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See detailScheduling Design and Performance Analysis of Carrier Aggregation in Satellite Communication Systems
Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Lagunas, Eva UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (2021)

Carrier Aggregation is one of the vital approaches to achieve several orders of magnitude increase in peak data rates. While carrier aggregation benefits have been extensively studied in cellular networks ... [more ▼]

Carrier Aggregation is one of the vital approaches to achieve several orders of magnitude increase in peak data rates. While carrier aggregation benefits have been extensively studied in cellular networks, its application to satellite systems has not been thoroughly explored yet. Carrier aggregation can offer an enhanced and more consistent quality of service for users throughout the satellite coverage via combining multiple carriers, utilizing the unused capacity at other carriers, and enabling effective interference management. Furthermore, carrier aggregation can be a prominent solution to address the issue of the spatially heterogeneous satellite traffic demand. This paper investigates introducing carrier aggregation to satellite systems from a link layer perspective. Deployment of carrier aggregation in satellite systems with the combination of multiple carriers that have different characteristics requires effective scheduling schemes for reliable communications. To this end, a novel load balancing scheduling algorithm has been proposed to distribute data packets across the aggregated carriers based on channel capacities and to utilize spectrum efficiently. Moreover, in order to ensure that the received data packets are delivered without perturbing the original transmission order, a perceptive scheduling algorithm has been developed that takes into consideration channel properties along with the instantaneous available resources at the aggregated carriers. The proposed modifications have been carefully designed to make carrier aggregation transparent above the medium access control (MAC) layer. Additionally, the complexity analysis of the proposed algorithms has been conducted in terms of the computational loads. Simulation results are provided to validate our analysis, demonstrate the design tradeoffs, and to highlight the potentials of carrier aggregation applied to satellite communication systems. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétence pour ordonner la mainlevée d'une saisie conservatoire transfrontière
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (2021), (1), 157

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See detailLe recours collectif luxembourgeois à l’épreuve du droit européen
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Annales du Droit Luxembourgeois (2021)

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See detailSpacetime effects on wavepackets of coherent light
Bruschi, David Edward; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL; Wilhelm, Frank K. et al

in Physical Review. D (2021)

We investigate the interplay between gravity and the quantum coherence present in the state of a pulse of light propagating in curved spacetime. We first introduce an operational way to distinguish ... [more ▼]

We investigate the interplay between gravity and the quantum coherence present in the state of a pulse of light propagating in curved spacetime. We first introduce an operational way to distinguish between the overall shift in the pulse wavepacket and its genuine deformation after propagation. We then apply our technique to quantum states of photons that are coherent in the frequency degree of freedom, as well as to states of completely incoherent light. We focus on Gaussian profiles and frequency combs and find that the quantum coherence initially present can enhance the deformation induced by propagation in a curved background. These results further supports the claim that genuine quantum features, such as quantum coherence, can be used to probe the gravitational properties of physical systems. We specialize our techniques to Earth-to-satellite communication setups, where the effects of gravity are weak but can be tested with current satellite technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailCasual Leisure in Rich-Prospect: Advancing Visual Information Behavior for Digital Museum Collections
Morse, Christopher UL; Niess, Jasmin; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (2021), 14(3),

As digital cultural collections become increasingly sophisticated in their scope and functionality, there is a need to build an in-depth understanding concerning the information behaviors of users in this ... [more ▼]

As digital cultural collections become increasingly sophisticated in their scope and functionality, there is a need to build an in-depth understanding concerning the information behaviors of users in this new domain. Research has demonstrated that many digital museum visitors are engaged in casual leisure during exploration of a collection, suggesting that they do not have an inherent information goal but rather seek new experiences or learning opportunities based on personal curiosity and moments of discovery. Consequently, understanding how to translate casual leisure contexts into meaningful interaction design may play a critical role in designing engaging digital collections. Our study reports on the user experience of a largely unexplored user interface design framework called rich-prospect, which was originally developed to enhance browsing and discovery for complex visual collections. We performed a mixed-method, within-subjects study (N=30) that simulated a casual leisure approach to information browsing and retrieval across three different rich-prospect interfaces for digital cultural heritage. Our results show that rich-prospect scores well in the hedonic facets of its user experience, whereas pragmatic aspects have room for improvement. Additionally, through our qualitative analysis of participant feedback, we derived salient themes relating to the exploratory browsing experience. We conclude with a series of design implications to better connect interactive elements with casual leisure contexts for digital cultural collections. © 2021 Owner/Author. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive Exploration of Large-scale UI Datasets with Design Maps
Leiva, Luis A. UL; Hota, Asutosh; Oulasvirta, Antti

in Interacting with Computers (2021)

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See detailNumber Line Tasks and Their Relation to Arithmetics in Second to Fourth Graders
Georges, Carrie UL; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2021), 7(1), 20--41

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See detailThe Breuer-Major Theorem in total variation: improved rates under minimal regularity
Nourdin, Ivan UL; Nualart, David; Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Stochastic Processes and Their Applications (2021), 131

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See detailMarcel Smets. Fundamenten van het stadsontwerp
Peleman, David UL

in De Witte Raaf (2021), 35(210), 41

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See detailStein's method of exchangeable pairs in multivariate functional approximations
Döbler, Christian UL; Kasprzak, Mikolaj UL

in Electronic Journal of Probability (2021), 26

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See detailExplicit Kummer theory for quadratic fields
Hörmann, Fritz; Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL et al

in JP Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Applications (2021)

Let K be a quadratic number field and let \alpha \in K*. We present an explicit finite procedure to compute at once all Kummer degrees [K(\zeta_m,\sqrt[n]{\alpha}):K(\zeta_m)] for n,m \geq 1 with n|m ... [more ▼]

Let K be a quadratic number field and let \alpha \in K*. We present an explicit finite procedure to compute at once all Kummer degrees [K(\zeta_m,\sqrt[n]{\alpha}):K(\zeta_m)] for n,m \geq 1 with n|m, where \zeta_m denotes a primitive m-th root of unity. We can also replace \alpha by any finitely generated subgroup of K*. [less ▲]

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See detailAnterior cingulate cortex activity during rest is related to alterations in pain perception in aging
Terrasa, Juan L.; Montoya, Pedro; Sitges, Carolina et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2021)

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See detailCrowdsourcing digital health measures to predict Parkinson's disease severity: the Parkinson's Disease Digital Biomarker DREAM Challenge
Sieberts, S.; Schaff, J.; Duda, M. et al

in npj Digital Medicine (2021), 4(53),

Consumer wearables and sensors are a rich source of data about patients’ daily disease and symptom burden, particularly in the case of movement disorders like Parkinson’s Disease (PD). However ... [more ▼]

Consumer wearables and sensors are a rich source of data about patients’ daily disease and symptom burden, particularly in the case of movement disorders like Parkinson’s Disease (PD). However, interpreting these complex data into so-called digital biomarkers requires complicated analytical approaches, and validating these biomarkers requires sufficient data and unbiased evaluation methods. Here we describe the use of crowdsourcing to specifically evaluate and benchmark features derived from accelerometer and gyroscope data in two different datasets to predict the presence of PD and severity of three PD symptoms: tremor, dyskinesia and bradykinesia. Forty teams from around the world submitted features, and achieved drastically improved predictive performance for PD status (best AUROC=0.87), as well as tremor- (best AUPR=0.75), dyskinesia- (best AUPR=0.48) and bradykinesia-severity (best AUPR=0.95). [less ▲]

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See detailHeute sprechen. Literatur, Politik und andere Sprachen im Lied (Herder, Alunāns, Barons)
Dembeck, Till UL

in Interlitteraria (2021), 26(1), 3148

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See detailThe effects of age stereotypes on physical and mental health are mediated by self-perceptions of aging
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2021), 76(5), 845-857

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See detailTaxing Data-driven Business: Toward Datapoint Pricing
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Anker-Sorensen, L.

in World Tax Journal (2021)

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See detailPopulating legal ontologies using semantic role labeling
Humpreys, Lilo; Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leon UL et al

in Artificial Intelligence and Law (2021), 29(2), 171-211

This article seeks to address the problem of the ‘resource consumption bottleneck’ of creating legal semantic technologies manually. It describes a semantic role labeling based information extraction ... [more ▼]

This article seeks to address the problem of the ‘resource consumption bottleneck’ of creating legal semantic technologies manually. It describes a semantic role labeling based information extraction system to extract definitions and norms from legislation and represent them as structured norms in legal ontologies. The output is intended to help make laws more accessible, understandable, and searchable in a legal document management system. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociated face- and word-selective intracerebral responses in the human ventral occipito-temporal cortex.
Hagen, Simen; Lochy, Aliette UL; Jacques, Corentin et al

in Brain Structure & Function (2021), 226(9), 3031-49

The extent to which faces and written words share neural circuitry in the human brain is actively debated. Here, we compare face-selective and word-selective responses in a large group of patients (N = 37 ... [more ▼]

The extent to which faces and written words share neural circuitry in the human brain is actively debated. Here, we compare face-selective and word-selective responses in a large group of patients (N = 37) implanted with intracerebral electrodes in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC). Both face-selective (i.e., significantly different responses to faces vs. non-face visual objects) and word-selective (i.e., significantly different responses to words vs. pseudofonts) neural activity is isolated with frequency-tagging. Critically, this sensitive approach allows to objectively quantify category-selective neural responses and disentangle them from general visual responses. About 70% of significant electrode contacts show either face-selectivity or word-selectivity only, with the expected right and left hemispheric dominance, respectively. Spatial dissociations are also found within core regions of face and word processing, with a medio-lateral dissociation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and surrounding sulci, respectively. In the 30% of overlapping face- and word-selective contacts across the VOTC or in the FG and surrounding sulci, between-category-selective amplitudes (faces vs. words) show no-to-weak correlations, despite strong correlations in both the within-category-selective amplitudes (face–face, word–word) and the general visual responses to words and faces. Overall, these observations support the view that category-selective circuitry for faces and written words is largely dissociated in the human adult VOTC.Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00429-021-02350-4. [less ▲]

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See detailLone Genius or Swarm Intelligence? Myths about Germany’s Sponsorship of Research Institutes
Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David P.

in International Higher Education (2021), 107

Countries around the world have emulated Germany’s model of the university devoted to research-based teaching. The independent, extra-university research institute led by a leading “genius” scientist was ... [more ▼]

Countries around the world have emulated Germany’s model of the university devoted to research-based teaching. The independent, extra-university research institute led by a leading “genius” scientist was also developed in Germany. In recent decades, Germany’s research budget and science system continue to be split between its universities, which are relatively underresourced, and institutes enjoying favored sponsorship and significant funding. We argue that Germany could be even more prouctive with stronger support for its research universities. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the construct validity of interoceptive accuracy based on heartbeat counting: cardiovascular determinants of absolute and tilt-induced change scores
Schulz, André UL; Back, Sarah N.; Schaan, Violetta K. et al

in Biological Psychology (2021), 164(1), 108168

Interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) as assessed with the heartbeat counting task (IAccHBCT) may be affected by a range of factors including (1.) the ability to adequately detect cardiac signals, indicated by ... [more ▼]

Interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) as assessed with the heartbeat counting task (IAccHBCT) may be affected by a range of factors including (1.) the ability to adequately detect cardiac signals, indicated by IAcc in a heartbeat discrimination task (IAccHBDT), (2.) cardiac signal properties, affected by sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, and (3.) non-interoceptive processes, including time estimation accuracy (TEAcc). In the current study we investigated the contribution of these factors to absolute and Δ IAccHBCT scores, induced by passive head-up and head-down tilt in 49 healthy individuals. A set of hierarchical regression models showed IAccHBDT scores as the strongest and, across different orthostatic (tilt) conditions, most stable (positive) predictor of absolute and Δ IAccHBCT scores. Neither indicators of cardiac signal properties (except for HR in head-down-tilt), nor TEAcc predicted absolute or Δ IAccHBCT scores. These findings support the convergent and discriminant validity of absolute and Δ IAccHBCT scores. [less ▲]

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See detailColor Vision: Decoding Color Space
Retter, Talia UL; Webster, Michael A.

in Current Biology (2021), 31(3), 122-124

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See detailLessons Learnt on Reproducibility in Machine Learning Based Android Malware Detection
Daoudi, Nadia UL; Allix, Kevin UL; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise UL et al

in Empirical Software Engineering (2021), 26

A well-known curse of computer security research is that it often produces systems that, while technically sound, fail operationally. To overcome this curse, the community generally seeks to assess ... [more ▼]

A well-known curse of computer security research is that it often produces systems that, while technically sound, fail operationally. To overcome this curse, the community generally seeks to assess proposed systems under a variety of settings in order to make explicit every potential bias. In this respect, recently, research achievements on machine learning based malware detection are being considered for thorough evaluation by the community. Such an effort of comprehensive evaluation supposes first and foremost the possibility to perform an independent reproduction study in order to sharpen evaluations presented by approaches’ authors. The question Can published approaches actually be reproduced? thus becomes paramount despite the little interest such mundane and practical aspects seem to attract in the malware detection field. In this paper, we attempt a complete reproduction of five Android Malware Detectors from the literature and discuss to what extent they are “reproducible”. Notably, we provide insights on the implications around the guesswork that may be required to finalise a working implementation. Finally, we discuss how barriers to reproduction could be lifted, and how the malware detection field would benefit from stronger reproducibility standards—like many various fields already have. [less ▲]

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See detailFast cross-validation for multi-penalty ridge regression
van de Wiel, Mark A.; van Nee, Mirrelijn M.; Rauschenberger, Armin UL

in Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics (2021), 30(4), 835-847

Prediction based on multiple high-dimensional data types needs to account for the potentially strong differences in predictive signal. Ridge regression is a simple, yet versatile and interpretable model ... [more ▼]

Prediction based on multiple high-dimensional data types needs to account for the potentially strong differences in predictive signal. Ridge regression is a simple, yet versatile and interpretable model for high-dimensional data that has challenged the predictive performance of many more complex models and learners, in particular in dense settings. Moreover, it allows using a specific penalty per data type to account for differences between those. Then, the largest challenge for multi-penalty ridge is to optimize these penalties efficiently in a cross-validation (CV) setting, in particular for GLM and Cox ridge regression, which require an additional loop for fitting the model by iterative weighted least squares (IWLS). Our main contribution is a computationally very efficient formula for the multi-penalty, sample-weighted hat-matrix, as used in the IWLS algorithm. As a result, nearly all computations are in the low-dimensional sample space. We show that our approach is several orders of magnitude faster than more naive ones. We developed a very flexible framework that includes prediction of several types of response, allows for unpenalized covariates, can optimize several performance criteria and implements repeated CV. Moreover, extensions to pair data types and to allow a preferential order of data types are included and illustrated on several cancer genomics survival prediction problems. The corresponding R-package, multiridge, serves as a versatile standalone tool, but also as a fast benchmark for other more complex models and multi-view learners. [less ▲]

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See detailA hyperbolic proof of Pascal's Theorem
acosta, Miguel; Schlenker, Jean-Marc UL

in Mathematical Intelligencer (2021), 43(2), 130--133

We provide a simple proof of Pascal's Theorem on cyclic hexagons, as well as a generalization by Möbius, using hyperbolic geometry.

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See detailUnerhört anders oder »wenn nur der Geist neu ist«. Interkulturalität und Novelle
Heimböckel, Dieter UL

in Zeitschrift für Interkulturelle Germanistik (2021), 12(1), 23-40

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See detailAuction-based Multiple Channel Cooperative Spectrum Sharing in Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial IoT Networks
Zhang, Xiaokai; Guo, Daoxing; An, Kang et al

in IEEE Internet of Things Journal (2021), 8(8), 7009-7023

In this paper, we investigate the multiple-channel cooperative spectrum sharing in hybrid satellite-terrestrial internet of things (IoT) networks with auction mechanism, which is designed to reduce the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the multiple-channel cooperative spectrum sharing in hybrid satellite-terrestrial internet of things (IoT) networks with auction mechanism, which is designed to reduce the operational expenditure of the satellitebased IoT (S-IoT) network while alleviating the spectrum scarcity issues of terrestrial-based IoT (T-IoT) network. The cluster heads of selected T-IoT networks assist the primary satellite users transmission through cooperative relaying techniques in exchange for spectrum access. We propose an auction-based optimization problem to maximize the sum transmission rate of all primary S-IoT receivers with the appropriate secondary network selection and corresponding radio resource allocation profile by the distributed implementation, while meeting the minimum transmission rate of secondary receivers of each T-IoT network. Specifically, the one-shot VCG auction is introduced to obtain the maximum social welfare, where the winner determination problem is transformed into an assignment problem and solved by the Hungarian algorithm. To further reduce the primary satellite network decision complexity, the sequential Vickrey auction is implemented by sequential fashion until all channels are auctioned. Due to incentive compatibility with those two auction mechanisms, the secondary T-IoT cluster yields the true bids of each channel, where both the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes are implemented in cooperative communication. Finally, simulation results validate the effectiveness and fairness of the proposed auction-based approach as well as the superiority of the NOMA scheme in secondary relays selection. Moreover, the influence of key factors on the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. [less ▲]

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See detailInteroception in preschoolers: New insights into its assessment and relations to emotion regulation and stress
Opdensteinen, Kim D.; Schaan, Luca; Pohl, Anna et al

in Biological Psychology (2021), 165(1), 108166

Interoception may play an important role for emotion regulation and stress, thereby affecting mental health in children and adults. Yet, little is known on interoception in preschool children. Therefore ... [more ▼]

Interoception may play an important role for emotion regulation and stress, thereby affecting mental health in children and adults. Yet, little is known on interoception in preschool children. Therefore, we investigated interoceptive accuracy using the adapted Jumping Jack Paradigm (JJP) and its relationship with emotion regulation and stress. In Study I, 40 preschoolers completed the JJP and an emotion regulation task, demonstrating a positive relationship between interoceptive accuracy and emotion regulation at trend level (R² = 0.231, p = .023; β = .278, p = .073). In Study II, 31 preschoolers completed the adapted JJP before and after an acute laboratory stress test. Higher total cortisol output following acute stress induction were associated with reduced interoceptive accuracy (r = -0.670, p = .017). Extending earlier findings in adults and school-children, the relationship of interoceptive accuracy with emotion regulation and stress highlights the importance to investigate interoception in early childhood. [less ▲]

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See detailGalois families of modular forms and application to weight one
Arias-de-Reyna, Sara; Legrand, François; Wiese, Gabor UL

in Israel Journal of Mathematics (2021), 244

We introduce Galois families of modular forms. They are a new kind of family coming from Galois representations of the absolute Galois groups of rational function fields over the rational field. We ... [more ▼]

We introduce Galois families of modular forms. They are a new kind of family coming from Galois representations of the absolute Galois groups of rational function fields over the rational field. We exhibit some examples and provide an infinite Galois family of non-liftable weight one Katz modular eigenforms over an algebraic closure of F_p for p in {3,5,7,11}. [less ▲]

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See detailFederated Learning for Physical Layer Design
Elbir, Ahmet M.; Papazafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL

in IEEE Communications Magazine (2021)

Model-free techniques, such as machine learning (ML), have recently attracted much interest towards the physical layer design, e.g., symbol detection, channel estimation, and beamforming. Most of these ML ... [more ▼]

Model-free techniques, such as machine learning (ML), have recently attracted much interest towards the physical layer design, e.g., symbol detection, channel estimation, and beamforming. Most of these ML techniques employ centralized learning (CL) schemes and assume the availability of datasets at a parameter server (PS), demanding the transmission of data from edge devices, such as mobile phones, to the PS. Exploiting the data generated at the edge, federated learning (FL) has been proposed recently as a distributed learning scheme, in which each device computes the model parameters and sends them to the PS for model aggregation while the datasets are kept intact at the edge. Thus, FL is more communication-efficient and privacy-preserving than CL and applicable to the wireless communication scenarios, wherein the data are generated at the edge devices. This article presents the recent advances in FL-based training for physical layer design problems. Compared to CL, the effectiveness of FL is presented in terms of communication overhead with a slight performance loss in the learning accuracy. The design challenges, such as model, data, and hardware complexity, are also discussed in detail along with possible solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailA De Lege Ferenda Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Systems Designated as Inventors in the European Patent System.
Stierle, Martin UL

in Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht. Internationaler Teil (2021)

The European patent system was designed around a paradigm of human inventorship. This paper will analyse in depth and from a de lege ferenda perspective the rather general arguments against and in favour ... [more ▼]

The European patent system was designed around a paradigm of human inventorship. This paper will analyse in depth and from a de lege ferenda perspective the rather general arguments against and in favour of a possible designation of artificial intelligence (AI) systems as inventors. For the sake of a more concrete discussion, it will also outline a potential reform of the European patent system to implement AI inventorship and allocate the right to the European patent for such inventions by default to the machine’s operator. In the process, it will highlight the major specific issues associated with a reform that acknowledges AI inventorship and touch upon possible alternative approaches to addressing the growing autonomy of machines within the R&D process. The study must not be understood as a call for a reform to recognise AI systems as inventors but rather as a manner of laying the foundations for a more concrete, critical and fruitful discussion on non-human inventorship and its alternatives. The analysis will show that the more general, highly conceptional reservations advanced in the current discussion against AI inventorship are somewhat unfounded, e.g. the alleged break with the functions of the current patent system or the alleged need to endow AI with legal personality. More convincing arguments against a reform that allows for the designation of AI systems as inventor might instead relate to the specific difficulties associated with such reform. [less ▲]

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See detailSergey Kichko, Pierre M. Picard, (2021), Effect of conformism on firm selection, product quality and home bias, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 185, pp. 402-418.
Picard, Pierre M UL; Kichko, Sergey

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2021), 185

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the impact of local traffic pollution on the formation of residential and business districts. While firms benefit from local production externalities, households commute to their workplaces with private vehicles and exert a local pollution externality on the residents living along the urban transport networks. The spatial location of firms and residents endogenously results from the trade-off between the production and pollution externalities and the commuting costs. The analysis shows that in monocentric cities the benefits associated with a fall in per-vehicle pollution are absorbed by rents paid to absentee landlords. When a city includes business and residential districts as well as a district mixing both agents, a lower per-vehicle pollution enlarges the residential districts and shifts the business districts closer to the geographical center of the city. The paper finally studies the optimal city structure. The first-best policies that fully internalize the externalities still foster business agglomeration. [less ▲]

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See detailLe juge est tenu d'appliquer la règle de conflit de lois, même statuant en référé
Cuniberti, Gilles UL

in Revue Critique de Droit International Privé (2021), (2), 435

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See detailDesign of a 2-Bit Neural Network Quantizer for Laplacian Source
Peric, Zoran; Savic, Milan; Simic, Nikola et al

in Entropy (2021), 23(8), 933

Achieving real-time inference is one of the major issues in contemporary neural network applications, as complex algorithms are frequently being deployed to mobile devices that have constrained storage ... [more ▼]

Achieving real-time inference is one of the major issues in contemporary neural network applications, as complex algorithms are frequently being deployed to mobile devices that have constrained storage and computing power. Moving from a full-precision neural network model to a lower representation by applying quantization techniques is a popular approach to facilitate this issue. Here, we analyze in detail and design a 2-bit uniform quantization model for Laplacian source due to its significance in terms of implementation simplicity, which further leads to a shorter processing time and faster inference. The results show that it is possible to achieve high classification accuracy (more than 96% in the case of MLP and more than 98% in the case of CNN) by implementing the proposed model, which is competitive to the performance of the other quantization solutions with almost optimal precision. [less ▲]

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See detailTarzan and chain: exploring the ICO jungle and evaluating design archetypes
Bachmann, Nina M.; Drasch, Benedict; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Electronic Markets (2021)

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of a blockchain use case called initial coin offering (ICO) is drawing increasing attention as a novel funding mechanism. ICO is a crowdfunding type that utilizes blockchain tokens to allow for truly peer-to-peer investments. Although more than \$7bn has been raised globally via ICOs as at 2018, the concept and its implications are not yet entirely understood. The research lags behind in providing in-depth analyses of ICO designs and their long-term success. We address this research gap by developing an ICO taxonomy, applying a cluster analysis to identify prevailing ICO archetypes, and providing an outlook on the token value market performance for individual archetypes. We identify five ICO design archetypes and display their secondary market development from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. We contribute to an in-depth understanding of ICOs and their implications. Further, we offer practitioners tangible design and success indications for future ICOs. [less ▲]

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See detailGaussian approximation in random minimal directed spanning trees
Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy UL

in Random Structures and Algorithms (2021)

We study the total $\alpha$-powered length of the rooted edges in a random minimal directed spanning tree - first introduced in \cite{BR04} - on a Poisson process with intensity $s \ge 1$ on the unit cube ... [more ▼]

We study the total $\alpha$-powered length of the rooted edges in a random minimal directed spanning tree - first introduced in \cite{BR04} - on a Poisson process with intensity $s \ge 1$ on the unit cube $[0,1]^d$ for $d \ge 3$. While a Dickman limit was proved in \cite{PW04} in the case of $d=2$, in dimensions three and higher, \cite{BLP06} showed a Gaussian central limit theorem when $\alpha=1$, with a rate of convergence of the order $(\log s)^{-(d-2)/4} (\log \log s)^{(d+1)/2}$. In this paper, we extend these results and prove a central limit theorem in any dimension $d \ge 3$ for any $\alpha>0$. Moreover, making use of recent results in Stein's method for region-stabilizing functionals, we provide presumably optimal non-asymptotic bounds of the order $(\log s)^{-(d-2)/2}$ on the Wasserstein and the Kolmogorov distances between the distribution of the total $\alpha$-powered length of rooted edges, suitably normalized, and that of a standard Gaussian random variable. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance Enhancement for Full-Duplex Relaying with Time-Switching-Based SWIPT in Wireless Sensors Networks
Tan, N. Nguyen; Tin, Phu Tran; Tran Dinh, Hieu UL et al

in Ad Hoc Networks (2021)

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency ... [more ▼]

Full-duplex (FD) with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless ad hoc networks has received increased attention as a technology for improving spectrum and energy efficiency. This paper studies the outage performance for a SWIPT-based decode-andforward (DF) FD relaying network consisting of a single-antenna source S, a two-antenna relay R, and a multi-antenna destination D. Specifically, we propose four protocols, namely static timeswitching factor with selection combining (STSF-SC), static time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (STSF-MRC), optimal dynamic time-switching factor with selection combining (ODTSFSC), and optimal dynamic time-switching factor with maximal ratio combining (ODTSF-MRC) to fully investigate the outage performance of the proposed system. In particular, the optimal timeswitching factor from the ODTSF-SC and ODTSF-MRC methods is designed to maximize the total received data at the destination. In this context, we derive exact closed-formed expressions for all schemes in terms of the outage probability (OP). Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to corroborate the theoretical analysis’s correctness and the proposed schemes’ effectiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailBorder Studies: a long-overdue self-examination
Wille, Christian UL; Gerst, Dominik; Krämer, Hannes

in Borders in Perspective (2021), (6), 11-16

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See detailThe fall in income inequality during COVID-19 in four European countries
Clark, Andrew; d'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Lepinteur, Anthony UL

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19

We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among ... [more ▼]

We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among individuals changed in a hump-shaped way between January 2020 and January 2021, with an initial rise from January to May 2020 being more than reversed by September 2020. Absolute inequality also fell over this period. Due to the pandemic some households lost more than others, and government compensation schemes were targeted towards the poorest, implying that on average income differences decreased. Generalized Lorenz domination reveals that these distributive changes reduced welfare in Italy. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the distribution of coefficients of half-integral weight modular forms and the Bruinier-Kohnen Conjecture
Inam, Ilker; Demirkol Özkaya, Zeynep; Tercan, Elif et al

in Turkish Journal of Mathematics (2021), 45(6), 2427-2440

This work represents a systematic computational study of the distribution of the Fourier coefficients of cuspidal Hecke eigenforms of level Gamma_0(4) and half-integral weights. Based on substantial ... [more ▼]

This work represents a systematic computational study of the distribution of the Fourier coefficients of cuspidal Hecke eigenforms of level Gamma_0(4) and half-integral weights. Based on substantial calculations, the question is raised whether the distribution of normalised Fourier coefficients with bounded indices can be approximated by a generalised Gaussian distribution. Moreover, it is argued that the apparent symmetry around zero of the data lends strong evidence to the Bruinier-Kohnen Conjecture on the equidistribution of signs and even suggests the strengthening that signs and absolute values are distributed independently. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentities and Methodologies of Border Studies: Recent Empirical and Conceptual Approaches
Wille, Christian UL; Gerst, Dominik; Krämer, Hannes

in Borders in Perspective (2021), (6), 126

In recent decades, Border Studies have gained importance and have seen a noticeable increase in development. This manifests itself in an increased institutionalization, a differentiation of the areas of ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, Border Studies have gained importance and have seen a noticeable increase in development. This manifests itself in an increased institutionalization, a differentiation of the areas of research interest and a conceptual reorientation that is interested in examining processes. So far, however, little attention has been paid to questions about (inter)disciplinary self-perception and methodological foundations of Border Studies and the associated consequences for research activities. This thematic issue addresses these desiderata and brings together articles that deal with their (inter)disciplinary foundations as well as method(olog)ical and practical research questions. The authors also provide sound insights into a disparate field of work, disclose practical research strategies, and present methodologically sophisticated systematizations. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamics of Active Field Theories: Energetic Cost of Coupling to Reservoirs
Markovich, Tomer; Fodor, Etienne UL; Tjhung, Elsen et al

in PHYSICAL REVIEW X (2021), 11(2),

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and ... [more ▼]

The hallmark of active matter is the autonomous directed motion of its microscopic constituents driven by consumption of energy resources. This motion leads to the emergence of large-scale dynamics and structures without any equilibrium equivalent. Though active field theories offer a useful hydrodynamic description, it is unclear how to properly quantify the energetic cost of the dynamics from such a coarse-grained description. We provide a thermodynamically consistent framework to identify the energy exchanges between active systems and their surrounding thermostat at the hydrodynamic level. Based on linear irreversible thermodynamics, we determine how active fields couple with the underlying reservoirs at the basis of nonequilibrium driving. This approach leads to evaluating the rate of heat dissipated in the thermostat, as a measure of the cost to sustain the system away from equilibrium, which is related to the irreversibility of the active field dynamics. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach in two popular active field theories: (i) the dynamics of a conserved density field reproducing active phase separation and (ii) the coupled dynamics of density and polarization describing motile deformable droplets. Combining numerical and analytical approaches, we provide spatial maps of dissipated heat, compare them with the irreversibility measure of the active field dynamics, and explore how the overall dissipated heat varies with the emerging order. [less ▲]

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See detailData-driven Precoded MIMO Detection Robust to Channel Estimation Errors
Mayouche, Abderrahmane UL; Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society (2021)

We study the problem of symbol detection in downlink coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with precoding and without the explicit knowledge of the channel-state information (CSI) at the ... [more ▼]

We study the problem of symbol detection in downlink coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with precoding and without the explicit knowledge of the channel-state information (CSI) at the receiver. In this context, we investigate the impact of imperfect CSI at the transmitter (CSIT) on the detection performance. We first model the CSIT degradation based on channel estimation errors to investigate its impact on the detection performance at the receiver. To mitigate the effect of CSIT deterioration at the latter, we propose learning based techniques for hard and soft detection that use downlink precoded pilot symbols as training data. We note that these pilots are originally intended for signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) estimation. We validate the approach by proposing a lightweight implementation that is suitable for online training using several state-of-the-art classifiers. We compare the bit error rate (BER) and the runtime complexity of the proposed approaches where we achieve superior detection performance in harsh channel conditions while maintaining low computational requirements. Specifically, numerical results show that severe CSIT degradation impedes the correct detection when a conventional detector is used. However, the proposed learning-based detectors can achieve good detection performance even under severe CSIT deterioration, and can yield 4-8 dB power gain for BER values lower than 10-4 when compared to the classic linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector. [less ▲]

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See detailThe supply of hours worked and fluctuations between growth regimes
Irmen, Andreas UL; Iong, Ka-Kit UL

in Journal of Economic Theory (2021)

Declining hours of work per worker in conjunction with a growing work force may give rise to fluctuations between growth regimes. This is shown in an overlapping generations model with two-period lived ... [more ▼]

Declining hours of work per worker in conjunction with a growing work force may give rise to fluctuations between growth regimes. This is shown in an overlapping generations model with two-period lived individuals endowed with Boppart-Krusell preferences (Boppart and Krusell (2020)). On the supply side, economic growth is due to the expansion of consumption-good varieties through endogenous research. A sufficiently negative equilibrium elasticity of the individual supply of hours worked to an expansion in the set of consumption-good varieties destabilizes the steady state so that equilibrium trajectories may fluctuate between two growth regimes, one with and the other without an active research sector. Fluctuations affect intergenerational welfare, the evolution of GDP, and the functional income distribution. A stabilization policy can shift the economy onto its steady-state path. Fluctuations arise for empirically reasonable parameter constellations. The economics of fluctuations between growth regimes is linked to the intergenerational trade of shares and their pricing in the asset market. [less ▲]

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See detailVoting and winning: perceptions of electoral integrity in consolidating democracies
Mochtak, Michal UL; Lesschaeve, Christophe UL; Glaurdic, Josip UL

in Democratization (2021), 28(8), 1423-1441

How do voters in consolidating democracies see electoral integrity? How does election affect the change in perception of electoral integrity among these voters? What role does winning play in seeing an ... [more ▼]

How do voters in consolidating democracies see electoral integrity? How does election affect the change in perception of electoral integrity among these voters? What role does winning play in seeing an election as free and fair? Building on the theory of the winner-loser gap, we answer these questions using original two-wave panel surveys we conducted before and after three parliamentary elections in Southeast Europe in 2018 and 2020. The article focuses on changes of perception of electoral integrity as a function of satisfaction with the electoral results in contexts where the quality of elections has always been at the centre of political conflict. We specifically explore the socialization effect of elections in environments with notoriously low trust in political institutions and high electoral stakes. The article goes beyond the “sore loser” hypothesis and examines voters’ both political preferences and personal characteristics potentially responsible for the change in perception of electoral integrity over the course of electoral cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulating Libra
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Buckley, Ross; Arner, Douglas

in Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (2021)

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See detailThe development of early visual-spatial abilities--considering effects of test mode
Meinhardt, A.; Braeuning, D.; Hasselhorn, M. et al

in Cognitive Development (2021), 60

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See detailVarying stimulus duration reveals consistent neural activity and behavior for human face individuation
Retter, Talia UL; Jiang, Fang; Webster, Michael A. et al

in Neuroscience (2021), 472

Establishing consistent relationships between neural activity and behavior is a challenge in human cognitive neuroscience research. We addressed this issue using variable time constraints in an oddball ... [more ▼]

Establishing consistent relationships between neural activity and behavior is a challenge in human cognitive neuroscience research. We addressed this issue using variable time constraints in an oddball frequency-sweep design for visual discrimination of complex images (face exemplars). Sixteen participants viewed sequences of ascending presentation durations, from 25 to 333 ms (40–3 Hz stimulation rate) while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Throughout each sequence, the same unfamiliar face picture was repeated with variable size and luminance changes while different unfamiliar facial identities appeared every 1 s (1 Hz). A neural face individuation response, tagged at 1 Hz and its unique harmonics, emerged over the occipito-temporal cortex at 50 ms stimulus duration (25–100 ms across individuals), with an optimal response reached at 170 ms stimulus duration. In a subsequent experiment, identity changes appeared non-periodically within fixed-frequency sequences while the same participants performed an explicit face individuation task. The behavioral face individuation response also emerged at 50 ms presentation time, and behavioral accuracy correlated with individual participants’ neural response amplitude in a weighted middle stimulus duration range (50–125 ms). Moreover, the latency of the neural response peaking between 180 and 200 ms correlated strongly with individuals’ behavioral accuracy in this middle duration range, as measured independently. These observations point to the minimal (50 ms) and optimal (170 ms) stimulus durations for human face individuation and provide novel evidence that inter-individual differences in the magnitude and latency of early, high-level neural responses are predictive of behavioral differences in performance at this function. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Older Americans’ Cognitive Functioning
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Health and Place (2021)

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood ... [more ▼]

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood socioeconomic conditions affect older residents’ cognitive declines, and which putative factors mediate this relationship. Method: Using data from waves 2 (2010–2011) and 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey (n = 1837), ordinary least squares regressions and mediation analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple confounders and testing eight putative mediators. Results: Worsening neighborhood socioeconomic circumstances were associated with cognitive declines. Changes in depressive symptoms, sizes of close social networks, and physical activity substantially mediated this relationship. Discussion: While 18.10% of the total effect occurred through these mechanisms, further pathways may work through contextual- and individual-level variables not assessed in the NSHAP. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting the EU Legal System : Substantive & Procedural Loyalty for the Judicial Enforcement of the Rule of Law
Zinonos, Panagiotis UL

in European Public Law (2021), 27(2), 383-402

Aiming to foster reflection on the role of the EU regarding the enforcement of the rule of law, this essay revisits, in a normative fashion, the Union’s legal system with references to recent and ... [more ▼]

Aiming to foster reflection on the role of the EU regarding the enforcement of the rule of law, this essay revisits, in a normative fashion, the Union’s legal system with references to recent and established case law and literature. It understands the judicial enforcement of the rule of law as a synonym of effective judicial protection and analyses the pluralistic system of the Union as being overarched by loyalty. It then introduces three specific components of the rule of law related to its judicial enforcement. The first concerns its material aspect: the standards of protection of rights and principles. The contribution opines that the systemic analysis of the Union excludes conflicts of standards. The second component refers to judicial control. It is argued that the related structural obligations of the Member States are enforceable by individual claims grounded on a self-standing right. The last component is organic and relates to the judge. The contribution posits that the national judge is empowered by her European mandate to enforcing the rule of law. While the technique of exceptional circumstances as part of the mechanism of the European arrest warrant confirms this position, cases of constitutional conflicts suggest the procedural deficiency of the Union regarding the mandate of its highest judicial authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailAttitudes towards Multiculturalism in Luxembourg: Measurement Invariance and Factor Structure of the Multicultural Ideology Scale
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL; He, Jia et al

in International Journal of Intercultural Relations (2021), 82

In the present study, we examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual, multicultural context of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a unique context to study attitudes towards diversity because 47.4% of the citizens are non-nationals (i.e. economic migrants, sojourners, refugees) and minority and majority are increasingly difficult to define. Our sample included 1,488 participants from diverse ethnic backgrounds who completed the survey in German, French or English. In contrast to previous findings, our analyses on responses to the MCI scale produced a two-dimensional structure, distinguishing between positive and negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. The factor structure was partially invariant across ethnocultural groups: Configural and metric invariance were established across natives and non-natives and different language versions. Scalar invariance was only established across gender groups. Natives and male participants reported the most negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. We discuss the importance of assessing measurement invariance and provide recommendations to improve the assessment of psychological multiculturalism. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exception d’illégalité des actes administratifs individuels devant le juge judiciaire à l’épreuve du droit processuel
Menetrey, Séverine UL

in Pasicrisie Luxembourgeoise: Recueil Trimestriel de la Jurisprudence Luxembourgeoise (2021)

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See detailCABEAN: a software for the control of asynchronous Boolean networks
Su, Cui; Pang, Jun UL

in Bioinformatics (2021), 36(6), 879-881

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See detailSuspending is Believing
Raleigh, Thomas UL

in Synthese (2021), 198

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See detailSabrina Göbel und Lisa Groß besprechen den Sammelband von Karin Jurzyk: Doing und Undoing Family. Konzeptionelle und empirische Entwicklungen
Göbel, Sabrina UL; Groß, Lisa

in Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation (2021), 1(41), 111-112

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See detailDiscovering ePassport Vulnerabilities using Bisimilarity
Horne, Ross James UL; Mauw, Sjouke UL

in Logical Methods in Computer Science (2021), 17(2), 241--2452

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See detailThe induced metric on the boundary of the convex hull of a quasicircle in hyperbolic and anti de Sitter geometry
Bonsante, Francesco; Danciger, Jeff; Maloni, Sara et al

in Geometry and Topology (2021), 25-6

Celebrated work of Alexandrov and Pogorelov determines exactly which metrics on the sphere are induced on the boundary of a compact convex subset of hyperbolic three-space. As a step toward a ... [more ▼]

Celebrated work of Alexandrov and Pogorelov determines exactly which metrics on the sphere are induced on the boundary of a compact convex subset of hyperbolic three-space. As a step toward a generalization for unbounded convex subsets, we consider convex regions of hyperbolic three-space bounded by two properly embedded disks which meet at infinity along a Jordan curve in the ideal boundary. In this setting, it is natural to augment the notion of induced metric on the boundary of the convex set to include a gluing map at infinity which records how the asymptotic geometry of the two surfaces compares near points of the limiting Jordan curve. Restricting further to the case in which the induced metrics on the two bounding surfaces have constant curvature K∈[−1,0) and the Jordan curve at infinity is a quasicircle, the gluing map is naturally a quasisymmetric homeomorphism of the circle. The main result is that for each value of K, every quasisymmetric map is achieved as the gluing map at infinity along some quasicircle. We also prove analogous results in the setting of three-dimensional anti de Sitter geometry. Our results may be viewed as universal versions of the conjectures of Thurston and Mess about prescribing the induced metric on the boundary of the convex core of quasifuchsian hyperbolic manifolds and globally hyperbolic anti de Sitter spacetimes. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Attentional Biases in Severe Alcohol Use Disorder: A Combined Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Perspective.
Bollen, Zoé; D'Hondt, Fabien; Dormal, Valérie et al

in Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) (2021), 56(1), 1-7

RATIONALE: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is a psychiatric condition linked to cerebral and cognitive consequences. SAUD is notably characterized by an overactivation of the reflexive/reward system ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is a psychiatric condition linked to cerebral and cognitive consequences. SAUD is notably characterized by an overactivation of the reflexive/reward system when confronted with alcohol-related cues. Such overreactivity generates a preferential allocation of attentional resources toward these cues, labeled as attentional biases (AB). Theoretical assumptions have been made regarding the characteristics of AB and their underlying processes. While often considered as granted, these assumptions remain to be experimentally validated. AIMS: We first identify the theoretical assumptions made by previous studies exploring the nature and role of AB. We then discuss the current evidence available to establish their validity. We finally propose research avenues to experimentally test them. METHODS: Capitalizing on a narrative review of studies exploring AB in SAUD, the current limits of the behavioral measures used for their evaluation are highlighted as well as the benefits derived from the use of eye-tracking measures to obtain a deeper understanding of their underlying processes. We describe the issues related to the theoretical proposals on AB and propose research avenues to test them. Four experimental axes are proposed, respectively, related to the determination of (a) the genuine nature of the mechanisms underlying AB; (b) their stability over the disease course; (c) their specificity to alcohol-related stimuli and (d) their reflexive or controlled nature. CONCLUSIONS: This in-depth exploration of the available knowledge related to AB in SAUD, and of its key limitations, highlights the theoretical and clinical interest of our innovative experimental perspectives capitalizing on eye-tracking measures. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle-cell sequencing of human midbrain reveals glial activation and a Parkinson-specific neuronal state.
Smajic, Semra UL; Prada-Medina, Cesar A.; Landoulsi, Zied UL et al

in Brain : a journal of neurology (2021)

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, but the exact disease etiology remains largely unknown. To date, Parkinson's disease research has mainly ... [more ▼]

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, but the exact disease etiology remains largely unknown. To date, Parkinson's disease research has mainly focused on nigral dopaminergic neurons, although recent studies suggest disease-related changes also in non-neuronal cells and in midbrain regions beyond the substantia nigra. While there is some evidence for glial involvement in Parkinson's disease, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the contribution of all cell types of the midbrain to Parkinson's disease pathology by single-nuclei RNA sequencing and to assess the cell type-specific risk for Parkinson's disease employing the latest genome-wide association study. We profiled >41 000 single-nuclei transcriptomes of postmortem midbrain from six idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and five age-/sex-matched controls. To validate our findings in a spatial context, we utilized immunolabeling of the same tissues. Moreover, we analyzed Parkinson's disease-associated risk enrichment in genes with cell type-specific expression patterns. We discovered a neuronal cell cluster characterized by CADPS2 overexpression and low TH levels, which was exclusively present in IPD midbrains. Validation analyses in laser-microdissected neurons suggest that this cluster represents dysfunctional dopaminergic neurons. With regard to glial cells, we observed an increase in nigral microglia in Parkinson's disease patients. Moreover, nigral idiopathic Parkinson's disease microglia were more amoeboid, indicating an activated state. We also discovered a reduction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease oligodendrocyte numbers with the remaining cells being characterized by a stress-induced upregulation of S100B. Parkinson's disease risk variants were associated with glia- and neuron-specific gene expression patterns in idiopathic Parkinson's disease cases. Furthermore, astrocytes and microglia presented idiopathic Parkinson's disease-specific cell proliferation and dysregulation of genes related to unfolded protein response and cytokine signaling. While reactive patient astrocytes showed CD44 overexpression, idiopathic Parkinson's disease-microglia revealed a pro-inflammatory trajectory characterized by elevated levels of IL1B, GPNMB, and HSP90AA1. Taken together, we generated the first single-nuclei RNA sequencing dataset from the idiopathic Parkinson's disease midbrain, which highlights a disease-specific neuronal cell cluster as well as 'pan-glial' activation as a central mechanism in the pathology of the movement disorder. This finding warrants further research into inflammatory signaling and immunomodulatory treatments in Parkinson's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailMethod Optimization of Skin Biopsy-Derived Fibroblast Culture for Reprogramming Into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Mommaerts, Kathleen; Bellora, Camille; Lambert, Pauline et al

in Biopreservation and Biobanking (2021)

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See detailStädtebau ökologisch, ökonomisch und sozial gestalten
Hertweck, Florian UL

in IzR Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (2021), 4

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See detailThe Data Use Ontology to streamline responsible access to human biomedical datasets
Lawson, Jonathan; Cabili, Moran N.; Kerry, Giselle et al

in Cell Genomics (2021), 1(2),

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See detailWhat Factors Contribute to the Meaning of Work? A Validation of Morin’s Meaning of Work Questionnaire
Pignault, Anne; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Psicologia, Reflexão e Crítica (2021), 34(1),

Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities ... [more ▼]

Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities, particularly in psychology. In order to understand and measure what contributes to the meaning of work, Morin (2003) constructed a 30-item questionnaire that has become predominant and has repeatedly been used in research in occupational psychology and by practitioners in the field. Nevertheless, it has been validated only in part. Method: Meaning of work questionnaire was conducted in French with 366 people (51.3% of women; age: (M = 39.11, SD = 11.25); 99.2% of whom were employed with the remainder retired). Three sets of statistical analyses were run on the data. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on independent samples. Results: The questionnaire described a five-factor structure. These dimensions (Success and Recognition at work and of work, α= .90; Usefulness, α= .88; Respect for work, α= .88; Value from and through work, α= .83; Remuneration, α= .85) are all attached to a general second-order latent meaning of work factor (α= .96). Conclusions: Validation of the scale, and implications for health in the workplace and career counseling practices, are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTorn between Two Lovers: German Policy on Economic and Monetary Union, the New Hanseatic League and Franco-German Bilateralism
Howarth, David UL; Schild, Joachim

in German Politics (2021)

German governments and European Union (EU) member states forming the New Hanseatic League (HL) have had very similar preferences on EU / Eurozone financial support mechanisms. We would expect German and ... [more ▼]

German governments and European Union (EU) member states forming the New Hanseatic League (HL) have had very similar preferences on EU / Eurozone financial support mechanisms. We would expect German and HL governments to be close allies on these matters. However, empirically, we detect differences. German governments have repeatedly resisted participating in HL joint positions on EU financial support mechanisms and accepted compromises with France. In order to explain this divergence we consider the relative explanatory merit of economic preferences, based on both material interests and economic ideas—here ordoliberalism—on the one hand, and norms of cooperation—here Franco-German ‘embedded bilateralism’—and geo-strategic interests on the other hand. We disentangle economic preference formation and the choice in favour of a political strategy to pursue these preferences. Economic preferences are one factor explaining the extent of concessions made by Germany to the HL countries and France. However, norms of cooperation and geostrategic interests explain the choice of German governments on how and with whom best to pursue their preferences. German governments have performed a balancing act between the HL and France, skewed towards the latter. The presence of economic crises increases the degree to which this balancing act is skewed towards France. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Electoral Violence through Complex Textual Data: OSCE Monitoring Missions in Different Contexts
Mochtak, Michal UL

in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (2021), 44(8), 646-667

The paper analyses more than 20 years of evidence on electoral violence as reported by OSCE monitoring mission reports. It identifies prevailing trends of electoral violence in the OSCE participating ... [more ▼]

The paper analyses more than 20 years of evidence on electoral violence as reported by OSCE monitoring mission reports. It identifies prevailing trends of electoral violence in the OSCE participating states in order to better understand how the phenomenon is understood and framed by leading international monitoring organizations in the region. The analysis utilizes a unique approach based on automated content analysis employing counting algorithms and latent semantic indexing. The results of the analysis show how electoral violence differs throughout the region while highlighting the qualitative variations in regional patterns of the reported incidents of election-related violence. [less ▲]

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See detailInequality of educational opportunity at time of schooling predicts cognitive functioning in later adulthood
Leist, Anja UL; Bar-Haim, Eyal; Chauvel, Louis UL

in SSM - Population Health (2021), 15

Objectives. Our understanding of how societal conditions and educational policies influence cognitive development across the life course is improving. We tested the extent to which inequality of ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Our understanding of how societal conditions and educational policies influence cognitive development across the life course is improving. We tested the extent to which inequality of educational opportunity (IEO), the country- and cohort-specific correlation of parents' and their offspring's length of schooling, offers systematically different opportunities to contribute to cognitive development, which in turn influences cognitive abilities up to older ages. Methods. A total of 46,972 individuals of three cohorts born 1940–63 from 16 European countries and Israel provided up to six cognitive assessments and information on covariates in the SHARE survey 2004–2017. Individual-level data were linked to indicators of IEO at time of schooling, and economic, health, and human development, provided by World Bank, WHO, and the UN. Results. In multilevel (mixed-effects) models with random individual and country-cohort effects and adjusted for a large set of confounders, higher IEO was associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in men and women. Interaction analyses suggested lower cognitive levels particularly of women who were schooled in higher IEO contexts and had lower educational attainment. Associations with rate of change in cognitive functioning were present only in women, however there was little clinically relevant cognitive decline across the window of observation. Result patterns were mostly consistent after including additional contextual indicators, and in a subsample with childhood information. Discussion. Findings suggest that IEO is able to substantially influence cognitive development with long-lasting impacts. Lower-educated women of the cohorts under investigation may have been particularly vulnerable to high-inequality educational contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailLes usages des travaux préparatoires des lois au Luxembourg (le bon, le mauvais et l’indicible)
Kinsch, Patrick UL

in Pasicrisie Luxembourgeoise: Recueil Trimestriel de la Jurisprudence Luxembourgeoise (2021), 39

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See detailCOVID19 Disease Map, a computational knowledge repository of virus-host interaction mechanisms.
Ostaszewski, Marek UL; Niarakis, Anna; Mazein, Alexander UL et al

in Molecular systems biology (2021), 17(10), 10387

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets ... [more ▼]

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-layer Space Information Networks: Access Design and Softwarization
Al-Hraishawi, Hayder UL; Minardi, Mario UL; Chougrani, Houcine UL et al

in IEEE Access (2021)

In this paper, we propose an approach for constructing a multi-layer multi-orbit space information network (SIN) to provide high-speed continuous broadband connectivity for space missions (nanosatellite ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose an approach for constructing a multi-layer multi-orbit space information network (SIN) to provide high-speed continuous broadband connectivity for space missions (nanosatellite terminals) from the emerging space-based Internet providers. This notion has been motivated by the rapid developments in satellite technologies in terms of satellite miniaturization and reusable rocket launch, as well as the increased number of nanosatellite constellations in lower orbits for space downstream applications, such as earth observation, remote sensing, and Internet of Things (IoT) data collection. Specifically, space-based Internet providers, such as Starlink, OneWeb, and SES O3b, can be utilized for broadband connectivity directly to/from the nanosatellites, which allows a larger degree of connectivity in space network topologies. Besides, this kind of establishment is more economically efficient and eliminates the need for an excessive number of ground stations while achieving real-time and reliable space communications. This objective necessitates developing suitable radio access schemes and efficient scalable space backhauling using inter-satellite links (ISLs) and inter-orbit links (IOLs). Particularly, service-oriented radio access methods in addition to software-defined networking (SDN)-based architecture employing optimal routing mechanisms over multiple ISLs and IOLs are the most essential enablers for this novel concept. Thus, developing this symbiotic interaction between versatile satellite nodes across different orbits will lead to a breakthrough in the way that future downstream space missions and satellite networks are designed and operated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EU’s Impact on Data-driven Finance
Zetzsche, Dirk Andreas UL; Weber; Arner, Douglas et al

in Common Market Law Review (2021)

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See detailNormalization as a mediator of emotion during unemployment
Houssemand, Claude UL; Rosato, Valeria; Thill, Steve et al

in Anxiety, Stress and Coping (2021)

Meta-analyses indicated detrimental effects on some psychological dimensions from job loss and extended periods of unemployment. This study analyses three phenomena: causes attributed to unemployment ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses indicated detrimental effects on some psychological dimensions from job loss and extended periods of unemployment. This study analyses three phenomena: causes attributed to unemployment; processes for coping with unemployment; and the emotional impact of joblessness. Using an SEM approach, a model is created in which unemployment normalization acts as a mediator between locus of control and emotions. Method: questionnaires from 260 unemployed people in Luxembourg provided data on perceived control, coping, and emotions. Participants who attribute their situation to bad luck, believe more strongly that unemployment is due to external factors beyond their control, and recognize unemployment as being a common occurrence in life. Such cognitive attribution of unemployment has effects on job seekers’ emotions. Those who perceive unemployment in a more positive light experience more positive emotions and fewer negative affects. Negative perceptions of unemployment have no effect on the generation of positive emotion, but have an influence on negative affects. Finally, the influence of perceived-control on emotion is not direct, but is mediated by processes of unemployment normalization. Understanding how unemployed people perceive and experience their situations could help them be more effective in their search for new employment [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Celebrating the Diversity of Genetic Research to Dissect the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease
Farrer, Matthew J.; Bardien, Soraya; Hattori, Nobutaka et al

in Frontiers in Neurology (2021), 12

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the fastest growing neurological disorder worldwide, taking into account age-standardized rates for prevalence, disability and deaths (1). PD is characterized by a clinical ... [more ▼]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the fastest growing neurological disorder worldwide, taking into account age-standardized rates for prevalence, disability and deaths (1). PD is characterized by a clinical symptomatology involving both motor and non-motor symptoms. According to the Global Burden of Disease study (2018), the global burden of this disorder has more than doubled over the past two decades from 2.5 million patients in 1990 to 6.1 million patients in 2016 (2). In this editorial and eBook, we highlight the research done on PD by members of a global consortium known as the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease (GEoPD) Consortium. We begin the editorial by providing a brief history of how GEoPD was started and how it has subsequently developed into an international endeavor. We then briefly summarize the completed and ongoing projects, and conclude with the future vision of this unique consortium. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperbolic dispersion metasurfaces for molecular biosensing
Palermo, Giovanna; Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL et al

in Nanophotonics (2021), 10(1), 295314

Sensor technology has become increasingly crucial in medical research and clinical diagnostics to directly detect small numbers of low-molecular-weight biomolecules relevant for lethal diseases. In recent ... [more ▼]

Sensor technology has become increasingly crucial in medical research and clinical diagnostics to directly detect small numbers of low-molecular-weight biomolecules relevant for lethal diseases. In recent years, various technologies have been developed, a number of them becoming core label-free technologies for detection of cancer biomarkers and viruses. However, to radically improve early disease diagnostics, tracking of disease progression and evaluation of treatments, today’s biosensing techniques still require a radical innovation to deliver high sensitivity, specificity, diffusion-limited transport, and accuracy for both nucleic acids and proteins. In this review, we discuss both scientific and technological aspects of hyperbolic dispersion metasurfaces for molecular biosensing. Optical metasurfaces have offered the tantalizing opportunity to engineer wavefronts while its intrinsic nanoscale patterns promote tremendous molecular interactions and selective binding. Hyperbolic dispersion metasurfaces support high-k modes that proved to be extremely sensitive to minute concentrations of ultralow-molecular-weight proteins and nucleic acids. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and Their Transformation Products in Luxembourgish Surface Waters
Singh, Randolph UL; Lai, Adelene UL; Krier, Jessy UL et al

in ACS Environmental Au (2021)

Pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment via anthropogenic activity. To expand knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals and their ... [more ▼]

Pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment via anthropogenic activity. To expand knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals and their known TPs in Luxembourgish rivers, 92 samples collected during routine monitoring events between 2019 and 2020 were investigated using nontarget analysis. Water samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Suspect screening was performed using several open source computational tools and resources including Shinyscreen (https://git-r3lab.uni.lu/eci/shinyscreen/), MetFrag (https://msbi.ipb-halle.de/MetFrag/), PubChemLite (https://zenodo.org/record/4432124), and MassBank (https://massbank.eu/MassBank/). A total of 94 pharmaceuticals, 88 confirmed at a level 1 confidence (86 of which could be quantified, two compounds too low to be quantified) and six identified at level 2a, were found to be present in Luxembourg rivers. Pharmaceutical TPs (12) were also found at a level 2a confidence. The pharmaceuticals were present at median concentrations up to 214 ng/L, with caffeine having a median concentration of 1424 ng/L. Antihypertensive drugs (15), psychoactive drugs (15), and antimicrobials (eight) were the most detected groups of pharmaceuticals. A spatiotemporal analysis of the data revealed areas with higher concentrations of the pharmaceuticals, as well as differences in pharmaceutical concentrations between 2019 and 2020. The results of this work will help guide activities for improving water management in the country and set baseline data for continuous monitoring and screening efforts, as well as for further open data and software developments. [less ▲]

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See detailPolygenic Scores for Cognitive Abilities and Their Association with Different Aspects of General Intelligence—A Deep Phenotyping Approach
Genç, E.; Schlüter, C.; Fraenz, C. et al

in Molecular Neurobiology (2021)

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See detailPredictProtein - Predicting Protein Structure and Function for 29 Years
Bernhofer, Michael; Dallago, Christian; Karl, Tim et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2021)

Since 1992 PredictProtein (https://predictprotein.org) is a one-stop online resource for protein sequence analysis with its main site hosted at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) and ... [more ▼]

Since 1992 PredictProtein (https://predictprotein.org) is a one-stop online resource for protein sequence analysis with its main site hosted at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) and queried monthly by over 3,000 users in 2020. PredictProtein was the first Internet server for protein predictions. It pioneered combining evolutionary information and machine learning. Given a protein sequence as input, the server outputs multiple sequence alignments, predictions of protein structure in 1D and 2D (secondary structure, solvent accessibility, transmembrane segments, disordered regions, protein flexibility, and disulfide bridges) and predictions of protein function (functional effects of sequence variation or point mutations, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, subcellular localization, and protein-, RNA-, and DNA binding). PredictProtein's infrastructure has moved to the LCSB increasing throughput; the use of MMseqs2 sequence search reduced runtime five-fold (apparently without lowering performance of prediction methods); user interface elements improved usability, and new prediction methods were added. PredictProtein recently included predictions from deep learning embeddings (GO and secondary structure) and a method for the prediction of proteins and residues binding DNA, RNA, or other proteins. PredictProtein.org aspires to provide reliable predictions to computational and experimental biologists alike. All scripts and methods are freely available for offline execution in high-throughput settings. [less ▲]

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See detailELIXIR and Toxicology: a community in development
Martens, Marvin; Stierum, Rob; Schymanski, Emma UL et al

in F1000Research (2021), 10

Toxicology has been an active research field for many decades, with academic, industrial and government involvement. Modern omics and computational approaches are changing the field, from merely disease ... [more ▼]

Toxicology has been an active research field for many decades, with academic, industrial and government involvement. Modern omics and computational approaches are changing the field, from merely disease-specific observational models into target-specific predictive models. Traditionally, toxicology has strong links with other fields such as biology, chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. With the rise of synthetic and new engineered materials, alongside ongoing prioritisation needs in chemical risk assessment for existing chemicals, early predictive evaluations are becoming of utmost importance to both scientific and regulatory purposes. ELIXIR is an intergovernmental organisation that brings together life science resources from across Europe. To coordinate the linkage of various life science efforts around modern predictive toxicology, the establishment of a new ELIXIR Community is seen as instrumental. In the past few years, joint efforts, building on incidental overlap, have been piloted in the context of ELIXIR. For example, the EU-ToxRisk, diXa, HeCaToS, transQST, and the nanotoxicology community have worked with the ELIXIR TeSS, Bioschemas, and Compute Platforms and activities. In 2018, a core group of interested parties wrote a proposal, outlining a sketch of what this new ELIXIR Toxicology Community would look like. A recent workshop (held September 30th to October 1st, 2020) extended this into an ELIXIR Toxicology roadmap and a shortlist of limited investment-high gain collaborations to give body to this new community. This Whitepaper outlines the results of these efforts and defines our vision of the ELIXIR Toxicology Community and how it complements other ELIXIR activities. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint Bit Allocation and Hybrid Beamforming Optimization for Energy Efficient Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems
Kaushik, Aryan; Vlachos, Evangelos; Tsinos, Christos et al

in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking (2021), 5(1), 119-132

In this paper, we aim to design highly energy efficient end-to-end communication for millimeter wave multiple-input multiple-output systems. This is done by jointly optimizing the digital-to-analog ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we aim to design highly energy efficient end-to-end communication for millimeter wave multiple-input multiple-output systems. This is done by jointly optimizing the digital-to-analog converter (DAC)/analog-to-digital converter (ADC) bit resolutions and hybrid beamforming matrices. The novel decomposition of the hybrid precoder and the hybrid combiner to three parts is introduced at the transmitter (TX) and the receiver (RX), respectively, representing the analog precoder/combiner matrix, the DAC/ADC bit resolution matrix and the baseband precoder/combiner matrix. The unknown matrices are computed as a solution to the matrix factorization problem where the optimal fully digital precoder or combiner is approximated by the product of these matrices. A novel and efficient solution based on the alternating direction method of multipliers is proposed to solve these problems at both the TX and the RX. The simulation results show that the proposed solution, where the DAC/ADC bit allocation is dynamic during operation, achieves higher energy efficiency when compared with existing benchmark techniques that use fixed DAC/ADC bit resolutions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Parkinson’s-disease-associated mutation LRRK2-G2019S alters dopaminergic differentiation dynamics via NR2F1
Walter, Jonas; Bolognin, Silvia UL; Poovathingal, Suresh et al

in Cell Reports (2021)

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See detailA quantum categorification of the Alexander polynomial
Robert, Louis-Hadrien UL; Wagner, Emmanuel

in Geometry and Topology (2021)

Using a modified foam evaluation, we give a categorification of the Alexander polynomial of a knot. We also give a purely algebraic version of this knot homology which makes it appear as the infinite page ... [more ▼]

Using a modified foam evaluation, we give a categorification of the Alexander polynomial of a knot. We also give a purely algebraic version of this knot homology which makes it appear as the infinite page of a spectral sequence starting at the reduced triply graded link homology of Khovanov--Rozansky. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Algorithms for Constant-Modulus Analog Beamforming
Arora, Aakash UL; Tsinos, Christos; Mysore Rama Rao, Bhavani Shankar UL et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2021)

The use of a large-scale antenna array (LSAA) has become an important characteristic of multi-antenna communication systems to achieve beamforming gains. For example, in millimeter wave (mmWave) systems ... [more ▼]

The use of a large-scale antenna array (LSAA) has become an important characteristic of multi-antenna communication systems to achieve beamforming gains. For example, in millimeter wave (mmWave) systems, an LSAA is employed at the transmitter/receiver end to combat severe propagation losses. In such applications, each antenna element has to be driven by a radio frequency (RF) chain for the implementation of fully-digital beamformers. This strict requirement significantly increases the hardware cost, complexity, and power consumption. Therefore, constant-modulus analog beamforming (CMAB) becomes a viable solution. In this paper, we consider the scaled analog beamforming (SAB) or CMAB architecture and design the system parameters by solving the beampattern matching problem. We consider two beampattern matching problems. In the first case, both the magnitude and phase of the beampattern are matched to the given desired beampattern whereas in the second case, only the magnitude of the beampattern is matched. Both the beampattern matching problems are cast as a variant of the constant-modulus least-squares problem. We provide efficient algorithms based on the alternating majorization-minimization (AMM) framework that combines the alternating minimization and the MM frameworks and the conventional-cyclic coordinate descent (C-CCD) framework to solve the problem in each case. We also propose algorithms based on a new modified-CCD (M-CCD) based approach. For all the developed algorithms we prove convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) point (or a stationary point). Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms converge faster than state-of-the-art solutions. Among all the algorithms, the M-CCD-based algorithms have faster convergence when evaluated in terms of the number of iterations and the AMM-based algorithms offer lower complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailRecht, Poesie und liberale Demokratie Überlegungen zu Voßkuhle, Kohlhaas und Kleist
van der Walt, Johan Willem Gous UL

in Zeitschrift für Kulturphilosophie (2021), 15(2), 169-187

This article looks at the relation between law, literature and liberal democracy with specific reference to Heinrich von Kleist's Michael Kohlhaas

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See detailThe degree of Kummer extensions of number fields
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL; Tronto, Sebastiano UL

in International Journal of Number Theory (2021)

Let K be a number field, and let \alpha_1, ... , \alpha_r be elements of K* which generate a subgroup of K* of rank r. Consider the cyclotomic-Kummer extensions of K given by K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha ... [more ▼]

Let K be a number field, and let \alpha_1, ... , \alpha_r be elements of K* which generate a subgroup of K* of rank r. Consider the cyclotomic-Kummer extensions of K given by K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[n_r]{\alpha_r}), where n_i divides n for all i. There is an integer x such that these extensions have maximal degree over K(\zeta_g, \sqrt[g_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[g_r]{\alpha_r}), where g=\gcd(n,x) and g_i=\gcd(n_i,x). We prove that the constant x is computable. This result reduces to finitely many cases the computation of the degrees of the extensions K(\zeta_n, \sqrt[n_1]{\alpha_1}, ... , \sqrt[n_r]{\alpha_r}) over K. [less ▲]

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See detailField-resolved detection of the temporal response of a single plasmonic antenna in the mid infrared
Fischer, Marco P.; Maccaferri, Nicolò UL; Gallacher, Kevin et al

in Optica (2021), 8(6), 898-903

Unveiling the spatial and temporal dynamics of a light pulse interacting with nanosized objects is of extreme importance to widen our understanding of how photons interact with matter at the nanoscale and ... [more ▼]

Unveiling the spatial and temporal dynamics of a light pulse interacting with nanosized objects is of extreme importance to widen our understanding of how photons interact with matter at the nanoscale and trigger physical and photochemical phenomena. An ideal platform to study light–matter interactions with an unprecedented spatial resolution is represented by plasmonics, which enables an extreme confinement of optical energy into sub-wavelength volumes. The ability to resolve and control the dynamics of this energy confinement on the time scale of a single optical cycle is at the ultimate frontier towards a full control of nanoscale phenomena. Here, we resolve in the time domain the linear behavior of a single germanium plasmonic antenna in the mid-infrared by measuring the complex optical field response in amplitude and phase with sub-optical-cycle precision, with the promise to extend the observation of light–matter interactions in the time domain to single quantum objects. Accessing this fundamental information opens a plethora of opportunities in a variety of research areas based on plasmon-mediated photonic processes and their coherent control, such as plasmon-enhanced chemical reactions and energy harvesting. [less ▲]

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See detailDon’t Tell Them now (or at all) – Responsible Disclosure of Security Incidents under NIS Directive and GDPR
Schmitz, Sandra UL; Schiffner, Stefan UL

in International Review of Law, Computers and Technology (2021), 35(2),

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See detailStreet name changes as language and identity inscription in the cityscape
Tan, Peter K.; Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s5), 1-13

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See detailGerman Labor Emigration in Times of Technological Change: Occupational Characteristics and Geographical Patterns
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Mergener, Alexandra

in Sustainability (2021), 13(3),

Technological change has altered labor market demands within well-developed societies implying global competition for skilled labor and, as a consequence, new forms of labor migration. So far, patterns of ... [more ▼]

Technological change has altered labor market demands within well-developed societies implying global competition for skilled labor and, as a consequence, new forms of labor migration. So far, patterns of this labor migration have been underexplored. Thus, the article analyzes characteristics, geographies and possible underlying drivers of workers migrating from Germany as an exemplary case for a well-developed country. Relying on probability-based and unique data, our findings reveal that, besides demand for people with higher levels of education, performing specific occupational tasks is also in demand in the global competition for talent. Hence, Germans in jobs with a high proportion of analytical non-routine tasks are more likely to emigrate than those with predominantly manual routine tasks. Moreover, the results show that global discrepancies concerning the technological development between the country of origin and the country to which they emigrate are a crucial contextual driver attracting this specifically demanded work force. Workers mainly performing analytical non-routine tasks within their job tend to move to countries which are technologically more developed than Germany while individuals performing jobs with a high share of non-routine manual or interactive tasks tend to emigrate to countries that are less technologically developed than Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailCultural representation in Luxembourgish street naming practices
Purschke, Christoph UL

in Linguistics Vanguard (2021), 7(s5), 111

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See detailBasis of Image Analysis for Evaluating Cell Biomaterial Interaction Using Brightfield Microscopy
Uka, A.; Ndreu Halili, A.; Polisi, X. et al

in Cells Tissues Organs (2021), 210(2), 77-104

Medical imaging is a growing field that has stemmed from the need to conduct noninvasive diagnosis, monitoring, and analysis of biological systems. With the developments and advances in the medical field ... [more ▼]

Medical imaging is a growing field that has stemmed from the need to conduct noninvasive diagnosis, monitoring, and analysis of biological systems. With the developments and advances in the medical field and the new techniques that are used in the intervention of diseases, very soon the prevalence of implanted biomedical devices will be even more significant. The implanted materials in a biological system are used in diverse fields, which require lengthy evaluation and validation processes. However, currently the evaluation of the toxicity of biomaterials has not been fully automated yet. Moreover, image analysis is an integral part of biomaterial research, but it is not within the core capacities of a significant portion of biomaterial scientists, which results in the use of predominantly ready-made tools. The detailed image analysis can be conducted once all the relevant parameters including the inherent characteristics of image acquisition techniques are considered. Herein, we cover the currently used image analysis-based techniques for assessment of biomaterial/cell interaction with a specific focus on unstained brightfield microscopy acquired mostly in but not limited to microfluidic systems, which serve as multiparametric sensing platforms for noninvasive experimental measurements. We present the major imaging acquisition techniques that enable point-of-care testing when incorporated with microfluidic cells, discuss the constraints enforced by the geometry of the system and the material that is analyzed, and the challenges that rise in the image analysis when unstained cell imaging is employed. Emerging techniques such as utilization of machine learning and cell-specific pattern recognition algorithms and potential future directions are discussed. Automation and optimization of biomaterial assessment can facilitate the discovery of novel biomaterials together with making the validation of biomedical innovations cheaper and faster. © 2021 [less ▲]

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See detailCollective electronic excitations in charge density wave systems: The case of CuTe
Cudazzo, Pier Luigi UL; Wirtz, Ludger UL

in Physical Review. B (2021), 104(12), 125101

The study of neutral electronic excitations directly probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy experiments allows obtaining important insight about the physical origin of the charge density wave (CDW ... [more ▼]

The study of neutral electronic excitations directly probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy experiments allows obtaining important insight about the physical origin of the charge density wave (CDW) transition in solids. In particular it allows us to disentangle purely phononic mechanisms from the excitonic insulator scenario which is associated to a purely electronic mechanism. As a matter of fact, while the the loss function of the excitonic insulators should display negative dispersive features associated to the softening of neutral electronic excitations at the CDW wave vector above the critical temperature, no softening is expected when the driving force is purely phononic. Here we perform a microscopic analysis of the dynamical charge response of CuTe, a material that displays a low-temperature Peierls-like CDW instability. By means of first-principles time-dependent density functional calculations of the loss function, we characterize the plasmon dispersion along the different directions, highlighting the role of the intrinsic structural anisotropy and the effects of the crystal local fields that are responsible for the periodic reappearance of the spectra of the first Brillouin zone as well as the formation of an acousticlike plasmon. Finally, we demonstrate that also in this system, in analogy with other materials displaying excitonic insulator instability, the low energy region of the loss function presents negative dispersive structures at momentum transfer close to the CDW wave vector. This is a feature common to both excitonic insulator transition and Peierls distortion that further highlights how the difference between the two mechanisms is at most quantitative. [less ▲]

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See detailKummer theory for number fields via entanglement groups
Perucca, Antonella UL; Sgobba, Pietro UL; Tronto, Sebastiano UL

in Manuscripta Mathematica (2021)

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See detailFunctional Scalability and Replicability Analysis for Smart Grid Functions: The InteGrid Project Approach
Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Bessa, Ricardo J.; Herndler, Barbara et al

in Energies (2021), 14(18 5685),

The evolution of the electrical power sector due to the advances in digitalization, decarbonization and decentralization has led to the increase in challenges within the current distribution network ... [more ▼]

The evolution of the electrical power sector due to the advances in digitalization, decarbonization and decentralization has led to the increase in challenges within the current distribution network. Therefore, there is an increased need to analyze the impact of the smart grid and its implemented solutions in order to address these challenges at the earliest stage, i.e., during the pilot phase and before large-scale deployment and mass adoption. Therefore, this paper presents the scalability and replicability analysis conducted within the European project InteGrid. Within the project, innovative solutions are proposed and tested in real demonstration sites (Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden) to enable the DSO as a market facilitator and to assess the impact of the scalability and replicability of these solutions when integrated into the network. The analysis presents a total of three clusters where the impact of several integrated smart tools is analyzed alongside future large scale scenarios. These large scale scenarios envision significant penetration of distributed energy resources, increased network dimensions, large pools of flexibility, and prosumers. The replicability is analyzed through different types of networks, locations (country-wise), or time (daily). In addition, a simple replication path based on a step by step approach is proposed as a guideline to replicate the smart functions associated with each of the clusters. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-growth perspectives in Economic Geography
Schulz, Christian UL; Braun, Boris

in Die Erde (2021), 152(4), 213-217

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See detailTest Selection for Deep Learning Systems
Ma, Wei UL; Papadakis, Mike UL; Tsakmalis, Anestis et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2021), 30(2), 131--1322

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of the Revised Multicultural Ideology Scale in Germany and Luxembourg
Stogianni, Maria UL; Berry, John; Grigoryev, Dmitry et al

in Psychological Reports (2021)

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The ... [more ▼]

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The current study, which is part of this cross-cultural research project, presents the first assessment of the rMCI scale in the German language. The measure aims to cover several attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the integration of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, Essentialistic Boundaries, Extent of Differences, and Consequences of Diversity. Two independent datasets were acquired from Germany (N = 382) and Luxembourg (N = 148) to estimate the factor structure of the rMCI using different confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The findings suggest that a 4-factor solution, including Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, and Consequences of Diversity, was the best fit for the data. Most of these subscales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity). The 4-factor model of the rMCI was partially invariant across the two ethnic groups and full measurement invariance was established across gender. [less ▲]

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