian manifolds, we derive explicit two-sided gradient estimates for Dirichlet eigenfunctions on a d-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold D with boundary. Corresponding two-sided gradient estimates for Neumann eigenfunctions are derived in the second part of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailFlexibility in Problem Solving: Analogical Transfer of Tool Use in Toddlers Is Immune to Delay
Bobrowicz, Katarzyna UL; Lindström, Felicia; Lindblom Lovén, Marcus et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020)

Solving problems that are perceptually dissimilar but require similar solutions is a key skill in everyday life. In adults, this ability, termed analogical transfer, draws on memories of relevant past ... [more ▼]

Solving problems that are perceptually dissimilar but require similar solutions is a key skill in everyday life. In adults, this ability, termed analogical transfer, draws on memories of relevant past experiences that partially overlap with the present task at hand. Thanks to this support from long-term memory, analogical transfer allows remarkable behavioral flexibility beyond immediate situations. However, little is known about the interaction between long-term memory and analogical transfer in development as, to date, they have been studied separately. Here, for the first time, effects of age and memory on analogical transfer were investigated in 2-to-4.5-olds in a simple tool-use setup. Children attempted to solve a puzzle box after training the correct solution on a different looking box, either right before the test or 24 hours earlier. We found that children (N = 105) could transfer the solution regardless of the delay and a perceptual conflict introduced in the tool set. For children who failed to transfer (N = 54) and repeated the test without a perceptual conflict, the odds of success did not improve. Our findings suggest that training promoted the detection of functional similarities between boxes and, thereby, flexible transfer both in the short and the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailCorona und die krisenhafte Wiederkehr des Verdrängten
Becker, Katrin UL

in Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie (2020), 2

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See detailOdd connections on supermanifolds: existence and relation with affine connections
Bruce, Andrew UL; Grabowski, Janusz

in Journal of Physics. A, Mathematical and Theoretical (2020), 53(45), 455203

The notion of an odd quasi-connection on a supermanifold, which is loosely an affine connection that carries non-zero Grassmann parity, is examined. Their torsion and curvature are defined, however, in ... [more ▼]

The notion of an odd quasi-connection on a supermanifold, which is loosely an affine connection that carries non-zero Grassmann parity, is examined. Their torsion and curvature are defined, however, in general, they are not tensors. A special class of such generalised connections, referred to as odd connections in this paper, have torsion and curvature tensors. Part of the structure is an odd involution of the tangent bundle of the supermanifold and this puts drastic restrictions on the supermanifolds that admit odd connections. In particular, they must have equal number of even and odd dimensions. Amongst other results, we show that an odd connection is defined, up to an odd tensor field of type (1, 2), by an affine connection and an odd endomorphism of the tangent bundle. Thus, the theory of odd connections and affine connections are not completely separate theories. As an example relevant to physics, it is shown that $\mathcal{N}=1$ super-Minkowski spacetime admits a natural odd connection. [less ▲]

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See detailTransSynW: A single‐cell RNA‐sequencing based web application to guide cell conversion experiments
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Stem Cells Translational Medicine (2020)

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See detailLaboratory Tests of ATSC M/H Commercial Receivers Performance on SFN Networks
Matias, Jose Maria; Ortiz Gomez, Flor de Guadalupe UL; Hernandez, Mario et al

in IEEE Latin America Transactions (2020), 18(10),

The Single Frequency Networks (SFN) are widely used in Digital Television transmission networks due to the high spectral efficiency achieved by them. Digital modulation techniques with a cyclic prefix ... [more ▼]

The Single Frequency Networks (SFN) are widely used in Digital Television transmission networks due to the high spectral efficiency achieved by them. Digital modulation techniques with a cyclic prefix, like OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) are adequate to define and use SFN networks due to their ability to deal with the artificial multipath produced in a SFN network. Nevertheless, the ATSC 1.0 and ATSC M/H standards use the VSB-8 modulation technique, which has no cyclic prefix, so it is very sensitive to multipath. The ATSC 1.0 standard has been recently implemented in Mexico, so the ATSC M/H standard can be used in the next years because it is compatible with ATSC 1.0, meanwhile ATSC 3.0, the newest standard of ATSC, it is not compatible.The performance of the reception with VSB-8 modulation depends strongly on the receiver channel equalizer. For this reason, the objective of this study is to analyze the performance of ATSC M/H commercial receivers in SFN networks. The results of this study will help in the implementation of SFN networks in Mexico and other countries that use ATSC 1.0 and ATSC M/H. [less ▲]

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See detail${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}{\times}{\mathbb{Z}}_{2}$-graded supersymmetry: 2-d sigma models
Bruce, Andrew UL

in Journal of Physics. A, Mathematical and Theoretical (2020), 53(45), 455201

We propose a natural ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}{\times}{\mathbb{Z}}_{2}$-graded generalisation of d = 2, $\mathcal{N}=\left(1,1\right)$ supersymmetry and construct a ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}^{2}$-space realisation ... [more ▼]

We propose a natural ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}{\times}{\mathbb{Z}}_{2}$-graded generalisation of d = 2, $\mathcal{N}=\left(1,1\right)$ supersymmetry and construct a ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}^{2}$-space realisation thereof. Due to the grading, the supercharges close with respect to, in the classical language, a commutator rather than an anticommutator. This is then used to build classical (linear and non-linear) sigma models that exhibit this novel supersymmetry via mimicking standard superspace methods. The fields in our models are bosons, right-handed and left-handed Majorana–Weyl spinors, and exotic bosons. The bosons commute with all the fields, the spinors belong to different sectors that cross commute rather than anticommute, while the exotic boson anticommute with the spinors. As a particular example of one of the models, we present a 'double-graded' version of supersymmetric sine-Gordon theory. [less ▲]

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See detailMixed-fleet single-terminal bus scheduling problem: Modelling, solution scheme and potential applications
Rinaldi, Marco UL; Picarelli, Erika UL; D'Ariano, Andrea et al

in Omega: the International Journal of Management Science (2020), 96

Reducing pollutant emissions and promoting sustainable mobility solutions, including Public Transport (PT), are increasingly becoming key objectives for policymakers worldwide. In this work we develop an ... [more ▼]

Reducing pollutant emissions and promoting sustainable mobility solutions, including Public Transport (PT), are increasingly becoming key objectives for policymakers worldwide. In this work we develop an optimal vehicle scheduling approach for next generation PT systems, considering the instance of mixed electric / hybrid fleet. Our objective is that of investigating to what extent electrification, coupled with optimal fleet management, can yield operational cost savings for PT operators. We propose a Mixed In- teger Linear Program (MILP) to address the problem of optimal scheduling of a mixed fleet of electric and hybrid / non-electric buses, coupled with an ad-hoc decomposition scheme aimed at enhancing the scalability of the proposed MILP. Two case studies arising from the PT network of the city of Luxem- bourg are employed in order to validate the model; sensitivity analysis to fleet design parameters is performed, specifically in terms of fleet size and fleet composition. Conclusions point to the fact that careful modelling and handling of mixed-fleet conditions are necessary to achieve operational savings, and that marginal savings gradually reduce as more conventional buses are replaced by their electric counterparts. We believe the methodology proposed may be a key part of advanced decision support systems for policymakers and operators that are dealing with the on-going transition from conventional bus fleets towards greener transport solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailMemory suppression and its deficiency in psychological disorders: A focused meta-analysis
Stramaccia, Davide F.; Meyer, Ann-Kristin; Rischer, Katharina Miriam UL et al

in Journal of Experimental Psychology. General (2020)

It is still debated whether suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories causes forgetting and whether this constitutes a beneficial mechanism. To shed light on these 2 questions, we scrutinize the ... [more ▼]

It is still debated whether suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories causes forgetting and whether this constitutes a beneficial mechanism. To shed light on these 2 questions, we scrutinize the evidence for such suppression-induced forgetting (SIF) and examine whether it is deficient in psychological disorders characterized by intrusive thoughts. Specifically, we performed a focused meta-analysis of studies that have used the think/no-think procedure to test SIF in individuals either affected by psychological disorders or exhibiting high scores on related traits. Overall, across 96 effects from 25 studies, we found that avoiding retrieval leads to significant forgetting in healthy individuals, with a small to moderate effect size (0.28, 95% CI [0.14, 0.43]). Importantly, this effect was indeed larger than for more anxious (−0.21, 95% CI [−0.41, −0.02]) or depressed individuals (0.05, 95% CI [−0.19, 0.29])—though estimates for the healthy may be inflated by publication bias. In contrast, individuals with a stronger repressive coping style showed greater SIF (0.42, 95% CI [0.32, 0.52]). Furthermore, moderator analyses revealed that SIF varied with the exact suppression mechanism that participants were instructed to engage. For healthy individuals, the effect sizes were considerably larger when instructions induced specific mechanisms of direct retrieval suppression or thought substitution than when they were unspecific. These results suggest that intact suppression-induced forgetting is a hallmark of psychological well-being, and that inducing more specific suppression mechanisms fosters voluntary forgetting. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of universal formality maps for quantizations of Lie bialgebras
Merkulov, Sergei UL; Willwacher, Thomas

in Compositio Mathematica (2020), 156(10), 2111-2148

We introduce an endofunctor D in the category of augmented props with the property that for any representation of a prop P in a vector space V the associated prop DP admits an induced representation on ... [more ▼]

We introduce an endofunctor D in the category of augmented props with the property that for any representation of a prop P in a vector space V the associated prop DP admits an induced representation on the graded commutative tensor algebra S(V) given in terms of polydifferential operators. Applying this functor to the prop LieB of Lie bialgebras we show that universal formality maps for quantizations of Lie bialgebras are in in 1-1 correspondence with prop morphisms from the minimal resolution AssB_infty of the prop of associative bialgebras to the polydifferential prop DLieB_infty satisfying certain boundary conditions. We prove that the set of such formality morphisms (having an extra property of being Lie connected) is non-empty. The latter result is used in turn to give a short proof of the formality theorem for universal quantizations of arbitrary Lie bialgebras which says that for any Drinfeld associator there is an associated Lie_infty quasi-isomorphism between the Lie_infty algebras controlling, respectively, deformations of the standard bialgebra structure in S(V) and deformations of any given Lie bialgebra structure in V. We study the deformation complex of an arbitrary universal formality morphism and show that it is quasi-isomorphic (up to one class corresponding to the standard rescaling automorphism of the properad LieB) to the oriented graph complex GC or 3 studied earlier in \cite{Wi2}. This result gives a complete classification of the set of gauge equivalence classes of universal Lie connected formality maps --- it is a torsor over the Grothendieck-Teichm\"uller group GRT and can hence can be identified with the set of Drinfeld associators. [less ▲]

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See detail‘You got into Oxbridge?’ Under‐represented students’ experiences of an elite university in the south of England
Stubbs, Joshua; Murphy, Emily UL

in Higher Education Quarterly (2020)

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See detailRequiem for a dream: perceived economic conditions and subjective well-being in times of prosperity and economic crisis
Fernandez Urbano, Roger UL; Kulic, Nevena

in Social Indicators Research (2020), 151

Using the Panel of Social Inequalities in Catalonia, Spain (PaD 2001–2012), this article investigates the relationship between perceptions of economic conditions and subjective well-being in times of ... [more ▼]

Using the Panel of Social Inequalities in Catalonia, Spain (PaD 2001–2012), this article investigates the relationship between perceptions of economic conditions and subjective well-being in times of prosperity and economic crisis. It also analyses how this relation- ship plays out across different social backgrounds. Periods of economic crisis and prosper- ity serve as a proxy for objective macroeconomic conditions. The Spanish region of Cata- lonia is a relevant setting because it faced one of the highest increases in inequality and unemployment in Europe as a result of the 2008 Economic Crisis. Our results show that perceived economic conditions matter beyond objective micro and macroeconomic realm and become a strong determinant of subjective well-being during a crisis, particularly for the middle class. However, contrary to our initial expectations, our results also show the existence of a close correlation between perceptions of economic conditions and subjective well-being for low social background individuals in times of economic prosperity, and an even stronger relationship in times of economic crisis. The article stipulates several poten- tial explanations for these results. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of two iPS cell lines (HIHDNDi001-A and HIHDNDi001-B) from a Parkinson's disease patient carrying the heterozygous p.A30P mutation in SNCA.
Barbuti, Peter; Santos, Bruno; Dording, Claire UL et al

in Stem cell research (2020), 48

Dermal fibroblasts from a patient carrying a heterozygous c.88G > C mutation in the SNCA gene that encodes alpha-synuclein were reprogrammed to pluripotency by retroviruses. This pathogenic mutation ... [more ▼]

Dermal fibroblasts from a patient carrying a heterozygous c.88G > C mutation in the SNCA gene that encodes alpha-synuclein were reprogrammed to pluripotency by retroviruses. This pathogenic mutation generates the p.A30P form of the alpha-synuclein protein leading to autosomal dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). Two clonal iPS cell lines were generated (A30P-3 and A30P-4) and characterised by validating the silencing of viral transgenes, the expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, directed differentiation into three germ layers in-vitro and a stable molecular genotype. These iPSC lines will serve as a valuable resource in determining the role of the p.A30P SNCA mutation in PD pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite deformations govern the anisotropic shear-induced area reduction of soft elastic contacts
Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; de Souza, Mariana; Lahmar, Mohamed A. et al

in Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids (2020), 143

Solid contacts involving soft materials are important in mechanical engineering or biomechanics. Experimentally, such contacts have been shown to shrink significantly under shear, an effect which is ... [more ▼]

Solid contacts involving soft materials are important in mechanical engineering or biomechanics. Experimentally, such contacts have been shown to shrink significantly under shear, an effect which is usually explained using adhesion models. Here we show that quantitative agreement with recent high-load experiments can be obtained, with no adjustable parameter, using a non-adhesive model, provided that finite deformations are taken into account. Analysis of the model uncovers the basic mechanisms underlying anisotropic shear-induced area reduction, local contact lifting being the dominant one. We confirm experimentally the relevance of all those mechanisms, by tracking the shear-induced evolution of tracers inserted close to the surface of a smooth elastomer sphere in contact with a smooth glass plate. Our results suggest that finite deformations are an alternative to adhesion, when interpreting a variety of sheared contact experiments involving soft materials. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-Hurricane Consumer Stockpiling and Post- Hurricane Product Availability: Empirical Evidence from Natural Experiments
Pan, Xiaodan; Dresner, Martin; Mantin, Binyamin UL et al

in Production and Operations Management (2020), 29(10), 2350-2380

The provision of essential supplies is a key service provided by retailers when demand spikes due to consumer stockpiling during environmental emergencies. Moreover, it is important for retailers to ... [more ▼]

The provision of essential supplies is a key service provided by retailers when demand spikes due to consumer stockpiling during environmental emergencies. Moreover, it is important for retailers to quickly recover from these events by replenishing the stock of essential supplies to meet the continuing needs of local residents. The main purpose of this research is to study consumer precautionary stockpiling behavior prior to the onset of hurricane landfalls and determine the impact of this behavior on in-store product availability for various formats of retail store outlets. Specifically, we focus on the bottled water product category, an essential emergency category in hurricane preparedness. This study combines an event analysis methodology with econometric models using archival retail scanner data from 60 U.S. retail chains located in 963 counties and real-time data from four recent U.S. continental hurricanes. We find that supply-side characteristics (retail network and product variety), demand-side characteristics (hurricane experience and household income), and disaster characteristics (hazard proximity and hazard intensity) significantly affect consumer stockpiling propensity as the hurricanes approach. The increased consumer stockpiling has immediate and longer-term impacts on retail operations, namely, in-store product availability. Among various retail formats, drug stores are associated with the highest consumer stockpiling propensity before hurricanes, while dollar stores and discount stores are associated with the lowest in-store product availability following hurricanes. Our study points to the need for retailers and policymakers to carefully monitor factors affecting consumer stockpiling behavior that will allow for better allocation of critical supplies during the hurricane season. [less ▲]

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See detailChronique de droit des marchés financiers
Conac, Pierre-Henri UL

in Revue des Sociétés (2020)

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